The sensitivity of stromal progenitor cells (CFU-F) in mouse marrow to whole-body 60Co gamma-irradiation delivered at 0.65 Gy per day, was characterised by a D0 value of about 2.5 Gy up to an accumulated dose of 5 Gy. The cells were less sensitive to higher doses. The rate of recovery following irradiation for 14 days (9.1 Gy) was less than the rate after 30 days irradiation (19.5 Gy). The latter rate of recovery approached that of the stem cells (CFU-S). At 9-10 months after either dose of irradiation, recovery of both CFU-F and CFU-S was incomplete at 30-70% of the aged control.
NOV-002 is a novel therapeutic agent in development for oncology indications used in combination with chemotherapy. Clinical trials in Russia and the USA have demonstrated clinical activity and the present focus is on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. The active component of the drug is oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and this imparts multiple effects upon redox pathways both at the cell surface and inside the cell. The drug induces S-glutathionylation of some proteins and impacts kinase/phosphatase regulated signaling pathways. Induction of myeloproliferation is believed to contribute to the clinical advantages provided by NOV-002 that include improved tolerance of chemotherapy and increased survival.
NOV-002 is a glutathione disulfide (GSSG) mimetic that is the subject of clinical investigation in oncology indications. GSSG is reduced by glutathione reductase (GR) to form glutathione (GSH), thereby maintaining redox homeostasis. The purpose of the study was to report the pharmacokinetic properties of NOV-002 and evaluate the effect that NOV-002 elicits in redox homeostasis. The pharmacokinetic analysis and tissue distribution of NOV-002 and GSH was evaluated in mice following a dose of 250 mg/kg, i.p. The redox potential and total protein thiol status was calculated. Here we show that NOV-002 is a substrate for GR and that GSH is a primary metabolite. Non-linear pharmacokinetic modeling predicted that the estimated absorption and elimination rate constants correspond to a half-life of approximately 13 min with an AUC of 1.18 μgh/mL, a C(max) of 2.16 μg/ml and a volume of distribution of 42.61 L/kg. In addition, measurement of the redox potential and total protein thiol status indicated the generation of a transient oxidative signal in the plasma compartment after administration of NOV-002. These results indicate that NOV-002 exerts kinetic and dynamic effects in mice consistent with the GSSG component as the active pharmacological constituent of the drug. A longer-lasting decrease in total plasma free thiol content was also seen, suggesting that the oxidative effect of the GSSG from NOV-002 was impacting redox homeostasis.
NOV-002 is a glutathione disulfide (GSSG) mimetic with chemoprotective activity. Previous and ongoing clinical studies demonstrate a significantly improved 1-year survival and decreased tumor progression rates in non-small cell lung (NSCLC) and ovarian cancer patients when NOV-002 was included in cisplatin containing regimens. In order to understand this chemoprotective property, we employed as an animal model of kidney toxicity, 8-week-old Bl6 mice that were treated with a single nephrotoxic dose of cisplatin (15 mg/kg, ip) and sacrificed on Day 5. One group of animals was treated with NOV-002 (15 mg/kg, im) daily. NOV-002-treated mice had significantly lower levels of plasma creatinine compared to mice treated with cisplatin alone (4.7 vs 2.9 mg/dL, respectively). Moreover, NOV-002 protected the kidneys from cisplatin mediated proximal tubule damage, including dilation of tubules and the presence of protein casts. Since cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity can be mediated by a glutathione-platinum conjugate catalyzed by gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (GGT) and glutathione is an endogenous substrate of GGT, the protective effect of NOV-002 in the kidney may be attributed to its ability to act as a competitive substrate for the enzyme.
Antitumor activity of a new platinum complex, oxalato (trans-l-1,2-diaminocyclohexane) platinum (II) (l-OHP), was studied. This water-soluble platinum complex showed a more prominent life-prolonging effect on a mouse leukemia L1210 than cisplatin (DDP). By an intermittent treatment schedule cured mice were observed at the optimal dose. In addition, a subline of L1210 having a 40-fold resistance to DDP (L1210/DDP) showed lack of cross-resistance to l-OHP both in vivo and in vitro. Especially in vivo l-OHP was more active against L1210/DDP than against the original L1210, and all mice were cured at doses of 6.25 and 3.12 mg/kg. l-OHP was also effective against several mouse tumors such as P388 leukemia, B16 melanoma, Lewis lung carcinoma, colon 26 and colon 38 adenocarcinomas, and M5076 fibrosarcoma, though its antitumor spectrum was somewhat different from that of DDP. The synthesis of both DNA and RNA in L1210 cells was inhibited by about 50% with exposure to 10 microM of l-OHP for 1 h, followed by postincubation in drug-free medium for 6-24 h, while only the inhibition of DNA synthesis was observed by DDP in the same experiment. If severe toxicity is not observed in preclinical study, l-OHP expected to be a new clinically active Pt complex.
Polyamine biosynthesis and inhibition in parasites have been an attractive chemotherapeutic approach in the design of novel antiparasitic drugs. We study in this work the effect of N-dodecyl-1,2-ethylenediamine (NDDE) on the morphology and replication of Leishmania using macrophages cultured from the peritoneal exudate of mice infected in vitro with three species of Leishmania: Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, Leishmania (Viannia) brasiliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. The results showed that NDDE inhibited Leishmania amastigotes multiplication into inflammatory peritoneal cells in concentrations which were not toxic to mammalian cells (0.5-1μg/mL). An intracellular disorganization of the promastigote forms was observed by transmission electron microscopy after 3 to 24h of treatment with 1μg/mL NDDE, suggesting that this compound affects the viability of the parasite by an autophagy pathway.
Studies in our laboratories have led to the discovery of the delta 2-1,2,3-triazolines as a unique family of anticonvulsant agents hitherto unknown. The anticonvulsant activity of 1,5-diaryl- and 1-aryl-5-pyridyltriazolines was previously reported; this paper describes the evaluation of two series of 1-aryl-5-amido-1,2,3-triazolines, A and B, where the 5-amido groups are (2-oxo-1-pyrrolidino)- (1-8) and (N-methyl-N-acetamido)- (9-15), respectively. The 1-aryl-5-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidino)-1,2,3-triazolines of the A series, which are uniquely substituted with the pyrrolidinone lactam ring, a cyclic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) structure, seem to function by enhancing inhibitory GABAergic mechanisms. Radioligand binding studies for the two most active triazolines 2 and 7, indicate that both compounds strongly inhibit the specific binding of [3H]GABA to GABAB receptor sites, with Ki = 1.7 and 0.91 microM respectively. The anticonvulsant activity among the various groups of triazolines studied so far appears to be dependent on the 5-substituent groups: 4-pyridyl- > 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidino- > N-methyl-N-acetamido- > 3-pyridyl > or = aryl approximately 2-pyridyl > 2-quinolyl.
A series of novel 4-butyl-1-substituted-4H-[1,2,4]triazolo [4,3-a] quinazolin-5-ones were synthesized by the cyclization of 3-butyl-2-hydrazino-3H-quinazolin-4-one with various one carbon donors. The starting material 3-butyl-2-hydrazino-3H-quinazolin-4-one was synthesized from butyl amine by a new innovative route. When tested for their in vivo H(1)-antihistaminic activity on conscious guinea pigs, all the test compounds protected the animals from histamine induced bronchospasm significantly. Compound 4-butyl-1-methyl-4H-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a] quinazolin-5-one (II) emerged as the most active compound of the series and it is equipotent (71.91% protection) when compared to the reference standard chlorpheniramine maleate (71% protection). Compound II show negligible sedation (9%) when compared to chlorpheniramine maleate (30%).
A new series of 4,5-diphenyl-2H-1,2,4-triazol-3(4H)-one were synthesized to study the effect of cyclization of the semicarbazone moiety of aryl semicarbazones on the anticonvulsant activity. Structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by the use of their spectral data besides elemental analysis. All compounds were evaluated for their anticonvulsant activity in four animal models of seizures, viz. maximal electroshock seizure (MES), subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ), subcutaneous strychnine (scSTY), and subcutaneous picrotoxin (scPIC)-induced seizure threshold tests. The compounds were also evaluated for neurotoxicity. Compounds 4, 9, 14-19 exhibited anticonvulsant activity in all the four animal models of seizure.
Forty-four patients with high risk primary myelodysplastic syndromes and an excess of marrow blasts were treated with a combination of low-dose Ara-C, retinoic acid and vitamin D3. Morphological subtypes were refractory anemia with excess of blasts (RAEB) in 16, RAEB in transformation (RAEB-T) in 20 and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) in eight patients. The therapy was continued in responders until relapse or death. The results were compared to those of a matched control of 44 patients given a supportive therapy only. In the treated group the overall response rate was 50% (75% in RAEB, 50% in RAEB-T and 0% in CMML) and the survival was significantly better than in the control group (P < 0.025). Comparing separately each FAB subgroup gave statistical evidence that the treatment prolonged the survival in the RAEB-T subgroup only (P < 0.002). The median duration of response was 15 months and the survival in responders was statistically better than in non-responders (P < 0.0001). Myelosuppression has been the most important side effect, however, no death related to the treatment was observed. Our study suggests that patients with RAEB-T, who are not suitable candidates for aggressive chemotherapy, could benefit from our treatment schedule. The long duration of therapy seems to be of value for patients achieving a response in order to prolong the survival. The toxicity is acceptable and the therapy can be given on an outpatient basis.
Treatment of the human promyelocytic leukaemia cell line HL-60 with 1,25(OH)2D3, the active metabolite of vitamin D3, led to a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of growth and 3H-TdR incorporation at the population level. A similar effect was noted at the single cell level in clonogenic assays and autoradiographic experiments. Flow cytometry indicated that there was an arrest of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Parallel to the loss of proliferative capacity 1,25(OH)2D3 induced differentiation of HL-60 into monocyte/macrophages as measured by the enzyme NSE and the macrophage membrane antigen recognised by the monoclonal antibody EB11 as well as by morphological changes. These findings reinforce the concept of concordant induction of differentiation and loss of proliferative capacity and demonstrate that the latter occurs not only at the population level but also at the single cell level in this system. In limiting dilution assays in liquid culture there was evidence for positive interactions between HL-60 cells as untreated cells gave less colonies at low dilutions than would have been expected by Poisson statistical analysis. In the presence of 10(-8) M 1,25(OH)2D3 more complex growth parameters were noted indicating the involvement of both positive and negative cellular interactions.
QA1 and QA3 are the derivatives of substituted 1,3-dimethyl-1H-quinoxalin-2-ones that may selectively antagonize P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in multidrug resistance (MDR) cancer cells. Herein, we examined the reversal effect of two compounds on MDR in adriamycin (Adr)-induced resistant K562/A02 cells. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay showed that QA1 and QA3 weakly inhibited the growth of tumor cells. However, the compounds increased Adr-induced cytotoxicity toward K562/A02 cells. The IC(50) values of Adr toward K562/A02 were decreased in the presence of QA1 or QA3. The maximal reversal fold (RF) of QA1 and QA3 was reached 6.9 and 9.0, respectively. The action of QA1 and QA3 was also confirmed by the increase of intracellular Adr accumulation in K562/A02 cells. In mechanism study, the intracellular accumulation and efflux of Rh123 were measured using multilabel counter with excitation/emission wavelengths of 485/535nm. An increase of intracellular Rh123 and the decrease of efflux were observed in K562/A02 cells incubation with QA1 or QA3, indicating that the activity of P-gp was blocked. These results suggested that the derivatives of substituted 1,3-dimethyl-1H-quinoxalin-2-ones might reverse MDR in K562/A02 cells via inhibition activity of P-gp. QA1 and QA3 might be the candidate agents for reversing MDR of cancer.
Glucans have a long history as non-specific biological modulators; however, but the search for optimal chemical configuration is still on. The objective of this study was to evaluate intraperitoneal application of PS3, a sulfated derivative of a (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan isolated from sporophytes of Laminaria digitata. PS3 showed significant stimulation of phagocytic activity as well as potentiation of synthesis and release of IL-2 by splenocytes. In addition, PS3 increased NK cell-mediated killing of tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. When combined, our observations suggest that PS3 is similarly effective as native non-sulfated (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan and is generally more active than lentinan.
Sixteen patients with type 2 diabetes poorly controlled by glibenclamide (7.5-10.0 mg/day) were treated with acarbose (100 mg tds) for one week and the effect on the blood glucose profile, 24-hour urinary glucose excretion, plasma fructosamine, and plasma 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol (1,5-AG) level was determined. The blood glucose profile was more stable and levels were lower during acarbose administration. In some patients, this improvement was maintained after discontinuing acarbose. The M-value, an indicator of blood glucose fluctuations, decreased significantly from 33.2 +/- 3.0 (mean +/- SEM) in the run-in period to 13.4 +/- 2.4 during acarbose therapy (P < 0.001), and rose again to 26.5 +/- 4.4 (P < 0.001) in the follow-up period. The 24-hour urinary glucose excretion and plasma fructosamine decreased similarly (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively) during and after acarbose therapy. Plasma 1,5-AG levels did not change significantly during acarbose therapy, but increased markedly afterwards (from 19.3 +/- 3.1 mumol 1(-1) to 25.0) +/- 3.1 mumol l-1, P < 0.001). Plasma 1,5-AG levels were significantly correlated with urinary glucose excretion one week earlier (r = 0.513, P < 0.006). These findings suggest that acarbose may improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients poorly controlled by sulfonylurea therapy and that plasma 1,5-AG might be used as a marker of glycemic control cooperating with other markers such as fructosamine and urinary glucose determination for monitoring the short-term response to antidiabetic therapy.
We studied the effect of synthetic ajoene on simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVagm)-mediated cell fusion and subsequent virus-induced cytolysis. Our data indicate that this compound is a strong antifusion agent with a 50% syncytium inhibitory concentration (SIC50%) value of about 2.9 microM. We suggest that ajoene interacts with the cell-specific integrin molecules and sterically hinders the association between fusion (or other co-receptors) and the CD4-gp120 complex at the cell surface of SIV-infected cells. Although ajoene was maximally effective in suppressing syncytium formation during the early period (ie, up to 6 h) of the fusion process, when the compound was recurrently added to the co-cultures, the inhibitory effect was regained and further cell death was markedly delayed. This indicates that ajoene was also effective after the initial cell-to-cell contact stage. These data suggest that ajoene may be a promising approach for the treatment of SIV/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections.
Studies were performed to establish whether synthetic ajoene exhibited differential inhibitory activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 (IIIB) and to clarify the mechanism of its antiviral effects. Our results demonstrate that ajoene protected acutely infected Molt-4 cells against HIV-1 and blocked further destruction of CD4 T-cells in vitro. Ajoene showed dose-dependent inhibition, with 50% cytotoxic concentration (CTC50%) and 50% effective inhibitory concentration (EIC50%) values of 1.88 microM and about 0.35 microM, respectively, when the test compound was added before or after HIV-1 infection and incubation carried out at 37 degrees C for 4 days. Ajoene proved relatively more active than dextran sulfate in blocking HIV-1 virus-cell attachment. The mode of anti-HIV action of ajoene can be ascribed to the inhibition of early events of viral replication, particularly virus adsorption.
Acute toxicity to the hematopoietic cell renewal system is a critical side effect of most anticancer agents. Here we compared the effects of FAD-104 to those of the parent compound adriamycin (ADM) and of epi-adriamycin (epi-ADM) on the growth and differentiation of normal as well as leukemic human myeloid progenitor cells. FAD-104 was less toxic to myeloid colony-forming cells (GM-CFU) than ADM or epi-ADM. In addition, FAD-104 but not ADM induced a clonal down-grading in both normal and leukemic blast cells, and it stimulated the terminal differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells. Therefore, FAD-104 may be useful in the treatment of some forms of myeloid leukemia.
We examine whether autism may be influenced by non-photic environmental factors, among others, in a California database consisting of the number of cases added quarterly to the system between 1993 and 2004. Instead of a precise calendar (1.0)-year-long spectral component, we detect unseen primarily helio- and geomagnetic signatures, including a newly discovered near-transyear of 1.09-year length. In this case, it overrides any undetected seasonal effects, the topic of much previous unrewarding research, also analyzed herein without overcoming the limitation by stacking. Since we could not get additional data on autism, data on suicides, the final "detachment" and failure to bond, were also analyzed, again revealing a spectrum of non-photic signatures. What we do not see and do not anticipate can exist and can override the seasons, as resolved time-microscopically by chronomics, the study of chronomes (time structures). Just as spatial microscopy and electron microscopy resolved infectious agents, so does microscopy in time resolve the signature of environmental agents in human behavior in health and disease.
Synergistic effect of polyoxometalates, K(6)[P(2)W(18)O(62)].14H(2)O (P(2)W(18)), K(4)[SiMo(12)O(40)].3H(2)O (SiMo(12)), K(7)[PTi(2)W(10)O(40)].6H(2)O (PTi(2)W(10)), and K(9)H(5)[alpha-Ge(2)Ti(6)W(18)O(77)].16H(2)O (Ge(2)Ti(6)W(18)), in combination with a beta-lactam oxacillin against methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (characterized by possessing the penicillin-binding protein 2' (PBP2') as a cell-wall synthesis enzyme) with a high initial inoculum of 1 x 10(8) cfu/ml (for in vivo test) was investigated with a help of the growth curve and the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses. The growth curves showing the suppression of cell proliferation of the strains based on the synergistic effect of the polyoxometalates in combination with oxacillin indicated a recovery of the cell proliferation during continuous cultivation. The duration of the suppression of the cell proliferation increased with increasing the concentration of the polyoxometalates, depending on the amounts of the initial inoculum of the strain. The RT-PCR results for P(2)W(18), SiMo(12), and PTi(2)W(10) indicated the suppression of expression of the PBP2'-encoding mecA gene in contrast to the ones for Ge(2)Ti(6)W(18). The difference in the RT-PCR results among the polyoxometalates suggests that there remain other factors for the inhibition of PBP2' production such as post-transcription process.
Cell destruction in boron neutron capture therapy is effected by nuclear reaction between 10B and thermal neutrons with the release of alpha-particles (4He) and lithium-7 ions (7Li). 4He kills cells within 10 microm of the site of 4He generation, therefore it is theoretically possible to destroy tumour cells without affecting adjacent healthy tissue, given selective delivery of compounds containing 10B. Liposomes wore prepared by vortex dispersion of solutions containing 10B compounds with dried lipid films and the effects of those compounds on human breast cancer cells in culture were examined after thermal neutral irradiation. [3H]-TdR incorporation by MRKnu/nu-1 cells treated with 10B-containing liposomes showed 40% suppression compared with liposomes without 10B, at 2 x 1012 n/cm2 thermal neutron fluence. Inhibition of tumour cell growth with liposomes prepared with 100 mm 10B-compound was as significant as with those made with 500 ppm 10B solution. The concentration of 10B in liposomes was 76.5 +/- 3.4 microg/mL. Boronated liposomes can thus deliver sufficient 10B atoms to this line of breast cancer cells in culture to effect cytotoxicity and suppression of growth after thermal neutron irradiation.
Collateral drug sensitivity was induced in CPT-11-resistant cell lines (CPT-K and T). Ten of the 19 kinds of antineoplastic agents (especially, 5 of 6 kinds of DNA topoisomerase n inhibiting agents) were effective in inducing collateral drug sensitivity. Alteration of DNA topoisomerase I seemed to be unrelated to acquisition of multidrug resistance. Résumé: Sensibilité collatérale aux médicaments induite dans des lignées cellulaires résistantes à la CPT-11 (un nouveau dérivé de la camptothécine). Une sensibilité collatérale aux médicaments a été induite dans des lignées cellulaires résistantes à la CPT-11 (lignées CPT-K et T). Parmi les 19 sortes d'agents antinéoplasiques, 10 ont été efficaces dam l'induction de cette sensibilité collatérale. Il s'agissait en particulier de 5 à 6 agents inhibiteurs de la topoïsomérase II de l'ADN, Les altérations de la topoïsomérase l de l'ADN semblent sans relation avec l'acquisition d'une multirésistance aux médicaments.
We have performed pituitary scintigraphy with 111In-pentreotide (OCT), a somatostatin analogue, and with metoxybenzamide (IBZM) by 123I- IBZM in two patients affected by mixed growth hormone/prolactin-secreting pituitary tumors. Short-term growth hormone (GH) inhibition by a single injection of OCT (100 μg sc), and short-term prolactin (PRL) inhibition by oral administration of 2.5 mg of bromocriptine (BCR), were also performed in both patients. The first patient, a 26 year old man, showed intense tumor uptake of 123I-IBZM scintigraphy, whereas 111In-OCT scintigraphy showed moderate tumor uptake. Five hours after the BCR inhibition test, a fall of 83% in PRL plasma levels (from 8,336 μg/L to 1,417 μg/L), and of 91.6% in GH plasma levels (from 39.5 μg/L to 3.3 μg/L) were observed. OCT inhibition test suppressed GH plasma levels from 36 μg/L to 3.5 μg/L. The patient was submitted to treatment with BCR and OCT. A dramatic shrinkage of the tumor was seen after six months of therapy. The lesion disappeared one year after the start of therapy. The second patient, a 64 year old man, showed intense uptake at 111In-OCT scintigraphy, while 123I-IBZM uptake was not observed. A test dose of BCR resulted in an acute fall of PRL (from 145 μg/L to 118 μg/L), but not of GH. A test dose of OCT decreased the GH plasma level from 61 μg/L to 4.5 μg/L. The patient was submitted to treatment with BCR and OCT that resulted in a computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging decrease of 45% of tumor volume one year after the start of therapy. Our results suggest that both suppression tests with OCT and BCR, and scintigraphic studies in vivo with 123I-IBZM and 111In-OCT can be predictive for the effectiveness of therapies with dopamine agonists and/or SS-analogs in patients with mixed PRL/GH-secreting pituitary tumors. Further studies are required to evaluate the role of suppressive tests in selecting patients for appropriate clinical treatments.
Apoptosis inducing activity of 2-amino-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-3-cyano-7-(dimethylamino)-4H-chromene (3-NC) was investigated in three human cancer cell lines of HepG2, liver cancer, T47D, breast cancer, and HCT116, colon carcinoma cancer. This compound was found to be highly active cell proliferation inhibitor with IC50 values of 55, 60 and 50 nM, respectively as determined by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell proliferation assays. Proliferation of HepG2, T47D and HCT116 cells was diminished by more than 70% and viability was decreased by about 50% upon 72 h of treatment at IC50 concentration of the compound. Apoptosis as the mechanism of cell death was confirmed morphologically by Hoechst 33258 staining, caspase-3 activation assay, as well as DNA ladder formation. In addition to increased caspase-3 like activity as assessed by the cleavage of DEVD-pNA, caspase-9 was also cleaved indicating the activation of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. Furthermore, Western Blot analysis revealed that treatment with 3-NC down-regulated the expression of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, cIAP2, XIAP and survivin in cell line dependent manner. The effectiveness of the compound was the highest when all of the above-mentioned IAPs were down-regulated simultaneously, suggesting that for efficient cancer therapy, multiple IAPs rather than an individual IAP like XIAP should be targeted. It further suggests that 3-NC may be useful for the treatment of cancer types prone to down-regulation of these IAPs.
The uptake of free and liposome-incorporated sclareol and its effect on the growth of human cancer cell line HCT-116 was investigated. Recovery of free and liposomal sclareol in cytosol, nuclei and crude membranes was monitored over time. HCT-116 cells were incubated with 100 microM of free or liposomal sclareol up to 96 h. Intact cells were subjected to subcellular fractionation in order to obtain highly purified fractions of nuclei, cytosol, and crude membranes. Sclareol was extracted from intact cells and from the subcellular fractions using the Bligh-Dyer method and was measured by HPTLC/FID. The effect of sclareol on cell growth was found time dependent. Free sclareol exhibited high toxicity, while the liposomal sclareol showed reduced cytotoxicity but retained the ability to reduce the cell growth rate. The uptake of sclareol by the cells was faster and higher compared to that of its liposomal form. The concentration of sclareol in the three subcellular fractions showed that liposomal sclareol is incorporated in crude membranes and from there it is released in cytosol and nuclei in a time dependent manner, while free sclareol passes directly in the cytosol. These results suggest that liposomal sclareol retains its growth inhibiting activity while its cytotoxic action is diminished. These findings could be due to the sustained delivery of sclareol to the different subcellular sites.
PTT.119 is a new synthetic compound under assessment as a chemotherapeutic agent against neoplasia. Exposure of three diverse tumor cell lines, L1210 leukemia, MJY-alpha mammary tumor, and B16 melanoma to 1 to 50 micrograms PTT.119/ml for 15, 30 or 60 minutes significantly reduced cell survivals. Each tumor model was differentially susceptible to PTT.119 activity in the extent and kinetics of cell cytolysis. Pathological changes unique to each tumor cell type were also observed and included nuclear fragmentation and lobulation, formation of multinucleated cells, mitotic asynchrony and vacuolization of both nuclear and cytosol compartments. The data demonstrate the necessity of using more than one tumor system for the evaluation of compounds and suggest that PTT.119 exerted its cancericidal activity by more than one mechanism.
Influence of physical inactivity and microgravity to periodic structure of blood pressure was studied. Six healthy males were kept under head-down bed rest (HDBR) for 120 days. Blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were recorded by a portable sphygmomanometer and a Holter electrocardiogram, respectively. The results were analyzed by spectrum analysis. Phase, amplitude and acrophase of systolic blood pressure (SBP) by approximately 24, 12 and 8 h were measured before, 60, 120 day and after HDBR. The phase at 24, 12 and 8 h did not show significant changes during HDBR, and acrophase showed a tendency to shift to 14:00 after HDBR. Amplitude for 24 h tended to attenuate during bed rest (BR), and significantly increased after BR. The results of this study suggest that the circadian rhythm of SBP and HR were maintained by strict control of sleep, awakening and food intake in microgravity model of a long-term BR state. However, the tendency to decrease 24-h cyclic amplitude of SBP appeared to be the rhythmic modulation related to cardiovascular deconditioning.
Using flow cytometry or immunoprecipitation analysis in cells chronically infected with HIV-1 IIIB Supt-1, we noticed an additive effect of tunicamycin and low molecular weight dextran (LMDS) on the binding of the G3-4 monoclonal antibody to monomeric and oligomeric forms of glycoprotein 120 (gp120). The inhibition of glycosylation by tunicamycin reduced the number of monomeric and oligomeric forms of gp120. The inhibition of the binding of the G3-4 antibody to monomeric and oligomeric forms of gp120 was more pronounced in the presence of LMDS. We also found that the G3-4 antibody can not recognise the nascent polypeptide chain of the envelope glycoprotein.
By in vitro experiments we have demonstrated an important cytotoxic effect of destruxins A, A2, B, B1 and E on L 1210 leukemia cells. This cytotoxic effect was measured by DNA synthesis. The cytotoxic effect on normal mouse spleen lymphocytes was also evaluated. For the most cytotoxic compound, destruxin E, 16 mg/kg was found to be the minimal dose necessary to kill all mice.
We investigated the effect of BQ-123, a selective endothelin-A (ET(A)) receptor antagonist in ischemia-reperfusion (IR) induced myocardial infarction (MI) with and without endothelin-1 (ET-1) challenge. MI was produced in rats by occlusion of left anterior descending coronary artery for 40 min and reperfusion for 120 min. ET-1 was administered immediately prior to coronary occlusion whereas vehicle or BQ-123 was administered 20 min after the occlusion. IR control group exhibited marked hemodynamic changes along with significant impairment of left ventricular functions. In addition, oxidative stress was increased, as evidenced by marked reduction in the activities of antioxidants and cardiac injury markers in myocardium. Furthermore, light microscopic and ultrastructural changes revealed myocardial necrosis, edema and inflammation. Prior administration of ET-1 acts synergistically with IR injury and further aggravates the impairment of ventricular functions, increased percent infarct area and decreased antioxidant levels. However, treatment with BQ-123 (1 mg/kg, IV) with or without ET-1 caused significant improvement in cardiac functions, percent infarct area, decreased malonaldehyde level, restored myocardial enzymes activities and maintained the redox status of the myocardium as compared to IR control group. Further, histopathological and ultrastructural studies reconfirmed the protective action of BQ-123. The results of present study suggest that ET-1 acting via ET(A) receptor may exaggerate myocardial damage produced by IR injury and selective blockade of ET(A) receptor by BQ-123 might offer potential cardioprotective action.
The serum levels of five markers (CA-50, CA-19.9, CA-125, Enolase (NSE) carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were studied in 96 lung cancer patients and in 60 patients with benign diseases of the lung: sensitivity was 0.44, 0.41, 0.54, 0.23 and 0.38 respectively; specificity was 0.67, 0.87, 0.47, 0.93 and 0.97 respectively. Serum levels of CA-125 over 20 U/ml were found in 74% of patients with acute pneumonia. A good parallel existed between the clinical evolution of lung cancer and the variations in the serum level of CA-50, CA-19.9 and NSE. Although the pretreatment result was elevated, successive assays of the marker allowed the clinical evolution to be followed. Conflicting results were found with CA-125 and to a lesser extent with CEA. A close correlation existed between the serum levels CA-50 and CA-19.9 in the 2 groups of patients. In the absence of a specific marker for lung cancer, complementary information can be provided by means of a simultaneous determination of CEA, NSE, CA-19.9--or CA-50--and CA-125.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of widely dispersed and environmentally persistent organic compounds. PCBs exhibit a wide range of toxicological effects including neurotoxicity. Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) is an important lipid soluble antioxidant placed in a special region of membranes. Large amounts of energy are required to maintain the signaling activities of the cells in the central nervous system (CNS). Membrane proteins that control ion gradients across organellar and plasma membranes appear to be particularly susceptible to oxidation-induced changes. The aim of this study was to determine the protective role of vitamin E on Aroclor 1254 induced modulation in membrane bound ATPases in brain regions of rats. One group of rats received corn oil as vehicle for 30days as control. The other group of rats were administered Aroclor 1254 at a dose of 2mgkg(-1) bwday(-1) intraperitoneally for 30days. One group of rats received vitamin E (50mgkg(-1) bwday(-1)) orally simultaneously with Aroclor 1254 for 30days. After 30days, the animals were euthanized and the brain was dissected to hypothalamus and hippocampus to determine the following parameters. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activities of Na+K+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase were determined. Reduced glutathione (GSH) level was also determined. Activities of all the enzymes were decreased while an increase in H2O2 and LPO were observed in selected brain regions of PCB treated animals. Simultaneous vitamin E treatment in PCB exposed animals restored all the parameters significantly. These results suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the inhibitory effect of PCB (Aroclor 1254) on membrane bound ATPases in selected brain regions. alpha-tocopherol acts against PCB induced neurotoxicity by decreasing oxidative stress.
An 8-21 fold multiplication of myeloid cells and macrophages was observed in tissue culture from human fetal bone marrow. Proliferation of the cells was triggered by medium conditioned by acute myelocytic leukemic cells exposed to 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA). The medium was designated as TPA-treated cell conditioned medium (TPACCM). The cycle of events in fetal bone marrow cell culture began with a sharp decrease in the total number of cells. At this juncture a predominance of primitive macrophage-like cells positive for macrophage markers was present in the culture. The process of multiplication began with rapid proliferation of promyelocytes. Simultaneous proliferation of granulocyte-macrophage (GM) colony forming cells (CFC) indicated that at least some of the promyelocytes might act like CFC. The absolute number of committed CFC then increased 5-11 fold, the number that approximated a total multiplication of FBM cells. The proliferation continued with the culture containing some blast cells and showing simultaneous differentiation of the cells into mature granulocytes and macrophages. The cells with macrophage markers persisted throughout the culture period. To determine more precise definition of the role of primitive macrophages and promyelocytes in FBM cell multiplication, experiments with purified fractions of these cells have to be done. TPACCM purification and isolation of active substances is also suggested. These investigations might result in obtaining a pool of BM cells in vitro suitable for BM transplantation.
The therapeutic applications of sequential bone marrow biopsy were investigated in 6 patients with myeloma. Our results showed that the response to chemotherapy is modified by data from quantitative bone marrow cytology which separate subgroups of patients (plasmocytes or plasmoblasts) with different prognosis. The selective disappearance of certain bone marrow components (plasmoblasts and/or diffuse infiltration) after chemotherapy results in tumoral growth retardation which is reflected in a higher objective response rate. These preliminary results emphasize the need for pretreatment bone marrow biopsy in order to select the most appropriate drugs. A prospective study involving a large number of patients is in progress; its purpose is to find out whether adding to the already known clinical classifications a classification based on the type of bone marrow infiltration and on the degree of cell differentiation is therapeutically useful.
Impairment of cardiac function in cardiomyopathy has been postulated to be related to decreased blood flow and increased collagen synthesis. Administration of growth factors was reported to attenuate left ventricular (LV) remodeling and dysfunction in animal models of dilated cardiomyopathy. We previously reported that ONO-1301, a synthetic prostacyclin agonist with thromboxane-synthase inhibitory activity, promotes production of hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor from various cell types and ameliorate ischemia-induced LV dysfunction in mice and pigs. We evaluated therapeutic efficacy of ONO-1301 in the Syrian hamster (TO-2), a model of genetically determined dilated cardiomyopathy. Either vehicle or a slow releasing form of ONO-1301 (ONO-1301-PLGA, 10mg/kg/3 weeks) was administered subcutaneously every 3 weeks to TO-2 hamsters from 24 to 32 weeks of age (n=12 for each group). Age-matched F1B hamsters were used as a control. Plasma concentration of HGF was elevated in ONO-1301-PLGA group (p<0.05). Echocardiographic study demonstrated that LV fractional shortening was significantly improved in the ONO-1301-PLGA group (25+/-4%, p<0.01) compared with that in the vehicle group (19+/-2%). Cardiac fibrosis was significantly reduced by ONO-1301-PLGA (p<0.05) as determined by Azan-Mallory staining. Capillary density of left ventricle was markedly reduced in TO-2 hamsters. ONO-1301-PLGA significantly increased capillary density in TO-2 group (p<0.05). ONO-1301 improved LV dysfunction and reduced cardiac fibrosis in the hamster model of dilated cardiomyopathy. ONO-1301 might hold a therapeutic potential in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy.
In the present study we investigated the role of radio-guided surgery with Iodine-131 (I-131) in a group of 31 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and loco-regional recurrent disease. The principal inclusion criterion for I-131 radio-guided surgery in our protocol was the presence of an I-131 positive loco-regional disease relapse after previous total thyroidectomy and at least 2 ineffective conventional I-131 treatments. The protocol we used consisted of the following steps. Day 0: all patients were hospitalized and received a therapeutic 3.7 GBq (100 mCi) dose of I-131 after thyroid hormone therapy withdrawal in condition of overt hypothyroidism (serum TSH levels>30 microUI/ml). Day 3: a whole body scan following the therapeutic I-131 dose (TxWBS) administration was acquired. Day 5: neck surgery was performed through a wide bilateral neck exploration using a 15-mm collimated gamma probe, measuring the absolute intra-operative counts and calculating the lesion to background (L/B) ratio. Day 7: post-surgery TxWBS was performed using the remaining radioactivity to evaluate the completeness of tumoral lesions extirpation. The final histologic examination showed the presence of 184 metastatic foci; among them, 98 (53.2%) were evident by both TxWBS and gamma probe evaluation, 76 (41.3%) were demonstrated only by gamma probe, and 10 (5.4%) were negative by both TxWBS and gamma probe evaluation. During follow-up (8 months to 4.9 years, mean 2.8 years), DxWBS, serum Tg levels off l-T4, and US showed absence of loco-regional disease in 25 patients (80.6%) while 6 patients had persistent disease. In conclusion, this protocol allowed us to identify neoplastic foci with high sensitivity and specificity, enabling us to remove loco-regional I-131 disease recurrences resistant to previous conventional I-131 therapies. Furthermore, the gamma probe allowed detection of some additional tumoral foci in sclerotic areas or located behind vascular structures that were not visualized at the pre-surgery TxWBS evaluation.
The aim of this study was to investigate the apoptotic effect of a proteasome inhibitor MG-132 on Tca-8113, a cell line of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Tca-8113 cells were treated with 10, 20, and 30μM of MG-132, or 5μM thapsigargin. Apoptosis rate was determined with annexin V/propidium iodide double staining. Expression of E3ubiquitin-protein ligase was determined by ELISA, and Grp78 and caspase-12 mRNA, and Grp78 and caspase-12 protein was assessed by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Apoptosis was observed 18h after MG-132 treatment. The apoptotic rate in the 10, 20, and 30μM MG-132 group was 13.5, 19.6 and 34.7%, respectively, which was higher than in the thapsigargin (8.5%, P<0.01) or control group (0.5%, P<0.01). The expression of E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase in the 10, 20, and 30μM MG-132 group was 28.75±2.28, 18.16±0.65, 8.85±0.72, respectively, which was lower than in the thapsigargin (38.96±0.33, P<0.05 or 0.01) or control (40.88±4.52, P<0.05 or 0.01) group. The levels of Grp78 and capase-12 mRNA, Grp78 and caspase-12 protein in the MG-132 groups were higher than in the control group (P<0.01). In conclusion, MG-132 induces apoptosis in Tca-8113 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The MG-132-induced apoptosis may involve downregulation of E3 ubiquitin ligase, and upregulation of Grp78 and caspase-12.
Angiogenesis, the formation of new capillary blood vessels, is essential for tumor progression. We had reported that Type 1 angiotensin receptor (AT1-R) antagonist reduced tumor-associated angiogenesis. Since antiangiogenic agents were reported to enhance efficacy of radiation therapy, we tested here whether or not AT1-R blockade facilitates the effects of radiation.
1 x 10(6) LLC cells were injected into the subcutaneous tissue of male C57BL/6 mice, and when the average tumor volume reached around 0.1 cm(3), radiation doses (3, 5, 10, and 15 Gy) were given on day 1.
The mean tumor volumes at day 22 were 6.39 (3 Gy), 6.15 (5 Gy), 5.15 (10 Gy), and 3.07 (15 Gy) cm(3), respectively. Combination of 10 Gy radiation with AT1R antagonist TCV-116 (30 mg/kg) significantly inhibited tumor growth by 83% (1.47 +/- 0.11 cm(3), P < 0.01) in comparison with its inhibition of control tumors (8.81 +/- 0.45 cm(3)). The same was true for mean vessel density, and the combination therapy markedly reduced tumor-associated angiogenesis. This was confirmed by the reduced expression of CD31. LLC tumor growth was blocked by neutralizing antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Real-time PCR analysis of VEGF disclosed a marked reduction in the mice under combination therapy, compared with control mice.
These results suggest that combination of radiation with AT1-R blockade markedly reduced the LLC growth rate, and that this was due to reduction of neovascularization by reducing VEGF levels. Combination therapy consisting of radiation and AT1R blockade may become an effective novel strategy for cancer treatment.
MiR-137 expression was examined in parental and drug-resistant cell lines, H446 and H446/CDDP, of small lung cancer (SCLC), and the results showed there was fewer miR-137 expressed in H446/CDDP cells followed by KIT expression emergence. In order to confirm physiological function of these abnormal expressions, H446 and H446/CDDP cells were transfected with miR-137 inhibitor and miR-137 mimics, respectively, after that, miR-137 and KIT expression in two cell lines and drug sensitivity of these cells were evaluated. Results indicated that sensitivity of H446 cells to cisplatin significantly decreased after transfected with miR-137 inhibitor, while miR-137 mimics transfection increased drug sensitivity of H446/CDDP cells and deregulated KIT expression. Our data provided combined evidence that miR-137 was closely related to MDR of SCLC, and interfering of miR-137 expression may attenuate drug resistant of H446/CDDP cells to cisplatin partially through KIT expression regulation. Besides, it has also been proved that KIT might be only one of the downstream molecules of miR-137 that related to SCLC MDR.
In order to describe epidemiologic and clinical features of patients with tuberculosis (TB) identified recently in the hospital of Pisa (Tuscany, Italy), a retrospective study of all cases of TB notified to the Local Public Health Service during January 1996-December 2000 was performed. The diagnosis of TB was made following the criteria of the WHO. A total of 139 patients affected by TB were identified. Diagnosis was microbiologically proved in 81 patients. Mean age was 53.8+/-20.5 S.D. yrs. Thirty-five (25.2%) patients were extra European community citizens (mostly from Africa). The incidence of TB (N/100.000) was 8.4 in 1996 and 6.8 in 2000. Sixty-eight point three per cent of patients had pulmonary TB, 24.5% extrapulmonary and 7.2% mixed TB. The rate of extrapulmonary TB was 15.9% and 39.2% in the 1996-98 and in the 1999-2000 periods, respectively (p = 0.002). Extrapulmonary TB was more frequent in extra European community citizens (42.8%) than in Italian ones (18.3%), p = 0.003. Seven patients were presenting also advanced HIV infection. Microscopic examination for acid fast bacilli in sputum or bronchial secretion resulted negative in 17.4% of proved pulmonary TB (positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis). The chest x-rays showed pleural effusion in 19 patients. Pulmonary cavitation was documented in 15 patients with negative chest x-rays. Fever was not present in 42.4% of the patients at the moment of diagnosis. Three point eight percent of the isolated strains of M. tuberculosis were in vitro multidrug-resistant. The data presented showed an important rate of TB in Pisa. We have yet to understand if the decreased rate observed in 2000 represents a new trend as reported in other North American and European countries. The rate of extrapulmonary TB shows a trend to increase accordingly to recent literature. The isolation rate of multidrug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis in Pisa seems to be similar to the rates reported in other areas of Europe.
Sclareol is a labdane-type diterpene that has demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity against human leukemic cell lines. Here, we report the effect of sclareol against the human breast cancer cell lines MN1 and MDD2 derived from the parental cell line, MCF7. MN1 cells express functional p53, whereas MDD2 cells do not express p53. Flow cytometry analysis of the cell cycle indicated that sclareol was able to inhibit DNA synthesis induce arrest at the G(0/1) phase of the cycle apoptosis independent of p53. Sclareol-induced apoptosis was further assessed by detection of fragmented DNA in the cells. Furthermore, sclareol enhanced the activity of known anticancer drugs, doxorubicin, etoposide and cisplatinum, against MDD2 breast cancer cell line.
We compared the influence of a 12-hour subcutaneous infusion of somatostatin-14 on glucose homeostasis in two normal subjects and two insulin-dependent diabetics (IDD). In all cases, somatostatin infusion led to a decrease of blood glucose during the first hours. The diabetogenic effect of somatostatin was confirmed in normal subjects. Postprandial blood glucose response was exaggerated in one insulin-dependent diabetic while in the other, glucose tolerance was improved. Unexpected high levels of immunoreactive somatostatin were measured in insulin-dependent diabetic patients. They might be due to a decreased somatostatin catabolism.
The mitochondrial antioxidant protein manganese-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) has been shown to be a new type of tumor suppressor protein. Overexpression of MnSOD protein inhibits growth in a wide variety of cancer types. This review examines the molecular mechanism of the tumor suppressive effect of MnSOD. Three species have been proposed to cause the tumor suppressive effect: superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide. At the present time, the evidence appears strongest that hydrogen peroxide is the effector molecule since both catalase and glutathione peroxidase has been shown to modulate the effect. Surprisingly, in different cancer cell lines, overexpression of GPx has been found to both decrease and increase the growth inhibitory effect of MnSOD overexpression. Knowledge of which molecule causes the tumor suppressive effect of MnSOD and the mechanism of action will likely lead to new therapies for the treatment of cancer.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate the gene expressions at the posttranscriptional level, subsequently control crucial physiological processes. Recent evidence demonstrates that some miRNAs have the functions similar to oncogene or tumor suppressors, it may play important roles in tumorigenesis. MiRNA expression profiles may become useful biomarkers for cancer diagnostics, prognosis and prediction of response to treatment, and it could be a powerful tool for cancer prevention and therapeutics.
To explore the global expression profile of miRNAs in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its potential relevance to clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis.
LNA microRNA microarrays were utilized to detect miRNA expression levels in eight surgically removed lung carcinoma tissues (LCT) and their corresponding normal lung tissues (NT). After initial microarray validation by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays (qRT-PCR), miR-21, miR-143 and miR-181a were selected for further study in another 47 paired LCTs and matched NTs by qRT-PCR using Taqman microRNA assay.
Twenty-seven microRNAs were observed to be deregulated greater than two-fold in LCT compared with NT by microarray. Consistenting with the microarray, the expression level of miR-21 by qRT-PCR was significantly higher in tumor tissues than in adjacent normal tissues (P=0.026); while miR-143 (P=0.000) and miR-181a (P=0.000) were downregulated in LCT. Interestingly, among the 47 NSCLC cases, low level expression of miR-143 was significantly correlated with smoking status (P=0.026), high miR-21 expression (hazard ratio, 5.993; 95% confidence interval, 2.518-14.264; P=0.000) and low miR-181a expression (hazard ratio, 0.328; 95% confidence interval 0.142-0.756; P=0.009) were associated with poor survival, independent of clinical covariates, including TNM staging, lymph note status.
Our data thus indicating the potential of miR-21, miR-143 and miR-181a as a novel diagnostic or prognostic biomarker for NSCLC. Besides, these data will guide further studies of specific microRNAs might become potential targets for therapeutic intervention.
Reduced glutathione (GSH) is the most prevalent non-protein thiol in animal cells. Its de novo and salvage synthesis serves to maintain a reduced cellular environment and the tripeptide is a co-factor for many cytoplasmic enzymes and may also act as an important post-translational modification in a number of cellular proteins. The cysteine thiol acts as a nucleophile in reactions with both exogenous and endogenous electrophilic species. As a consequence, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are frequently targeted by GSH in both spontaneous and catalytic reactions. Since ROS have defined roles in cell signaling events as well as in human disease pathologies, an imbalance in expression of GSH and associated enzymes has been implicated in a variety of circumstances. Cause and effect links between GSH metabolism and diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, cystic fibrosis (CF), HIV, and aging have been shown. Polymorphic expression of enzymes involved in GSH homeostasis influences susceptibility and progression of these conditions. This review provides an overview of the biological importance of GSH at the level of the cell and organism.
One hundred and fifty episodes of septicaemia in patients in a haematology service were analysed as a function of the date of onset in relation to the date of hospitalisation. One hundred and three patients of the 122 patients were granulocytopenic and 97 patients (65%) had less than 500 polymorphonuclear neutrophils per microliter. The septicaemic episodes were classified according to three time periods: septicaemia starting before admission and during the first 24 hours in hospital, septicaemia occurring between day 1 and day 8 and septicaemia beginning on day 9 or later. For each period different factors have been studied, the number of septicaemic episodes, the frequency of multiple infection, the severity of the granulocytopenia, the antibiotics used compared to their sensitivity in vitro, the outcome of the septicaemia, the organisms isolated by blood culture and their sensitivity to different antibiotics. The patients with septicaemia arriving at the hospital with a fever, and those starting during the first week of hospitalisation are finally comparable, even though the level of mortality was distinctly different (33 and 17% respectively). The septicaemia starting after day 8 are more frequent and more severe (40% mortality). These late onset septicaemias are characterised by a higher frequency of Gram negative hospital infections, a high frequency of mixed infection with bacteria resistant to several beta-lactams and aminoglycosides. The observation of these differences between these septicaemias occurring in the first week and those starting after the eighth day should be taken into account in the choice of an empirical antibiotic regimen. An association of 2 or 3 antibiotics for these two situations respectively, involving beta-lactams and aminoglycosides, is proposed by the authors.
Endoscopic surgery is often considered to be 'minimally invasive surgery' in the light of recent developments. In particular, endoscopic endocrine neck surgery is desirable from a cosmetic viewpoint. Here we compared the usefulness of our original endoscopic method of video-assisted neck surgery (the VANS method) with conventional surgery when challenged with the removal of thyroid tumors measuring more than 5 cm in diameter, based on our experience with 167 cases (162 thyroid tumors, five parathyroid tumors). The percentage of patients who underwent the VANS method of the total number of patients who underwent neck surgery was determined and the operative procedures used in the different surgeries were analyzed. The operating time and blood loss for 153 benign thyroid tumors were statistically compared between the small-tumor group (n = 130, < 5 cm) and the large-tumor group (n = 23, > or = 5 cm). More than 60% of the benign and 5.3% of the malignant thyroid tumors were operated on by the VANS method. Near- or subtotal lobectomy was the most common procedure (64.1%) for benign tumors. Malignancy was defined as papillary carcinoma less than 1 cm in diameter. Total lobectomy with lymph node clearance was performed for all malignant tumors. Although the operating time and the blood loss were statistically greater in the large-tumor group than the small-tumor group, with increased experience it was possible to remove tumors of up to 7.4 cm safely. Our findings support the idea that the VANS method is feasible, practical, and safe, and has great cosmetic benefits, even for the removal of large benign tumors.
Hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (PGDS) is a key enzyme involved in production of the PGD and J series, which have various role in inflammation and immunity. We evaluated the effect of treatment with 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) or the injection of prostaglandin D(2) synthase (PGDS) cDNA expressing-retrovirally transfected fibroblasts on bleomycin (BLM)-induced scleroderma-like skin sclerosis. Daily injection of BLM (30 microg) for 4 weeks induced histological evidence of dermal sclerosis in C3H mice. We examined the effect of injection of 15d-PGJ(2) (30 ng twice a day) or PGDS expressing-retrovirally transfected fibroblast on BLM-induced dermal sclerosis. Administration of 15d-PGJ(2) (a nonenzymatic metabolite of PGD(2)) injection of PGDS cDNA-expressing fibroblasts significantly reduced dermal sclerosis, the hydroxyproline content, and dermal thickness. Moreover, 15-d PGJ2 down-regulation of the expression of transforming growth factor beta(1) and connective tissue growth factor which had been induced by BLM. Mast cells were also increased in the skin by BLM injection and there was prominent degranulation of these mast cells along with elevated plasma histamine levels. 15-d PGJ(2) and PGDS-expressing cells also suppressed degranulation of cultured mast cells and histamine release by these cells. These results show that 15-d PGJ(2) and PGDS-expressing cells can prevent experimental skin sclerosis induced by BLM and raise the possibility of therapeutic approaches targeting of PPARgamma for the skin lesion of scleroderma.