The binding site of 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01) on alpha-acid glycoprotein (AGP) was studied by fluorescence and ultracentrifugation experiments. Three ligands, propranolol, warfarin and progesterone were employed as marker ligands and quinaldine red was employed as a fluorescent probe. The presence of UCN-01, pro- pranolol, warfarin and progesterone resulted in a significant quenching of the fluorescence of quinaldine red, when bound to AGP, depending upon the potency of the binding to AGP. The construction of Klotz plots indicated that the displacement effects of propranolol, warfarin and progesterone on UCN-01-AGP binding were competitive in nature. These data suggest that the binding site of UCN-01 on the AGP partly overlaps the binding site for basic drugs, acidic drugs, as well as steroid hormones.
A comprehensive gene-expression analysis during platelet (PLT) production from megakaryocytes may give important information on genes involved in the PLT production process. However, the low abundance of primary megakaryocytes makes the gene expression analysis difficult. Therefore, we employed MEG-01 cells, a human megakaryocytic cell line, and confirmed that the cell line produces PLT-like particles by treatment with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). After treatment of MEG-01 cells with PMA for 8 or 24 h, comprehensive gene expression analysis was carried out using a microarray and Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). From the microarray analysis, 141 genes were up-regulated (>2-fold) and 164 genes were down-regulated (<1/2-fold). However, known PLT-related genes were not included in the up- or down-regulated genes. On the other hand, RT-PCR analysis detected increased expression of beta1-tubulin, CD62P, gpIbalpha and gpIII, which are related to PLT function and megakaryocyte differentiation, following PMA treatment for 24 h. These results indicate that the MEG-01 cell may be an alternative model system to study the process of human PLT production from megakaryocytes. The gene-expression analysis might be a powerful tool for identifying genes related to PLT production, if the experimental conditions are optimized.
A liposomal formulation of UCN-01 was studied to prevent binding of drug to human alpha1-acid glycoprotein (hAGP). The release of drug from liposomes added to various media was investigated by monitoring the concentration of UCN-01 in different fractions. Protein bound UCN-01 was separated from liposomal UCN-01 and free UCN-01 by gel chromatography and the drug content in the fractions was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Also, the blood levels of hAGP bound drug and drug retained in liposomes were assessed after intravenous administration to rats of UCN-01 liposomes together with hAGP. In media containing hAGP, but not rat AGP, UCN-01 was released from liposomes. When UCN-01 liposomes were mixed with rat plasma plus hAGP, the UCN-01 in the liposomes was only gradually released so that some drug remained in the liposomes, and therefore not bound to hAGP, for up to 24 h. After the mixture of liposomal UCN-01 and hAGP was injected into rats, some UCN-01 was retained in liposomes for several hours. Encapsulation of UCN-01 into liposomes is an effective method of preventing binding of UCN-01 to hAGP.
A novel sesquiterpene furan compound CJ-01 was isolated from the methanol extract of the whole plant of Chloranthus japonicus SIEB. by monitoring the inhibitory activity of chitin synthase 2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Based on spectroscopic analysis, the structure of compound CJ-01 was determined as 3,4,8a-trimethyl-4a,7,8,8a-tetrahydro-4a-naphto[2,3-b]furan-9-one. The compound inhibited chitin synthase 2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of 39.6 microg/ml, whereas it exhibited no inhibitory activities against chitin synthase 1 and 3 of S. cerevisiae up to 280 microg/ml. CJ-01 has 1.7-fold stronger inhibitory activity than polyoxin D (IC50=70 microg/ml), a well-known chitin synthase inhibitor. These results indicate that the compound is a specific inhibitor of chitin synthase 2 from S. cerevisiae. In addition, CJ-01 showed antifungal activities against various human and phytopathogenic fungi. Therefore, the compound might be an interesting lead to develop effective antifungal agents.
Inhibitory effects of a newly synthesized 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, AT-1015 (N-[2-[4-(5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5-ylidene)piperidinolethyl ]-1-formyl-4-piperidinecarboxamide monohydrochloride monohydrate) on contraction and relaxation of coronary arteries of pig hearts mediated by 5-HT2 subtypes were evaluated and these results were compared with those of ketanserin. Contraction and relaxation were determined by adding 5-HT or alpha-methylserotonin (alpha-Me-5-HT) as agonists. Although ketanserin induced rightward shifts of contraction, AT-1015 inhibited the maximal response. In addition, ketanserin inhibited relaxation induced by high concentration of agonists, but there were no inhibitory effects of AT-1015 on relaxation. Thus, these results suggest that AT-1015 is a strong non-competitive 5-HT2 antagonist in porcine coronary arteries and that this drug clearly exhibited different effects on the contraction and relaxation of coronary arteries of pig hearts from those of ketanserin.
Triptolide, a purified diterpenoid triepoxide compound derived from a traditional Chinese medicine, Tripterygium wilfordii HOOK. f (TWHf), has been used in the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. However, the toxicity of triptolide limits its application to a great extent. In the present study, we treated human normal liver L-02 cells (L-02 cells) with triptolide in vitro and investigated its toxic effects. The cytotoxicity was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay for cellular viability and by flow cytometry and Hoechst 33258 staining for apoptosis. The mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi m) was evaluated by flow cytometry with JC-1 as probe. After treatment with triptolide, a decrease in the viability of L-02 cells and increase in apoptosis were observed. Triptolide-induced apoptosis was accompanied by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c (cyt-c) from the mitochondria to the cytosol and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 levels with concurrent up-regulation in pro-apoptotic protein Bax levels and tumor suppressor protein p53 levels. Triptolide-increased activity of caspase 9 and caspase 3 was also observed. These results indicate that triptolide induced cytotoxicity in L-02 cells by apoptosis, which is mediated through mitochondrial pathway.
The pharmacological properties of SWR-0315NA, (E,Z)-[4[[1-[2-[(3-phenoxy-2-hydroxy propyl)]amino]ethyl]-1-propenyl]phenoxy]acetic acid sodium, were compared with those of (-)-isoproterenol. In the radioligand binding studies of [(125)I]iodocyanopindolol with COS-7 cell membranes that transiently expressed human beta-adrenoceptor (beta-AR) subtypes, SWR-0315NA exhibited 1-fold and 2-fold greater binding affinities for beta(3)-AR than those for beta(1)- and beta(2)-ARs, respectively. The maximal stimulatory effects of SWR-0315NA on cAMP accumulation in CHO cells expressing all the beta-AR subtypes were 79%, 3% and 93% for beta(1)-, beta(2)- and beta(3)-ARs of those produced by (-)-isoproterenol, respectively. SWR-0315NA has 26.3-fold and more than 630-fold greater selectivity for beta(3)-AR than those for beta(1)- and beta(2)-ARs in potency, respectively. These results indicate that although SWR-0315NA has lower binding selectivity towards beta-AR subtypes, it is a selective agonist with high intrinsic activity for beta(3)-AR as compared with (-)-isoproterenol.
We investigated the beta-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonistic activities in rats and humans, and the anti-obesity and anti-diabetic activities in KK-Ay mice, of a new beta3-AR agonist, SWR-0342SA ((S)-(Z)-[4-[[1-[2-[(2-hydroxy-3-phenoxypropyl)]amino]ethyl]-1-pro penyl]phenoxy] acetic acid ethanedioic acid). With regards to its beta-AR agonistic activity in rats, SWR-0342SA stimulated the atrial beating rate (beta1-AR activity) and white adipocyte lipolysis (beta3-AR activity), but did not induce uterine muscle relaxation (beta2-AR activity). The beta3-AR agonistic activity of SWR-0342SA was about 20 times stronger than its beta1-AR agonistic activity. Similarly, SWR-0342SA enhanced the accumulation of cAMP in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing human beta1- and beta3-ARs, while having no effect in CHO cells expressing beta2-ARs. Adenylyl cyclase stimulation by SWR-0342SA in CHO cells expressing beta3-ARs was about 35 times higher than that in CHO cells expressing beta1-ARs. With regards to anti-obesity and anti-diabetic activities, SWR-0342SA had no effect on body weight or food intake, but slightly decreased the fat pads weight in KK-Ay mice, an animal model of obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). On the other hand, SWR-0342SA significantly decreased both blood glucose (to about 46% of control) and serum insulin levels (to about 40% of control) in KK-Ay mice. These results indicated that SWR-0342SA is a selective beta3-AR agonist, and possesses potent anti-diabetic activity, and that the anti-obesity activity is inferior to the anti-diabetic activity.
The affinities for beta-adrenoceptors, the subtype-selectivity and the agonistic effectiveness of T-0509 (a catechol derivative of denopamine) and colterol (N-tert-butylnoradrenaline; Col) were compared with those of other beta-agonists using a binding assay method. Specific binding of [3H]dihydroalprenolol (3H-DHA) to guinea pig left ventricular and lung membranes was saturable, and Scatchard and Hill analyses suggested that 3H-DHA bound to both membranes with a single population of binding sites with no binding site cooperativity. Addition of 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate (GppNHp, 30 microM) led to a rightward shift of the 3H-DHA binding displacement curves of T-0509 and Col in both membranes, and the degree of shift was similar to that of full agonists such as isoproterenol (Iso), adrenaline (Adr) and noradrenaline (NA). Both T-0509 and Col were thus considered to be full agonists at both beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors, respectively, unlike denopamine and procaterol. T-0509 and Col showed considerably high affinity for both beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors, and T-0509, like denopamine, was as selective for the beta 1-subtype as NA (4.5-fold compared with Iso as a non-selective agonist), whereas Col was more selective for the beta 2-subtype than Adr (4.5-fold compared with Iso).
Eubacterium sp. GLH with Ruminococcus sp. PO1-3 and Clostridium innocuum ES24-06 possessing enzymes involved in the metabolism of glycyrrhizin (GL) was cultured in GAM medium with and without 1.0 mM GL or 1.0 mM glycyrrhetic acid (GA). GL (1.0 mM) enhanced 3alpha-hydroxyglycyrrhetinate (3alpha-hydroxyGA) dehydrogenase activity, GA (1.0 mm) suppressed 3alpha-hydroxyGA dehydrogenase activity, GL beta-D-glucuronidase activity and the mixed bacterial growth, and GL and GA showed almost no change in a lower level of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) activity during 5 d of culture. GL (1.0 mM) and GA (1.0 mM) were metabolized to a small amount of GA and a negligible amount of 3-oxo-glycyrrhetic acid (3-oxo-GA) and 3alpha-hydroxyGA, and to a negligible amount of 3-oxo-GA, respectively, by these mixed bacteria. These amounts coincided with those of metabolites produced from 1.0 mM GL and 1.0 mM GA added to these mixed bacteria after 24 h culture. Whole bacteria and sonicated bacteria derived from the collection of these mixed bacteria reached a maximal stage and metabolized GL to a relatively large amount of GA and 3-oxo-GA, and a negligible amount of 3alpha-hydroxyGA and GA to a small amount of 3-oxo-GA and 3alpha-hydroxyGA within 180 min. GL beta-D-glucuronidase with 3beta-HSD and 3alpha-hydroxyGA dehydrogenase partially purified from each bacterium was converted GL to 3alpha-hydroxyGA, producing metabolites of about 60% after 10 min of incubation. These mixed bacteria possessed high enzyme activities could produce the metabolites of GL in under one hour under conditions.
The Candida glabrata IFO 0622 strain cells obtained after cultivation at 27 degrees C and at 37 degrees C and then at 27 degrees C (37-27 degrees C) for 48 h in yeast extract-added Sabouraud liquid medium (YSLM) showed the same agglutination patterns against factor sera 1, 4, 6, and 34 in the commercially available factor serum kit 'Candida Check'. On the other hand, the cells of the strain cultured at 37 degrees C had completely lost its reactivity against the factor serum 6. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of the cell wall mannans obtained from the strain cells showed the same reactivity with the agglutination patterns against the factor sera. The 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) pattern of the mannan obtained from the strain cells cultured at 37 degrees C showed that the mannan had completely lost the non-reducing beta-1,2-linked mannopyranose unit in the mannotetraose Manbeta1-2Manalpha1-2Manalpha1-2Man, corresponding to the serum factor 6.
The role of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) in leukocyte infiltration in zymosan-induced rat pleurisy was investigated by studying the effects of 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors, T-0757 and AA-861, and a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, on leukocyte infiltration and LTB4 levels in the inflammatory exudate of rat pleurisy induced by intrapleural injection of zymosan (20 mg/rat). T-0757 and AA-861 inhibited the infiltration of leukocytes, mainly neutrophils, 3 h after injection of zymosan at a dose of 100 mg/kg, p.o., but indomethacin did not do so at a dose of 5 mg/kg, p.o. LTB4 was detected in the exudate 1 h after zymosan injection, and its level peaked at 3 h (45.4 +/- 8.6 ng/rat) and decreased thereafter. These LTB4 levels were depressed by T-0757 and AA-861 in a dose-dependent manner. T-0757 completely prevented LTB4 production at a dose of 100 mg/kg. These observations suggest that the inhibition of leukocyte infiltration is mediated by the inhibition of LTB4 production, and that LTB4 is one of the main chemical mediators of leukocyte infiltration in zymosan-induced rat pleurisy.
Anti-ataxic effects of TA-0910, a novel thyrotropin-releasing hormone analog, in mice of the ataxic mutant mouse strain Rolling mouse Nagoya (RMN) are sustained beyond its 2-week oral administration period (Kinoshita et al., Eur. J. Pharmacol., 274, 65-72, 1995). We examined the concentration of TA-0910 in the central nervous system (CNS) of RMN after repeated administration in an attempt to clarify the mechanism of the sustained effect of the drug. Repeated administration of TA-0910 (3 mg/kg/d, i.p.) for 2 weeks produced a long-lasting ameliorating effect on ataxia in RMN, and this effect was maintained until 3 weeks after drug withdrawal. The concentrations of TA-0910 in the cerebrum and brain stem 24 h after the final administration were twice the concentration observed 24h after single administration. The cerebellum cencentration of TA-0910 was more than 4 times that observed 24 h after final administration. After repeated administrations, the drug concentrations in the brain tissues gradually decreased, but the drug was still detectable in the cerebrum and brain stem 3 weeks after withdrawal. However, these concentrations of TA-0910 3 weeks after withdrawal were as low those observed 24 h after single administration when there were no anti-ataxic effects. These observations suggest that the long-lasting ameliorating effect on the ataxia during and after repeated administration of TA-0910 is not ascribable to the drug remaining in the CNS of RMN.
The effect of 3,9-bis(N,N-dimethylcarbamoyloxy)-5H-benzofuro[3,2-c]quinoli ne-6-one designated as KCA-098) on the bone mineral metabolism of chick embryonic bone was examined. KCA-098 dose-dependently inhibited bone resorption of cultured chick embryonic femora and calvariae. It increased the length, dry weight, and calcium and phosphorus contents of 9-d-old chick embryonic femurs cultivated for 6 d, indicating that it stimulated bone formation. These results show that KCA-098 has the unique effects of inhibiting bone resorption and stimulating bone formation of chick embryo. In addition, in an in vivo experiment, oral administration of KCA-098 (3.0 mg/kg/d) for 16 weeks led to an increase in calcium and phosphorus content as well as an increase in the amount of force required to break the femur from ovariectomized rats, suggesting that it may be useful for the treatment of bone diseases.
Stoichiometric evaluation of the radical scavenging activity of O-substituted derivatives at the C-2 position of ascorbic acid (AA) was conducted. Their reaction with a stable radical, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), under an acidic condition was assessed by the colorimetric method. 2-O-alpha-D-Glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2G) and a series of 6-O-acyl-2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acids (6-Acyl-AA-2G) had long-term radical scavenging activity against DPPH. The reaction of AA-2G or 6-Acyl-AA-2G with DPPH was very slow when compared with AA. However, one molecule of these derivatives consumed approximately three molecules of DPPH radicals at the end of the experiment (2 h). In contrast, one molecule of AA scavenged two molecules of DPPH radicals, and the reaction ended in the short time (<10 min). The quantity of radicals quenched by AA-2G and 6-Acyl-AA-2G was superior to that of AA in a long-term reaction.
A reactive oxygen species has been implicated in a range of human pathological diseases such as atherosclerosis and certain cancers. Flavonoids are reported to exhibit various biological activities, including antioxidative and free radical scavenging activities. Several flavonoids obtained from barley leaves, soybean and some medicinal plants, Silybum marianum, Sophorae Flos, Cinnamon, Ephedrae Herba and Scutellariae Radix, were tested for their DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity. The structure-activity relationships suggested that not only the numbers of hydroxy group but also the position of hydroxy group might be important for mediating potent activity.
A simple and efficient plant propagation system has been developed by asymbiotic germination of seeds in three medicinally important Dendrobium species, namely, Dendrobium tosaense, Dendrobium moniliforme, and Dendrobium linawianum. Plants obtained from natural habitats were grown in the greenhouse. The flowers were hand pollinated. Seeds of the capsules derived after 12 weeks of hand-pollination germinated asymbiotically (50-74%) on half strength Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium with 3% sucrose and solidified with 0.9% Difco agar. Active growth in the germinated seedlings was achieved by re-culturing on full strength MS basal medium supplemented with 8% banana homogenate, 8% potato homogenate, 8% coconut water, 1.5% sucrose and 0.9% Difco agar. Healthy plantlets, transferred to plastic trays containing moss or moss and tree fern, successfully acclimatized (84-100%) in the greenhouse. A marked varied response was observed in the free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extracts of in vitro propagated plants, on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical using a UV spectrophotometer assay. Methanolic extracts were prepared by dissolving the powdered plant material, obtained from six months old in vitro propagated plants, each about 5 g, in boiling methanol. The percentage of scavenging effect of D. tosaense extract was 95.9% at 0.4 mg/ml concentration, whereas D. monoliforme, and D. linawianum extracts scavenged 83.4% and 92.3%, respectively, at a concentration of 0.4 mg/ml. All the extracts scavenged DPPH radical significantly in a concentration dependent manner.
The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant property of honeybee products and their constituents using an ESR method. Antioxidative activity was evaluated as the scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The DPPH radical scavenging activities, in descending order, were: ethanol extract of Chinese red propolis>ethanol extract of Brazilian green propolis>water extract of Brazilian green propolis>ethanol extract of bee pollen. Many natural compounds are included in Brazilian green propolis, such as caffeoylquinic acid derivatives [3,4-di-caffeoylquinic acid (3,4-CQA), 3,5-di-caffeoylquinic acid (3,5-CQA), and chlorogenic acid (ChA)] and cinnamic acid derivatives [artepillin C, baccharin, rho-coumaric acid, and drupanin]. Caffeoylquinic acid derivatives exhibited DPPH radical scavenging activity as strong as that of ascorbic acid and trolox. Among the cinnamic acid derivatives, artepillin C exhibited relatively strong DPPH radical scavenging activity. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a constituent of Chinese red propolis, exhibited potent DPPH radical scavenging activity, stronger than that of ascorbic acid and trolox. Caffeic acid, a metabolite of caffeoylquinic acid, exhibited powerful DPPH radical scavenging activity, while quinic acid, another metabolite of caffeoylquinic acid, had no such activity. Both Brazilian and Chinese propolis and their constituents (caffeoylquinic acid derivatives and CAPE) therefore appear to be powerful scavengers of DPPH radical, and the effects may be partly dependent on the nature of their caffeoyl groups.
Acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 1 is an enzyme that catalyzes the final step in triglyceride (TG) synthesis. This enzyme is considered to be a potential therapeutic target for obesity and diabetes. Here, results of an investigation of the pharmacological effects of JTT-553 [trans-5'-(4-amino-7,7-dimethyl-2-trifluoromethyl-7H-pyrimido[4,5-b][1,4]oxazin-6-yl)-2',3'-dihydrospiro(cyclohexane-1,1'-inden)-4-yl]acetic acid monobenzenesulfonate, a novel DGAT1 inhibitor, are reported. To measure the inhibitory activity of JTT-553 against DGAT1, TG synthesis using [(14)C]-labeled oleoyl-CoA was evaluated. Similarly, the inhibitory activity of JTT-553 against DGAT2, an isozyme of DGAT1, and acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) 1, which is highly homologous to DGAT1, were evaluated. JTT-553 selectively inhibited human DGAT1 and showed comparable inhibitory effects on the activity of human, rat, and mouse DGAT. In vivo, JTT-553 suppressed plasma TG and chylomicron TG levels after olive oil loading in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. JTT-553 also inhibited TG synthesis in epididymal fat after [(14)C] oleic acid injection in C57BL/6J mice. Food intake was evaluated in SD rats fed 3.1%, 13%, or 35% (w/w) fat diets. In rats fed the 35% fat diet, JTT-553 reduced food intake. This reduction of food intake was observed 2 h after feeding, lasted for 24 h, and correlated with dietary fat content. Furthermore, JTT-553 reduced daily food intake and body weight gain in diet-induced obese rats after 4-week repeated administration. JTT-553 exerted multiple effects on intestinal fat absorption, adipose fat synthesis, and food intake, and consequently induced body weight reduction. Therefore, JTT-553 is expected to be an effective novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of obesity.
The reactions of malondialdehyde (MDA) with n-hexylamine (HA) in the presence of alkanals at a neutral pH were investigated. Two new compounds, 1,1,1 adduct (4a) and fluorescent compound (3a), were isolated from the reaction of MDA, HA and acetaldehyde. Compounds 4a and 3a were identified as 2-formyl-3-hexylamino-3-methylpropanal and 1-hexyl-5-hexyliminomethylene-4-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3-carba ldehyde, respectively. Similar compounds (4b and 3b) were obtained from the reaction of MDA, HA and propanal. Compound 4 was obtained in a high yield. In addition, the reactivity of MDA towards phenylethylamine (PEA) in the presence or absence of alkanals was investigated. The results indicated that MDA was of low reactivity in the absence of alkanals at neutral pH. However, when alkanals coexisted, MDA showed high reactivity towards PEA.
MSI-78 is a peptide analog of naturally occurring magainin 2 isolated from the skin of Xenopus laevis. The peptide is known to have one of the strongest antibacterial activities in magainin 2 analogs against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). To find novel compounds superior to MSI-78, we have further designed, synthesizing 1,1-di(4-aminobutyl)-6-benzylindane (PM4) and 1,1-dibenzyl-6-(4-aminobutyl) indane (PM5), and tested their inhibitory ability of the growth of S. aureus. In an in vitro assay, PM4 showed the same antibacterial activity against the bacterium as MSI-78, and non-hemolytic activity against human red blood cells (RBCs) at the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) value, in contrast to the latter. On the other hand, PM5 showed stronger antibacterial activity than MSI-78, but being still accompanied with hemolysis at the MIC value. Otherwise, stronger decarboxylase activity for oxaloacetate was observed in PM5, rather than magainin 2 analogs or Oxaldie 1 as a control peptide, but not in PM4.
S-(1,2-Dicarboxyethyl)glutathione (DCE-GS) in addition to being present in the liver, lens, and heart, also inhibited platelet aggregation. To clarify these inhibitory effects, the role of DCE-GS in the release of ATP and serotonin from platelets was studied, as was thromoboxane A2 formation, cyclic AMP level and adenylate cyclase activity in human platelets. The results are as follows: DCE-GS at a concentration of 1.3 mM inhibited ATP and serotonin release from platelets induced by collagen, by 77.4 +/- 4.3 and 78.7 +/- 6.3%, respectively. At 1.5 mM DCE-GS also inhibited the formation of thromboxane B2 by 79.6 +/- 4.1%. Incubation of human platelet rich plasma with 2 mM of DCE-GS for 10 min increased the cyclic AMP level and the activity of adenylate cyclase by 204 +/- 28 and 211 +/- 11.7%, respectively. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of DCE-GS on the platelet aggregation induced by collagen is due to an increase in the cyclic AMP level in platelets, which in turn may be due to enhancement of the activity of adenylate cyclase.
The administration of acetaminophen (APAP, 500 mg/kg, i.p.) produced liver necrosis and increased aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) activity in serum. The pretreatment of S-(1,2-diethoxycarbonyl)glutathione isopropyl ester (DCE-Et-GS iPr, 0.5 mmol/kg, p.o.) prevented hepatic necrosis and the elevation of serum AST activity by 99.9%. DCE-Et-GS iPr inhibited APAP-induced hepatotoxicity much more strongly than reduced glutathione (GSH), DCE-GS and other esters of DCE-GS. To clarify this protective effect, the hepatic GSH concentration was determined 2h after APAP administration. It was found that the DCE-Et-GS iPr administration significantly inhibited the GSH depletion caused by APAP, suggesting that the protective effect of DCE-Et-GS iPr on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity was due, at least in part, to the retention of hepatic GSH level.
Shikunshito-Kamiho (SKTK) is a traditional Chinese medicine composed of eight crude drugs (Ginseng Radix, Hoelen, Atractylodis Rhizoma, Glycyrrhizae Radix, Prunellae Spica, Ostreae Testa, Laminaria Thallus, Sargassum). We investigated the effects of SKTK on pH, ammonia, fecal enzymes such as beta-glucuronidase, tryptophanase, urease, and formation aberrant crypt foci in the colon carcinogenesis model induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Water extract of SKTK was administered orally for 5 weeks to DMH-treated mice as 0.5% and 1.5% of the diet. Beta-glucuronidase, pH and tryptophanase were significantly inhibited after treatment of 0.5% and 1.5% SKTK, while urease was significantly reduced only during and after treatment of 1.5% SKTK as compared with control data. However, the ammonia concentration wasn't different in SKTK treated groups from control group. The incidence number of aberrant crypts foci (ACF) and aberrant crypts/focus in colon was significantly decreased by 0.5% and 1.5% SKTK mixed diets compared with that in rats treated with DMH alone. These results suggest that SKTK exterts anticarcinogenic activity on experimental murine colorectal cancer.
SM-11355, cis[((1R,2R)-1,2-cyclohexanediamine-N,N')bis(myristato)] platinum(II) is a lipophilic platinum complex. SM-11355 suspended in Lipiodol (SM-11355/Lipiodol) was previously shown to have antitumor effects against rat hepatic tumors after intra-arterial administration. In the present study, the in vitro release of platinum compounds from SM-11355/Lipiodol was examined. A test tube containing 10 ml of saline and 1 ml of SM-11355/Lipiodol was rotated at 5 rpm in a vertical orientation. The platinum concentration in saline gradually increased for 28 d. From HPLC analysis, cyclohexane-1,2-diamineplatinum(II) dichloride (DPC) and cyclohexane-1,2-diamineplatinum(II) chloroiodide (DPCI) were detected in the saline, and the sum of these two compounds was equivalent to the total platinum amount in the saline determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry at days 21 and 28. DPC showed significant growth inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 0.1-0.7 nmol/ml in rat hepatoma AH-109A cells and 5 human tumor cell lines, as effective as cisplatin. These findings suggest that SM-11355/Lipiodol exerts antitumor effects by releasing active platinum compounds, and that DPC is one of the candidates of the active compounds.
S-(1,2-Dicarboxyethyl)glutathione (DCE-GS) was found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but not in bacterial species nor in a unicellular alga (Acetabularia acetabulum). The enzyme that catalyzes condensation of L-malate and glutathione (GSH) to form DCE-GS was partially purified from baker's yeast. It had a molecular mass of 49 kDa and was monomeric and the Km values were 2.2 and 1.4 mM for L-malate and GSH, respectively. The enzyme had a pH optimum of 7.5. DCE-GS levels in yeast cells were significantly higher in aerobic cultures than in anaerobic ones. DCE-GS was synthesized in cells cultured between 20 and 35 degrees C.
The antitumor activity of a nucleotide derivative, 5'-(1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho)-5-fluorouridine (TJ14026), was confirmed following both intraperitoneal and oral administration against a number of murine experimental tumor systems in vivo, which included Meth A fibrosarcoma, B16 melanoma, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) resistant P388 leukemia, P815 mastocytoma and L5178Y-ML lymphoma. Successive i.p. injections of a small dose (10 mg/kg/d x 10) or intermittent i.p. injections of a larger dose (50 mg/kg/d x 3) were equally effective against the solid form of Meth A fibrosarcoma. Intraperitoneal injection of TJ14026 prolonged the life of mice with 5-FU resistant P388 leukemia. Oral administration of TJ14026 was also effective against P815 mastocytoma and L-5178Y-ML lymphoma in the liver, an P388 leukemia metastasized to the lymph nodes. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) levels were elevated in the serum of un-treated mice bearing P815 mastocytoma but not in mice treated with TJ14026.
Irinotecan (CPT-11) is a camptothecin derivative used for the treatment of cancer. It is a prodrug that is metabolized to its active form, SN-38 [(+)-(4S)-4,11-diethyl-4,9-dihydroxy-1H-pyrano[3',4':6,7]- indolizino[1,2-b]quinoline-3,14(4H,12H)-dione]. To clarify the pharmacokinetic difference between CPT-11 and SN-38, the plasma levels, tissue distribution and excretion of SN-38 were investigated after dosing rats with 14C-labeled SN-38. The plasma radioactivity showed bi-exponential decay with a terminal half-life of 9.91 h. TLC separation revealed that the plasma radioactivity consisted mainly of SN-38 at 5 min after dosing; however, it was soon replaced with SN-38 glucuronide (SN-38 Glu) and an unknown metabolite (M-2). The half-life of unchanged SN-38 after dosing with SN-38 was about 7 min, which was much shorter than that after dosing with CPT-11 (2.8 h) as reported previously. Its radioactivity was excreted mainly in feces (70.0% within 168 h), and biliary excretion (64.1% within 48 h) could account for the fecal excretion. The major component of urinary and biliary radioactivity was found by TLC to be SN-38. Whole body autoradiograms revealed that the tissue distribution of the radioactivity was low except in the liver and kidney. The radioactivity decreased rapidly and little was found in the body 24 h after dosing. In conclusion, SN-38 was excreted rapidly from bile and showed poor tissue distribution. These characteristics lead to a shorter SN-38 half-life, more so than dosing with CPT-11.
SM-11355, cis[((1R,2R)-1,2-cyclohexanediamine-N,N ')bis(myristato)] platinum(II), is a lipophilic platinum complex. SM-11355 suspended in Lipiodol (SM-11355/Lipiodol) was shown to have antitumor activity against hepatic tumors after intra-hepatic arterial administration in animal models. In this study, the in vitro growth inhibitory activities of SM-11355 and cisplatin (CDDP) following 7-d drug exposure were examined using rat ascite hepatoma AH-109A cells and various human tumor cell lines. In monolayer or suspension cell cultures, SM-11355 did not inhibit the cell growth, whereas SM-11355/Lipiodol had dose-dependent growth inhibitory activities, as did CDDP suspended in Lipiodol (CDDP/Lipiodol). This was also the case in the colony formation assay in agarose gel. CDDP/Lipiodol released platinum compound into the culture medium rapidly, whereas SM-11355/Lipiodol released it slowly but constantly for 7 d. Furthermore, a significant amount of platinum was detected in the cells treated with CDDP/Lipiodol and SM-11355/Lipiodol. These results suggest that Lipiodol plays an important role in the in vitro cytotoxicity of SM-11355, and certain platinum compounds released from SM-11355/Lipiodol have growth inhibitory effects on these cells.
The synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of novel 1-substituted-1,2-dihydro-pyridazine-3,6-diones (4a--l, 5a--j) as potential anticonvulsant agents are described. The compounds were tested in vivo for the anticonvulsant activity. The compound which have maximum protection against MES induced seizures is 1-[3-(2-aminophenylamino)-2-hydroxypropyl)-1,2-dihydro-pyridazine-3,6-dione 4h (ED(50)=44.7 mg x kg(-1) i.p.) 1-[2-hydroxy-3-piperazin1-yl-propyl)-1,2-dihydro-pyridazine-3,6-dione 4c (ED(50)=72 mg x kg(-1) i.p.) and 1-[2-hydroxy-3-imidazol-1-yl-propyl)-1,2-dihydro-pyridazine-3,6-dione 4d (ED(50)=79 mg x kg(-1) i.p.) were also found to have maximum protection against MES induced seizures. Whereas all these compounds failed to protect the animals from subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (Metrozol) seizure threshold test (sc-Met).
Treatment with the triester of S-(1,2-dicarboxyethyl)glutathione (DCE-GS) prevented the hepatotoxicity induced by acetaminophen via elevation of the glutathione (GSH) level in rat hepatocytes. This elevation of the GSH level in rat hepatocytes by DCE-GS triester was dose- and time-dependent (2.1-fold in 24 h with 0.5 mm). DCE-GS triester increased the GSH level much more effectively than GSH, DCE-GS, and DCE-GS monoester and diester. Furthermore, the activity of y-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS), the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH biosynthesis, was also increased by DCE-GS triester treatment (1.4-fold in 24 h with 1.0 mm). In contrast, with a rat liver homogenate, DCE-GS increased the y-GCS activity, whereas DCE-GS triester had no effect on this activity. These results suggested that DCE-GS triester, which is transported into hepatocytes much more effectively than DCE-GS and other DCE-GS esters due to its greater lipophilicity, was hydrolyzed to DCE-GS, and then the DCE-GS produced increased the GSH level via activation of gamma-GCS in rat hepatocytes.
We detected the beta-1,2-mannosyltransferases (beta-1,2-MTs), which participate in the biosynthesis of oligomannosyl side chains in the mannan acid-labile fraction, in a particulate insoluble fractions prepared from Candida albicans NIH B-792 strain cells grown at 27 degrees C and at 37 degrees C in a yeast extract-added Sabouraud liquid medium (YSLM). The beta-1,2-MT VI-6 prepared from the cells grown at 27 degrees C exhibited the maximum activity at pH 7.0 and at 30 degrees C. The beta-1,2-MT VI-6 activity was only slightly affected by Mn2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, but completely inhibited by Zn2+ and Ni2+. The beta-1,2-MT activities from the cells grown at 37 degrees C were lower than that from the cells grown at 27 degrees C, especially on the longer beta-1,2-mannooligosaccharides than tetraose.
The effects of esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin) and its 6-glycoside, esculin, on 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) formation and carcinogenesis induced by a chemical carcinogen, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), were examined in the colons of male Fischer 344 rats. Animals were given water containing esculetin or esculin for 7 d before subcutaneous injection of DMH (20 mg/kg body wt), killed 24 h after DMH treatment, and the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and 8-oxodG in the colons were determined. Both esculetin and esculin suppressed significantly the DMH-induced increases in 8-oxodG and TBARS in rat colon mucosa. We further investigated the modifying effect of esculin intake on the development of DMH-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Animals were given DMH once a week for 4 weeks to induce ACF. They then received water containing esculin ad libitum for 5 weeks (initiation phase) or 11 weeks after DMH treatment (post-initiation phase). Animals in the positive control group received tap water throughout the experiment. At the end of the experiment (16 weeks), the ingestion of esculin during the initiation phase significantly reduced the incidence of gross tumors, the number of ACF per rat and the mean number of AC per focus, while the esculin treatment during the post-initiation phase significantly decreased only the number of ACF per rat. These results suggest that esculin intake has an inhibitory effect on DMH-induced oxidative DNA damage and carcinogenesis in rat colons.
In 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA)-treated rat brain and urine, 3-methyl-6,7-methylenedioxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (3Me6,7MDTIQ) was detected as a new metabolite. The content of 3Me6,7MDTIQ in (R)-MDA-treated rat was significantly higher than that in (S)-MDA-treated brain and urine. This result suggests that this metabolism of MDA contains stereoselective pathways. The pharmacological effects of 3Me6,7MDTIQ on behavior differed from those of MDA. The ambulation score of 3Me6,7MDTIQ was significantly decreased compared to the control, and the rearing score of 3Me6,7MDTIQ was moderately decreased compared to the control in an open-field test.
1-Methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (1MeTIQ), an endogenous parkinsonism-preventing substance, and its 5-, 6-, and 7-hydroxylated derivatives are reported to show in vitro neuroprotective activity against toxicity due to salsolinol in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. In the present study, we tested the parkinsonism-preventing potential of these derivatives by means of the pole test in C57BL mice in vivo, and measured brain dopamine contents by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Parkinsonism was induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydroisoquinoline(MPTP), and pretreatment with any of the 1MeTIQ derivatives prevented its induction. 6-Hydroxy-1MeTIQ showed the greatest preventive activity. The amount of dopamine in the brain was reduced by MPTP treatment, and this reduction was suppressed by pretreatment with 1MeTIQ derivatives. These hydroxy-1MeTIQ derivatives may have potential for the treatment of Parkinson's disease as well as 1MeTIQ itself.
In order to find new anti-Pseudomonas agents, we carried out whole-cell based P. aeruginosa growth assay, and identified 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1,3,5-triazine (Compound A). This compound showed anti-Pseudomonas activity against wild as well as pumpless strain equally at a same concentration. Also, this compound was structurally very similar to A22, which is known to inhibit the bacterial actin-like protein MreB. By the analysis of resistant strains, the primary target of this compound in P. aeruginosa was definitely confirmed to be MreB. In addition, these compounds showed a bacteriostatic effect, and induced the morphology changes in P. aeruginosa from rod shape to sphere shape, which leads to be clinically favorable in terms of susceptibility to phagocytosis and release of endotoxin. These results display that Compound A is a very attractive compound which shows anti-P. aeruginosa activity based on inhibition of MreB without being affected by efflux pumps, and could provide a new step toward development of new promising anti-Pseudomonas agents, MreB inhibitors.
Antioxidant property and hematopoietic repair capacity are important characteristics of radioprotective agents. Some studies have demonstrated that 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (PGG), a molecule isolated from the waterlily, has antioxidant, hematopoietic repair, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we try to determine whether PGG extracted from a lily, Nymphaea tetragona var. angusta, has radioprotective effects on splenocytes in vitro against (60)Co gamma-ray irradiation with absorption doses of 2 Gy and 4 Gy. Results show that PGG treatment dramatically enhances the proliferation of splenocytes compared with irradiated but untreated controls. In addition, PGG treatment before irradiation protects the splenocytes from lethal effects of irradiation and decreases DNA damages as identified by the alkaline comet assay. PGG-treated cells also show less radiation-induced apoptosis. These cells have lower concentrations of the pro-apoptotic protein p53 and more of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. The results presented in this study suggest that PGG has a cytoprotective effect on immune cells exposed to normally damaging amount of radiation. Thus, PGG could be an effective, non-toxic radioprotective agent.
Hypoxia is the hallmark of solid tumors and contributes to tumor angiogenesis mainly through activation of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). In addition to upregulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in angiogenesis, HIF-1 plays critical roles in the metabolism, proliferation, metastasis, and differentiation of cancer cells. We and others have previously shown that 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (PGG) from Oriental herbal medicine possesses anti-angiogenic, anti-tumorigenic, and anti-diabetic activities. In the present study, we report that PGG inhibits hypoxia-induced protein accumulation, transcriptional activation, and mRNA expression of HIF-1α in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. PGG reduced cellular and secreted VEGF levels as well as mRNA expression in LNCaP cells. PGG suppressed capillary tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) maintained in conditioned medium of hypoxia-induced LNCaP cells, indicating that PGG has anti-angiogenic activity under hypoxic condition. Furthermore, PGG reduced expression of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) as well as phosphorylation of AKT and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in LNCaP cells under hypoxic condition. Consistently, LY294002, a specific PI3K inhibitor, enhanced the inactivation of HIF-1α and AKT by PGG in LNCaP cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PGG inhibits hypoxia-mediated accumulation of HIF-1α as well as its downstream signaling to VEGF and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in LNCaP prostate cancer cells.
This study examined the antiviral activity of the root of Paeonia lactiflora PALL. Among the solvent fractions of the crude drug, the ethyl acetate fraction showed anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) activity (IC50, 8.1 microg/ml) in an HBV-producing HepG2.2.15 cell culture system. The active anti-HBV principle was isolated and identified as 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (PGG) from the crude drug by activity-guided fractionation. PGG isolated from P. lactiflora was examined for the inhibition of HBV multiplication by measurement of HBV DNA and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels in the extracellular medium of HepG2.2.15 cells after 8-d treatment. PGG decreased the level of extracellular HBV (IC50, 1.0 microg/ml) in a dose-dependent manner. PGG also reduced the HBsAg level by 25% at a concentration of 4 microg/ml. The gallate structure of PGG may play a critical role in the inhibition of anti-HBV activity. These results suggest that PGG could be a candidate for developing an anti-HBV agent.
In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of kaempferol in the mouse model of Parkinson's disease, which was induced by neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). We confirmed that MPTP led to behavioral deficits, depletion of dopamine and its metabolites, reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity, and the elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the substantia nigra. When administered prior to MPTP, kaempferol improved motor coordination, raised striatal dopamine and its metabolite levels, increased SOD and GSH-PX activity, and reduced the content of MDA compared with mice treated with MPTP alone. Immunohistochemical studies using anti-tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) antibody showed that medication of kaempferol could prevent the loss of TH-positive neurons induced by MPTP. Taken together, we propose that kaempferol has shown anti-parkinsonian properties in our studies. More work is needed to explore detailed mechanisms of action.
Neuroprotective effects of estrogen and estrogen-like chemicals on neurodegenerative diseases, especially Parkinson's disease, have been well established. In the present study, we compared the effects of Bak Foong Pill (BFP), a well-known gynaecological tonic in China, and 17beta-estradiol, on dopamine transporter (DAT) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene expression patterns in ovariectomized, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahyrdropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) model mice, using multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). MPTP, a specific dopaminergic neurotoxin, significantly decreased DAT and TH mRNA levels in the striatum, midbrain and cerebellum, but not the cortex, of C57BL/6 mice. However, MPTP-challenge with BFP pretreatment demonstrated reduced neurotoxicity, with DAT and TH mRNA levels either not affected by MPTP or affected to a significantly lesser extent in the midbrain and striatum as compared to the MPTP treated controls. 17beta-estradiol treatment prevented MPTP-induced reduction of DAT expression in striatum and midbrain, but failed to alter TH expression. These results suggest that BFP is able to protect dopaminergic neurons against MPTP-induced neuronal damage in a mechanism that is different from the protective effect of estrogen.
The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) has been employed to create a Parkinson's disease-like model in both rodents and primates based primarily on its ability to create a striatal dopamine deficit due to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra compacta. The present study was carried out to determine the possible effects of phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs) from Cistanches salsa (C. A. MEY, G. BECK) on attenuating the serious behavioral disorder and increasing dopamine (DA) levels in the striata of MPTP-lesioned C57 mice. MPTP (30 mg/kg i.p. for 4 d) induced serious behavioral disorders and significantly reduced striatal DA levels in C57 mice. In spontaneous motor activity and rotarod tests, obvious behavioral differences were seen between control and model groups. PhGs (10, 50 mg/kg) significantly increased the spontaneous movement number and latent period of mice on the rotating rod (p<0.01). Injections of MPTP 30 mg/kg for 4 d caused a significant reduction in DA, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid, and homovanillic acid in striata analyzed by HPLC-electrochemistry (p<0.01). The neurotoxic effects of MPTP were attenuated by pretreatment with PhGs (10, 50 mg/kg) in a dose-dependent fashion. The apparent neuroprotective effects of PhGs on nigral dopaminergic neurons were also confirmed by the results of immunohistochemical staining. The present in vivo data clearly demonstrate that PhGs can protect dopaminergic neurons against dopamine neurotoxicity induced by MPTP, as suggested by an earlier in vitro study. The neuroprotective effects of PhGs were the first reported for a natural product.
Acacetin (5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone), a constituent of flavone naturally present in plants, has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities. Neuroinflammation is thought to be one of the major pathological mechanisms responsible for Parkinson's disease (PD), and has been a primary target in the development of treatment for PD. In the present study, we evaluated the neuroprotective effect of acacetin in PD induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP+)/or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and examined the related pathways in vitro and in vivo. In primary mesencephalic culture, acacetin protected dopaminergic (DA) cells and inhibited production of inflammatory factors such as nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, and tumor necrosis factor-α against MPP+-induced toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. Then, we confirmed the effect of acacetin (10 mg/kg/d for 3 d, per os (p.o.)) in a mouse model of PD induced by MPTP (30 mg/kg/d for 5 d, intraperitoneally (i.p.)). In the behavioral test (pole test), the acacetin-treated mice showed decreased time of turning and locomotor activity, which were longer in MPTP-only treated mice. In addition, the acacetin-treated group inhibited degeneration of DA neurons and depletion of dopamine level induced by MPTP toxicity in the substantia nigra and striatum of the brain. Moreover, the acacetin-treated group inhibited microglia activation, accompanied by production of inducible nitric oxide synthases and cyclooxygenase-2. These results suggest that acacetin can protect DA neurons against the neurotoxicity involved in PD via its anti-inflammatory action.
An anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatographic method using a TSKgel DEAE-2SW column and zone electrophoresis using a fused-silica capillary are described for the preparative and analytical separations of the products of the reaction between insulin and exo-3,6- epoxy-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride (ETPA), an amino protective reagent. Four stable products were identified having exo-3,6-epoxy-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalic group(s) on insulin at the i) Gly(A1), ii) Gly(A1) and Phe(B1), iii) Gly(A1) and Lys(B29), and iv) Gly(A1), Phe(B1) and Lys(B29) sites, together with four labile products produced by the reaction of ETPA with the non-amino groups of the stable products. The usefulness of capillary electrophoresis was demonstrated in the evaluation of the effect of the molar ratios of anhydride to insulin on the production of the insulin derivatives.
The gastrointestinal (GI) physiology of beagle dogs was effectively regulated with a combined treatment using intramuscular pentagastrin (10 micrograms/kg x 2) and intravenous atropine sulfate (0.02 mg/kg x 1). The superiority of the GI physiology regulated-dogs over the intact dogs was confirmed by comparative bioavailability studies using two classes of preparations of poorly water-soluble 4-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-[2-(4-isobutylphenyl)ethyl]-6,9-dimethyl-6H- thieno[3,2-f][1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a][1,4]diazepine (Y-24180). Both the fine granules and the tablets of Y-24180 exhibited similar absorption profiles in the intact dogs, whereas the latter preparations revealed a delayed plasma curve of the drug in the regulated-dogs. The absorption profiles of the two classes of Y-24180 preparations in the regulated-dogs simulated those in healthy volunteers. The combined-treatment of beagle dogs with pentagastrin and atropine sulfate was suggested to supply a useful animal model for predicting the absorption characteristics of poorly water-soluble drugs and their preparations in humans.
A series of novel 1-substituted-4-(3-methylphenyl)-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-a]quinazolin-5(4H)-ones were synthesized by the cyclization of 2-hydrazino-3-(3-methylphenyl) quinazolin-4(3H)-one with various one carbon donors. The starting material 2-hydrazino-3-(3-methylphenyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one, was synthesized from 3-methylaniline by a novel innovative route. When tested for their in vivo H(1)-antihistaminic activity on conscious guinea pigs, all the test compounds protected the animals from histamine induced bronchospasm significantly, whereas the compound 1-methyl-4-(3-methylphenyl)-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-a]quinazolin-5(4H)-one II was found to be equipotent (percent protection 70.0%) with the reference standard chlorpheniramine maleate (percent protection 71%). Compound II show negligible sedation (7%) when compared to chlorpheniramine maleate (25%). Hence it could serve as prototype molecule for further development as a new class of H(1)-antihistamines.
Starting from 6-hydroxy-3,4-dihydro-1H-quinoline-2-one, a series of 1-substituted-7-benzyloxy-4,5-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]quinolines was synthesized and their structures were characterized using IR, 1H-NMR, MS, and elemental analysis techniques. Anticonvulsant activity was evaluated in the maximal electroshock (MES) test, subcutaneous pentylenetetrazol (scMet) test, and rotarod neurotoxicity test. The most active compound was 7-benzyloxy-4,5-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]quinoline 4a. Its ED50 in the MES and scMet tests was 17.3 and 24 mg.kg-1, respectively. The safest compound was 4 g, 1-phenyl-7-benzyloxy-4,5-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]quinoline, with TD50 and protective index (PI) (PI=TD50/ED50) values of greater than 300 mg.kg-1 and 13, respectively. The PI value of compound 4 g was better than that of most marketed drugs. Structure-activity relationships are also described in this paper.
Gallotannins are plant secondary metabolites and are widely included to polyphenolic compounds. Gallotannins are water-soluble polyphenols with wide-ranging biological activities. Nitric oxide (NO) is well known as a mediator of inflammation. Macrophages express inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and produce NO after lipopoly saccharide (LPS) stimulation. In the present study, we examined the inhibitory effects of seven gallotannins isolated from Euphorbia species (Euphorbiaceae) on the LPS-induced NO production and underlying mechanisms of action. Among the seven gallotannins, 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (gallotannin 15) and 1,2,6-tri-O-galloyl-beta-D-allose (gallotannin 23) significantly reduced LPS-induced NO production in macrophages. Gallotannin 15 and 23 (0.1-10 microg/ml) dose-dependently decreased gene expression and production of iNOS. In addition, gallotannin 15 and 23 (0.1-10 microg/ml) dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB as indicated by inhibition of degradation of I-kappaBalpha, nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB, and NF-kappaB-dependent gene reporter assay. Our results suggest that gallotannins possess an inhibitory effect on the LPS-induced inflammatory reaction.
The aim of this study is to determine the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogues on tumor growth and body weight, changes in plasma ionized calcium, parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) production, bone resorption, and the distribution of the 1,25(OH)2D3 receptor (VDR) on tumors in nude mice-bearing the canine adenocarcinoma (CAC-8). Thirty-seven nude mice were implanted subcutaneously with CAC-8. Two weeks after implantation, the mice were divided into 5 groups and injected intraperitoneally 3 times/week for 4 weeks with 5 different substrates. Group I (nontumor-bearing mice) were injected with vehicle. Groups II through V were CAC-8-bearing mice injected with the following: Grp. II, vehicle; Grp. III, analog V; Grp. IV, 1,25(OH)2D3; and Grp. V, EB1089. Our results showed that mice body weight (% change) of CAC-8-bearing mice was significantly lower than those of nontumor-bearing mice (p<0.05). CAC-8-bearing mice treated with analog V maintained their body weight better than CAC-8-bearing mice treated with either vehicle, 1,25(OH)2D3, or EB1089. A reduction of tumor growth was observed in CAC-8-bearing mice treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogues; however, the reduction was not statistically significant compared to the vehicle-treated CAC-8-bearing mice. All CAC-8-bearing mice increased osteoclastic bone resorption and hypercalcemia. Immunohistochemical staining of CAC-8 with VDR antibody demonstrated a positive reaction in nuclei of tumor cells. In conclusion, CAC-8-bearing mice treated with analog V were more active and maintained their body weight better than other CAC-8-bearing groups. Analog V-treated mice also showed no toxic side effects of hypercalcemia despite an increase in plasmaionized calcium comparable to nontumor-bearing mice. Tumor volumes of CAC-8-bearing mice treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogues were smaller than vehicle-treated CAC-8-bearing mice. This finding suggested an inhibitory effect on tumor cell growth.
It has been found that Bacillus stearothermophilus UK563-derived immunosuppressant fraction (Fr. 5-B) consists of 1,3-diacylglycerols with saturated iso- and anteiso-type fatty acids (C14:0-C18:0) as major components. The compound, 1,3-di-14-methylpentadecanoyl glycerol (1,3-diiso C16:0 G), was synthesized and its effect on T cell proliferation was investigated together with its related isofatty acids. While 1,3-diiso C16:0 G, iso C16:0, iso C17:0, iso C17:0 methyl ester (OMe) and anteiso C17:0 OMe suppressed the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) of C57BL/6 against BALB/c mice, iso C15:0, 1,3-acylglycerols with normal C16:0, C16:1 and C18:0 did not, suggesting that the presence of isofatty acids with a certain length may be essential for the suppression of MLR. 1,3-Diiso C16:0 G and iso C16:0 strongly inhibited the autologous MLR of mesenteric lymph node cells against self-antigen presenting cells in MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr (MRL/lpr) mice, but had no effect on concavalin A-induced T cell proliferation.