The purpose of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), activity level, some health-related anthropometric variables, sedentary behaviour and socioeconomic status (SES) of 7-11 year old boys in the city of Ardabil, Iran. Of 21 253 school boys aged 7-11 years, 766 participated in this study using the cluster sampling method. Subjects underwent standard anthropometry. One-mile test was used to evaluate [Formula: see text]O2 max. BMI cut-off points were used to identify weight status. Child's TV watching and video playing daily time (TVVPT) was taken for sedentary behaviour evaluation. SES and activity level were measured by standard questionnaires. Of all participants, 8.9% (N=68) of students had CRF lower than normal and 58.6% (N=449) of them had inadequate physical activity. There was a significant adverse relationship between [Formula: see text]O2 max and body mass index (BMI), waist to height ratio (WHtR), waist circumference (WC), and fat mass (FM) (p<0.05). A significant direct association between SES and both FM and TVVPT was observed (p<0.05). Significantly lower physical activity and [Formula: see text]O2 max, and higher TVVPT were observed in the obese boys than their counterparts (p<0.05). The results of this study indicated a significant relationship between CRF and physical activity, and health-related anthropometric variables in a selected sample of 7-11 year boys. Moreover, the obese subjects had not only lower physical activity but also longer sedentary behaviour time than their counterparts.
The aim of this study was to examine the association of +1245G/T polymorphisms in the COL1A1 gene with ACL ruptures in Polish male recreational skiers in a case-control study.
A total of 138 male recreational skiers with surgically diagnosed primary ACL ruptures, all of whom qualified for ligament reconstruction, were recruited for this study. The control group comprised 183 apparently healthy male skiers with a comparable level of exposure to ACL injury, none of whom had any self-reported history of ligament or tendon injury. DNA samples extracted from the oral epithelial cells were genotyped for the +1245G/T polymorphisms using real-time PCR method.
Genotype distributions among cases and controls conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p = 0.2469 and p = 0.33, respectively). There was a significant difference in the genotype distribution between skiers and controls (p = 0.045, Fisher's exact test). There was no statistical difference in allele distribution: OR 1.43 (0.91-2.25), p = 0.101 (two-sided Fisher's exact test).
The risk of ACL ruptures was around 1.43 times lower in carriers of a minor allele G as compared to carriers of the allele T.
Myocardial hypertrophy (MH) due to cardiac pathology is characterized by an increase in QT interval duration and dispersion, while the findings for exercise-induced myocardial hypertrophy are contradictory. The majority of published research findings have not explored this relationship, but there have only been a few conducted studies using 24-hour ECG monitoring. The aim of the study was to determine the QT interval duration and dispersion in short-term and 24-hour ECG in endurance athletes with myocardial hypertrophy and without it.
A total of 26 well-trained rowers underwent a resting 12-lead ECG, 24-hour ECG monitoring and echocardiography.
Athletes with MH (n = 7) at rest did not show any increase in QTc interval duration and dispersion, or mean and maximal QTc duration in Holter monitoring compared to athletes without MH (n = 19). Left ventricular mass was not significantly correlated with any QTc characteristics. Furthermore, athletes with MH had significantly longer mean QT (P = 0.01) and maximal QT (P = 0.018) intervals in Holter monitoring and higher 24-hour heart rate variability indexes due to stronger vagal effects.
The present study demonstrated that athlete's heart syndrome with myocardial hypertrophy as a benign phenomenon does not lead to an increase in QT interval duration, or increases in maximal and mean duration in a 24-hour ECG. An increase in QT interval duration in athletes may have an autonomic nature.
With the development and wide application of motion capture technology, the captured motion data sets are becoming larger and larger. For this reason, an efficient retrieval method for the motion database is very important. The retrieval method needs an appropriate indexing scheme and an effective similarity measure that can organize the existing motion data well. In this paper, we represent a human motion hierarchical index structure and adopt a nonlinear method to segment motion sequences. Based on this, we extract motion patterns and then we employ a fast similarity measure algorithm for motion pattern similarity computation to efficiently retrieve motion sequences. The experiment results show that the approach proposed in our paper is effective and efficient.
Gymnastics floor exercises are composed of a set of four to five successive acrobatic jumps usually called a "series". The aims of the study were: 1) to relate the acrobatic gymnastics performance of these series with a repeated jumps test of similar duration (R60), 2) to study the relation between R60 and physiological parameters (heart rate and blood lactate), and the performance obtained in different kinds of jumps, 3) to confirm whether R60, executed without a damped jumping technique, can be considered an anaerobic lactic power test. Twenty male and twenty-four female gymnasts performed three repeated jumps tests for 5 s (R5), 10 s (R10) and 60 s (R60) and vertical jumps, such as drop jumps (DJ), squat jumps (SJ) and countermovement jumps (CMJ). We assessed heart rate (HR) and blood lactate during R10 and R60. The average values of the maximal blood lactate concentration (Lmax) after R10 (males = 2.5±0.6 mmol · l(-1); females = 2.1±0.8 mmol · l(-1)) confirm that anaerobic glycolysis is not activated to a high level. In R60, the Lmax (males = 7.5±1.7 mmol · l(-1) females = 5.9±2.1 mmol · l(-1)) that was recorded does not validate R60 as an anaerobic lactic power test. We confirmed the relation between the average power obtained in R60 (R60Wm) and the acrobatic performance on the floor. The inclusion in the multiple regression equation of the best power in DJ and the best flight-contact ratio (FC) in R5 confirms the influence of other non-metabolic components on the variability in R60 performance, at least in gymnasts.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of heat exposure in the absence of hyperthermia on power output during repeated cycling sprints. Seven males performed four 10-s cycling sprints interspersed by 30 s of active recovery on a cycle ergometer in hot-dry and thermoneutral environments. Changes in rectal temperature were similar under the two ambient conditions. The mean 2-s power output over the 1st-4th sprints was significantly lower under the hot-dry condition than under the thermoneutral condition. The amplitude of the electromyogram was lower under the hot-dry condition than under the thermoneutral condition during the early phase (0-3 s) of each cycling sprint. No significant difference was observed for blood lactate concentration between the two ambient conditions. Power output at the onset of a cycling sprint during repeated cycling sprints is decreased due to heat exposure in the absence of hyperthermia.
Reactive oxygen species are produced during anaerobic exercise mostly by Fe ions released into plasma and endothelial/muscle xanthine oxidase activation that generates uric acid (UA) as the endpoint metabolite. Paradoxically, UA is considered a major antioxidant by virtue of being able to chelate pro-oxidative iron ions. This work aimed to evaluate the relationship between UA and plasma markers of oxidative stress following the exhaustive Wingate test. Plasma samples of 17 male undergraduate students were collected before, 5 and 60 min after maximal anaerobic effort for the measurement of total iron, haem iron, UA, ferric-reducing antioxidant activity in plasma (FRAP), and malondialdehyde (MDA, biomarker of lipoperoxidation). Iron and FRAP showed similar kinetics in plasma, demonstrating an adequate pro-/antioxidant balance immediately after exercise and during the recovery period (5-60 min). Slight variations of haem iron concentrations did not support a relevant contribution of rhabdomyolysis or haemolysis for iron overload following exercise. UA concentration did not vary immediately after exercise but rather increased 29% during the recovery period. Unaltered MDA levels were concomitantly measured. We propose that delayed UA accumulation in plasma is an auxiliary antioxidant response to post-exercise (iron-mediated) oxidative stress, and the high correlation between total UA and FRAP in plasma (R-Square = 0.636; p = 0.00582) supports this hypothesis.
This study aimed to investigate the kinematic and kinetic changes when resistance is applied in horizontal and vertical directions, produced by using different percentages of body weight, caused by jumping movements during a dynamic warm-up. The group of subjects consisted of 35 voluntary male athletes (19 basketball and
16 volleyball players; age: 23.4 ± 1.4 years, training experience: 9.6 ± 2.7 years; height: 177.2 ± 5.7 cm, body weight: 69.9 ± 6.9 kg) studying Physical Education, who had a jump training background and who were training for 2 hours, on 4 days in a week. A dynamic warm-up protocol containing seven specific resistance movements with specific resistance corresponding to different percentages of body weight (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%) was applied randomly on non consecutive days. Effects of different warm-up protocols were assessed by pre-/post- exercise changes in jump height in the countermovement jump (CMJ) and the squat jump (SJ) measured using a force platform and changes in hip and knee joint angles at the end of the eccentric phase measured using a video camera.
A significant increase in jump height was observed in the dynamic resistance warm-up conducted with different percentages of body weight (p 0.05). In jump movements before and after the warm-up, while no significant difference between the vertical ground reaction forces applied by athletes was observed (p>0.05), in some cases of resistance, a significant reduction was observed in hip and knee joint angles (p
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 12 weeks of aerobic training on the serum levels of adiponectin and leptin and on inflammatory markers of coronary heart disease in obese men. Sixteen non-athlete obese men were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups. The experimental group underwent aerobic training consisting of three sessions per week for 12 weeks, while the control group did not participate in the training programme during the study period. Five millilitres of venous blood was taken from each participant at the beginning of the study, during week six and at the end of week 12 to measure the levels of leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α. The findings showed that aerobic training led to decreases in the levels of CRP (P = 0.002), IL-6 (P = 0.001) and leptin (P = 0.003) and an increase in the level of adiponectin (P = 0.002) in the experimental group relative to the control group. In addition, the level of TNF-α decreased in the experimental group after the 12-week aerobic training period, although this change was not statistically significant. According to the results of this study, regular aerobic exercise decreases the potential risk of coronary heart disease by improving the plasma levels of IL-6, adiponectin, leptin and CRP. Additionally, aerobic exercise can be used as effective non-pharmacological treatment to prevent diseases.
The aim of this study was to conduct three-year monitoring of bone mineralization (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) of adolescent girls engaged in swimming at the time of attaining the peak bone mass and of their counterparts leading a rather sedentary life, considering the intakes of calcium, phosphorus and protein, as well as the proportions among those nutrients. Two groups of girls aged 11-13 years were studied 3 times at yearly intervals: untrained controls (n = 20) and those engaged in competitive swimming (n = 20). Bone density was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the lumbar spine (L2 - L4). Nutrient intakes (energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus) were assessed from 24-h recalls. The group of swimmers had significantly lower BMI values than the control group. No systematic, significant between-group differences were found in nutrient intake or in bone mineralization variables. Calcium intake was below the recommended norm in all subjects but mean values of bone mineralization variables (BMC, BMD) steadily increased in both groups. The BMD z-scores proved negative throughout the three-year period of early adolescence in both groups of girls and that decrease was significant in swimmers. This could have been due to insufficient calcium intake as well as to inadequate calcium-to-phosphate and protein-to-calcium ratios and, when continued, might result in a decreased bone mass in adulthood.
The aim of this study was to assess the plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations as well as whole blood β2-adrenoceptor gene (ADRB2) expression in young ice hockey players before and immediately after exercise in relation to performed work. Nineteen Youth National Team ice hockey players were subjected to the maximal incremental cycloergometer exercise. The test was done in the pre-competitive phase of training. Among many parameters the plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations and ADRB2 gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were determined before and after exercise. The average performed work was 3261.3 ± 558.3 J · kg(-1) and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) for all players was 53.85 ± 3.91 mL · kg(-1) min(-1). The geometric mean of the ADRB2 gene expression was statistically significantly different before and after exercise (P ≤ 0.05), while adrenaline and noradrenaline levels in plasma significantly increased after exercise. In the analysed group of athletes we found that initial level of plasma noradrenaline correlated with the performed work (r = - 0.55, P < 0.014) and normalized ADRB2 expression before the exercise correlated with the work done by them (r = 0.48, P<0.039). However, no statistically significant correlations were found between the plasma adrenaline or noradrenaline concentrations and ADRB2 gene expression in peripheral blood of the players. The performed work in the maximal incremental exercise test of regularly training young ice hockey players depends on the initial levels of noradrenaline in plasma and ADRB2 mRNA in PBMC.
Exercise plays an important role to improve cardiovascular performance. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of aerobic continuous and interval training on the left ventricular structure and function. Twenty untrained healthy male students (aged 18-22 years) were randomly divided into two groups: continuous (C; n = 10) and interval (I; n = 10). The training programme consisted of countryside jogging for 45 min during 8 weeks three times a week at 70% of maximum heart rate (MHR). In each session group C was jogging for 45 min and in group I jogging was performed in 5 nine-minute stages with a four-minute inactive rest between them. M-mode, 2-dimensional, colour and Doppler transthoracic echocardiography were performed, during resting conditions, before and after the training period. After 8-week training the end diastolic diameter, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in groups C and I, and the posterior wall thickness and the end systolic diameter in group I showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). On the other hand, the percentage of ejection fraction and shortening fraction in groups C and I, the end systolic diameter and the posterior wall thickness in group C and the interventricular septum thickness in group I demonstrated a significant difference (P ≤ 0.05). Comparing the two groups, only the value of the interventricular septum thickness was significant (P ≤ 0.05). In general, eight-week aerobic continuous and interval training can affect left ventricular structure and function.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between biomechanical variables and running economy in North African and European runners. Eight North African and 13 European male runners of the same athletic level ran 4-minute stages on a treadmill at varying set velocities. During the test, biomechanical variables such as ground contact time, swing time, stride length, stride frequency, stride angle and the different sub-phases of ground contact were recorded using an optical measurement system. Additionally, oxygen uptake was measured to calculate running economy. The European runners were more economical than the North African runners at 19.5 km · h(-1), presented lower ground contact time at 18 km · h(-1) and 19.5 km · h(-1) and experienced later propulsion sub-phase at 10.5 km · h(-1),12 km · h(-1), 15 km · h(-1), 16.5 km · h(-1) and 19.5 km · h(-1) than the European runners (P < 0.05). Running economy at 19.5 km · h(-1) was negatively correlated with swing time (r = -0.53) and stride angle (r = -0.52), whereas it was positively correlated with ground contact time (r = 0.53). Within the constraints of extrapolating these findings, the less efficient running economy in North African runners may imply that their outstanding performance at international athletic events appears not to be linked to running efficiency. Further, the differences in metabolic demand seem to be associated with differing biomechanical characteristics during ground contact, including longer contact times.
Sustained aerobic exercise not only affects the rate of force development but also decreases peak power development. The aim of this study was to investigate whether anaerobic power of amateur mountain bikers changes during the first half of the competition season. Eight trained cyclists (mean ± SE: age: 22.0 ±0.5 years; height: 174.6 ± 0.9 cm; weight: 70.7 ± 2.6 kg) were subjected to an ergocycle incremental exercise test and to the Wingate test on two occasions: before, and in the middle of the season. After the incremental exercise test the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption was measured during 5-min recovery. Blood lactate concentration was measured in the 4th min after the Wingate test. Maximum oxygen uptake increased from 60.0 ± 1.5 ml min(-1) kg(-1) at the beginning of the season to 65.2 ± 1.4 ml min(-1) kg(-1) (P < 0.05) in the season. Neither of the mechanical variables of the Wingate test nor excess post-exercise oxygen consumption values were significantly different in these two measurements. However, blood lactate concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in season (11.0 ± 0.5 mM) than before the season (8.6 ± 0.4 mM). It is concluded that: 1) despite the increase of cyclists' maximum oxygen uptake during the competition season their anaerobic power did not change; 2) blood lactate concentration measured at the 4th min after the Wingate test does not properly reflect training-induced changes in energy metabolism.
The aim of the study was to assess changes in the anaerobic threshold of young soccer players in an annual training cycle. A group of highly trained 15-18 year old players of KKS Lech Poznań were tested. The tests included an annual training macrocycle, and its individual stages resulted from the time structure of the sports training. In order to assess the level of exercise capacities of the players, a field exercise test of increasing intensity was carried out on a soccer pitch. The test made it possible to determine the 4 millimolar lactate threshold (T LA 4 mmol · l(-1)) on the basis of the lactate concentration in blood [LA], to establish the threshold running speed and the threshold heart rate [HR]. The threshold running speed at the level of the 4 millimolar lactate threshold was established using the two-point form of the equation of a straight line. The obtained indicators of the threshold running speed allowed for precise establishment of effort intensity used in individual training in developing aerobic endurance. In order to test the significance of differences in mean values between four dates of tests, a non-parametric Friedman ANOVA test was used. The significance of differences between consecutive dates of tests was determined using a post-hoc Friedman ANOVA test. The tests showed significant differences in values of selected indicators determined at the anaerobic threshold in various stages of an annual training cycle of young soccer players. The most beneficial changes in terms of the threshold running speed were noted on the fourth date of tests, when the participants had the highest values of 4.01 m · s(-1) for older juniors, and 3.80 m · s(-1) for younger juniors. This may be indicative of effective application of an individualized programme of training loads and of good preparation of teams for competition in terms of players' aerobic endurance.
For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) under 3 conditions on separate days: while listening to "slow rhythm music", "fast rhythm music" or "no music". 48 hours after the subjects completed RAST under 3 conditions, Wingate Anaerobic Power (WAN) tests were performed under 3 music conditions. The order of the 3 conditions (slow music, fast music and no music) was selected randomly to prevent an order effect. Results showed no significant differences between 3 conditions in anaerobic power assessments, heart rate or blood lactate (p > 0.05). On the basis of these results it can be said that music cannot improve anaerobic performance. The type of music had no impact on power outputs during RAST and WAN exercise. As a conclusion, listening to music and its rhythm cannot enhance anaerobic performance and cannot change the physiological response to supramaximal exercise.
Anthropometric characteristics of athletes are considered to be an important determinant of success in sport. The aim of the present study was to compare several anthropometric parameters and subjective characteristics of professional elite triathletes with anthropometric profiles of professional cyclists and sportive students. In total 93 volunteers (21 male and female triathletes, 26 male cyclists and as a control group 46 male and female students) participated in this study. Eight different anthropometric parameters were measured and a five-page questionnaire containing 35 general questions had to be completed. Interestingly, there were no significant differences between the arm span, the lengths of the lower limb and the circumference of waist and hip between male triathletes and cyclists. As expected, the athletes had significantly lower heart rates and lower weights as compared to the controls. Further results showed that male cyclists had a higher BMI, larger thighs and were taller as compared to the male triathletes. The present study could not evaluate specific anthropometric characteristics as predictive factors of performance in elite athletes. Thus, individual successful performance is linked to discipline and talent rather than to a specific anthropometric profile.
Over the past decade, our knowledge of how homeostatic systems regulate food intake and body weight has increased with the discovery of circulating peptides such as leptin, acyl ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and obestatin. These hormones regulate the appetite and food intake by sending signals to the brain regarding the body's nutritional status. The purpose of this study was to investigate the response of appetite-regulating hormones to exercise. Nine overweight women undertook two 2 h trials in a randomized crossover design. In the exercise trial, subjects ran for 60 min at 50% of maximal oxygen uptake followed by a 60 min rest period. In the control trial, subjects rested for 2 h. Obestatin, acyl ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and leptin concentrations were measured at baseline and at 20, 40, 60, 90 and 120 min after baseline. A two-way ANOVA revealed a significant (P < 0.05) interaction effect for leptin and acyl ghrelin. However, changes in obestatin and des-acyl ghrelin concentration were statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). The data indicated that although acute treadmill exercise resulted in a significant change in acyl ghrelin and leptin levels, it had no effect on plasma obestatin and des-acyl ghrelin levels.
In gymnastics every exercise finishes with a landing. The quality of landing depends on subjective (e.g. biomechanical) and objective (e.g. mechanical characteristics of landing area) factors. The aim of our research was to determine which biomechanical (temporal, kinematic and dynamic) characteristics of landing best predict the quality of landing. Twelve male gymnasts performed a stretched forward and backward salto; also with 1/2, 1/1 and 3/2 turns. Stepwise multiple regression extracted five predictors which explained 51.5% of landing quality variance. All predictors were defining asymmetries between legs (velocities, angles). To avoid asymmetric landings, gymnasts need to develop enough height; they need higher angular momentum around the transverse and longitudinal axis and they need to better control angular velocity in the longitudinal axis.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6 in respect to dietary intake of these vitamins and activity coefficients of the erythrocyte enzymes transketolase, glutathione reductase, and aspartic aminotransferase in young men and women with different physical activity levels. The participants of this study were 20 women and 20 men with high physical activity (groups HAW and HAM, respectively), and 20 women and 20 men with low physical activity (groups LAW and LAM, respectively). The intake of vitamins B1, B2, B6, proteins, and calorie content of the diet was based on the average of the 4-day dietary recalls. To assess nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6, the activity coefficients (α) of erythrocyte transketolase (ETK), erythrocyte glutathione reductase (EGR), and erythrocyte aspartic aminotransferase (EAST) were estimated in blood hemolysates. The intake of the studied vitamins in the diet was statistically significantly lower in the female groups compared with the respective male groups. Deficiency of vitamin B6 in the diet was present more often in women than in men (in terms of the recommended dietary allowances [RDA]). Values of the activity coefficient αETK indicated that none of the groups in this study suffered the risk of vitamin B1 deficiency. The value of the activity coefficient αEGR indicated that the groups of women and men with low physical activity were more prone to vitamin B2 deficiency compared with the high physical activity groups. The risk of vitamin B6 deficiency (αEAST) in both male groups was higher than in both female groups. The obtained results do not allow for unequivocal determination of the impact of sex and the level of physical activity on intake and nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6. Independently of sex and the level of physical activity, the women and men consumed insufficient quantities of vitamins B1 and B6, although this was not always related to increased values of corresponding activity coefficients.
THE TRIPLE JUMP IS A DEMANDING ATHLETICS EVENT THAT, AFTER AN APPROACH RUN, CONSISTS OF THREE CONSECUTIVE PHASES: the hop, the bound, and the jump. During the involved three take-off actions a jumper is exposed to increased risk of injury due to the high impact forces from the ground and powerful muscle/tendon efforts, which are further reflected in the internal loads of the lower limb joints. While external ground reactions can possibly be measured using force platforms, in vivo measurements of the internal loads are practically not feasible. The purpose of the paper is to present the development of an effective formulation for the inverse dynamics simulation of the triple jump, based on the jumper dynamical model and non-invasive kinematic recordings of the movement. The developed simulation model serves for the analysis of all the triple jump phases, irrespective of whether the jumper is in flight or in contact with the ground with one of his feet, and is focused on effective assessment of the external reactions on the supporting leg as well as the muscle forces and joint reaction forces in the leg. Some numerical results of inverse dynamics simulation of the triple jump are reported.
Athletic performance is a polygenic trait influenced by both environmental and genetic factors.
To investigate individually and in combination the association of common gene polymorphisms with athlete status in Ukrainians.
A total of 210 elite Ukrainian athletes (100 endurance-oriented and 110 power-orientated athletes) and 326 controls were genotyped for ACE I/D, HIF1A Pro582Ser, NOS3 -786 T/C, PPARA intron 7 G/C, PPARG Pro12Ala and PPARGC1B Ala203Pro gene polymorphisms, most of which were previously reported to be associated with athlete status or related intermediate phenotypes in different populations.
Power-oriented athletes exhibited an increased frequency of the HIF1A Ser (16.1 vs. 9.4%, P = 0.034) and NOS3 T alleles (78.3 vs. 66.2%, P = 0.0019) in comparison with controls. Additionally, we found that the frequency of the PPARG Ala allele was significantly higher in power-oriented athletes compared with the endurance-oriented athletes (24.7 vs. 13.5%; P = 0.0076). Next, we determined the total genotype score (TGS, from the accumulated combination of the three polymorphisms, with a maximum value of 100 for the theoretically optimal polygenic score) in athletes and controls. The mean TGS was significantly higher in power-oriented athletes (39.1 ± 2.3 vs. 32.6 ± 1.5; P = 0.0142) than in controls.
We found that the HIF1A Ser, NOS3 T and PPARG Ala alleles were associated with power athlete status in Ukrainians.
The objective of this study was to establish differences in vagal reactivation, through heart rate recovery and heart rate variability post exercise, in Brazilian jiu-jitsu wrestlers (BJJW). A total of 18 male athletes were evaluated, ten highly trained (HT) and eight moderately trained (MT), who performed a maximum incremental test. At the end of the exercise, the R-R intervals were recorded during the first minute of recovery. We calculated heart rate recovery (HRR60s), and performed linear and non-linear (standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat R-R interval variability - SD1) analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), using the tachogram of the first minute of recovery divided into four segments of 15 s each (0-15 s, 15-30 s, 30-45 s, 45-60 s). Between HT and MT individuals, there were statistically significant differences in HRR60s (p <0.05) and in the non linear analysis of HRV from SD130-45s (p <0.05) and SD145-60s (p <0.05). The results of this research suggest that heart rate kinetics during the first minute after exercise are related to training level and can be used as an index for autonomic cardiovascular control in BJJW.
The axe kick, in Olympic style taekwondo, has been identified as the most popular scoring technique aimed to the head during full contact competition. The first purpose of this study was to identify and investigate design issues with the current World Taekwondo Federation approved chest protector. A secondary purpose was to develop a novel chest protector addressing the identified design issues and to conduct a biomechanical analysis. Fifteen male elite Taekwondo players were selected to perform three different styles of the axe kick, i.e., front, in-out, and out-in axe kick five times each for a total of 45 kicks. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA showed significant differences between the novel and existing chest protector conditions for vertical height of the toe, downward kicking foot speed, hip flexion angle and ipsilateral shoulder flexion extension range of motion (ROM) (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the control condition (no chest protector) and the novel chest protector condition for these variables (p > 0.05). These results indicate that the novel chest protector interferes less with both the lower and upper limbs during the performance of the axe kick and provides a more natural, free-moving alternative to the current equipment used.
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a 10-week dynamic back extension training programme and its effects on back muscle strength, back muscle endurance and spinal range of motion (ROM) for healthy young females. Seventy-three young females (age: 19.32±1.80 years, height: 158.89±4.71 cm, body weight: 55.67±6.30 kg) volunteered for the study. Prior to the training period, all participants completed anthropometric measurements, back muscle strength and endurance test, lateral bending and spinal ROM measurements. After measurements, the participants were divided into two groups. The exercise group (N:35) performed the dynamic back extension exercise 3 days per week for 10 weeks. The control group (N:38) did not participate in any type of exercise. The mixed design ANOVA (group x time) was used to determine the difference in pre- and post-training values. The present findings show that there were significant differences between pre-training and post-training values for back muscle strength and spinal ROM in the exercise group. Following the dynamic strength training programme, back muscle strength and spine ROM values except flexion of the lumbar 5-sacrum 1 (L5-S1) segment of the exercise group showed a significant increase when compared with the pre test values. The control group did not show any significant changes when compared with the pre-training values. The results demonstrate that the 10-week dynamic strength training programme was effective for spinal extension ROM and back muscle strength, but there was no change in back muscle endurance. In this context, this programme could potentially be used to prevent the decrease of spinal ROM as well as provide an increase in the fitness parameters of healthy individuals.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance, as well as neuromuscular activity, in a strength task in subjects with different training backgrounds. Participants (n = 26) were divided into three groups according to their training backgrounds (aerobic, strength or mixed) and submitted to three sessions: (1) determination of the maximum oxygen uptake during the incremental treadmill test to exhaustion and familiarization of the evaluation of maximum strength (1RM) for the half squat; (2) 1RM determination; and (3) strength exercise, four sets at 80% of the 1RM, in which the maximum number of repetitions (MNR), the total weight lifted (TWL), the root mean square (RMS) and median frequency (MF) of the electromyographic (EMG) activity for the second and last repetition were computed. There was an effect of group for MNR, with the aerobic group performing a higher MNR compared to the strength group (P = 0.045), and an effect on MF with a higher value in the second repetition than in the last repetition (P = 0.016). These results demonstrated that individuals with better aerobic fitness were more fatigue resistant than strength trained individuals. The absence of differences in EMG signals indicates that individuals with different training backgrounds have a similar pattern of motor unit recruitment during a resistance exercise performed until failure, and that the greater capacity to perform the MNR probably can be explained by peripheral adaptations.
The purpose of the research was to evaluate the efficiency of body balance regulation in the elderly and verify whether physical activity in adolescence could influence later physical efficiency. Research was carried out on 62 persons aged between 65 and 96 years of age. Fifty people declared that they undertook physical activity in adolescence, while 12 reported no activity. Stabilographic examinations were performed during trials with open and closed eyes on a horizontally situated platform tilted forward and backward. The centre-of-pressure (COP) path length, sway range area and centre-of-pressure velocity (COP velocity) were assessed. The safety margin when a person leans forward and backward was evaluated as well. On a horizontally situated platform, exclusion of visual control in most of the examined participants resulted in a significant increase in values of examined parameters. Tilting the platform caused in both groups an increase in values of all the parameters. These changes were more visible when a trial with eyes closed was performed and the group of active people obtained better results. These people were also able to use the support area more effectively when changing the position of the body. It was found that body balance disorder affects more often elderly people who were less active in adolescence and that with age visual balance control dominates the proprioceptive one. This means that physical activity directed towards, among other things, forming and improving the body balance regulation system is needed at an early age.
Investigations on changes in a rifle's barrel temperature during shooting in a rhythm typical for practitioners of Olympic shooting sports are presented. Walther KK300 (cal. 5.6 mm), a typical rifle often used in Olympic competitions, R50 RWS ammunition and a high speed thermographic camera were used in the study. Altair version 5 software was used to process thermal images and a stationary wavelet transform was applied to denoise signals for all the studied points. It was found that the temperature of the rifle barrel does not exceed 0.3°C after one shot whereas the total temperature increase does not exceed 5°C after taking 40 shots and does not affect the position of the hitting point on a target. In fact, contrary to popular belief, the so-called "warming shots" are not done for barrel heating but for cleaning of remnants in the barrel.
Static stretch is a safe and feasible method which usually is used before exercise to avoid muscle injury and to improve muscle performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of cyclic static stretch (CSS) on fatigue recovery of triceps surae (TS) in female basketball players. Nine athlete volunteers between 20 and 30 years participated in this study containing two sessions. After warm-up a pressure cuff was fastened above the knee joint and its pressure was increased to 140 mmHg. The subjects were asked to perform one maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) followed by a fatigue test including maximum isometric fatiguing contraction of TS. These steps were similar in both sessions. Then, a two-minute rest was included in the first session while 4 static stretches were performed to TS in the second session. After interventions, one MVC was done and the pressure cuff was released. During these steps, peak torque (PT) and electromyography (EMG) were recorded. The amount of lower leg pain was determined by the visual analogue scale (VAS). The value of PT increased significantly after CSS but its increase was not significant after rest. It seems that the effects of rest and CSS on the EMG parameters, PT and pain are similar.
This study differentiated the kinematics of the beach flags sprint start between five elite (three males, two females; age = 21.2 ± 2.6 years; height = 1.71 ± 0.04 m; mass = 66.2 ± 5.9 kg) and five non-elite (three males, two females; age = 20.4 ± 1.7 years; height = 1.69 ± 0.08 meters [m]; mass = 61.6 ± 5.7 kilograms) sprinters. A high-speed camera filmed the start. Timing gates recorded the 0-2, 0-5, and 0-20 m intervals. Data included body position during the start and at take-off; start time; first step length; and sprint times. A Mann-Whitney U-test determined significant (p < 0.05) between-group differences; effect sizes (ES) were also calculated. Elite sprinters had a greater take-off trajectory angle (p = 0.01; ES = 2.57), and were faster over the 0-2 (p = 0.02; ES = 1.77), 0-5 (p = 0.05; ES = 1.20), and 0-20 m (p = 0.02; ES = 1.83) intervals. Large effects were found for: greater take-off swing leg hip flexion (ES = 1.13) and trunk lean (ES = 1.37); longer duration start time (ES = 1.33); and longer first step length (ES = 1.23) in elite sprinters. A longer start time assists with force generation, which in conjunction with increased hip flexion, could translate to a longer first step. Increased trunk lean shifts the take-off trajectory angle towards the horizontal. A greater trajectory angle at start take-off, which could be advantageous for force production during sprint performance, is likely necessary for beach flags.
Bone mineralization is strongly stimulated by weight-bearing exercise during growth and development. Judo, an Olympic combat sport, is a well-known form of strenuous and weight-bearing physical activity. Therefore, the primary goal of this study was to determine the effects of Judo practice on the bone health of male high school students in Korea. The secondary goal of this study was to measure and compare the bone mineral density (BMD) of the hands of Judo players and sedentary control subjects. Thirty Judo players (JDP) and 30 sedentary high school boys (CON) voluntarily participated in the present study, and all of the sedentary control subjects were individually matched to the Judo players by body weight. BMD was determined by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic, Bedford, MA, USA). The lumbar spine, femur and forearm BMD in the JDP group were significantly greater by 22.7%, 24.5%, and 18.3%, respectively, than those in the CON group. In addition, a significant difference in the CON group was observed between the dominant hand (DH) radius (0.710 ± 0.074 g/cm(2)) and the non-dominant hand (NDH) radius (0.683 ± 0.072 g/cm(2)), but this was not observed in the JDP group (DH = 0.819 ± 0.055 g/cm(2); NDH = 810 ± 0.066 g/cm(2)) (P < 0.05). Therefore, the results of this study suggest that Judo practice during the growth period significantly improves bone health in high school male students. In addition, it seems that Judo practice could eliminate the effect of increased BMD in the dominant hand.
To determine the salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) response to repeated bouts of unaccustomed, downhill running (eccentrically biased) and examine potential protective immunological adaption from a repeated bout effect. Eleven active but untrained males (age: 19.7±0.4 years; VO2peak: 47.8± 3.6 ml · kg(-1) · min (-1)) performed two 60 min bouts (Run 1 and Run 2) of downhill running (-13.5% gradient), separated by 14 days, at a speed eliciting 75% of their VO2peak on a level grade. Saliva samples were collected before (baseline), immediately post exercise (IPE), and every hour for 12 h and every 24 h for 6 days after each run. Salivary sIgA concentration was measured and sIgA secretion rate was calculated. Results were analysed using repeated measures ANOVA (12 h period: 2x14; 24 h intervals: 2x7; p ≤ 0.05) with Tukey post-hoc tests where appropriate. Results are reported as means ± SE. There was a significant (p < 0.0001) interaction effect for sIgA secretion rate, IPE, with higher values after Run 2, as well as a significant (p < 0.01) time effect with elevated levels IPE and between 24 h and 144 h. There was a run effect (p < 0.0001), with the sIgA secretion rate significantly higher after Run 2. Repeated bouts of unaccustomed, eccentrically biased exercise induced alterations in the salivary sIgA secretion rate. This may serve as a protective mucosal adaptation to exercise-induced tissue damage.
The purpose was to examine differences between taekwondo kicks and boxing punches in resultant linear head acceleration (RLA), head injury criterion (HIC15), peak head velocity, and peak foot and fist velocities. Data from two existing publications on boxing punches and taekwondo kicks were compared.
For taekwondo head impacts a Hybrid II Crash Dummy (Hybrid II) head was instrumented with a tri-axial accelerometer mounted inside the Hybrid II head. The Hybrid II was fixed to a height-adjustable frame and fitted with a protective taekwondo helmet. For boxing testing, a Hybrid III Crash Dummy head was instrumented with an array of tri-axial accelerometers mounted at the head centre of gravity.
Differences in RLA between the roundhouse kick (130.11±51.67 g) and hook punch (71.23±32.19 g, d = 1.39) and in HIC15 (clench axe kick: 162.63±104.10; uppercut: 24.10±12.54, d = 2.29) were observed.
Taekwondo kicks demonstrated significantly larger magnitudes than boxing punches for both RLA and HIC.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 18 months of high and low levels of volleyball practice on bone acquisition. 130 prepubescent boys (mean age 11.4 ± 0.7) were divided into a high-level training group (HLG), low-level training group (LLG), and controls. Bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area at the whole body, lumbar spine L2-L4, femoral neck of the dominant leg, and right and left radius were measured using dual-photon X-ray absorptiometry. Enhanced BMC resulted from high-training volleyball activity in all measured sites except the third left and right distal radius, which is not modified by low-level training in prepubescent players but it was accompanied by a bone area expansion in radius and weight-bearing sites for the HLG, and in legs, whole right and left radius for the LLG. Significant improvement of skeletal tissues is associated with the intensity and duration of volleyball training.
Lead is a highly neurotoxic agent that particularly affects the developing central nervous system. In the current study we investigated the neuroprotective effects of exercise training and/or diferuloyl methane (DM) supplement, which is known as curcumin, on lead acetate-induced neurotoxicity in the rat hippocampus. Sixty rats were randomly divided into six groups: 1) lead acetate, 2) DM supplement, 3) endurance training, 4) training+ DM supplement, 5) sham and 6) base. The rats in the training groups performed treadmill running consisting of 15 to 22 m · min(-1) for 25 to 64 min, 5 times a week for 8 weeks. All groups except sham received lead acetate (20 mg · kg(-1)), whereas the sham group received DM solvent. In addition, the DM and training + DM groups received DM solution (30 mg · kg(-1)) intraperitoneally. Chronic administration of lead acetate resulted in a significant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma, but not in the hippocampus. In addition, it led to significantly decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels, as compared to the sham group. Treadmill running, DM supplementation, or both resulted in a significant decrease in MDA levels and significantly increased BDNF and TAC levels, as compared to the lead acetate group. These results provide a rationale for an inhibitory role of DM supplement and regular exercise in the attenuation of lead-induced neurotoxicity.
The somatic build, biological age, general state of health, mental predisposition and physical fitness are the criteria for selection of individuals in competitive sport. The present study aims to analys the differences in body structure and composition of canoeists and kayakers and derive conclusions regarding the criteria for selection of individuals incompetitive sport. The research was conducted on a group of 32 men aged between 17 and 22: 16 kayakers and 16 Canadian canoeists of the junior and teenage Polish national canoeing team. Body composition was examined by means of bioelectrical segmental impedance. Body build type was determined using the anthropometric Heath-Carter method. Statistical analysis was performed using the Welch t-test.
The examination of morphological features reveals significant differences in the studied parameters between the canoeists and kayakers. There are also significant differences between competitors of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games and the studied group. We found that competitive kayakers should be taller than canoeists. The lower part of the body in kayakers is more developed than in canoeists and canoeists are more dehydrated than kayakers.
The aim of this study was to investigate the heart rate (HR) responses, the rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and the feeling during physical education schooling while performing traditional games activities compared to intermittent exercise. Nineteen pre-pubertal children randomly performed on different days two types of lessons (intermittent running mode vs. traditional Tunisian "Raqassa" game) lasting 12-min each. HR was continuously recorded during both lessons, while ratings of perceived exertion and Feeling values were recorded after the sessions. The mean HR value during the traditional game was significantly higher than during intermittent exercise (p<0.05). Conversely, the perceived exertion score was significantly higher after intermittent exercise than the traditional exercise game (p<0.05), showing that the higher cardiovascular strain of the game was perceived as "lighter" than the run. Simultaneously, the children's Feeling was significantly higher after the traditional game than intermittent exercise (p<0.001), showing a higher satisfaction from playing with respect to running. Exercise based on the "Raqassa" traditional game could be used in pre-pubertal children as an alternative or as an additional method for suitable cardiovascular stimulation during physical education lessons with lower perceived exertion and better feeling compared to intermittent running.
The aim of the present study was to analyse the parameters that characterize the vertical ground reaction force during the landing phase of a jump, and to determine the relationship among these parameters in elite soccer players with cerebral palsy (CP). Thirteen male members of the Spanish national soccer team for people with CP (mean age: 27.1 ± 4.7 years) volunteered for the study. Each participant performed three counter movement jumps. The characteristics of the first peak of the vertical ground reaction force during the landing phase of a jump, which corresponds to the forefoot contact with the ground, were similar to the results obtained in previous studies. However, a higher magnitude of rearfoot contact with the ground (F2) was observed in participants with CP than in participants without CP. Furthermore, a significant correlation between F2 magnitude and the elapsed time until its production (T2) was not observed (r = -0.474 for p = 0.102). This result implies that a landing technique based on a delay in the production of F2 might not be effective to reduce its magnitude, contrary to what has been observed in participants without CP. The absence of a significant correlation between these two parameters in the present study, and the high magnitude of F2, suggest that elite soccer players with CP should use footwear with proper cushioning characteristics.
This study aimed to evaluate the leukocyte subset counts, serum immunoglobulin A, performance and upper respiratory symptoms (URS), as well as their interrelationships, of well-trained cyclists for a 29-week training season using monitored loads. The season was divided into three phases: preparatory (nine weeks), first competitive phase (nine weeks) and second competitive phase (11 weeks). The sample consisted of eight well-trained cyclists, aged 18 ± 2 years. Immunological parameters and performance were evaluated during weeks 1 (baseline), 10 (early first competitive phase), 19 (early second competitive phase) and 29 (end of the second competitive phase). The training loads (volume x rating of perceived exertion) were monitored daily while the monitoring of URS was performed every 15 days using the WURSS-44 questionnaire. The data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and a Pearson correlation test with the significance level set at p ≤ 0.05. No significant differences were found for training load, leukocyte subset counts or serum immunoglobulin A among the three phases. However, serum immunoglobulin A was 50.9% below the control group values. URS were significantly higher during the preparatory period, and there were significant correlations between URS and training load (strain) in the preparatory period (r = 0.72, p = 0.032) and second competitive phase (r = 0.73, p = 0.036). In conclusion, indicators of training load without a significant change throughout the season did not significantly affect immune parameters measured; however, the increase of strain can cause an increase of upper respiratory symptoms throughout the season, but without loss of performance.
The aim of this study was to simulate the activity pattern of rink hockey by designing a specific skate test (ST) to study the energy expenditure and metabolic responses to this intermittent high-intensity exercise and extrapolate the results from the test to competition. Six rink hockey players performed, in three phases, the 20-metre multi-stage shuttle roller skate test, a tournament match and the ST. Heart rate was monitored in all three phases. Blood lactate, oxygen consumption, ventilation and respiratory exchange ratio were also recorded during the ST. Peak HR was 190.7±7.2 beats · min−1. There were no differences in peak HR between the three tests. Mean HR was similar between the ST and the match (86% and 87% of HRmax, respectively). Peak and mean ventilation averaged 111.0±8.8 L · min−1 and 70.3±14.0 L · min−1 (60% of VEmax), respectively. VO2max was 56.3±8.4 mL · kg−1 · min−1, and mean oxygen consumption was 40.9±7.9 mL · kg−1
· min−1 (70% of VO2max). Maximum blood lactate concentration was 7.2±1.3 mmol · L-1. ST yielded an energy expenditure of 899.1±232.9 kJ, and energy power was 59.9±15.5 kJ · min−1. These findings suggest that the ST is suitable for estimating the physiological demands of competitive rink hockey, which places a heavy demand on the aerobic and anaerobic systems, and requires high energy consumption.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acute low-dose celecoxib administration on exercise-induced inflammation, muscle damage and lipid peroxidation. Twenty healthy untrained males (age: 25.5±4.5 yrs, weight: 72.7±7.9 kg, height: 177.3±7.2 cm) were randomly assigned to treatment (T) or placebo (P) groups. Blood samples were obtained before, immediately after, 3 h after and 24 h after exercise. Subjects ran for 30 min at 75% [Formula: see text]O2 max on a treadmill. Participants consumed 100 mg celecoxib or a placebo immediately after and 12 h after the immediately post-exercise blood sample. Total leukocytes, neutrophils, creatine kinase (CK), C-reactive protein (CRP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed at each time point. Significant increases in total leukocytes and neutrophils were observed 3 h after exercise in both groups (P < 0.05). CK and CRP levels were significantly increased immediately, 3 h and 24 h after exercise in both groups (P < 0.05). A significant increase in MDA was observed immediately after exercise in both groups (P < 0.05); however, no significant group differences were observed for MDA or CK. These findings suggest that inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase activity with low-dose celecoxib does not affect exercise-induced inflammation, muscle damage, or lipid peroxidation.
Time to exhaustion at 87-91% of peak VO2 was measured in 5 untrained men (age: 31 +/- 8 years, body mass: 74.20 +/- 16.50 kg, body surface area: 1.90 +/- 0.24 m2, peak VO2: 2.87 +/- 0.40 l min-1, plasma volume: 3.21 +/- 0.88 l; means +/-SD) after consuming nothing (N) or two fluid formulations (10 ml kg-1, 743 +/- 161 ml): Performance 1 (P1), a multi-ionic carbohydrate drink, containing 55 mEq l-1 Na+, 4.16 g l-1 citrate, 20.49 g l-1 glucose, and 365 mOsm kg-1 H2O, and AstroAde (AA), a sodium chloride-sodium citrate hyperhydration drink, containing 164 mEq l-1 Na+, 8.54 g l-1 citrate, <5 mg l-1 glucose, and 253 mOsm kg-1 H2O. Mean (+/-SE) endurance for N, P1 and AA was 24.68 +/- 1.50, 24.55 +/- 1.09, and 30.50 +/- 3.44 min respectively. Percent changes in plasma volume (PV) from -105 min of rest to zero min before exercise were -1.5 +/- 3.2% (N), 0.2 +/- 2.2% (P1), and 4.8 +/- 3.0% (AA; P < 0.05). The attenuated endurance for N and P1 could not be attributed to differences in exercise metabolism (VE, RE, VO2) from the carbohydrate or citrate, terminal heart rate, levels of perceived exertion, forehead or thigh skin blood flow velocity, changes or absolute termination levels of rectal temperature. Thus, the higher level of resting PV for AA just before exercise, as well as greater acid buffering and possible increased energy substrate from citrate, may have contributed to the greater endurance.
Reports based on experiences from masseurs and players, mostly without any scientific background, suggest that the combination of a classical regeneration method (i.e. massage) with exposure to hypoxia may enhance regeneration in soccer. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether this specific combination could affect blood parameters related to muscle damage and physical strain after a soccer game. Approximately 15 hours after two separate championship games, 10 professional male outfield players of the first Austrian division were exposed to normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 13.5% ∼ 4000m) or normoxia for 1 hour (30 minutes rest followed by 30 min massage) (cross-over design). Creatine kinase (CK), urea and uric acid (UA) were measured 4 days before the first game, and 15 and 63 hours after the two games. Match play increased CK values independently of the intervention. No effect of the massage in combination with hypoxia was seen. A trend was found between Δ UA ([UA] 48 hours after exposure minus [UA] before exposure) in response to hypoxia and SaO2 measured in hypoxia (r=0.612, p=0.06). Results show that massage under hypoxic conditions had no additional positive effect on the measured parameters compared to massage alone. Solely the trend of a relationship for Δ UA and SaO2 might indicate that redox alterations are a potential consequence of hypoxic exposure.
Competition regulation in taekwondo has experienced several changes during the last few years, for example, kicks to the head score more points than kicks to the chest. In addition, some external factors such as the height of target and execution distance seem to affect the kick performance. The aim of this study was to analyse selected biomechanical parameters (impact force, reaction time, and execution time) according to the height and execution distance in two different male groups (experts (n = 12) and novices (n = 21)). Athletes kicked twice from every execution distance (short, normal and long) and towards two different heights of target (chest and head) in a random order. Novices kicked to the head with a longer reaction time than to the chest (p < 0.05) but experts were able to kick with similar performance for both heights. From short and normal distances experts kicked with similar performance; whereas from the normal distance novices had longer reaction and execution time than from the short distance (p < 0.05). In conclusion, in counterattacking situations, experts should perform the roundhouse kick to the head instead of to the chest, because it produces better scores with similar performance; whereas novice athletes should avoid kicking to the head because they are not able to kick with similar performance. Moreover, it is recommended that during counterattacks higher-level taekwondo athletes should intend to kick from normal distances.
The aim of this study was to evaluate diurnal variations in the haemostatic response to submaximal exercise performed by young, sedentary men. Fifteen healthy young sedentary males aged 25.6 ± 1.34 (mean ± SD) years performed two exercise sessions, morning and evening, at 70% of maximal oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O2max) on a cycle ergometer for 30 min. Platelet count (PC), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), fibrinogen, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) activity were measured as dependent variables. Exercise produced significant increases in PC and fibrinogen for both sessions (P ≤ 0.05), which returned to the resting values after recovery only in the evening session. APTT and PT shortened immediately after exercise, which remained after recovery for both sessions (P ≤ 0.01). Exercise presented significant increases in tPA activity (P ≤ 0.001), which returned to the baseline after recovery in both exercises. PAI-1 activity was significantly higher during the morning than evening (P ≤ 0.05), but no longer demonstrated exercise-related changes. It was found that exercise caused activation of both coagulation and fibrinolysis processes, partly related to the time of the day when the exercise was performed.
Keywords: diurnal variation, coagulation, fibrinolysis, thrombus
In the past few years considerable progress regarding the knowledge of the human genome map has been achieved. As a result, attempts to use gene therapy in patients' management are more and more often undertaken. The aim of gene therapy is to replace defective genes in vivo and/or to promote the long-term endogenous synthesis of deficient protein. In vitro studies improve the production of human recombinant proteins, such as insulin (INS), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and erythropoietin (EPO), which could have therapeutic application. Unfortunately, genetic methods developed for therapeutic purposes are increasingly being used in competitive sports. Some new substances (e.g., antibodies against myostatin or myostatin blockers) might be used in gene doping in athletes. The use of these substances may cause an increase of body weight and muscle mass and a significant improvement of muscle strength. Although it is proven that uncontrolled manipulation of genetic material and/or the introduction of recombinant proteins may be associated with health risks, athletes are increasingly turning to banned gene doping. At the same time, anti-doping research is undertaken in many laboratories around the world to try to develop and refine ever newer techniques for gene doping detection in sport. Thanks to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and other sports organizations there is a hope for real protection of athletes from adverse health effects of gene doping, which at the same time gives a chance to sustain the idea of fair play in sport.
Genes control biological processes such as muscle production of energy, mitochondria biogenesis, bone formation, erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, vasodilation, neurogenesis, etc. DNA profiling for athletes reveals genetic variations that may be associated with endurance ability, muscle performance and power exercise, tendon susceptibility to injuries and psychological aptitude. Already, over 200 genes relating to physical performance have been identified by several research groups. Athletes' genotyping is developing as a tool for the formulation of personalized training and nutritional programmes to optimize sport training as well as for the prediction of exercise-related injuries. On the other hand, development of molecular technology and gene therapy creates a risk of non-therapeutic use of cells, genes and genetic elements to improve athletic performance. Therefore, the World Anti-Doping Agency decided to include prohibition of gene doping within their World Anti-Doping Code in 2003. In this review article, we will provide a current overview of genes for use in athletes' genotyping and gene doping possibilities, including their development and detection techniques.
To investigate thermal response, hydration behaviour and performance over flatwater kayaking races in tropical conditions (36.8°C and 68% rh). Five internationally-ranked subjects participated in the 2012 Surfski Ocean Racing World Cup in Guadeloupe to the "Ze Caribbean Race 2012" [i.e., a 35-km downwind race]. Core temperature (T°C) and heart rate (HR) were measured using portable telemetry units whereas water intake was deduced from backpacks absorption. The kayakers were asked to rate both their comfort sensation and thermal sensation on a scale before and after the race. The performance was related to an increase in T°C, high HR and low water intake (WI); and (2) high values of final T°C were related to high pre T°C and greater increases in T°C being obtained with low pre T°C and (3) WI being related to high pre T°C. The present study demonstrated that the fastest kayakers were those able to paddle at the highest intensities, increasing their T°C and drinking little water without any interference from thermal sensations. Water intake was positively related to pre-race T°C, which reinforces the importance of beginning surfski races with a low T°C. This study demonstrated that well-trained kayakers drinking ad libitum were able to anticipate their intensity/heat storage ratio to prevent heat illness and severe dehydration and maintain high performance.
The study aim was to investigate the effect of a periodised pre-season training plan on internal training load and subsequent stress tolerance, immune-endocrine responses and physical performance in tennis players. Well-trained young tennis players (n = 10) were monitored across the pre-season period, which was divided into 4 weeks of progressive overloading training and a 1-week tapering period. Weekly measures of internal training load, training monotony and stress tolerance (sources and symptoms of stress) were taken, along with salivary testosterone, cortisol and immunoglobulin A. One repetition maximum strength, running endurance, jump height and agility were assessed before and after training. The periodised training plan led to significant weekly changes in training loads (i.e. increasing in weeks 3 and 4, decreasing in week 5) and post-training improvements in strength, endurance and agility (P < 0.05). Cortisol concentration and the symptoms of stress also increased in weeks 3 and/or 4, before returning to baseline in week 5 (P < 0.05). Conversely, the testosterone to cortisol ratio decreased in weeks 3 and 4, before returning to baseline in week 5 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the training plan evoked adaptive changes in stress tolerance and hormonal responses, which may have mediated the improvements in physical performance.
Exercising or working in a hot, humid environment can results in the onset of heat-related illness when an individual's temperature is not carefully monitored. The purpose of the present study was to compare three techniques (data loggers, thermal imaging, and wired electrodes) for the measurement of peripheral (bicep) and central (abdominal) skin temperature. Young men and women (N = 30) were recruited to complete the present study. The three skin temperature measurements were made at 0 and every 10-min during 40-min (60% VO2max) of cycling in a hot (39±2°C), humid (45±5% RH) environment. Data was statistically analyzed using the Bland-Altman method and correlation analysis. For abdominal skin temperature, the Bland-Altman limits of agreement indicated that data loggers (1.5) were a better index of wired than was thermal imaging (3.5), For the bicep skin temperature the limits of agreement was similar between data loggers (1.9) and thermal (1.9), suggesting the both were suitable measurements. We also found that when skin temperature exceeded 35°C, we observed progressively better prediction between data loggers, thermal imaging, and wired skin sensors. This report describes the potential for the use of data loggers and thermal imaging to be used as alternative measures of skin temperature in exercising, human subjects.