Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry

Published by Elsevier
Online ISSN: 0968-0896
Publications
Article
The intestinal absorption of an intact oligopeptide was investigated in rats using a synthetic cationic peptide, 001-C8 (H-MeTyr-Arg-MeArg-D-Leu-NH(CH2)8NH2). The peptide was coupled with 4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD) to prepare a fluorescence-labeled derivative 001-C8-NBD (H-MeTyr-Arg-MeArg-D-Leu-NH(CH2)8NH-NBD) for the purpose of quantification. The degradation half-life of 001-C8-NBD in jejunal homogenate (1 mg/mL) was 99.5 min, which was significantly longer than that of natural leucine enkephalin (1.14 min). The absorption of 001-C8-NBD was evaluated by the vascular-perfusion method. Intact 001-C8-NBD appeared in the blood time-dependently and the absorption volume at 30 min (2.75 +/- 0.14 microL/cm intestine) was significantly larger than that of [3H]PEG 900 (0.88 +/- 0.13 microL/cm intestine), of which membrane permeability is very low. The absorption of 001-C8-NBD was greatly reduced by an adsorptive-mediated endocytosis inhibitor, protamine (10 mM). No inhibition of the absorption of [3H]PEG 900 by protamine was observed. The intestinal absorption was also measured by an in vivo loop method. The absorption clearance of 001-C8-NBD measured by this method (0.083 +/- 0.008 microL/min/cm intestine) was comparable to that obtained by the vascular perfusion method (0.092 +/- 0.005 microL/min/cm intestine). All of these data suggested that 001-C8-NBD was absorbed as the intact oligopeptide in the intestine in vivo. Adsorptive-mediated transcytosis is suggested to have enormous potential as an oral delivery system for peptide and/or protein drugs.
 
Article
The discovery of the anticancer agent salinosporamide A (NPI-0052) resulted from the exploration of new marine environments and a commitment to the potential of the ocean to yield new natural products for drug discovery and development. Driving the success of this process was the linkage of academic research together with the ability and commitment of industry to undertake drug development and provide the resources and expertise to advance the entry of salinosporamide A (NPI-0052) into human clinical trials. This paper offers a chronicle of the important events that facilitated the rapid clinical development of this exciting molecule.
 
Article
A new brassinolide inhibitor, named KM-01, was isolated from the culture filtrates of two fungal species, Drechslera avenae and Pycnoporus coccineus, and the structure with absolute stereochemistry was elucidated as the fatty acid ester of an eremophilane sesquiterpene, bipolaroxin, based on spectroscopic analysis, chemical degradation, and synthesis of the fatty acid.
 
Article
Structure-activity relationship studies on 4-(4-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,4-diazepan-1-yl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)butan-1-one (SYA 013), a homopiperazine analog of haloperidol has resulted in an understanding of the effect of structural modifications on binding affinity at dopamine and serotonin receptor subtypes. Further exploration, using bioisosteric replacement strategies has led to the identification of several new agents including compounds 7, 8, 11 and 12 which satisfy the initial criteria for further exploration as new antipsychotic agents. In addition, compound 18, a D(3) selective tropanol, has been identified as having the potential for further optimization into a useful drug which may combat neuropsychiatric diseases.
 
Article
In a previous work, Lu29-024 (2,5-dimethyl-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methyl-4-piperidinyl)-1H-indole), a selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist with nanomolar affinity and high selectivity, was labeled with carbon-11 to evaluate its behavior as a potential PET ligand for the serotonergic 5-HT2A receptor in the central nervous system. Administration of this tracer to rats was followed by a good brain uptake, no brain labeled metabolites but no specific, regio-selective, binding at 20 and 40 min post injection. Despite this, the data noted at 20 and 40 min suggest that this tracer, if associated with a radioactive emitter with a longer half-life than that of carbon-11, could be useful for the quantification of 5HT2A receptors. For these reasons, we chose to label this compound, bearing a fluorine atom, with [18F]fluoride, in order to perform rat studies over a more prolonged time-scale. The precursor for the radiosynthesis of [18F]Lu29-024 was obtained in an overall yield of 20% by a multi-step synthesis including an acetonylation reaction followed by a Fisher indole reaction. The radiotracer was prepared by an aromatic substitution with activated [18F]fluoride followed by a decarbonylation reaction that employed Wilkinson's catalyst. The radiosynthesis of [18F]Lu29-024 required approximatively 110 min with an overall radiochemical yield of 20-35% and specific activities of 37GBq/micromol. Fluorine-labeled Lu29-024 may thus be envisaged as a potentially useful PET tracer that can be applied to a wide range of neurological and psychiatric diseases.
 
Article
SAR studies in a series of related 3-(heteroarylthio)cephems determined that a relatively high chemical reactivity of the beta-lactam ring, modulated by electronic effects of substituents at C-3 and C-7, is necessary to achieve high in vitro activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Such high reactivity results in lowered hydrolytic stability and concomitantly increases susceptibility to beta-lactam ring opening mediated by serum enzymes. Therefore, optimization of anti-MRSA activity versus stability toward serum-mediated degradation required a fine balance of substituent effects. Serum stability studies (measured as percentage of parent drug degraded after 60 min incubation) revealed up to 80-fold difference in degradation rate in a series of closely related (3-heteroarylthio)cephems. Of the compounds evaluated, RWJ-333441 (MC-04,546) possessed the best balance of serum stability (6% degradation after 60 min incubation) and in vitro activity versus MRSA (S. aureus COL MIC=1 microgram/mL). Accordingly, RWJ-333441 displayed excellent in vivo efficacy versus methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA, ED(50)=0.39 mg/kg in mouse sepsis model with S. aureus Smith) and good pharmacokinetic properties in the rat (Cl(total)=0.39 L/h/kg).
 
Article
A novel series of CCK-B/gastrin receptor antagonists-ureidomethylcarbamoylphenylketone derivatives-were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for activity. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed the importance of a carboxylic acid at substituent R2 and tert-butoxycarbonyl group at R1 in structure A. Compound 7a (S-0509) showed remarkable affinity for the CCK-B/gastrin receptor and a subtype selectivity profile in vitro. Administration (id) of 7a led to excellent inhibition of gastric acid secretion induced by pentagastrin in anesthetized rats with an ED50 value of 0.014 mg/kg. Furthermore, 7a proved to have poor blood-brain permeability by its small effect on enhancement of morphine analgesia. Thus, S-0509 has an increase in selectivity for the peripheral effects of gastrin antagonism from the central effects of CCK-B antagonism.
 
Article
In searching for opportunities to exploit the benefits of silicon in TRPV1 research, we tried to investigate the pharmacological effects of sila-substitution (C/Si exchange) of tert-butyl group in the MK-056 series. Compound 13a, with a 4-positioned trimethylsilanyl group on the B ring in place of tert-butyl group, exhibited the most potent antagonist activity with IC(50) values of 0.15 microM, which is almost equipotent with that of MK-056. This is the first example that tert-butyl group on MK-056 series can be replaced to the other substituent without loss of activity.
 
Article
The calcium-sensing receptor antagonist (CaSR) has been recognized as a promising target of anabolic agents for treating osteoporosis. In the course of developing a new drug candidate for osteoporosis, we found tetrahydropyrazolopyrimidine derivative 1 to be an orally active CaSR antagonist that stimulated transient PTH secretion in rats. However, compound 1 showed poor physical and chemical stability. In order to work out this compound's chemical stability and further understand its in vivo efficacy, we focused on modifying the 2-position of the tetrahydropyrazolopyrimidine. As a result of chemical modification, we discovered (5R)-N-[1-ethyl-1-(4-ethylphenyl)propyl]-2,7,7-trimethyl-5-phenyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-3-carboxamide monotosylate 10m (TAK-075), which showed improved solubility, chemical stability, and in vivo efficacy. Furthermore, we describe that evaluating the active metabolite is important during repeated treatment with short-acting CaSR antagonists.
 
Article
The synthesis of a series of new isothiazol-3(2H)-one 1,1-dioxides with halogenated (mostly fluorinated) pyridinyl and pentafluorophenyl substituents at 2-position is reported. These compounds (18-24) became easily accessible from 2-thiocyanato-1-carboxaldehydes and aminopyridines, pentafluoroaniline, respectively, by an isothiazolium cyclization-oxidation route. Compound 21 exhibited an IC(50) value of 3.1 microM toward human leukocyte elastase. The proteases cathepsin G, trypsin, cathepsin L, and angiotensin-converting enzyme, and the serine esterases acetylcholinesterase and cholesterol esterase were not inhibited by 21.
 
Article
A series of new mixed-ligand neutral copper(II) complexes of the general type [Cu(amine)(i-MNT)] and [Cu(tz)(i-MNT)] was prepared and characterized by elemental, spectroscopic methods, mu(eff), Lambda(mu) measurements and molecular modeling studies. The acute toxicity, the cytogenetic and the in vivo antitumor activity of the new complexes, is related to their chemical and physicochemical properties. Among the Cu(II) compounds tested the complex with 2-amino-5-methyl thiazole increases significantly the life span of leukemia P388 bearing mice in vivo.
 
Article
A series of substituted-1,2,4-benzothiadiazin-1,1-dioxide derivatives was designed and synthesized as potassium channel modulators. Various sulfonylurea moieties were introduced on positions 3 and 7 of the heterocycle without, or by means of, methylene and phenyl spacers. On rat aortic rings, several compounds displayed vasodilating activities, especially compound 24, which was more active than cromakalim and diazoxide at low doses (0.1 microM) and more active than diazoxide between 1 and 10 microM.
 
Article
The interaction of a series of 1,2,5-thiadiazolidin-3-one 1,1 dioxide-based sulfonamides with neutrophil-derived serine proteases was investigated. The nature of the amino acid component, believed to be oriented toward the S' subsites, had a profound effect on enzyme selectivity. This series of compounds were found to be potent, time-dependent inhibitors of human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and were devoid of any inhibitory activity toward neutrophil proteinase 3 (PR 3) and cathepsin G (Cat G). The results of these studies demonstrate that exploitation of differences in the S' subsites of HNE and PR 3 can lead to highly selective inhibitors of HNE.
 
Article
As part of our project pointed at the search of new antiparasitic agents against American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease) and toxoplasmosis a series of 2-alkylaminoethyl-1-hydroxy-1,1-bisphosphonic acids has been designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated against the etiologic agents of these parasitic diseases, Trypanosoma cruzi and Toxoplasma gondii, respectively, and also towards their target enzymes, T. cruzi and T. gondii farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS), respectively. Surprisingly, while most pharmacologically active bisphosphonates have a hydroxyl group at the C-1 position, the additional presence of an amino group at C-3 resulted in decreased activity towards either T. cruzi cells or TcFPPS. Density functional theory calculations justify this unexpected behavior. Although these compounds were devoid of activity against T. cruzi cells and TcFPPS, they were efficient growth inhibitors of tachyzoites of T. gondii. This activity was associated with a potent inhibition of the enzymatic activity of TgFPPS. Compound 28 arises as a main example of this family of compounds exhibiting an ED50 value of 4.7μM against tachyzoites of T. gondii and an IC50 of 0.051μM against TgFPPS.
 
Article
The anti-HIV activity of (+/-)-cis-4,5-dihydroxy-1,2-dithiane 1,1-dioxide [(+/-)-cis-1,1-dioxo-[1,2]-dithiane-4,5-diol, NSC-624151] and its attack on the zinc finger domain of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid p7 (NCp7) protein has been established [Rice, W. G.; Baker, D. C.; Schaeffer, C. A.; Graham, L.; Bu, M.; Terpening, S.; Clanton, D.; Schultz, R.; Bader, J. P.; Buckheit, R. W.; Field, L.; Singh, P. K. Turpin, J. A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1997, 41, 419]. In order to determine which enantiomer of NSC-624151 is the more active component, the compound was resolved via its bis-'Mosher ester', which was prepared via its reaction with two equiv of (-)-(R)-alpha-methoxy-alpha-(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetyl chloride. The diastereoisomeric esters were separated, and each ester was hydrolyzed to yield enantiomers with (D)(21) +151 degrees (c 0.5, MeOH) and (D)(21) -146 degrees (c 0.5, MeOH). Single-crystal X-ray analysis of the (-)-bis-'Mosher ester' showed that the (-)-enantiomer is the (4S, 5R)-compound. The (-)-enantiomer (NSC 693195) was ca. twice as active (EC(50) 8.8+/-0.2 microM) as its (+)-counterpart (NSC 693194) (EC(50) 16.2+/-2.4 microM) in the XTT assay against HIV-1. All three compounds were found to be approximately equally effective in promoting Zn ejection from the NCp7 zinc finger. As the more anti-HIV active enantiomer is only slightly more active than the racemic form, it appears to offer no advantages over the racemic form.
 
Article
The effect of a series of 2-alkylaminoethyl-1,1-bisphosphonic acids against proliferation of the clinically more relevant form of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease), and against tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii has been studied. Most of these drugs exhibited an extremely potent inhibitory action against the intracellular form of T. cruzi, exhibiting IC(50) values at the low micromolar level. This cellular activity was associated with a strong inhibition of the enzymatic activity of T. cruzi farnesyl diphosphate synthase (TcFPPS), which constitutes a valid target for Chagas' disease chemotherapy. Compound 17 was an effective agent against amastigotes exhibiting an IC(50) value of 0.84 microM, while this compound showed an IC(50) value of 0.49 microM against the target enzyme TcFPPS. Interestingly, compound 19 was very effective against both T. cruzi and T. gondii exhibiting IC(50) values of 4.1 microM and 2.6 microM, respectively. In this case, 19 inhibited at least two different enzymes of T. cruzi (TcFPPS and solanesyl diphosphate synthase (TcSPPS); 1.01 microM and 0.25 microM, respectively), while it inhibited TgFPPS in T. gondii. In general, this family of drugs was less effective against the activity of T. cruzi SPPS and against T. gondii growth in vitro. As bisphosphonate-containing compounds are FDA-approved drugs for the treatment of bone resorption disorders, their potential low toxicity makes them good candidates to control tropical diseases.
 
Article
A series of mixed-ligand neutral nickel(II) complexes of the general formula [Ni(i-MNT)(2a-5mt)(2)] (1), [Ni(i-MNT)(2a-2tzn)(2)] (2) and [Ni(i-MNT)(Im)(2)] (3), [where i-MNT(2-)=the dianion of 1,1-dicyano-2,2-ethylenedithiolate, 2a-5mt=2-amino-5-methyl thiazole, 2a-2tzn=2-amino-2-thiazoline and Im=imidazole] were prepared and characterized with elemental analyses, spectroscopic (IR, UV-vis) methods, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductivity and cyclic voltammetry measurements. The magnetic data, the electronic spectra and the electrical conductivity measurements indicated mononuclear neutral complexes with square-planar geometry. The X-ray analysis of [Ni(i-MNT)(2a-5mt)(2)] shows the nickel atom being fourfold coordinated with the two sulfur atoms of the dithiolate (i-MNT) ligand and the endocyclic nitrogen atoms from the two 2a-5mt ring giving rise to a slightly distorted square-planar arrangement. The cyclic voltammograms of the complexes have been recorded and the corresponding redox potentials have been estimated. The DNA-binding studies of the complexes has been evaluated by examining their ability to bind to calf-thymus DNA (CT DNA) with UV spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Both studies have shown that the complexes can bind to CT-DNA by the intercalative and the electrostatic binding mode. Competitive binding studies with ethidium bromide (EB) with fluorescence spectroscopy have also shown that the complexes exhibit the ability to displace the DNA-bound EB indicating that they can bind to DNA in strong competition with EB.
 
Article
A series of 1,1-difluoro-5-(1H-9-purinyl)-2-pentenylphosphonic acids, (E)-2a,b and (Z)-2a,b, as well as the related methano analogues (+/-)-3a,b and (+/-)-4a,b were prepared for evaluation of their PNP inhibitory activities. The cyclopopane ring and the hypoxanthine residue were found to increase the profile of inhibitory activity. The IC50 and Ki values of difluoro¿(1R*,2S*)-2-[2-(6-oxo-6,9-dihydro-1H-9-purinyl)ethyl]cycl opropyl¿methylphosphonic acid (+/-)-3b toward PNP purified from Cellulomonas sp. were determined to be 70 nM and 8.8 nM, respectively.
 
Article
The existence of subtle differences in the Sn' subsites of closely-related (chymo)trypsin-like serine proteases, and the fact that the 1,2,5-thiadiazolidin-3-one 1,1 dioxide scaffold docks to the active site of (chymo)trypsin-like enzymes in a substrate-like fashion, suggested that the introduction of recognition elements that can potentially interact with the Sn' subsites of these proteases might provide an effective means for optimizing enzyme potency and selectivity. Accordingly, a series of heterocyclic sulfide derivatives based on the 1,2,5-thiadiazolidin-3-one 1,1 dioxide scaffold (I) was synthesized and the inhibitory activity and selectivity of these compounds toward human leukocyte elastase (HLE), proteinase 3 (PR 3) and cathepsin G (Cat G) were then determined. Compounds with P1 = isobutyl were found to be potent, time-dependent inhibitors of HLE and, to a lesser extent PR 3, while those with P1 = benzyl inactivated Cat G rapidly and irreversibly. This study has demonstrated that 1,2,5-thiadiazolidin-3-one 1,1 dioxide-based heterocyclic sulfides are effective inhibitors of (chymo)trypsin-like serine proteases.
 
Article
Benzo[b]thiophenesulfonamide 1,1-dioxide derivatives (BTS) were described as candidate antineoplastic drugs. In the hope of finding new compounds with improved antitumour activity and reduced toxicity, we have designed and synthesized a small series of benzo[b]thiophene-6-carboxamide 1,1-dioxide derivatives (BTC) structurally related with the best reported BTS. Growth inhibition of HTB-54, CCRF-CEM and HeLa tumour cells lines at nanomolar concentrations was exhibited by some of the BTC. Hydrophobic substituents on the carboxamide group increased cytotoxicity but substitution by a hydroxy group diminished it, thus pointing to the electronic density on benzo[b]thiophene nucleus as a determinant factor. The process of cell death induced by BTC derivatives was further analyzed in CCRF-CEM cells, where these compounds induced apoptosis in a time and dose-dependent manner and cell cycle arrest at S phase. BTC derivatives also induced a significant increase in intracellular ROS levels in this cell line. Previous treatment of the cells with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine abrogated the induction of apoptosis by BTC indicating that ROS generation is a previous event required to trigger the BTC induced apoptotic process.
 
Article
3-(4-Bromophenyl)-6-nitrobenzo[1.3.2]dithiazolium ylide 1,1-dioxide (5) was discovered as a new prototype for dual inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX). Thus, the structure-activity relationships of benzo[1.3.2]dithiazolium ylide 1,1-dioxide skeleton were carried out. The 6-NO(2) group played an essential role in the inhibitory activity. In addition, moderate-sized lipophilic substituents at the para-position of the 3-aryl moiety were required for dual COX-2/5-LOX inhibitory activity. Among the identified potent dual inhibitors, 3-(4-tbutylphenyl) derivative 30c (IC(50) values of 0.27 μM and 0.30 μM against COX-2 and 5-LOX, respectively) and 3-(4-biphenyl) derivative 30f (IC(50) values of 0.50 μM and 0.15μM against COX-2 and 5-LOX, respectively) were the most potent dual COX-2/5-LOX inhibitors. Intraperitoneal administration of 30c at 100mg/kg demonstrated potent acute anti-inflammatory activity. As a result, benzo[1.3.2]dithiazolium ylide 1,1-dioxide represented a novel scaffold for the exploitation in developing dual COX-2/5-LOX inhibitors.
 
Article
Due to the importance of aldose reductase (ALR2) as a potential drug target in the treatment of diabetic complications, there are increasing interests in design and synthesis of ALR2 inhibitors. Here, we prepared 1,2-benzothiazine 1,1-dioxide acetic acid derivatives and investigated their inhibition activity. Most of these derivatives were found to be active with IC(50) values ranging from 0.11 μM to 10.42 μM, and compound 8d, 2-[2-(4-bromo-2-fluorobenzyl)-1,1-dioxido-2H-1,2-benzothiazin-4(3H)-ylidene]acetic acid, showed the most potent inhibition activity. Further, SAR and docking studies suggest that in comparison with the α,β-unsaturated derivatives, the saturated carboxylic acid derivatives had a greater binding affinity with the enzyme and thus an enhanced inhibition activity. Therefore, development of more powerful ARIs based on benzothiazine 1,1-dioxide by stereo-controlled synthesis could be expected.
 
Article
The effect of long-chain 2-alkylaminoethyl-1,1-bisphosphonates against proliferation of the clinically more relevant form of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease), and against tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii was investigated. Particularly, compound 26 proved to be an extremely potent inhibitor against the intracellular form of T. cruzi, exhibiting IC(50) values at the nanomolar range. This cellular activity was associated with a strong inhibition of the enzymatic activity of T. cruzi farnesyl diphosphate synthase (TcFPPS), which constitutes a valid target for Chagas' disease chemotherapy. Compound 26 was an effective agent against T. cruzi (amastigotes) exhibiting an IC(50) value of 0.67 μM, while this compound showed an IC(50) value of 0.81 μM against the target enzyme TcFPPS. This drug was less effective against the enzymatic activity of T. cruzi solanesyl diphosphate synthase TcSPPS showing an IC(50) value of 3.2 μM. Interestingly, compound 26 was also very effective against T. gondii (tachyzoites) exhibiting IC(50) values of 6.23 μM. This cellular activity was also related to the inhibition of the enzymatic activity towards the target enzyme TgFPPS (IC(50)=0.093 μM) As bisphosphonate-containing compounds are FDA-approved drugs for the treatment of bone resorption disorders, their potential low toxicity makes them good candidates to control different tropical diseases.
 
GalCer and analogues 
Anti HIV activity of glycolipid analogues 
Glycolipid analogues show activity pre-infection only TZM-bl cells were infected with NL-Lai virus. Compounds 100 μ M were added either prior 
Article
Inspired by the anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity of analogues of β-galactosylceramide (GalCer), a set of mono- and di-saccharide fatty acid esters were designed as GalCer mimetics and their binding to the V3 loop peptide of HIV-1 and anti-HIV activity evaluated. 1,1-linked Gal-Man and Glu-Man disaccharides with an ester on the Man subunit bound the V3 loop peptide and inhibited HIV infectivity in single round infection assays with the TZM-bl cell line. IC(50)'s were in the 50 μM range with no toxicity to the cells at concentrations up to 200 μM. These compounds appear to inhibit virus entry at early steps in viral infection since they were inactive if added post viral entry. Although these compounds were found to bind to the V3 loop peptide of gp120, it is not clear that this interaction is responsible for their anti-HIV activity because the relative binding affinity of closely related analogues did not correlate with their antiviral behavior. The low cytotoxicity of these 1,1-linked disaccharide fatty acid esters, combined with the easy accessibility to structurally diverse analogues make these molecules attractive leads for new topical anti-viral agents.
 
Article
A challenge associated with drug design is the development of selective inhibitors of proteases (serine or cysteine) that exhibit the same primary substrate specificity, that is, show a preference for the same P(1) residue. While these proteases have similar active sites, nevertheless there are subtle differences in their S and S' subsites which can be exploited. We describe herein for the first time the use of functionalized sulfonamides as a design and diversity element which, when coupled to the 1,2,5-thiadiazolidin-3-one 1,1 dioxide scaffold yields potent, time-dependent inhibitors of the serine proteases human leukocyte elastase (HLE), proteinase 3 (PR 3) and cathepsin G(Cat G). Our preliminary findings suggest that (a) appending to the 1,2,5-thiadiazolidin-3-one 1,1 dioxide scaffold recognition and diversity elements that interact with both the S and S' subsites of a target protease may result in optimal enzyme selectivity and potency and, (b) functionalized sulfonamides constitute a powerful design and diversity element with low intrinsic chemical reactivity and potentially wide applicability.
 
Article
1,2,4-Thiadiazine derivatives, like 3-methyl-7-chlorobenzo-4H-1,2,4-thiadiazine 1,1-dioxide, diazoxide and 7-chloro-3-isopropylamino-4H-benzo-1,2,4-thiadiazine 1,1-dioxide, BPDZ 73, are potent openers of Kir6.2/SUR1 K(ATP) channels. To explore the structure-activity relationship of this series of K(ATP) openers, 4H-1,4-benzothiazine-2-carbonitrile 1,1-dioxide and N-(2-cyanomethylsulfonylphenyl)acylamide derivatives were synthesized from 2-acetylamino-5-chloro-benzenesulfonic acid pyridinium salt or 2-aminobenzenethiols. The 4H-1,4-benzothiazine-2-carbonitrile 1,1-dioxide derivatives (e.g., 7-chloro-3-isopropylamino-4H-1,4-benzothiazine-2-carbonitrile 1,1-dioxide, 3f) were found to activate K(ATP) channels as indicated by their ability to hyperpolarize beta cell membrane potential, to inhibit glucose-stimulated insulin release in vitro and to increase ion currents through Kir6.2/SUR1 channel as measured by patch clamp. The potency and efficacy of, for example, 3f is however significantly reduced compared to the corresponding 4H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxide derivatives. Opening of the 4H-1,2,4-thiadiazine ring to get (e.g., 2-cyanomethylsulfonyl-4-fluorophenyl) carbamic acid isopropyl ester (4c) gives rise to compounds, which are able to open K(ATP) channels but with considerable reduced potency compared to, for example, diazoxide. Compound 3a, 7-chloro-3-methyl-4H-1,4-benzothiazine-2-carbonitrile 1,1-dioxide, which inhibits insulin release in vitro from beta cells and rat islets, reduces plasma insulin levels and blood pressure in anaesthetized rats upon intravenous administration.
 
Article
A new series of N-(6-chloro-1,1-dioxo-1,4,2-benzodithiazin-3-yl)arylsulfonamides 23-48 have been synthesized as potential anticancer agents. All compounds were screened for their cytotoxic activity against six human tumor cell lines. The selected compounds 23-27, 30, 31, 33, 35, 38, 42, 45, and 46 were further tested at the US National Cancer Institute for their in vitro activities against a panel of 53-59 human tumor cell lines. The compounds 23-26, 30, 31, 33, 38, 42, 45, and 46 showed 50% growth inhibitory activity in low micromolar concentration (GI(50)=0.03-4.9 microM) against one or more human tumor cell lines (Table 3). The prominent compound with remarkable activity (GI(50)=0.03 microM, TGI=1.3 microM) and selectivity toward melanoma UACC-257 cell line was N-(6-chloro-7-cyano-1,1-dioxo-1,4,2-benzodithiazin-3-yl)-N-(phenyl)-5-bromothiophene-2-sulfonamide 46.
 
Article
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) is a clinically validated target for antitumor therapy. In order to increase HDAC inhibition and efficiency, we developed a novel series of saccharin hydroxamic acids as potent HDAC inhibitors. Among them, compounds 11e, 11m, 11p exhibited similar or better HDACs inhibitory activity compared with the approved drug SAHA. Further biological evaluation indicated that compound 11m had potent antiproliferative activities against MDA-MB-231 and PC-3.
 
Article
Taking into account structure-activity relationships obtained with our previous series, new diversely substituted 1,2,4-pyridothiadiazine 1,1-dioxides were designed to obtain novel AMPA potentiators. The aim of this work was focused on the improvement of lipophilicity, which is well known as a critical parameter to obtain in vivo active central nervous system agents. For this purpose, two positions on the pyridine ring were privileged to insert selected groups. Among the synthesized compounds emerged 7-chloro-4-ethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrido[2,3-e]-[1,2,4]-thiadiazine 1,1-dioxide (12d), which was evaluated in two memory tests in Wistar rats and showed cognition enhancing effects after intraperitoneal injection at doses as low as 0.3mg/kg.
 
Article
HIV-1 integrase (IN) is an essential enzyme for effective viral replication and is an attractive target for selective blockade of viral infection. Previously, we identified a series of sulfones, sulfonamides, and mercaptosalicylhydrazides (MBSAs) as IN inhibitors with antiviral activities in cell-based assays. In an effort to optimize a series of our active site directed lead compounds, we designed and synthesized novel benzodithiazines starting from MBSAs. In contrast to all reported IN inhibitors benzodithiazines are essentially nontoxic. Significant antiviral potency was only observed at concentration exceedingly higher than that required to inhibit purified IN.
 
Article
Novel non-chiral 2H-thieno[3,2-e]- and [2,3-e]-1,2-thiazine-6-sulfonamide 1,1-dioxides were synthesized for evaluation as potential candidates for the treatment of glaucoma. All of the compounds prepared were potent high affinity inhibitors of human carbonic anhydrase II, Ki < 0.5 nM. Additionally, inhibition of recombinant human carbonic anhydrase IV was determined for selected compounds; these were shown to be moderate to potent inhibitors of this isozyme with IC50 values ranging from 4.25 to 73.6 nM. Of the compounds evaluated for their ability to lower intraocular pressure in naturally hypertensive Dutch-belted rabbits, 5a, 17a3, 17b1, 17b2, 17h2 and 17i1 showed significant efficacy (> 20% decrease) in this model following topical ocular administration.
 
Article
In the search of new compounds with antineoplastic activity, we have analysed the effect of several structural modifications on the nucleus 6-benzo[b]thiophenesulphonamide 1,1-dioxide on its cytotoxic activity on tumour cells. Lipophilic substituents on the sulphonamide group significantly increased the cytotoxic activity measured using a panel of human tumour cell lines. Only slight variations on cytotoxicity were obtained when the sulphonamide group occupied the position 5 of the system. The most active compound was the N-4-methoxyphenyl derivative 15, which showed GI(50) values of 1-9 nM against HT-29, CCRF-CEM, K-562 and MEL-AC cells and of 200 nM against HTB-54 cells. Free access to the 3-position of the heterocyclic system seems to be required to obtain cytotoxic derivatives. Derivative 15 was also active at the same level of commercial Doxorubicine against cultured normal human lung fibroblasts.
 
Article
Isocombretastatins A are 1,1-diarylethene isomers of combretastatins A. We have synthesized the isomers of combretastatin A-4, deoxycombretastatin A-4, 3-amino-deoxycombretastatin A-4 (AVE-8063), naphthylcombretastatin and the N-methyl- and N-ethyl-5-indolyl analogues of combretastatin A-4. Analogues with a 2,3,4-trimethoxyphenyl ring instead of the 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl ring have also been prepared. The isocombretastatins A strongly inhibit tubulin polymerization and are potent cytotoxic compounds, some of them with IC(50)s in the nanomolar range. This new family of tubulin inhibitors shows higher or comparable potency when compared to phenstatin or combretastatin analogues. These results suggest that one carbon bridges with a geminal diaryl substitution can successfully replace the two carbon bridge of combretastatins and that the carbonyl group of phenstatins is not essential for high potency.
 
Mercury 53 drawing of compound 13a, showing the 50% thermal ellipsoids. Hydrogen atoms have been omitted for clarity. 
Inhibitor (II) design rationale. 
Inhibitory activity of selected compounds against human neutrophil elastase and proteinase 3. 
Mechanism of transition state inhibitor. 
Article
The S' subsites of human neutrophil proteinase 3 (Pr 3) were probed by constructing diverse libraries of compounds based on the 1,2,3,5-thiatriazolidin-3-one 1,1-dioxide using combinational and click chemistry methods. The multiple points of diversity embodied in the heterocyclic scaffold render it well-suited to the exploration of the S' subsites of Pr 3. Molecular modeling studies suggest that further exploration of the S' subsites of Pr 3 using the aforementioned heterocyclic scaffold may lead to the identification of highly selective, reversible competitive inhibitors of Pr 3.
 
Article
A novel radioisotope-free photo-affinity probe containing the 3-(1,1-difluoroprop-2-ynyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl functional group was designed and synthesized. This very compact functionality is envisaged to allow photochemically-induced coupling of a compound to its target followed by click reaction coupling with an azido-biotin reagent in order to facilitate purification of the labeled target. In a proof-of-concept study we have shown that 3-(1,1-difluoroprop-2-ynyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl functional group could be photolyzed to efficiently furnish the methanol adduct 23 and that the generated highly unstable carbene does not react with the neighboring acetylene moiety. A subsequent click reaction with the azido-biotin derivative 25 proceeded smoothly to give triazole 26. This chemical probe should thus be of unique value for facilitating identification of the molecular structure of the target of a bioactive compound.
 
Article
This paper describes the results of structure-activity relationship studies in a series of heterocyclic mechanism-based inhibitors based on the 1,2,5-thiadiazolidin-3-one 1,1 dioxide scaffold I and capable of interacting with the Sn and Sn' subsites of a serine proteinase. Sulfone derivatives of I were found to be highly effective, time-dependent inhibitors of human leukocyte elastase (HLE), cathepsin G (Cat G) and proteinase 3 (PR 3). The judicious selection of an R1 group (accommodated at the primary specificity site S1) that is based on the known substrate specificity of a target serine proteinase, was found to yield highly selective inhibitors. The presence of a benzyl group (R2 = benzyl) at the S2 subsite was found to lead to a pronounced enhancement in inhibitory potency. Furthermore, the effective use of computer graphics and modeling has led to the design of potent, water-soluble inhibitors. The results of these studies demonstrate that the 1,2,5-thiadiazolidin-3-one 1,1, dioxide platform provides an effective means for appending recognition elements in a well-defined vector relationship, and in fashioning highly-selective and potent inhibitors of serine proteinases.
 
Article
The potential therapeutic benefit of compounds able to activate AMPA receptors (AMPArs) has led to a search for new AMPAr positive modulators. Among them, 8-chloro-2,3,5,6-tetrahydro-3,6-dimethyl-pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxide (1) has attracted particular attention, because it is one of the most active benzothiadiazine-derived positive modulators of the AMPA receptor. It possesses two stereogenic centers, C3 and C6, thus it can exist as four stereoisomers. In this work, preliminary in silico studies suggested that 1 interacts stereoselectively with AMPArs. Single stereoisomers of 1 were prepared in order to evaluate their biological activity. However, studies regarding the configurational stability of the investigated compounds suggested a rapid epimerization at C3 in aqueous solvents, and we can expect the same reaction in vivo. Thus, electrophysiological experiments were performed on the two epimeric mixtures, (3∗,6R)- and (3∗,6S)- 8-chloro-2,3,5,6-tetrahydro-3,6-dimethyl-pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxide, in order to evaluate their activities as positive allosteric modulators of AMPArs. The obtained data suggest that the (3∗,6S) epimeric mixture is the most active in positively modulating AMPArs, confirming in silico results.
 
Article
The goal of this investigation was to examine the possibilities for yttrium-90-labeling of the 2,3-dicarboxypropane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (DPD), which is currently labeled with technetium-99m and as a (99m)Tc-DPD clinically used as bone imaging agent. Analysis of the complex enclosed the radiochemical quality control methods, biodistribution studies, as well as the determination of pharmacokinetic parameters. The biological behavior of complexes (90)Y-DPD, (99m)Tc-DPD and (90)Y-labeled DPD-kit formulation [(90)Y-(Sn)-DPD] in animal model was compared. The labeling conditions were standardized to give the maximum yield, which ranged between 93% and 98%. The examined (90)Y complex could be easily prepared, with an outstanding yield and was also found to be very stable for at least 10h after (90)Y-labeling. Protein binding value was 4.6+/-0.7% for (90)Y-DPD complex and the complex possess a hydrophilic character. The satisfactory results of (90)Y-DPD biodistribution in healthy test animals were obtained; the uptake in the bone was 11-13%ID/g after 24h depending on the pH value during the preparation. With high skeletal uptake, a minimum uptake in soft tissues and rapid blood clearance the (90)Y-DPD complex proved to be an excellent candidate for targeting tumor therapy.
 
Article
The development of benzothiazine-1,1-dioxide derivatives as a new structural class of potent endothelin receptor antagonists is described. Structure-activity relationships (SAR) revealed that PD164800 (1) is a potent antagonist of the ETA receptor subtype.
 
Article
A series of 1,1-diarylalkene derivatives were prepared to optimize the properties of CC-5079 (1), a dual inhibitor of tubulin polymerization and phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4). By using the 3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl PDE4 pharmacophore as one of the aromatic rings, a significant improvement in PDE4 inhibition was achieved. Compound 28 was identified as a dual inhibitor with potent PDE4 (IC(50)=54 nM) and antitubulin activity (HCT-116 IC(50)=34 nM and tubulin polymerization IC(50) ∼1 μM). While the nitrile group at the alkene terminus was generally required for potent antiproliferative activity, its replacement was tolerated if there was a hydroxyl or amino group on one of the aryl rings. Conveniently, this group could also serve as a handle for amino acid derivatization to improve the compounds' solubility. The glycinamide analog 45 showed significant efficacy in the HCT-116 xenograft model, with 64% inhibition of tumor growth upon dosing at 20 mg/kg qd.
 
Article
A series of nonconventional aminium N-(6-chloro-7-R-1,1-dioxo-1,4,2-benzodithiazin-3-yl)arylsulfonamidates 7-15 have been synthesized by the reactions of 6-chloro-7-R-3-methylthio-1,4,2-benzodithiazine 1,1-dioxides with 4-dimethylaminopyridine or Et(3)N and some arylsulfonamides. The free N-(6-chloro-7-methyl-1,1-dioxo-1,4,2-benzodithiazin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamides 16-18 were obtained by treatment of their aminium salts with H(2)SO(4) in boiling acetic acid. The in vitro antitumor activity of the compounds 9, 11-14 and 16-18 has been tested in the antitumor screening of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and relationships between structure and antitumor activity are discussed. 4-Dimethylaminopyridinium 4-chloro-N-(6-chloro-7-methyl-1,1-dioxo-1,4,2-benzodithiazin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamidate 9 is the prominent of the compounds due to its remarkable activity (log GI(50)<-8.00, log TGI=-5.50) and selectivity for the leukemia SR cell line. For that reason experimental and theoretical analysis of the geometric and electronic properties of 9 was carried out.
 
Article
Reaction of 2-chloromethylsaccharin with substituted potassium dithiocarbamates and substituted potassium dithiocarbonates furnished (1,1-dioxido-3-oxo-1,2-benzisothiazol-2(3H)-yl)methyl N,N-disubstituted dithiocarbamates (4-15) and (1,1-dioxido-3-oxo-1,2-benzisothiazol-2(3H)-yl)methyl O-alkyldithiocarbonates (16-20). The new derivatives were evaluated for in vitro antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Compounds 4-13, 15, and 16-20 described herein showed moderate to good inhibitory activity. In particular, seven analogs 4, 5, 6, 13, and 7, 8, and 12 exhibited excellent MIC values of 1.56 and 0.78 microg/mL, respectively. Compounds 4, 5, 10, 12, 13, and 16 were selected and screened for antitumor activity. Among the tested compounds, 4 and 5 were found to be cytotoxic, especially against leukemia cell lines CCRF-CEM, HL-60(TB), RPMI-8226, and SR with log10GI50 values lower than -6.69, and against non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H522 cell line with log10GI50 values lower than -6.31. Compound 10 was cytotoxic against leukemia cell line HL-60(TB), whereas 16 displayed favorable cytotoxicity against ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR-3 with log10GI50 values of -6.31 and -7.45, respectively.
 
Article
Thieno[3,2-e]-1,2-thiazine-6-sulfonamide 1,1-dioxides, which have a quaternary ammonium moiety incorporated into their structures, were synthesized. All of the quaternary ammonium salts prepared in the present study are potent inhibitors of both human carbonic anhydrase-II and recombinant human carbonic anhydrase-IV; they are significantly more potent as inhibitors of these carbonic anhydrase isozymes than the previously reported inhibitor quaternary ammonium homosulfanilamide. By virtue of the permanent cationic charge on these compounds they are anticipated to be membrane-impermeable inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase. Spiro quaternary ammonium compounds, such as 15 and 16, when formed by intracellular cyclization following transport of a suitable precursor molecule, such as 14, may be selective prolonged inhibitors of cytosolic carbonic anhydrase due to intracellular entrapment.
 
Article
Z-1,1-Dichloro-2,3-diphenylcyclopropane (1) is an effective anti-breast cancer agent in rodents and in cell culture. We recently determined that 1 inhibits tubulin assembly in vitro and causes microtubule loss in breast cancer cells, leading to accumulation in the G2/M portion of the cell cycle. Aryl ring-halogenated, methoxylated and benzyloxylated derivatives of 1, as well as its E-isomer and the dichlorocyclopropyl derivative of diethylstilbestrol (DES), were synthesized and tested for their ability to inhibit, the assembly of tubulin into microtubules. Including 1, 17 cyclopropyl compounds were tested. One (Z-1,1-dichloro-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-phenylcyclopropane (12)) was found to be more active than 1. In addition, E-1,1-dichlorocyclopropylDES (17) was more potent than DES. The E-isomer of 1 (16) was inactive. The cytostatic activities of the compounds against MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 human breast cancer cells, and their abilities to perturb microtubules in MCF-7 cells were also evaluated. Z-Dichloro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-phenylcyclopropane (5), Z-1,1-dichloro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)cyclopropane (11), and Z-1,1-dichloro-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-phenylcyclopropane (12) were more potent than 1 against the breast cancer cells.
 
Article
In the present study we have discovered compound 1, a benzo[1.3.2]dithiazolium ylide-based compound, as a new prototype dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX). Compound 1 was initially discovered as a COX-2 inhibitor, resulting indirectly from the COX-2 structure-based virtual screening that identified compound 2 as a virtual hit. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited COX-1 and COX-2 in mouse macrophages with IC(50) in the range of 1.5-18.1microM. Both compounds 1 and 2 were also found to be potent inhibitors of human 5-LOX (IC(50)=1.22 and 0.47microM, respectively). Interestingly, compound 1 also had an inhibitory effect on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production (IC(50)=0.44microM), which was not observed with compound 2. Docking studies suggested the (S)-enantiomer of 1 as the biologically active isomer that binds to COX-2. Being a cytokine-suppressive dual COX/5-LOX inhibitor, compound 1 may represent a useful lead structure for the development of advantageous new anti-inflammatory agents.
 
1,1-Dioxo-1,2-dihydro-1 k6 -1,2,6-thiadiazine carboxamides as analogues of SR141716A.
Lines show the mean % ± SEM (n = 4-7) of modification of the electrically induced contraction of the mouse vas deferens by addition of increasing concentrations of vehicle (CONTROL), WIN 55,212-2 (WIN), the new compounds 29, 32, 36, 37 and 39 or SR141716A (SR). The * represents the significant difference versus control: ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001. (Two-way ANOVA test, Bonferroni's post-hoc test).
EC 50 and confidence limits for WIN 55,212-2 in control group or in groups incubated with compounds 38, 42 or SR141716A and their pA 2 calculated values
Article
A series of new 2-substituted 1,1-dioxo-1,2,6-thiadiazine-5-carboxylate derivatives have been prepared from monosubstituted sulfamides in order to obtain N-substituted 1,1-dioxo-1,2,6-thiadiazine-5-carboxamides as novel cannabinoid derivatives, analogues of Rimonabant (SR141716A). Their potential functional activity on cannabinoid receptors has been evaluated in vitro and in vivo in mice, showing that two compounds (37 and 39) behave as cannabinoid agonists in vitro. Their potency is lower than that of the reference compound, WIN 55,212-2, but their efficacy is similar to that of this cannabinoid agonist, although no in vivo activity is observed. Another derivative (38) behaves as a cannabinoid antagonist both in vitro and in vivo, being its efficacy and potency similar to that of the well-known antagonist SR141716A.
 
Article
A series of carboxylate derivatives based on the 1,2,5-thiadiazolidin-3-one 1,1 dioxide and isothiazolidin-3-one 1,1 dioxide scaffolds has been synthesized and the inhibitory profile of these compounds toward human leukocyte elastase (HLE), cathepsin G (Cat G) and proteinase 3 (PR 3) was then determined. Most of the compounds were found to be potent, time-dependent inhibitors of elastase, with some of the compounds exhibiting k(inact)/K1 values as high as 4,928,300 M(-1) s(-1). The inhibitory potency of carboxylate derivatives based on the 1,2,5-thiadiazolidin-3-one 1,1 dioxide platform was found to be influenced by both the pKa and the inherent structure of the leaving group. Proper selection of the primary specificity group (R(I)) was found to lead to selective inhibition of HLE over Cat G, however, those compounds that inhibited HLE also inhibited PR 3, albeit less efficiently. The predictable mode of binding of these compounds suggests that, among closely-related serine proteases, highly selective inhibitors of a particular serine protease can be fashioned by exploiting subtle differences in their S' subsites. This study has also demonstrated that the degradative action of elastase on elastin can be abrogated in the presence of inhibitor 17.
 
Top-cited authors
Claudiu T Supuran
  • University of Florence
Masayuki Yoshikawa
  • Kyoto Pharmaceutical University
Kuo-Hsiung Lee
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Toshio Morikawa
  • Kindai University
Virinder S Parmar
  • City University of New York - Medgar Evers College