Bioscience Journal

Published by EDUFU - Editora da Universidade Federal de Uberlandia
Online ISSN: 1981-3163
Print ISSN: 1516-3725
Publications
O maracujazeiro é atacado por diversos patógenos, entre eles o fungo Septoria passiflorae, causador da septoriose. Objetivando-se analisar a reação de genótipos de maracujá azedo a septoriose, foi conduzido um experimento com mudas, em casa de vegetação, na Estação Biológica da Universidade de Brasília, em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições e 6 plantas por parcela, testando-se 48 genótipos. A inoculação do patógeno foi feita por aspersão na planta com, suspensão contendo concentração de 5,0 x 106 esporos/ml, produzidos em meio de cultura. Foram feitas duas avaliações, com intervalos de 25 dias. As plantas foram avaliadas de acordo com a escala de notas de 1 a 4, sendo 1 para Plantas sem sintomas; 2 – Lesões esparsas nas folhas; 3 – Lesões coalescendo tomando mais de 25 % do limbo foliar; 4 – Planta com desfolha. Houve diferenças significativas entre os genótipos para todos os parâmetros avaliados. Destacaram-se os genótipos MAR 20-09, MAR 20-53 e MAR 20-60, como mais resistentes a septoriose em condições de cultivo protegido, enquanto os genótipos MAR 20-43, MAR 20-39 e MAR 20-01 foram os mais suscetíveis.
 
Produtividade da cultura de melancia, cv. Crimson Sweet, em função das doses de NPK 4-30-16 (gramas cova-1 ). Neste trabalho, a dose do fertilizante químico que proporcionou máxima produtividade foi a de 450g cova-1 , o que corresponde à aplicação de aproximadamente 48; 360 e 192 kg de N, P 2 O 5 e K 2 O ha-1 , respectivamente. Esta recomendação de adubação é superior a de Carvalho (1999) que, na falta de análise de solo, sugere 250g cova-1 de 4-3016 e 30g de FTE (BR-12), o que representou 26,6 kg de N, 200 kg de P 2 O 5 e 106,6 kg de K 2 O ha-1. De acordo com esta recomendação, a produtividade seria de aproximadamente 17 t ha-1 , cerca de 26% menor que a obtida com 450 g cova-1 neste experimento. Grangeiro (2003) obteve, em função das doses de K, um comportamento quadrático para produtividade desta cultura, com ponto de máximo atingido na dose de 205 kg ha-1 de K 2 O, correspondendo à produtividade de 32,4 t ha-1 , para um solo considerado com médio teor de K. Em trabalho com o híbrido Tide, Grangeiro & Cecílio Filho (2004) verificaram que o K foi o nutriente mais acumulado (155,5 kg ha-1 ) pela planta, seguido pelo N (138,8 kg ha-1 ). Os macronutrientes absorvidos em menores quantidades pelas plantas de melancia foram Mg, P e S, com acúmulo de 16,6; 13,5 e 9,1 kg ha-1 , respectivamente. Para Zhu-HongXun et al. (1996), a relação ótima de N/P vai de 1,7 a 2,4, dependendo da qualidade do solo, sendo que em solos menos férteis utiliza-se uma menor relação N/P por se utilizar mais P na adubação de semeadura. A relação N/P utilizada no experimento foi de 0,133. Isso pode ser um dos aspectos que explicam a baixa produtividade atingida através de adubação ineficiente de N, gerando desbalanço nutricional. Entretanto, as relações N/P sugeridas pelo autor são muito elevadas para os solos de Cerrado, dado a quase inexistência desse elemento com níveis em torno de
O experimento teve o objetivo de avaliar a resposta da melancieira a diferentes níveis de adubação química e orgânica. O delineamento empregado foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 5 x 4, sendo 5 doses de adubo químico na formulação 4-30-16 e 4 níveis de adubo orgânico - esterco de gado. Foram utilizadas 4 repetições e 10 plantas por parcela da variedade Crimson Sweet. Os níveis de adubação química testados foram de 0, 150, 300, 450 e 600 gramas por cova e para a adubação orgânica os níveis avaliados foram 0, 3, 6 e 9 litros de esterco de gado por cova. Houve correlação linear positiva entre todos os parâmetros avaliados. O adubo químico não teve interação significativa com o esterco de gado, exceto na relação C/D, nas doses de 0, 3 e 6 litros por cova. A melhor produtividade (22989,61 kg.ha-1) foi obtida com 450g/cova de 4-30-16 (NPK). O incremento na produtividade da melancia foi limitado pelo fósforo quando cultivada somente com fertilização orgânica. O incremento na produtividade da melancia foi limitado pelo nitrogênio quando cultivada somente com fertilizante químico NPK. Para a cultivar Crimson Sweet, quanto maior a relação C/D, maior o peso médio do fruto.
 
O nematóide das galhas causa perdas econômicas para a cultura do maracujazeiro. Esse experimento apresenta a reação de dez progênies de maracujazeiro azedo (Havaiano, Marília Seleção Cerrado, Redondão, Roxo Fiji x Marília, MAR 20#19, MAR 20#32, MAR 20#42, MAR 20#43, MAR 20#45, MAR 20#58) e do maracujazeiro doce, à raça 1 de Meloidogyne incognita. O experimento foi conduzido sob condição de casa de vegetação. Mudas de 30 dias foram inoculadas com 1.200 ovos/planta de M. incognita (raça 1). Noventa dias após a inoculação, foram avaliados o crescimento vegetativo e o número de galhas por planta. As progênies MAR 20#19, MAR 20#32, MAR 20#42, MAR 20#43, MAR 20#45, Marília Seleção Cerrado (MSC), Redondão e híbrido F1 (Roxo Fiji x Marília) foram moderadamente resistentes à raça 1 de M. incognita. Por outro lado, as progênies Havaiano e MAR 20#58 foram moderadamente susceptíveis, apresentando 65,48% e 43,83% de galhas/planta, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha. Aparentemente, as progênies mais vigorosas mostraram-se mais resistentes, enquanto as progênies menos vigorosas mostraram-se mais susceptíveis ao nematóide.
 
O endurecimento dos frutos causado pelo vírus Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) é considerada a virose economicamente mais importante no maracujazeiro-azedo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.). Com o objetivo de avaliar a reação de genótipos de maracujazeiro-azedo ao vírus do endurecimento do fruto implantou-se em casa-de-vegetação na Estação Biológica da Universidade de Brasília (UnB) um experimento utilizando-se mudas provenientes de sementes. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos inteiramente casualizados com quatro repetições e 4 plantas por parcela, testando-se 62 genótipos. A inoculação do vírus foi feita mecanicamente utilizando-se o extrato obtido a partir de material foliar sintomático em solução tampão fosfato de sódio e o abrasivo “celite”, em folhas de mudas com 150 dias de idade. Foram realizadas duas avaliações em intervalos de 15 dias. A avaliação da severidade do CABMV foi feita através de uma escala de notas de 1 a 3, sendo 1 folhas sem sintomas de mosaico; 2 folhas com mosaico leve e sem deformações foliares; 3 folhas com mosaico severo, com bolhas e deformações foliares. Na segunda avaliação, os genótipos MAR 20#35, MAR 20#11, MAR 20#51, MAR 20#32 e MAR 20#44 apresentaram a maior porcentagem de plantas resistentes (88%, 87%, 81%, 75%, 73%, respectivamente) e os genótipos MAR 20#09, MAR 20#49, MAR 20#02, MAR 20#27, MAR 20#62, MAR 20#50 e MAR 20#15 apresentaram a menor porcentagem de plantas resistentes (19%, 19%, 13%, 13%, 13%, 7% e 6%, respectivamente). Foram selecionadas plantas resistentes, para posterior inoculação e seleção, dando-se continuidade ao programa de melhoramento genético. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT The disease caused by Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) is considered the economically most important viruses in Passionfruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.). In order to investigate the reaction of Passionfruit genotypes to CABMV, an experiment was carried out in glasshouse conditions at the experimental station of Brasilia University. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications and six plants per plot. A number of 62 genotypes were tested. The plants were mechanically inoculated using an extract obtained from a symptomatic leaf material in a solution of sodium phosphate and an abrasive named “celite”, in leaves of seedling with 150 days of age. Two evaluations have been done, at 15 days interval. The score were done using a lesion scale graded from 1 to 3, where 1 means no disease, 2 leafs with mild mosaic and no leaf deformation, and 3 leafs with severe mosaic, blisters and leaf deformations. The genotypes MAR 20#35, MAR 20#11, MAR 20#51, MAR 20#32 e MAR 20#44 showed the higher percentage of resistant plants (88%, 87%, 81%, 75%, 73%, respectively) and the genotypes MAR 20#09, MAR 20#49, MAR 20#02, MAR 20#27, MAR 20#62, MAR 20#50 e MAR 20#15 showed the lower percentage of resistant plants (19%, 19%, 13%, 13%, 13%, 7% e 6%, respectively), in the second evaluation. The progenies with the highest level of resistance were chosen for future inoculation and for future selection, continuing genetic improvement program.
 
Apesar da grande importância econômica e da rusticidade do maracujazeiro azedo, tal cultura vem enfrentando vários problemas fitossanitários, entre os quais o vírus do endurecimento do fruto (Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic vírus - CABMV). O trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar-se a reação de 63 progênies de maracujazeiro azedo ao vírus do endurecimento do fruto (CABMV) e selecionar plantas resistentes, em casa de vegetação da Universidade de Brasília. Foi utilizado o delineamento de blocos casualizados, com 63 tratamentos e quatro repetições. Procedeu-se a inoculação mecânica do vírus, com o extrato de material foliar sintomático macerado em solução tampão fosfato de sódio e o abrasivo celite, em mudas com 40 dias de idade. A avaliação dos sintomas foi feita aos 30 dias após a inoculação, utilizando-se uma escala de notas de 1 a 3, onde 1 significou uma planta resistente, 2 uma planta medianamente resistente e 3 uma planta suscetível. As progênies mais resistentes foram MAR 20-54 e MAR 20-55, e as mais suscetíveis foram MAR 20-02, MAR 20-03, MAR 20-04, MAR 20-14, MAR 20-20, MAR 20-25, MAR 20-30, MAR 20-37 e Porto Rico. Foram selecionadas as plantas resistentes, para posterior inoculação e seleção, dando-se continuidade ao programa de melhoramento genético.
 
O nematóide das galhas tem sido apontado como sendo uma das causas da baixa produtividade de inúmeras lavouras de maracujá azedo. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a reação de genótipos de maracujazeiro-azedo ao nematóide das galhas Meloidogyne spp. O ensaio foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação utilizando o delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e 6 plantas úteis por unidade experimental, em esquema de parcela subdividida com quatro níveis de inóculo (0; 25; 50 e 75 ovos/ml de substrato, correspondendo as populações iniciais de 0; 3.000; 6.000 e 9.000 ovos por muda, respectivamente), correspondendo as parcelas e quatro genótipos (Redondão, Yelow Máster FB-100, F1 (Marília x Roxo Australiano) e MAR 20#41), correspondendo as subparcelas, totalizando 16 tratamentos. Mudas produzidas em bandejas de poliestireno, contendo substrato artificial à base de vermiculita mais casca de Pinus spp. foram inoculadas com 40 dias após a semeadura. Avaliações no crescimento vegetativo das plantas e número de galhas foram realizadas noventa dias após a inoculação. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas no crescimento das plantas em função do nível de inóculo. O uso de 3.000 e 6.000 ovos do nematóide por planta resultou em diferença significativa no número de galhas. O genótipo Redondão foi superior em todos os parâmetros relacionados ao crescimento vegetativo, exceto quanto a massa fresca de raiz.
 
Apesar da grande importância econômica do maracujazeiro azedo, tal cultura vem enfrentando vários problemas fitossanitários, entre os quais, a mancha oleosa causada por Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. passiflorae. Com o objetivo de avaliar a reação de 76 genótipos de maracujazeiro azedo a Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. passiflorae e selecionar plantas resistentes, foi conduzido um experimento em casa de vegetação, na Estação Biológica da Universidade de Brasília. Foi utilizado o delineamento de blocos casualizados, com 76 tratamentos (76 genótipos), quatro repetições e seis plantas por parcela. A inoculação foi feita pelo método de aspersão na concentração estimada de 1 x 108 UFC/ml. A avaliação dos sintomas foi feita utilizando-se uma escala de notas de 0 a 4, onde 0 significou uma planta resistente (R), 1 uma planta medianamente resistente (MR), 2 uma planta medianamente suscetível (MS), 3 uma planta suscetível (S) e 4 uma planta altamente suscetível (AS). Alguns genótipos apresentaram uma alta porcentagem de plantas resistentes (70 a 95%), entre os quais, MAR 20-07, MAR 20-12, MAR 20-17, MAR 20-18, MAR 20-21, MAR 20-29, MAR 20-48, MAR 20-51, MAR 20-54, IAC, `Maguary Mesa`, `Maguary Mesa 1`, F1 (Roxo Fiji x Marília), Vermelhão e EC-2-O. Foram selecionadas as plantas resistentes de cada genótipo, para posterior inoculação e nova seleção de plantas resistentes, dando continuidade ao programa de melhoramento genético.
 
Curva de progresso da septoriose avaliada pela severidade da doença em mudas de maracujazeiro-azedo. Estação Biológica, FAV, UnB, 2004.
Curva de progresso da septoriose avaliada pela desfolha (%) em mudas de maracujazeiro-azedo. Estação Biológica, FAV, UnB, 2004
O maracujazeiro é atacado por diversos patógenos, entre eles pelo fungo Septoria passiflorae Sydow, causador da septoriose. Objetivando-se analisar a reação de progênies de maracujá azedo a septoriose, foi conduzido um experimento com mudas, em casa-de-vegetação, na Estação Biológica da Universidade de Brasília (DF), em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições e 6 plantas por parcela, onde foram avaliados 47 progênies. A inoculação do patógeno foi feita por aspersão da planta com suspensão aquosa contendo concentração de 1,5 x 106 esporos/ml, produzidos em meio de cultura BDA. Foram feitas seis avaliações com intervalos de sete dias. A plantas foram avaliadas de acordo com a escala de notas de 0 a 3, sendo 0 planta sem sintomas,1 lesões esparsas nas folhas; 2 lesões coalescendo tomando mais de 25% do limbo foliar e 3 desfolha. As progênies MAR 20.50, EC-2-0 e Mesa 01 apresentaram a maior porcentagem de plantas resistentes na maioria das avaliações. As progênies Mesa 01. MAR 20-50, MAR 20-03 e MAR 20-55 apresentaram as maiores porcentagens de plantas resistentes nas seis avaliações. Quanto à severidade a progênie MAR 20-50 foi a mais resistente, enquanto as progênies MAR 20-28 e MAR 20-39 foram as mais susceptíveis. Quanto à porcentagem de desfolha, a progênie mais suscetível foi a MAR 20-53 e a mais resistente foi a MAR 20-50. A progênie MAR 20-50 foi superior as demais progênies em todos os parâmetros avaliados, demonstrando maior resistência. As curvas de progresso da doença demonstraram que a doença atingiu maior intensidade aos 25 e 33 dias após inoculação, considerando-se a escala de notas e porcentagem de desfolha, respectivamente. A partir daí houve queda na evolução da doença.
 
RESUMO: Por ser o Brasil o maior produtor de citros e por deter essa classificação devido ao emprego de tecnologia adequada desde a produção de mudas, objetivou-se conhecer o comportamento de métodos de forçamento de brotação para formação de copa na espécie tangerina cravo (Citrus reticulata Blanco), em condições de cerrado. O experimento foi instalado no viveiro do Setor de Fruticultura da Fazenda Experimental agua Limpa da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia - MG. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com 5 tratamentos ( curvamento, anelamento parcial, anelamento total, recepa imediata e sem forçamento da brotação) e 4 repetições, com oito plantas por parcela. A técnica de curvamento do porta-enxerto foi a que apresentou melhor desempenho em todas as características analisadas (comprimento do broto, número de folhas, diâmetro do caule, peso da matéria seca da brotação). As técnicas de anelamento parcial e total, no porta-enxerto de limão cravo, foram as que apresentaram os piores resultados.
 
Com o objetivo de avaliar o teor de licopeno, de sólidos solúveis totais (SST) e suas correlações com valores de leitura L, a e b do cromatógrafo em cultivares de melancia, foi conduzido um experimento na Fazenda agua Limpa, Universidade de Brasília. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, 10 plantas por parcela e oito tratamentos formados por quatro cultivares de polinização aberta: Crimson Sweet, Charleston Gray, Fairfax, Omaro Yamato e quatro híbridos F1: Ferrari, Voyager, Rubi e Smile. Os frutos foram analisados no laboratório de genética da Embrapa Hortaliças. Observou-se diferença entre as cultivares para todos os parâmetros avaliados. Os híbridos Smile e Rubi apresentam potencial para serem utilizados como progenitores em programas de melhoramento de melancia visando a melhoria da qualidade dos frutos. Os valores de a, oriundos de amostras coletadas na parte central do fruto, e os teores de licopeno foram correlacionados positivamente (r=0,69) indicando a utilização do cromatógrafo para a triagem inicial de materiais a serem utilizados. O teor de SST, em melancia, é significativamente maior na parte central do fruto. A medida b do cromatógrafo apresentou forte correlação com o teor de SST encontrado na parte central da melancia.
 
Braquetes colados aos dispositivos (superior e inferior), demonstrando a movimentação do fio ortodôntico durante o ensaio em 3 braquetes. 
The knowledge of the mechanical properties of nickel-titanium (NiTi) termoactives of the more accessible of the domestic market is still limited. Given this, the objective of this study was to evaluate and compare through deflection tests in brackets NiTi wires 03 term rectangular gauge 0.014" enabled x 0.025" and 0.016" x 0.022" of different brands (MORELLI®, ORMCO® ORTHOSOURCE®, ORTHOMETRIC®, EURODONTO® and ADITEK®). All tests were carried out on universal testing machine EMIC DL 2000 under identical conditions and controlled at a temperature of 36°C ± 0.5°C. Five measurements (N=5) were performed for each thickness/wire tag that was deflected up to a limit of 4.0mm at a speed of 1.0mm/min. Each 0.2mm (round trip) of corresponding strength measured deflection for the construction of the graph of force x deflection at Tesc program version 3.04. Each graphic was evaluated according to the following variables: beginning of the Martensitic transformation (cN and mm), maximum strength (cN), the beginning and end of the plateau of deactivation (cN and mm) and length (mm) plateau. The average and standard deviation were calculated for all variables and statistical analysis was made by ANOVA tests 2 criteria and Turkey or Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn, a 5% level of significance. The results showed that the tests of 0.014"x0.025" ORTHOMETRIC® brands and ORMCO® showed the best results, as well as the wires of the MORELLI® and ORTHOSOURCE® to wires 0.016"x0.022". In General, the gauge wires 0.014"x0.025" showed strength levels on the plateau of deactivation to 6 x smaller than 0.016"x0.022" caliber.
 
Value-cost ratio (VCR) for mineral fertilization and bacterial inoculants in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) plants, cultivar EPACE 10, in the municipalities of Cruz das Almas and Maragogipe, Bahia, Brazil.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the agronomic efficiency of rhizobia strains already approved or in the selection stage for cowpea, in the Recôncavo da Bahia region, Brazil. Two field experiments were performed in the municipalities of Cruz das Almas and Maragogipe, Bahia, Brazil. A randomized block design was used with seven nitrogen sources and four replicates. Nitrogen sources consisted of the strains UFRB FA51B1, UFRB BA72C2-1, UFLA 03-164T, UFLA 03-84, INPA 03-11B, and two controls without inoculation, one with mineral nitrogen and another without. All the strains nodulated cowpea. The efficiency of the strains was determined by the number of nodules, nodule dry matter, total dry matter, grain yield, nitrogen accumulation in shoots and grain, and relative efficiency. The strain UFLA 03-164T can be recommended for biomass production, green manure, and promotion of grain yields in both soils. In Maragogipe, the UFLA 03-84 and INPA 03-11B strains can be recommended for biomass production, green manure, and promotion of grain yields. The UFLA 03-164T strain showed great potential to promote and grain yield in the two municipalities studied. The strain INPA 03-11B can be recommended for Maragogipe soil. UFLA 03-84 can also be recommended to increase grain yield in Cruz das Almas.
 
Location of the BR-050 highway, especially the section investigated, between the municipalities of Uberlândia and Uberaba (in the circle). Source: Brazil, Transport Ministry (2012). 
Roadkill aggregations according to radius. There is aggregation when the function L(r) (black Line) is above the upper confidence limit (gray line). Results from the 2D Ripley's K-Statistics test a) wild vertebrates, b) wild mammals, c) birds, d) reptiles, e) Cerdocyon thous, f) Euphractus sexcinctus, g) Conepatus semistriatus, h) Procyon cancrivorus, i) Tamandua tetradactyla, j) Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, k) Dasypus novemcinctus, l) Cariama cristata, m) Boa constrictor amarali, n) Crotalus durissus collilineatus.
Wild vertebrate roadkill aggregations on the BR-050 highway, stretch Uberlândia-Uberaba, MG (2012-2013). Kilometer zero was in Uberlândia and the final kilometer (km 96) in Uberaba. Results from the 2D HotSpot Identification test. 
Researches on roadkill aggregations are important tools for wildlife conservation. The objective of this study was to determine wild vertebrate roadkill aggregations on a stretch of 96 kilometers of the BR-050 highway, between the cities of Uberlândia and Uberaba, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The survey was conducted between April 2012 and March 2013. Roadkill monitoring was performed by car, at a speed of approximately 60 km/h, and forty two (42) weekly trips, totaling 8064 km, were performed. The 2D Ripley's K-Statistics test from the Siriema v1.1 program was used to detect the scales of roadkill aggregations and 2D HotSpot Identification test was used to identify the location of these hotspots. Aggregations extended from the following kms: 14 to 33, 38, 41 to 51, 66 to 70 and 78 to 94. We found roadkill aggregations for wild vertebrates and mammals. The roadkill aggregations were significant for Euphractus sexcinctus, Conepatus semistriatus, Procyon cancrivorus, Hydrochoerus hydrochoerus, Cariama cristata, Boa constrictor amarali and Crotalus durissus collilineatus according to the taxonomic specific level. Thus, it is suggested that mitigation measures for vertebrate conservation must be implemented in the indicated areas. © 2015 Universidade Federal de Uberlandia. All rights reserved.
 
In order to evaluate the performance of seventeen strains of soybean in different regions of theTocantins State (Central and South), two essays were carried out at in the agricultural year of 2007/08, one the UFT Experimental Station in Gurupi- To and other the UFT Experimental Station in Palmas-TO. The experimental design employed was a randomized blocks with 34 treatments and four repetitions, settled in a 17 x 2 factorial design composed by seventeen (CD 219RR, M-SOY 8585RR, M-S0Y 8787RR, M-SOY 8925RR, M-SOY 9056RR, P98R31, 98R62,P98R91, P98Y51, P99R01, TMG 103RR, TMG 106RR, TMG 108RR, TMG 115RR, TMG 117RR, TMG 121RR e BRSMG Valiosa), sowed in two localities (Gurupi and Palmas). It was evaluated the following characteristics: number of the days for blooming; number of the days for maturation; plants height, height of first pod and production grains. Interactions were detected between cultivars and locations for all traits except for number of days to flowering. The cultivars BRSMG Valiosa, M-SOY 8585 RR and TMG 106RR reached the highest average production.
 
Com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento de dezessete linhagens de soja em diferentes regiões de Estado do Tocantins (Central e Sul) foram conduzidos dois ensaios no ano agrícola 2007/08, sendo um na Área Experimental da Universidade Federal do Tocantins - UFT no município de Palmas-TO e outro na Área Experimental da Universidade Federal do Tocantins - UFT no município de Gurupi-TO. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com 34 tratamentos e três repetições, instalados em um esquema fatorial 17 X 2, constituído por dezessete cultivares de soja (CD 219RR, M-SOY 8585RR, M-S0Y 8787RR, M-SOY 8925RR, M-SOY 9056RR, P98R31, P98R62, P98R91, P98Y51, P99R01, TMG103RR, TMG106RR, TMG108RR, TMG115RR, TMG117RR, TMG121RR e BRSMG Valiosa) e duas localidades (Gurupi e Palmas). Foram avaliadas as características: altura de vagem; número de dias para o florescimento; número de dias para a maturação; altura das plantas e produção de grãos. Houve efeito significativo da interação local x cultivar para todas as características, exceto para número de dias para o florescimento. Os cultivares BRSMG Valiosa, M-SOY 8585 RR e TMG 106 RR alcançaram as maiores médias de produção.
 
The retrosynthetic strategy of 1,2,4-oxadiazole compounds (5).
Reaction steps involved in the synthesis of compounds 5a-e.
Synthesis of the (Z)-aryl-N'-hydroxybenzimidamide 2a-e.
Synthesis of compounds 5a-e.
In recent years, investigations in the field of oxadiazoles have been intensified due to their numerous therapeutic uses. Oxadiazoles are a class of compounds that exhibit several biological applications, citing antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anthelmintic, anti-tumor, among others. Encouraged by the biological potential of oxadiazoles, were carried out synthesis, antimicrobial evaluation and in silica studies of five (E)-3-(aryl)-5-styryl-1,2,4-oxadiazoles. In this way, (Z)-aryl-N'-hydroxybenzimidamides and ethyl (E)-cinnamate were synthesized, which were subjected to an O-acylamidoxime reaction after by dehydration using microwave irradiation to form the oxadiazole nucleus. The compounds were characterized by spectroscopic techniques, while in vitro antimicrobial activity was evaluated against S. aureus, E. faecalis, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and against the fungus C. utilis using the microplate microdilution method. Thus, (Z)-aryl-N'-hydroxybenzimidamides, ethyl (E)-cinnamate, and (E)-3-(aryl)-5-styryl-1,2,4-oxadiazoles were synthesized with yields ranging from moderate to good. The (E)-3-(aryl)-5-styryl-1,2,4-oxadiazoles exhibited a reduced spectrum of action, which were active against the bacterium P. aeruginosa and for the fungus C. utilis.
 
Effect of temperature on activity of 1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase immobilized in Agaragar and Polyacrylamide gel.
1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase is among the most widely used commercial hydrolytic enzymes acting randomly on the glycosidic linkages of starch resulting in its saccharification and liquefaction. Its applicability in different industries can be improved by enhancing its stability and reusability. Therefore, in the present study attempts have been made to enhance the industrial applicability of 1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase from Bacillus subtilis KIBGE-HAR by adapting immobilization technology. The study developed mechanically stable, enzyme containing gel-frameworks using two support matrices including agar-agar, a natural polysaccharide and polyacrylamide gel, a synthetic organic polymer. These catalytic gel-scaffolds were compared with each other in terms of kinetics and stability of entrapped 1,4-α-D-glucan glucanohydrolase. In case of polyacrylamide gel, Km value for immobilized enzyme increased to 7.95 mg/mL, while immobilization in agar-agar resulted in decreased Km value i.e 0.277 mg/mL as compared to free enzyme. It was found that immobilized enzyme showed maximum activity at 70 °C in both the supports as compared to free enzyme having maximum activity at 60 °C. Immobilized 1,4-α-D-glucan glucanohydrolase exhibited no change in optimal pH 7.0 before and after entrapment in polyacrylamide gel and agar-agar. The enzyme containing gel-scaffold was found suitable for repeated batches of starch liquefaction in industrial processes. Agar-agar entrapped 1,4-α-D-glucanglucanohydrolase was capable to degrade starch up to seven repeated operational cycles whereas polyacrylamide entrapped enzyme conserved its activity up to sixth operational cycle.
 
O atropelamento de animais silvestres nas rodovias brasileiras causa grande impacto sobre a fauna, podendo muitas vezes ameaçar populações de animais distribuídas ao longo das rodovias. Para o Estado de Santa Catarina há poucos estudos sobre este tema, ainda assim, é possível perceber que o impacto destes atropelamentos sobre algumas espécies é grande. Em função disto, o presente trabalho tem a finalidade de apresentar registros de mamíferos de pequeno e médio porte atropelados na rodovia BR 101, entre o município de Joinville e Piçarras, localizados na região norte do estado de Santa Catarina.
 
The trampling of wild animals on Brazilian highways cause great impact on wildlife and can often threaten animal populations distributed along the highways. For the State of Santa Catarina there are few studies on this subject, you can still see that the impact of trampling on some species is great. Because of this, this paper aims to provide records of mammals on small and medium-size run over on highway Br 101 between the city of Joinville and Piçarras, located in the northern state of Santa Catarina.
 
Objetivando verificar a produtividade da soja em varios estadios reprodutivos, quando submetida a diferentes niveis de desfolha, foi conduzido um ensaio na safra 1999/2000, em Gurupi - TO. A cultivar utilizada foi 'M-SOY 109'. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com tres repeticoes e nove tratamentos, instalados em um esquema fatorial 3 X 3, constituido por tres niveis de desfolha (33%, 66% e 100%) e três estadios reprodutivos (R4, R5 e R6), alem da testemunha sem desfolha. Os niveis de desfolha e os estadios reprodutivos influenciaram significativamente todas as caracteristicas avaliadas sendo que a produção de graos decresceu com o incremento da desfolha. UNITERMOS: Estadios reprodutivos, Desfolha, Soja, Producao.
 
This work aimed to analyze three testers (the single hybrid IAC-112, the open pollinated variety BRS-Angela and the S9 inbred line L.8.2) for the evaluating of 64 S2 families derived from the single popcorn hybrid IAC-112. The families per se and their respective crosses with testers were evaluated for grain yield (GY) and popping expansion (PE). The general and specific combining ability were estimated according to the partial diallel model, topcross heterosis and the discrimination capacity of each tester through the differentiation index proposed by Fasoulas were also evaluated. The inbred line L.8.2 was the best tester for both grain yield and popping expansion, discriminating reliably the families. © 2012, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia. All Rights Reserved.
 
Mean grain yield (kg ha -1 ) of cultivar CD 1252 and the two best controls, in the VCU tests conducted in the wheat-growing regions of VCU 2, 3 and 4 of the states of Paraná, São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Goiás and Minas Gerais, from 2007 to 2014 -Cascavel/2015. 
Resulting from the search for wheat cultivars with high yield potential, plant health, processing quality and tolerance to pre-harvest sprouting, CD 1252 was developed from the cross between cultivar IPR 85 and line OR1/3/BOW/GLENSON//BAGULA. Cultivar CD 1252 was tested in preliminary grain yield trials in 2005 and 2006, and then tested to determine the Value for Cultivation and Use (VCU) from 2007 to 2014, labelled CD 0711. All tests were arranged in an experimental design of randomized blocks, with three replications. The yield of cultivar CD 1252 was 5%, 4% and 1% higher than the average yield of the two best controls, respectively, in the wheat-growing regions VCU 2, 3 and 4. The wheat quality, potential for grain yield, and tolerance to pre-harvest sprouting of this cultivar are superior and it is tolerant to the main wheat diseases. © 2017, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia. All rights reserved.
 
Different land use systems and soil management modify the isotopic signal of soil delta C-13 and delta N-15. The objective of this study was to evaluate the natural abundance the delta C-13 and delta N-15 in the soil profile in areas with different land use systems in the Cerrado of Goias State, Brazil. We evaluated two systems with crop rotation: croplivestock integration - CLI (corn + brachiaria/beans/cotton/soybean) and no-tillage system - NTS (sunflower/millet/soybean/corn). An area of natural Cerrado (Cerradao) was taken as the original condition of the soil. Soil samples were collected in layers of 0.0 to 10.0, 10.0 to 20.0, 20.0 to 30.0, 30.0 to 40.0, 40.0 to 50.0, 50.0 to 60.0, 60.0 to 80.0 and 80.0 to 100.0 cm, and the measured the delta N-15 and delta C-13 of the soil by mass spectrometer. Regarding delta C-13, it was found predominantly in the C-3 plant Cerrado influence plant and C-4 in the areas of NTS and CLI. The values presented delta N-15 an isotopic enrichment according to the increase in depth, with higher values of delta N-15 observed in cultivated areas. The replacement of the original vegetation of Cerrado for implantation of NTS and CLI led to changes in delta C-13, i.e., after 17 years of cultivation, the incorporation of carbon from grasses in these areas resulted in an increase in delta C-13 signal.. Isotopic analysis of delta N-15 indicated greater mineralization of soil organic matter with increasing soil depth and with higher rates in cultivated areas.
 
-Padrão de restrição do fragmento amplificado por DS-PCR utilizando os primers heterólogos Mcomp 47/420 e o primer aleatório OPI 08 de M. rufiventris e M. compressipses obtidos após digestão com Dde I e separado em gel de agarose 2%. M-marcador, Amostra 1 e 17 -(M.compressipes -Mc). sem restrição (sr) 2 e 18-.(Mc) com restrição (cr),3-M.rufiventris , Castelo-ES, (sr), 4 -Mr .Castelo-ES, cr 5-M.r. Marechal Floriano-ES, (sr), 6-M.r Marechal Floriano-ES, (cr). 7-M.r.Alfredo Chaves-ES, (sr) 8-M.r. Alfredo Chaves-ES, (cr) 9-M.r. Alfredo Chaves-ES, (sr) 10-M.r. Alfredo Chaves-ES, (cr) 11- M.r. Alto Castelinho-ES, (sr) 12-M.r.Alto Castelinho-ES, (cr) 13-M.r. Castelo-Braço sul-ES, (sr) 14- M.r. Castelo-Braço sul-ES, (cr) 15-M.r Castelo-Braço sul-ES, (sr) 16-M.r. Castelo-Braço sul-ES, (cr).  
-Padrão de bandas resultante de SSCP utilizando os primers Mcomp47/420, mostrando polimorfismo (seta).Gel PAGE 13% . 1-Castelo-ES, 2-Marechal Floriano-ES, 3 e 4-Alfredo Chaves-ES, 5-Alto Castelinho- ES,6 e 7-Castelo-Braço Sul-ES.  
Esse trabalho analisou a região 16S do DNA mitocondrial em populações de Melipona rufiventris do Espírito Santo, comparando a eficiência das técnicas moleculares SSCP (Single Strand Conformation Polymorfism), PCR-RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorfism-Polimerase Chain Reaction) e DS-PCR (Double-Stringency-Polimerase Chain Reaction). A técnica PCR-RFLP foi sensível para detectar alterações resultantes de mutações, entre as espécies Melipona rufiventris e Melipona compressipes mas não entre as amostras de Melipona rufiventris. A técnica DS-PCR não mostrou resultado satisfatório. A técnica SSCP foi a mais eficiente e a única capaz de identificar polimorfismo em uma amostra de M. rufiventris proveniente do município de Alto Castelinho- ES. UNITERMOS: Mutação, Abelha, Técnicas moleculares, DNA mitocondrial
 
This study aims to evaluate the effects of transgenic corn pollen, which expresses the Cry1Ab protein entomopathogenic on biological aspects the wax moth (Galleria mellonella) and thus propose a discussion on the possibilities for this condition pyralid the field, discussing possible ecological effects. For this we performed a bioassay, where it was offered to the larvae conventional and commercial Bt pollen, The duration of the larval stage of G. mellonella was affected by the supply of Mays pollen, conventional or transgenic, provided the biggest records. Mortality was higher in individuals fed with transgenic pollen and bee wax, but did not differ from other foods, when they were fed with transgenic pollen and honeycomb of Apis mellifera. The width and the length of larvae originated from larvae fed with beeswax added to conventional or transgenic pollen were lower than other treatments. The Mays pollen, conventional or transgenic alone is a less suitable food for the development of G. mellonella, in relation to a diet consisting of pollen from various plants.
 
Adjusted survival curve and tolerance ranges of Crassostrea gasar to salinity. Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences (p < 0.05) between the experimental treatments (salinities), using the Kruskal-Wallis H test.
Tissue alterations and pathogen found in oysters exposed to different salinities. A: Brown cells; B: Hyperplasia of gill epithelium; C: Hypertrophy of gill mucous cell; D: Rickettsia-like organism; E: Nematopsis sp.; F: Urastoma sp.
Total number of oysters analysed during the experimental period in different treatments (salinities).
Pathogens observed in oyster (Crassostrea gasar) tissues exposed to different salinities.
Indicators and the total number of alterations and pathogens in parameters observed in oyster
Water salinity is among the most important factors influencing the distribution, abundance, growth, and survival of Crassostrea gasar, an important aquaculture resource grown in estuarine environments in diverse regions of the world. The goal of the present work was to evaluate the effects of different salinities on survival and the tissues of C. gasar under laboratory conditions. Two experiments were performed using adult oysters from five marine farms located in the bay of Guaratuba, Brazil. In Experiment 1, the daily survival rates were evaluated after the oysters were submitted to gradual acclimatization at salinities ranging from 0 to 65 gL ⁻¹ and maintained in the laboratory without feeding for up to 365 days. In Experiment 2, the oysters were exposed to salinity from 0 to 50 gL ⁻¹ for up to 30 days without feeding and possible histological alterations caused by salinity were assessed. Three tolerance ranges of C. gasar to salinity were identified: "Optimal" (between 4 and 40 gL ⁻¹ ), "Tolerable" (between 2.1 and 3.9 and between 41 and 50 gL ⁻¹ ) and "Intolerable" (less than 2 and greater than 50 gL ⁻¹ ). No evidence of histological alterations was observed in oysters exposed to the different salinities. © 2019, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia. All rights reserved.
 
Water salinity is among the most important factors influencing the distribution, abundance, growth, and survival of Crassostrea gasar, an important aquaculture resource grown in estuarine environments in diverse regions of the world. The goal of the present work was to evaluate the effects of different salinities on survival and the tissues of C. gasar under laboratory conditions. Two experiments were performed using adult oysters from five marine farms located in the bay of Guaratuba, Brazil. In Experiment 1, the daily survival rates were evaluated after the oysters were submitted to gradual acclimatization at salinities ranging from 0 to 65 gL-1 and maintained in the laboratory without feeding for up to 365 days. In Experiment 2, the oysters were exposed to salinity from 0 to 50 gL-1 for up to 30 days without feeding and possible histological alterations caused by salinity were assessed. Three tolerance ranges of C. gasar to salinity were identified: "Optimal" (between 4 and 40 gL-1), "Tolerable" (between 2.1 and 3.9 and between 41 and 50 gL-1) and "Intolerable" (less than 2 and greater than 50 gL-1). No evidence of histological alterations was observed in oysters exposed to the different salinities.
 
Blattella germanica (L., 1757) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) vive há muito tempo em associação com o homem, próximo às suas fontes de alimentos e criou resistência a diversos inseticidas. Tornou-se, por isso a espécie de barata mais difícil de ser controlada, causando grande transtorno, afetando a economia e apresentando ainda importância médica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de B. germanica aos inseticidas Diazinon® (organofosforado), Cipermetrina® (piretróide), Propoxur® (carbamato) e o período residual de ação até 15 dias após a aplicação. Para avaliar a resistência adquirida por B. germanica aos inseticidas, e melhor caracterização com o dia a dia das empresas controladoras de pragas, a diluição seguiu as instruções dos fabricantes e a técnica para este estudo foi a de contato tarsal. As baratas foram coletadas em diversos estabelecimentos comerciais no município de Juiz de Fora (Minas Gerais) e mantidas em condições controladas de laboratório (temperatura 28ºC ± 1ºC, umidade relativa do ar 60% ± 5%), tendo como alimento ração canina, leite em pó e água, oferecida de forma ininterrupta. Os espécimes obtidos a partir da 3º geração foram utilizados nos ensaios, eliminando qualquer contato anterior com produtos químicos. Para avaliação de cada inseticida foram utilizados 1800 espécimes. Os resultados mostraram maior resistência à Cipermetrina e Propoxur, sendo Diazinon o produto que apresentou maior eficácia, demonstrando ser o mais recomendável para o controle desse inseto. O efeito residual deixado pelos três inseticidas apresentou resultados bem parecidos, sendo o período mais favorável para o controle de B. germanica os primeiros 10 dias após a aplicação.
 
Blattella germanica lives a long time in association with the man, near man's food and creating resistance to various insecticides. Thus, it is the species of cockroach more difficult to control, causing great disorder, affecting the economy and presenting medical importance. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance of B. germanica to Diazinon® (organophosphate), Cipermetrine® (pyrethroid) and Propoxur® (carbamate) insecticides and the period of residual effect assessed until 15 days of application. In order to evaluate the acquired resistance by B. germanica to insecticide and for better characterization with the day by day of the companies that control pests, the dilution in water followed the instructions of the manufacturer and technique for the test was tarsal contact. The cockroaches were collected in many locations in commercial areas in Juiz de Fora municipality (Minas Gerais) and created in laboratory environment (temperature 28°C ± 1°C, 60% ± 5% relative air humidity), feeding with dog food, powdered milk and water, offered continuously. The specimens obtained from the 3 rd generation were used in the tests, eliminating any previous contact with insecticide or other chemical products. For evaluation of each insecticide were used 1800 specimens. The results showed resistance to Cipermetrine and Propoxur, while Diazinon was the most effective, proving to be the best recommendation for the control of this insect. The residual effect of the three insecticides showed similar results for the control of B. germanica and the most stable period was from the 1 st to the 10 th day.
 
Biomass of larvae and pupae larval and immature development period (mean ± SE) of Spodoptera frugiperda caterpillars fed on leaves of six cover crops and maize in laboratory conditions at 25 ± 2°C, 70%RH. 
Biomass and survival (%) at 14 and 21 days (mean ± SE) of Spodoptera frugiperda fed on leaves of eight cover crops and maize under greenhouse conditions. 
The objective of this work was to evaluate the biological variables of Spodoptera frugiperda on species of cover crops. The experiments were conducted in laboratory and greenhouse using the following species: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), sun hemp (Crotalaria juncea), brachiaria (Urochloa decumbens e Urochloa ruziziensis), millet (Pennisetum americanum), black oat (Avena stringosa), white lupin (Lupinus albus), forage turnip (Rafanus sativus) and maize (Zea mays). In laboratory the S. frugiperda larval survival varied from 57%, on L. albus, to 93% on H. annuus and the survival of the pre-imaginal phase varied from 45% on U. decumbens to 81.6% on Z. mays. On C. juncea the larval biomass was lower and the development period of the young and larval stage was higher. The adaptation index was less on C. juncea in greenhouse and laboratory. In greenhouse the larval survival at 14 days was similar for all plants and at 21 days was the lowest on C. juncea. There was less accumulation of biomass at 14 days on C. juncea and at 21 days on C. juncea and A. stringosa. Regarding damage, C. juncea presented less susceptibility to Spodoptera frugiperda attack, which together with the other evaluated parameters, indicated this plant as the most appropriate for soil cover before cultivation of maize. © 2016, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia. All rights reserved.
 
Spleen of the collared peccary seen from the parietal side in A and B, and from the visceral side in C. Anatomic position showing the stomach (S), the gastric ventricle (GV), small intestine (SI), large intestine (LI) and, associated to them, the spleen, the dorsal (D) and ventral (V) extremities; the cranial (Cr) and caudal (Cd) edge; C: the lienal pedicle (arrow). Fresh material. Bar = 1 cm.
Photomicrograph of the peccary´s spleen. A shows the capsule (1) and its thick layer of dense conjunctive tissue (star), trabeculae (2), red (3) and white pulp (4). B shows the capsule (1), with mesothelium (arrow), dense conjunctive tissue (star) and a fine layer of muscular fibers (triangle) and red pulp (3). C shows red pulp (3), white pulp (4) and periarteriole lymphatic sheaths (circle) with a germination center (*), central arteriole (arrow head). D shows periarteriole lymphatic sheath (1) and central or nodular arterioles (arrow heads). Stained by gomori trichrome for A, B, and C; by HandE for D.
Photomicrograph of the peccary´s spleen. A shows splenic cords (arrows) in the red pulp and lymphatic nodule (circle) in the white pulp. B shows white pulp (WP), marginal zone (MZ) and red pulp (RP). C shows red pulp with blue-stained reticular fibers (arrows) and lymphatic nodules (circle) in the white pulp. D shows pericapillary macrophage sheaths, also called ellipsoids (circles) surrounding the blood capillaries (arrow). Stained by HandE for A, B, and D; by gomori trichrome for C.
The spleen of the collared peccary. A shows the shape of the spleen from the visceral side. B the visceral view after corrosion. The following structures are provided: gastroepiploic artery () and vein (); lienal artery ( ) and vein ( ); divided by dotted lines, the dorsal (D), media (M) and ventral (V) sections. Injection of blue vinyl acetate in the venous system and red in the arterial one.
The spleen is a secondary lymphoid organ with importance in clinical surgery. Due this and the lack of data in the literature, the current paper analyzes the organ´s morphology and segmentation in collared peccaries. Twenty animals were used at the Center for the Multiplication of Wild Animals of the Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Mossoró RN Brazil. The spleen was removed with the splenic pedicle preserved, identifying the lineal artery and vein. Fragments from four spleens were harvested to be examined under light microscopy. They were fixed in a paraformaldehyde solution 4% and buffered with sodium phosphate 0.1M, pH 7.4. Routine histological techniques were performed: the spleens were dehydrated in increasing ethanol concentrations; diaphanized in xylol; soaked in paraffin; 7µm cuts were obtained and stained by hematoxylin-eosin or Gomori trichrome technique. The intraparenchemal vascularization of sixteen spleens were analyzed by latex or vinilite acetate perfusal of the lineal artery and vein and the organ fixed, respectively, in a water solution of formaldehyde 10% or immersed in a solution of sulfuric acid 30%. The collared peccary´s spleen had a tongue-like shape. Under the microscope, the spleen featured an intermediary type, with a great amount of white pulp, a predominance of red pulp and few trabeculae. The spleen´s segments had three different regions, namely dorsal, middle and ventral, in irrigation terms with a possible surgical removal of the dorsal region. Knowledge on the angio-architecture and segmentation of the spleen will be a contribution for surgical procedures in wild species, having a great relevance when partial splenectomy is required. © 2018, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia. All rights reserved.
 
Ventral view of the cervicothoracic region in wild boar (Sus scrofa). (V4-V7) fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh cervical vertebrae, (C5-C8) fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth cervical spinal nerves, (T1) first thoracic spinal nerve ( a), subclavian nerve, (b) suprascapular nerve (c) cranial pectoral nerve (d) subscapular cranial nerve, (e) caudal subscapular nerve (f) musculocutaneous nerve (g) axillary nerve, (h) median nerve, (i) ulnar nerve, (j) radial nerve, (k) caudal pectoral nerve, (l) thoracodorsal nerve, (m) lateral thoracic nerve (n) long thoracic nerve, (o) phrenic nerve.  
Medial view of the scapular girdle, arm and forearm in wild boar (Sus scrofa). (a) subclavian nerve, (b) suprascapular nerve, (c) cranial subscapular nerve, (d) caudal subscapular nerve, (e) axillary nerve, (f) musculocutaneous nerve, (g) thoracodorsal nerve, (h) radial nerve, (i) ulnar nerve, (j) median nerve, (k) caudal pectoral nerve, (l) cranial pectoral nerve, (m) long thoracic nerve, (n) lateral thoracic nerve, (1) subclavian muscle, (2) supraspinous muscle, (3) subscapular muscle, (4) teres major muscle, (5) latissimus dorsi muscle, (6) tensor fasciae antechachii muscle, (7) long head of the triceps brachii muscle, (8) medial head of the triceps brachii muscle, (9) superficial digital flexor, (10) flexor carpi radialis muscle, (11) pronator teres muscle,(12) extensor carpi radialis muscle, (13) biceps brachii muscle, (14) deep pectorales muscle, (15) superficial pectorales muscle.  
The origin and distribution of the brachial plexus in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a mammal belonging to the Suidae family were studied. Twelve specimens of wild boar, which were fixed in 10% formalin solution through different points of subcutaneous, intravenous, intramuscular, and intracavitary injections, following by immersing the specimens in the same solution were used. In present study, the brachial plexus of wild boar was a set of nerve fibers formed by the ventral branches from the fifth (C5) to eighth (C8) cervical and the first (T1) thoracic spinal nerves. The subclavian nerve was originated from C5, while the suprascapular nerve had its origin from C5 to C7. The cranial and caudal subscapular nerves were predominantly originated from C6 and C7, as well was the axillary nerve. The origin of the cranial and caudal pectoral nerves was from C7-C8 and C8-T1, respectively. The musculocutaneous nerve was mostly originated from C6 and C7, while the median and radial nerves had origin from C7 to T1. The origin of the ulnar, thoracodorsal, and lateral thoracic nerves was mostly from C8 and T1, while the long thoracic nerve was predominantly originated from C7 and C8. All nerves were responsible for the innervation of scapular girdle structures, arm, forearm, thorax and abdomen. In conclusion, the origin and distribution of the brachial plexus nerves in wild boar (Sus scrofa) are similar to domestic swine rather than to other wild species described in the literature. Â
 
This study aimed to describe the origin and architecture of the lumbosacral plexus, as well as the composition of their nerves in the species M. tridactyla. For this purpose, 12 plexuses from six adult animals of both sexes, provided by IBAMA-GO (License 99/2011, CEUA-UFG Protocol 015/11) were analyzed. The ventral rami of the spinal nerves, their communications and the nerves arising from the plexus were detected after the dissection of the ventral face of the thoracic caudal, lumbar and sacral regions. The radiographs showed 15 or 16 thoracic, two or three lumbar and four or five sacral vertebrae. The lumbosacral plexus of M. tridactyla consisted of: T16, L1, L2, S1-S5, Cc1 (33.3%); T15, L1- L3, S1-S5 (16.6%); T15, L1, L2, S1-S5, Cc1 (16.6%); L1-L3, S1-S5 (16.6%); T15, L1-L3, S1-S4, Cc1 (8.3%); and L1-L3, S1-S4 (8.3%). The nerves that derived from the plexus with their most common arrangement were: genitofemoral (T15, L1, L2; and T16, L1); lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (T15, L1, L2; and T16, L1); femoral (T16, L1, L2); obturator (L1- L3); sciatic (L3, S1-S3); cranial gluteal (L2, S1, S2); caudal gluteal (L2, S1-S3; and L3, S1, S2); pudendal (S4, S5); and rectal caudal (S5 and S4, S5, Cc1). The caudal femoral cutaneous nerve originated from the sciatic nerve. In general, the lumbosacral plexus of M. tridactyla resembles that of other mammals; however, it shows some peculiarities, such as the involvement of thoracic and coccygeal rami in its nerve composition and a greater anatomical variation in its formation, which can be mainly related to the numerical variation of thoracic, lumbar and sacral vertebrae in this species.
 
The lack of basic data about wild species, especially concerning the topographic anatomy has been a barrier to the practice of clinical and surgical procedures in wild animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the nerves of the thigh of Myrmecophaga tridactyla, approaching its topography, ramification and territory of innervation. For this purpose, six adult cadavers provided by IBAMA-GO (license 99/2011, UFG-CEUA Protocol 015/11), fixed and preserved in 10% aqueous solution of formaldehyde were used. The nerves responsible for the innervation the thigh of the M. tridactyla were the genitofemoral, lateral cutaneous femoral, the femoral and its main branch, the saphenous nerve, the obturator, the cranial gluteal, the sciatic and caudal cutaneous femoral nerves. The femoral branch of the genitofemoral nerve supplied the medial cutaneous region of the thigh and superficial inguinal lymph nodes. The lateral cutaneous femoral nerve branched on the craniomedial and craniolateral cutaneous region of the thigh. The femoral nerve sent branches to iliacus, psoas major and minor, iliopsoas, pectineus, sartorius and quadriceps muscles and the skin of the medial surface of the thigh. The femoral nerve continued as saphenous nerve and both innervated the medial aspect of the thigh and the latter supplied the medial surface of the stifle joint. The obturator nerve innervated the external obturator muscle, including its intrapelvic portion, gracilis and adductor magnus, long and short muscles. The cranial gluteal nerve branched in the the tensor fascia lata muscle. The sciatic nerve sent branches to gemelli, quadratus femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, long and short biceps femoris muscles and the skin of the lateral surface of the thigh and stifle joint. The caudal cutaneous femoral nerve gave branches to semitendinosus muscle, the region of the ischial tuberosity and caudolateral surface and the thigh. There are considerable differences between the territory of innervation of the nerves of the thigh of the M. tridactyla compared to domestic animals, which in turn makes unfeasible the extrapolation of clinical-surgical procedures and anesthetic protocols used in domestic animals to the giant anteater.
 
The creation of wild boars is increasing in Brazil due to demand for a quality product and excellent nutritional properties. This study analyzed the origin and distribution of the obturatorius nerve in 19 fetuses of wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) in order to provide morphological data for comparative anatomy and areas related. The introduction of these animals in aqueous formaldehyde 10% was by different points of subcutaneous, intramuscular and intracavitary injections, as well as by immersion of those specimens, in containers of the same solution for a minimum of 48 hours. It was noted that the nerve was originated from the ventral branches of L4, L5 and L6. Concerning to distribution, the nerve dispatched ventral branches to the external obturator, gracilis, adductor and pectineus muscles. It can be stated that both the origin and distribution of the obturatorius nerve in wild boars is similar to the patterns evidenced in domestic swine. © 2015, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia. All rights reserved.
 
(Obs. 13 – Fêmea). Desenho esquemático representativo da vista dorsal das sobreposições das artérias destinadas às faces dorsal (linha contínua) e ventral (linha pontilhada), dos segmentos anatomocirúrgicos arteriais dos rins direito e esquerdo de coelhos. ARD – artéria renal direita; ARE – artéria renal esquerda; ASD – artéria setorial dorsal; ASV – artéria setorial ventral; DCr – segmento dorsocranial; DM1 – segmento dorsomédio 1; DM2 – segmento dorsomédio 2; DMCr – segmento dorsomédiocranial; DMCa – segmento dorsomédiocaudal; DCa1 – segmento dorsocaudal 1; DCa2 – segmento dorsocaudal 2; VCr – segmento ventrocranial; VMCr – segmento ventromédiocranial; VM – segmento ventromédio; VMCa – segmento ventromédiocaudal; e Vca – segmento ventrocaudal.  
A identificação dos segmentos anatomocirúrgicos arteriais dos rins de mamíferos forneceram bases anatômicas necessárias às intervenções cirúrgicas renais. Propôs-se investigar os segmentos anatomocirúrgicos arteriais dos rins de coelhos com a finalidade de identificar, quantificar e denominá-los. Utilizou-se 30 pares de rins de coelhos da raça Gigante - 17 machos e 13 fêmeas - com idade de 60 a 90 dias, procedentes de Três Marias, Minas Gerais. Retirou-se os rins e as artérias renais então dissecadas e cânuladas para injeção de solução corada de resina vinílica. As peças foram submetidas à corrosão em solução aquosa de ácido sulfúrico a 30%, para obtenção de modelos arteriais para confecção de desenhos esquemáticos da distribuição das artérias renais. Foram encontradas artérias renais direita e esquerda sempre únicas quanto à origem e bifurcando-se em artérias setoriais dorsal e ventral; detectou-se a presença de dois setores renais (dorsal e ventral) à direita e à esquerda, em função da distribuição das artérias setoriais nas faces do rim. Em média, o número de segmentos anatomocirúrgicos arteriais encontrados foi o mesmo, para ambos os sexos, antímeros e setores arteriais renais. Não evidenciou-se correlação entre o número de segmentos anatomocirúrgicos arteriais e o comprimento de carcaça dos animais.
 
A. lateral view of the skull; B. dorsal view of the skull; C. dorsal view of the skull; D. lateral view of the skull; E. ventral view of the skull; F. caudal view of the skull; G. lateral view of palatine; H. lateral view of the quadrate; I. dorsal view of the mandibule; J. caudal view of the skull ; L. lateral view of mandible. 1: orbit diameter; 2: jugal bone thickness; 3. jugal bone length; 4. rhamphoteca length; 5. maximum height without the mandible; 6. foramen magnum width; 7. foramen magnum length; 8. condylus occipitalis; 9. distance between the paraoccipital processes; 10. maximum skull length; 11. narine cranio-caudal length; 12. maximum rhamphotheca width; 13. zona flexoria craniofacialis; 14. distance between lacrimal processes; 15. distance between orbits; 16. maximum skull length; 17. maximum caudal skull width; 18. maximum gnathotheca width; AbM: bulging in the dorsal mandibule surface; Aj: jugal arch; APs: parasphenoid wing; Aso: suborbital arch; CNH: hypoglossal nerve canal; CNT: transversal nuchal crest; CO: occipital condyle; CPQ: condyle pterygoid quadrate; CQj: quadrate jugalcotyla; CT: tomial crest; CTe: temporal crest; F: frontal; FC: caudal mandibble fenestra; FN: vagus nerve foramen; FM: foramen magnum; FO: optic foramen ; FPn: palatine pneumatic foramen; FR: rostral mandible fenestra; FRSo: foramen in supraorbital region; FSC: subcondyloid fossa; FSt: subtemporal fossa; FT: temporal fossa; MAE: external ear canal; N: nasal; OCC: ostium of the carotid canal; OCOE: ostium of the external ophthalmic canal; P: parietal; Pal: palatino; PC: cerebellum promenence; PL: lacrimal process; Por: orbital quadrate process; Pot: quadrate otic process; PMm: medial process of the mandibule; PPo: paraoccipital process; PRa: retro-articulate process of the mandibule; PrPO: postorbital process; PT: pterygoid; PZ: zygomatic process; Q: quadrate; RP: rostroparasphenoid; SIO: septum interorbitale; ZFC: zona flexoria craniofacialis.
Mean values obtained for Amazona aestiva skulls and standard deviation in millimeters (mm)
Obtaining craniometric data is key to establishing parameters that can help in the anatomic identification and understanding of species. The aim of the present study was to establish the craniometric data and describe the main skull bones and structures of Amazona aestiva, which has become common in veterinary clinics, originated from the legalized purchase or trafficking of animals. A total of 20 adult specimens were used, donated for studies by the Paraíba Wild Animal Screening Center (Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres da Paraíba (CETAS-PB)/IBAMA-PB, Brazil. The skulls were dissected and macerated with water. First were identified the frontal, maxilla, mandible, nasal, jugal and quadrate bones that served as a base to identify other bone structures that were then compared with the skull of other bird species already described in the literature, especially psitacids. Values were obtained by measuring with a digital pachymeter, and the maximum skull length was 63.0 mm, the maximum width 33.0 mm and the rhamphotheca was 33.8 mm long. No significant differences were observed between males and females and well developed cranial kinesis was a remarkable characteristic of the species. The data obtained serve as a base to identify and characterize the species. These data can also aid in the clinic, imaging and veterinary surgery.
 
RESUMO: Estudou-se 20 amostras de sangue de macacos prego adultos (Cebus apella) saudáveis, mantidos em cativeiro, com o objetivo de avaliar os valores hematológicos e possíveis efeitos do sexo sobre estes parâmetros. Após contenção física dos animais, colheu-se por punção na veia femural esquerda ou direita, 2 mL de sangue. Os hemogramas foram processados em contador de células automático CELM (modelo CC510). Para a avaliação estatística foi utilizado o Teste de Tukey com 5% de probabilidade. Os valores médios encontrados foram: hemácias 5,81 e 6,02 x 10 6 /µL; hemoglobina 14,66 e 14,72 g%; hematócrito 45 e 45%; VCM 76,6 e 74,9 fL; HCM 25,1 e 24,6 pg; CHCM 32,78 e 32,74 g/dL; plaquetas 320,8 e 279,9 x 10 3 /µL; leucócitos totais 9150 e 9380/µL; neutrófilos em bastonetes 148 e 107/L; neutrófilos segmentados 4649 e 4341/µL; neutrófilos totais 5000 e 4441/µL; linfócitos 3865 e 4377/µL; monócitos 231 e 353/ µL; eosinófilos 271 e 201/µL e basófilos 59 e 5/µL nas fêmeas e machos respectivamente. Conclui-se que as médias dos constituintes hematológicos analisados estão dentro dos padrões da espécie e não existe diferença significativa (p>0,05) nos valores do eritrograma, plaquetograma e leucograma entre machos e fêmeas. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Macaco prego. Hematologia. Cebus apella.
 
Fotografia da vista ventral das vértebras do javali nota-se a formação do nervo obturatório (No) a partir dos ramos ventrais (setas) dos nervos espinhais L4, L5 e L6. Observa-se, também, o nervo femoral (Nf).  
Fotografia da vista ventromedial da pelve e coxa do javali, evidencia-se o trajeto do nervo obturatório (No), emitindo ramos para o músculo obturatório externo (Oe) e atravessa o forame obturatório (Fo). Notam-se os músculos pectíneo (Pe), adutor (Ad) e grácil (Gr), o qual este último foi rebatido para visualizar um ramo (Ro) do referido nervo. DISCUSSÃO Os resultados referentes à quantidade de vértebras lombares corroboram com os mencionados por Ghoshal (1986) e Miheliae et al. (2004) no qual o número, nas espécies domésticas, é variável, influenciando na quantidade de nervos espinhais lombares. Em javalis, identificou-se seis  
A criação de javalis vem crescendo no Brasil devido à procura de um produto de qualidade e com propriedades nutricionais. Analisou-se a origem e distribuição dos nervos obturatórios em 19 fetos de javalis (Sus scrofa scrofa) visando fornecer dados morfológicos para anatomia comparativa e áreas afins. Â A fixação destes animais em solução aquosa de formaldeído a 10% ocorreu mediante diferentes pontos de injeções subcutâneas, intramusculares e intracavitárias, bem como por imersão dos referidos exemplares em recipientes com a mesma solução por um período mínimo de 48 horas. Foi observado que o referido nervo originou-se dos ramos ventrais de L4 a L6. Distribui-se para os músculos obturatório externo, grácil, adutor e pectíneo. Pode-se afirmar que tanto a origem como a distribuição do nervo obturatório em javalis se assemelha aos padrões evidenciados em suínos domésticos.
 
We analyzed the origin and distribution of the femoral nerve in 25 fetuses of wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa). The introduction of these animals in aqueous formaldehyde 10% was by different points of subcutaneous, intramuscular and intracavitary injections, as well as by immersion of those specimens, in containers of the same solution for a minimum of 48 hours, to prepare the material for further dissection. It was observed that the origin of the nerve roots were derived from S1 to L3. Regarding the amount of lumbar vertebrae varied from five to seven, five in eight cases (32%), six in twelve specimens (48%) and seven in five animals (20%). In relation to their distribution, the femoral nerves emitted 2-5 branches to the right iliac muscle and 2-4 to the left, the right psoas major received 2-5, and its left antimer, 2-7, the right sartorius was innervated by two branches and in 1 case and the femoral quadriceps presented variation of 7-16 branches, in both antimers.
 
trabalhamos com 30 gatos, em cada animal isolamos a veia porta, injetamos solução fisiológica para lavar a veia porta e suas tributárias, e látex Altamira corado. Prosseguimos com a fixação das peças com solução aquosa de formol a 10,00%. Após dissecação, observamos a veia porta sendo formada por 4 tributárias em 23,33%; 5 tributárias em 53,33%; 6 tributárias em 16,67% e 7 tributárias em 6,67% dos animais estudados, sendo as veias lienal, mesentérica cranial e mesentérica caudal em todas as observações, pancreaticoduodenal caudal em 30,00%, gastroduodenal em 90,00%, gástrica esquerda em 3,33%, pancreaticoduodenal média em 3,33%, pela gástrica direita e gastroepiplóica direita formando um tronco comum em 3,33%, gástrica direita em 60%, ramos pancreáticos em 6,67% e pancreaticoduodenal cranial em 10%. A veia lienal é formada por 5 tributárias em 96,67% e 7 tributárias em 3,33% dos animais, as veias gastroepiplóica esquerda, pancreáticas, gástricas breves, gástrica direita, gástrica esquerda, gastroepiplóica direita e ramos provenientes do baço. A veia gastroduodenal é formada por 3 tributárias em 26,67% e por 2 tributárias em 63,33% dos gatos, as veias gástricas direita, gastroepiplóica direita e pancreaticoduodenal cranial. As veias pancreaticoduodenal cranial e a caudal são formadas por ramos oriundos do baço e duodeno. A veia mesentérica cranial é formada por 4 tributárias em 33,33% e 5 tributárias em 66,67% das peças, as veias jejunais, ileocólica, cólica média, pancreaticoduodenal caudal e cólica direita. A veia mesentérica caudal é formada por 2 tributárias em todos os animais, as veias cólica esquerda e retal cranial. ]
 
RESUMO: Nesse trabalho, mediu-se e pesou-se os órgãos genitais femininos de 60 fêmeas adultas, de suínos da raça Landrace, com objetivo de fornecer subsídios à sua morfologia. Os animais foram distribuídos em quatro grupos de acordo com o número de parições: grupo I (fêmeas nulíparas), grupo II (fêmeas uníparas), grupo III (fêmeas multíparas com 2 a 4 partos) e grupo IV (fêmeas multíparas com 5 ou mais partos). Determinou-se o peso dos ovários direito (4,4 a 10,1 g) e esquerdo (4,7 a 11,2 g) e do útero (393,5 a 830,5 g); e, o comprimento das tubas uterinas direita (23,7 a 45,9 cm) e esquerda (25,9 a 35,6 cm); dos cornos uterinos direito (77,2 a 130,8 cm) e esquerdo (90,0 a 134,5 cm); do corpo do útero (4,5 a 8,2 cm), da cérvix (17,3 a 23,1 cm), da vagina (20,4 a 21,3 cm) e do vestíbulo juntamente com a vulva (9,4 a 10,5 cm). Após análise dos resultados, constatou-se que o número de parições promove aumento significativo (p<0,05) no peso do ovário esquerdo, no comprimento do corno uterino direito, no peso do útero, no comprimento do corpo do útero e da cérvix, além de diminuir o comprimento da tuba uterina direita.
 
The present study evaluated the origin, distribution and ramification of the radial nerves were studied in 30 adult domestic cats. The sample included 15 females and 15 males of unknown breed. The specimens were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution. The radial nerve showed many fascicles from the origin also your ramification in superficial and deep branches. Radial nerves were observed to originate, in 16 cases (26.7%), from the ventral branch of the sixth cervical spinal nerve; in 60 cases (100%), from the ventral branch of the seventh cervical spinal nerve; in 60 cases (100%), from the ventral branch of the eight cervical nerve and in 60 cases (100%), from the ventral branch of the first thoracic nerve. The radial nerves branched out, in all of the animals studied (100.0%), to the tensor fasciae antebrachii, long, accessory, medial and lateral heads of the triceps branchii and anconeus muscles. The radial nerve emits of 14 to 25 nervous branches in this region. However, the branch of the sixth cervical spinal nerve and the nervous fascicles reveal significant differences (p <= 0.05), respectively, in or with relation to sex of the animals and the studied region.
 
We studied 20 brains of wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa), adults, 14 females and 08 males, colored latex and fixed in aqueous 10% formaldehyde. The middle cerebral artery on both the sides, has its origin in the rostral branch of the carotid artery of the brain (100%), and generally represented by two to five arteries who went laterodorsalmente reaching the region of the olfactory trigone and the rhinal sulcus lateral filling but the transverse fissure and distributing the lateral portions, dorsolateral, rostrolateral and caudolateral hemisphere. The number of blood vessels on the middle cerebral artery, was in the right antimere two models (10%) the presence of two arteries, 13 models (65%) the presence of three arteries in models (20%) the presence of four arteries and a model (5%) the presence of five arteries. In the left antimere met fourth models (20%) the presence of two arteries, 9 models (45%) the existence of three arteries, in the sixth models (30%) the presence of four arteries and a model (5 %) the presence of five arteries. © 2014, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia. All rights reserved.
 
Photograph showing the medial face of a left hemimandible, demonstrating reference points for the morphometric analysis of the mandibular foramen of cats with no defined breed (Photo by Prof. Rogério Magno do Vale Barroso in Anatomy Laboratory collection of the Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine School – Federal University of Brasilia (UnB) – 2005)  
Photograph showing the medial face of a left hemimandible, demonstrating the distances measured for the morphometric analysis of the mandibular foramen of cats with no defined breed (Photo by Prof. Rogério Magno do Vale Barroso in Anatomy Laboratory collection of the Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine School – Federal University of Brasilia (UnB) – 2005).  
Comparison between right and left hemimandibles through the student's t-test with p = 0.05 of cats with no defined breed.  
The objective of this work was to perform a morphometric evaluation of the mandibular foramen of cats with no defined breed in order to establish its more precise topography and to offer subsides for a more effective local anesthetic blockage of the mandibular alveolar nerve. Thirty adult cats (Felis catus) (5 male and 25 female) with no defined breed were used. After collection and preparation of mandibles with the aid of a universal caliper rule, the 6 reference points were measured: LONG (from the most lateral margin of the condylar process up to the first inferior incisor tooth); TRANS (from the ventral margin up to the dorsal mandible margin between the second premolar tooth and the first inferior molar tooth); FVENTRAL (from the most rostral margin of the mandibular foramen up to the ventral mandibular margin); ANG (from the end of the most rostral margin of the mandibular foramen up to the mandible angular process), COND (from the end of the most rostral margin of the mandibular foramen up to the medial margin of the mandible condylar process) and COR (from the most rostral margin of the mandibular foramen up to the medial margin of the mandible condylar process). Following, the data obtained were submitted to descriptive statistical analysis and to the student's t-test with p = 0.05. It was observed that for a better local anesthetic blockage of the inferior alveolar nerve, the needle should be introduced 4.1 to 4.4 mm from the mandible ventral margin and 12.37 to 12.57 mm from the angular process.
 
Spermiogenesis involves a series of cellular modifications, culminating in the production of a highly specialized cell, the spermatozoon. To reassess the peculiarities of this process, specimens of the lizard Iguana iguana were collected in the Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil; the testis and ducts were processed according to routine methods for light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. After nuclear condensation and elongation, the cytoplasm and organelles flow towards the basal area, below the nucleus. An infolding occurs at the nuclear base, where the middle piece is implanted. This area contains a centriole pair, with the proximal one perpendicular and the distal one parallel to the nuclear axis. The distal centriole can be functionally compared to the basal corpuscle at the axoneme base. The mitochondria, that are round or elongated with transverse cristae, initially organized around the centriole in continuous rings; later they alternate with dense bodies. Thus the dense bodies are apparently formed by mitochondrial modification with deposition of dense material. In I. iguana the formation of dense bodies is one of the last events of spermiogenesis. Marking the transition between middle piece and flagellum is the annulus. This structure blocks the displacement of mitochondria from the middle piece during flagellar movement. Halfway down the middle piece, a fibrous sheath is formed by the accumulation of an amorphous layer surrounding the axoneme, and this structure is the axonemic complex. In the spermatozoa of I. iguana, the flagellar end piece is reduced in diameter, because the fibrous sheath terminates and only the typical axonemal microtubule pattern (9+2) is present. A large amount of cytoplasm is observed around spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubule lumen, suggesting that these are immature spermatozoa. Structural modifications occur during their passage through the reproductive tract. These post-testis modifications have not been precisely located along the reproductive tract and are probably not essential for spermatozoon mobility. Some features of the male reproductive tract are shown.
 
Image of the adrenal glands of the M. tridactyla. A: anatomical conformation of the right (R) and left (L) adrenal. Bar: 1cm. B: cortical region (c), medullar region (m) and capsule (arrows) of the sectioned adrenal. Bar: 0.5cm. The weight was 4.765±0.129g for the right adrenal and 3.975±0.213g for the left adrenal. The length was 4.50±0.14cm for the right adrenal and 4.28±0.11cm for the left adrenal. The width was 2.60±0.13cm for the right adrenal and 2.37±0.12cm for the left adrenal. The thickness was 0.45±0.11cm for the right adrenal and 0.68±0.14cm for the left adrenal. Statistical differences (p<0.05) between right and left adrenals for all values analyzed were observed. H/E stained images showed a dense capsule composed by modeled dense connective tissue lining the organ. Below this capsule, from the outermost region to the innermost region, it was possible to observe a cortical region, divided into glomerular, fasciculata and reticular zones and a medullar region occupying the center of the organ. The glomerular zone presented cellular clusters arranged in oval shape, while the fasciculata zone had cells arranged in cords. The reticular zone was composed of cells spread across the large  
Photomicrograph of the adrenal gland of M. tridactyla stained with H/E. A: capsule (arrow); zones: glomerular (arrowhead), fasciculata (f) and reticular (r) in the cortical region; medullar region (m). Bar: 500µm. B: capsule (c); zones: glomerular (g) and fasciculata (f). Bar: 50µm. C: fasciculata zone (f). Bar: 50µm. D: reticular zone (r) with blood vessel (*). Bar: 50µm. E: medullar region (arrow) with blood vessel (V). Bar: 50µm.  
Photomicrograph of the adrenal gland of M. tridactyla stained with Trichrome of Gomori. A: reticular (r) and fasciculata (f) zones. Bar: 100µm. B: capsule (c) glomerular (g) and fasciculata (f) zones. Bar: 100µm. C: reticular zone (r) of the cortical region and medulla (m). Bar: 100µm. D: medullar region with a region rich in modeled dense connective tissue (mdct) and blood vessels with large-diameter (arrows). It was possible to observe an area with non-modeled dense connective tissue (nmdct). Bar: 100µm.  
The Myrmecophaga tridactyla (family Pilosa), popularly known in Brazil as the giant anteater is classified as an endangered species by the main survey agencies of biodiversity preservation around the world. The adrenal glands are important organs, which are related to homeostasis of the animal. This study aimed to describe the morphology of the adrenal glands of M. tridactyla, providing data for future studies related to the production of steroid hormones in specimens exposed to different stress factors. The adrenal glands of 14 specimens were used. The glands were measured, photodocumented and described by light microscopy. The adrenals were positioned in the cranial extremity of the kidneys (left and right) and related medially to the caudal vena cava. The right adrenal gland had an elongated shape while the left adrenal gland had pyramidal or triangular shape. The weight was 4.765±0.129g for the right adrenal and 3.975±0.213g for the left adrenal. The length was 4.50±0.14cm for the right adrenal and 4.28±0.11cm for the left adrenal. The width was 2.60±0.13cm for the right adrenal and 2.37±0.12cm for the left adrenal. The thickness was 0.45±0.11cm for the right adrenal and 0.68±0.14cm for the left adrenal. Statistical differences (p
 
The present study aimed to analyze metric data from the trachea of dogs and to correlate them with the thoracic girth, body length and weight. We used 48 dogs of unknown breed, 19 males and 29 females. The animals were weighed and then body length, thoracic girth, length and diameter of the trachea, and the number of tracheal rings were measured. The weight of dogs ranged from 4.2 to 21.5 kg, body length from 40.6 to 81.0 cm and thoracic girth from 36.0 to 63.5 cm. The trachea exhibited a total number of tracheal rings between 32 and 43, length between 13.0 and 23.4 cm, diameter of the cervical portion between 11.0 and 23.5 mm and in the thoracic portion between 8.2 and 20.9 mm. We also evaluated the tracheal termination skeletopy, which maintained relations with the 2nd (2.0%), 3 (6.3%), 4 (20.8%) or 5 (12.5%) intercostal spaces, and with the 3rd (6.3%), 4th (35.4%) or 5th (16.7%) ribs. Strong positive correlations of tracheal length with body weight (rS = 0.756, p <0.001), body length (r = 0.808, p <0.001) and thoracic girth (r = 0.735, p <0.001) were found. Therefore, the anatomical study of the trachea provides morphological subsidies for the realization of clinical and surgical procedures in this organ, being an important tool in veterinary practice. © 2012, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia. All Rights Reserved.
 
We studied the origin and distribution of the median nerve in the arm and forearm of 30 pig fetuses lineage Pen Ar Lan, 10 males and 20 females, obtained from miscarriages or stillbirths, which were dissected after fixation in formaldehyde solution 10%. We note that this nerve originated from the ventral branches of the seventh cervical spinal nerve to the first thoracic spinal nerve (C7, C8 and T1) at 93.30% and the ventral branches of the seventh cervical spinal nerve to the second thoracic spinal nerve (C7, C8, T1 and T2) at 6.70%. The median nerve was distributed to the deep flexor muscles (ulnar heads, humeral and radial), flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor digitorum superficialis (share superficial and deep) and pronator teres.
 
Estudou-se a origem, a distribuição e a ramificação do nervo radial em 30 gatos adultos, 15 machos e 15 fêmeas, sem raça definida, mediante dissecação macroscópica, após a fixação dos espécimes em solução aquosa de formaldeído a 10%. O referido nervo originou-se dos ramos ventrais do sexto (18,33%), sétimo (100,0%) e oitavo (100,0%) nervos espinhais cervicais e do ramo ventral do primeiro (100,0%) nervo espinhal torácico. O nervo radial cedeu ramos musculares em todos os animais para os músculos tensor da fáscia antebraquial, cabeça longa do tríceps braquial, cabeça acessória do tríceps braquial, cabeça medial do tríceps braquial, cabeça lateral do tríceps braquial e ancôneo, emitindo de 14 a 25 ramos nervosos na região do braço. O ramo ventral do sexto nervo espinhal cervical apresentou diferença significativa (p
 
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Juliatti FERNANDO Cezar
  • Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU)
Hamawaki OSVALDO Toshiyuki
  • Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU)
Peluzio Jm
  • Universidade Federal de Tocantins
Marcos Tavares-Dias
  • Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA)
Flávio Ruas de Moraes
  • São Paulo State University