Genetically-defined mitochondrial deficiencies that result in the loss of complex II function lead to a range of clinical conditions. An array of tumor syndromes caused by complex II-associated gene mutations, in both succinate dehydrogenase and associated accessory factor genes (SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF1, SDHAF2), have been identified over the last twelve years and include hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytomas, a diverse group of renal cell carcinomas, and a specific subtype of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). In addition, congenital complex II deficiencies due to inherited homozygous mutations of the catalytic components of complex II (SDHA and SDHB) and the SDHAF1 assembly factor lead to childhood disease including Leigh syndrome, cardiomyopathy and infantile leukodystrophies. The role of complex II subunit gene mutations in tumorigenesis has been the subject of intensive research and these data have led to a variety of compelling hypotheses. Among the most widely researched are the stabilization of hypoxia inducible factor 1 under normoxia, and the generation of reactive oxygen species due to defective succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase function. Further progress in understanding the role of complex II in disease, and in the development of new therapeutic approaches, is now being hampered by the lack of relevant cell and animal models. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Respiratory complex II: Role in cellular physiology and disease.
(1) A (K+ + H+)-ATPase containing membrane fraction, isolated from pig gastric mucosa, has been further purified by means of zonal electrophoresis, leading to a 20% increase in specific activity and an increase in ratio of (K+ + H+)-ATPase to basal Mg2+-ATPase activity from 9 to 20. (2) The target size of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase, determined by radiation inactivation analysis, is 332 kDa, in excellent agreement with the earlier value of 327 kDa obtained from the subunit composition and subunit molecular weights. This shows that the Kepner-Macey factor of 6.4 X 10(11) is valid for membrane-bound ATPases. (3) The target size of (K+ + H+)-ATPase is 444 kDa, which, in connection with a subunit molecular weight of 110000, suggests a tetrameric assembly of the native enzyme. The ouabain-insensitive K+-stimulated p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity has a target size of 295 kDa. (4) In the presence of added Mg2+ the target sizes of the (K+ + H+)-ATPase and its phosphatase activity are decreased by about 15%, while that for the (Na+ + K+)-ATPase is not significantly changed. This observation is discussed in terms of a Mg2+-induced tightening of the subunits composing the (K+ + H+)-ATPase molecule.
1.1. A description is given of a micro-method of obtaining the pH-activity curves of very small organs or very small parts of larger organs with very good reproducibility.2.2. At the same time this method offers the possibility of pH-determination in 0.01 ml serum. Thus the blood of smaller animals can also be examined.3.3. The small organs of internal secretion proved each to have a characteristic pH-activity curve both for the phosphomonoesterases and for the pyrophosphatases. Some of the curves are reproduced.4.4. The curves of the phosphomonoesterases and those of the pyrophosphatases each have their own typical shape, suggesting an independence of the two enzymes in the cell metabolism.Résumé1.1. Description d'une microméthode permettant d'obtenir, d'une façon parfaitement reproductible, des courbes d'activité-pH de très petits organes ou de très petites fractions d'organes.2.2. Cette méthode permet en même temps la détermination du pH dans 0.01 ml de sérum, ce qui permet d'étudier à ce point de vue le sang de très petits animaux.3.3. Les petits organes à secrétion interne présentent chacun une courbe caractéristique d'activité-pH, pour les phosphomonoestérases et pour les pyrophosphatases. Quelques-unes de ces courbes sont reproduites.4.4. Les courbes correspondant à ces deux groupes d'enzymes ont chacune une forme caractéristique, suggérant l'indépendance de fonctionnement des phosphomonoestérases et des pyrophosphatases dans le métabolisme de la cellule.Zusammenfassung1.1. Eine Mikromethode wird bescrieben, die es uns ermöglicht, die pH-Aktivitätskurven sehr kleiner Organe oder sehr kleiner Teile von grösseren Organen mit guter Reproduzierbarkeit zu bestimmen.2.2. Diese Methode bietet gleichzeitig eine Möglichkeit zur pH-Bestimmung in 0.01 ml Serum. Dadurch kann auch das Blut kleinerer Tiere untersucht werden.3.3. Die kleinen Organe mit innerer Sekretion haben alle, wie bewiesen wurde, eine besondere pH-Aktivitätskurve, und zwar sowohl für die Phosphomonoesterasen als auch für die Pyrophosphatasen Einige dieser Kurven werden abgebildet.4.4. Die Kurven der Phosphomonoesterasen und die der Pyrophosphatasen haben immer ihre eigene, typische Form. Dies könnte auf eine voneinander unabhängige Funnktion der beiden Enzyme im Zellstoffwechsel hinweisen.
Frequency dependence of relative permittivity (dielectric constant) and conductivity, or the 'dielectric dispersion', of cultured cells (RBL-1 line) in suspension was measured using a fast impedance analyzer system capable of scanning 92 frequency points over a 10 kHz-500 MHz range within 80 s. Examination of the resulting dispersion curves of an improved reliability revealed that the dispersions consisted of at least two separate components. The low-frequency component (dispersion 1) had a permittivity increment (delta epsilon) of 10(3)-10(4) and a characteristic frequency (fc) at several hundred kHz; for the high-frequency component (dispersion 2), delta epsilon was smaller by a factor of 10(2) and fc = 10-30 MHz. Increments delta epsilon for both components increased with the volume fraction of cell suspension, while fc did not change appreciably as long as the conductivity of suspending medium was fixed. By fitting a model for shelled spheres (the 'single-shell' model) to the data of dispersion 1, the dielectric capacity of the plasma membrane phase (Cm) was estimated to be approx. 1.4 microF/cm2 for the cells in an isotonic medium. However, simulation by this particular shell model failed to reproduce the entire dispersion profile leaving a sizable discrepancy between theory and experiment especially at frequencies above 1 MHz where dispersion 2 took place. This discrepancy could not be filled up even by taking into consideration either the effect of cell size distribution actually determined or that of possible heterogeneity in the intracellular conductivity. The present data strongly indicate the need for a more penetrating model that effectively accounts for the behavior of dispersion 2.
The use of 0.2 M NaOH as a solvent for modification of arginine residues by 1,2-cyclohexanedione in disulfide containing proteins is destructive to the disulfide bonds. Modification can be conveniently done in 0.1 M triethylamine (pH 10.9) without any deleterious effect. Lysozyme was found to retain all its enzymic activity in 0.1 M triethylamine (pH 10.9) whereas complete loss of activity took place in 0.2 M NaOH.
Our objective was to assess the reproducibility of the 60-Hz magnetic field-induced, time-dependent transcription changes of c-fos, c-jun and c-myc oncogenes in CEM-CM3 cells reported by Phillips et al. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1132 (1992) 140-144). Cells were exposed to a 60-Hz magnetic field (MF) at 0.1 mT (rms), generated by a pair of Helmholtz coils energized in a reinforcing (MF) mode, or to a null magnetic field when the coils were energized in a bucking (sham) mode. After MF or sham exposure for 15, 30, 60 or 120 min, nuclei and cytoplasmic RNA were extracted. Transcription rates were measured by a nuclear run-on assay, and values were normalized against either their zero-time exposure values, or against those of the c-G3PDH (housekeeping) gene at the same time points. There was no significant difference, at P=0.05, detected between MF and either sham-exposed or control cells at any time point. Transcript levels of the oncogenes were measured by Northern analysis and normalized as above. No significant difference (P=0.05) in transcript levels between MF and either sham-exposed or control cells was detected.
Liposomes can be prepared by a combination of reverse phase evaporation and sequential extrusion through polycarbonate membranes. The vesicles have diameters in the range 0.05-0.5 micron and are mostly unilamellar as indicated by electon microscopy, capture volume, and availability of reactive groups to periodate oxidation. Sequential extrusion leads to a decrease in the encapsulation efficiency by 2-4-fold, depending upon the lipid composition. The inclusion of cholesterol at a 1 : 1 molar ratio of cholesterol-to-phospholipid increases both the mean size and the size heterogeneity of the liposomes as measured by negative-stain electron microscopy. The mean size of vesicles with an equal molar ratio of cholesterol-to-phospholipid after extrusion through a 0.1 micron membrane is 0.140 micron. Vesicles composed of phosphatidylglycerol/phosphatidylcholine (1 : 4) have a mean size of 0.08 micron after extrusion through a 0.1 micron membrane. The intermediate-size (0.1-0.2 micron) vesicles formed by this process have an aqueous space-to-lipid ratio of 3 : 5 and capture between 12 and 25% of the aqueous phase. The procedure is relatively simple, rapid, and yields almost quantitative recovery of vesicles that encapsulate a large percentage of the total aqueous space.
A highly purified amylase protein inhibitor from the kernels of hexaploid wheat, designated 0.19 according to its gel electrophoretic mobility, has been characterized according to its circular dichroism spectra determined at different pH values and in the presence or absence of dissociating and reducing agents. The 0.19 albumin has also been characterized according to the specificity with which it inhibits 21 α-amylases from different origins and according to its sensitivity to a number of chemical and enzymatic treatments of its inhibitory action on human saliva and Tenebrio molitor L. larval midgut α-amylases.
Human gingival fibroblasts in confluent cultures were continuously exposed to a static 0.2 T magnetic field for 6 or 8 months. Culture flasks were not changed during the exposure, but culture medium was renewed. After dilution and mixing of the cultures surviving intact, field-exposed and sham-exposed cultures received further field- or sham-exposure on Sm-Co blocks. Rate of cell proliferation, histogram of the nuclear DNA content, rates of lactate production and glucose consumption and the ATP content were determined and cell morphology was investigated by both light- and electron-microscopy. Results show no marked differences between exposed and control cells.
The 0.3 protein encoded by coliphage T7 does not normally contain cysteine residues. Incorporation of [35S]cysteine can therefore be used to assay mistranslation. We have purified 0.3 protein, synthesized in the presence of [35S]cysteine, from T7 infected cells of E. coli and determined the locations of misincorporated cysteine residues. Analysis of the molecular weights (Mr) of [35S]cysteine-labeled tryptic peptides of 0.3 protein demonstrated that cysteine (encoded by UGU or UGC) is not extensively misincorporated, as might be predicted by substitution for arginine residues (encoded by CGU or CGC). Edman degradation of the amino-terminal 50 residues of [35S]cysteine-labeled 0.3 protein determined that cysteine was most frequently misincorporated at position 15, which is correctly occupied by a tyrosine residue (encoded by UAC). There are four other tyrosine codons (1 UAU; 3 UAC) in the region of the 0.3 protein studied, but these were not mistranslated. The context in which a codon is located must therefore be more important in causing mistranslation than the sequence of the codon itself. Misincorporation of [35S]cysteine was also found at positions 9 (ACC, asparagine), 16 (GAA, glutamic acid), 41 (GCC, alanine) and 42 (GAU, aspartic acid). One mistranslation event appears to increase the likelihood that the following codon will also be mistranslated. This clustering of misincorporated [35S]cysteine residues was accentuated in 0.3 protein synthesized in the presence of streptomycin.
1.1. A method is described for the rapid quantitative microdetermination of amino acids on paper chromatograms and in slutions. Its main advantage is that the interference of ammonia is eliminated by th use of buffered Dowex-50.2.2. Quantities of amino acids containing between 0.05 and 5 μg of α-amino nitrogen can be determined. The accuracy of a single determination is of the order of ±5% at levels of 0.05–1μg N, but is ±2% when quantities of 1.5–5 μg N are determined.
Large (0.5 - 1.0 micron) cytoskeleton-free vesicles were obtained, by 'budding', from fresh human and rabbit erythrocytes incubated at 45 degrees C and titrated with EDTA and CaCl2. This process occurs without hemolysis. The isolated vesicles maintain their cytoplasmic integrity and normal membrane orientation, and are resistant to hemolysis over the pH range 5.0 - 11.0 and temperature range 4-50 degrees C. The only membrane proteins detected in vesicles from human erythrocytes were band 3 region polypeptides and bands PAS-1, PAS-2 and PAS-3. Vesicles obtained from rabbit erythrocytes were similarly simple. Because of their size and stability these vesicles are amenable to both kinetic and quantitative analysis using the same experimental techniques employed in studies of synthetic lipid membranes. The results obtained in this study indicate that these vesicles are essentially markedly simplified biological cells, and thus may be useful as a biologically relevant model membrane system for examining the molecular interactions which occur within, across and between cell membranes.
1.1. Inulin has been used to measure the extracellular spaces in rat renal cortical slices incubated at 0.5° and 25° in ordinary media, K+-free media containing 10 mM ouabain and ordinary media containing 1 mM sodium iodoacetate.2.2. Neither the composition of the media, nor the temperatuer of incubation affected the initial equilibration of inulin in approx. 26% of the tissue wet weight.3.3. Slices which were moderately swollen at 0.5° showed little change in their extracellular spaces, but the percentage of the tissue wet weight which was extracellular decreased significantly as slices became grossly swollen.4.4. Slices incubated at 25° showed a gradual increase in the percentage of their wet weights occupied by inulin, irrespective of their water contents. This was shown not to be due to any increase in their ferely accessible extracellular space but was the result either of inulin diffusing into a relatively inaccessible extracellular compartment or, more probably, into cells.
Newborn rabbits delivered spontaneously at term and cared for by the mothers were studied from 0.5 to 12.5 days of age. Curves are constructed to describe the changes in weight, lung and alveolar wash phosphatidylcholine and saturated phosphatidylcholine, and lung protein. The curves are complex and non-linear. However. expressing the increases in lung and alveolar wash phosphatidylcholine and saturated phosphatidylcholine pool sizes relative to animals weight results in a decreasing linear relationship from 0.5 to 12.5 days of age. By 12.5 days the ratios of lung phosphatidylcholine and saturated phosphatidylcholine to weight approximate the ratios measured for adult rabbits. The ratios of saturated to total phosphatidylcholine in the alveolar washes and lungs remained invarient throughout the study period.
A specific and saturable interaction of an 80 000 dalton tryptic fragment of spectrin with intact spectrin has been detected. When spectrin was incubated with 125I-labelled 80 kDa fragment at 37 degrees C in the presence of 0.1 M NaCl, acrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis showed the presence of bands in addition to the usual spectrin dimer and tetramer and the 80 kDa fragment. These bands correspond to 5.6 X 10(5) daltons (dimer + fragment), 1.04 X 10(6) daltons (tetramer + fragment) and 1.52 X 10(6) daltons (hexamer + fragment). Measurement of radioactivity showed that these additional bands contained the labelled fragment. Maximal binding capacity of the 80 kDa fragment was approximately 170 micrograms fragment per mg spectrin, corresponding to 1 mol fragment per mol spectrin dimer.
The M-line protein component of molecular weight 165 000 was isolated and purified from rabbit skeletal muscle using ion exchange chromatography. Gel electrophoresis, in the presence and absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, revealed the protein to be homogeneous. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis and low speed sedimentation equilibrium studies in 0.5 M KCl, 50 mM potassium phosphate gave a molecular weight of 165 000 suggesting the protein to be made up of a single polypeptide chain. Circular dichroism spectra revealed the presence of two negative dichroic bands located at 216 and 208 nm, indicative of the presence of some beta-structure. Ellipticity values at these two wavelengths were --6500 +/- 400 and --7500 +/- 400 deg . cm2 . dmol-1, respectively. Addition of 165 000 component lowered the enzymatic activity of creatine kinase M-line protein and the nature of the inhibition was found to be a competitive one. When the protein was mixed with creatine kinase in a 1 : 1 mole ratio in a medium consisting of 0.2 M KCl, 25 mM Tris, 1 mM dithiothreitol (pH 8.0), low speed sedimentation equilibrium studies gave a molecular weight of 260 000 +/- 10 000 for the complex, indicative of an interaction of the two components of the M-line.
The rat homologue of the human M(r) 110000 antigen, which cross-reacts with anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies, was isolated from a rat lung cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequence revealed a signal peptide, cysteine-rich and immunoglobulin-like region, serine-threonine region, and N-glycosylation sites in the extracellular portion. Northern blot analysis demonstrated a wide distribution of the mRNA in adult rat tissues and A10 rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Therefore, the rat homologue of the human M(r) 110000 antigen may be a receptor or a cell adhesion molecule rather than a specific carcinogenic antigen.
The possible role of polyamines in the covalent modification of cellular protein(s) was investigated by studying the metabolic labeling of NB-15 mouse neuroblastoma cells by [14C]putrescine in fresh Dulbecco's medium followed by separation of cellular proteins through sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Under such incubation conditions, a single protein band with an apparent molecular weight of 18000 was radioactively labeled. [14C]Spermidine also specifically labeled this protein. The majority of the radioactivity covalently linked to the 18-kDa protein was recovered as hypusine. The radioactive labeling of this protein was stimulated 1.3-fold by 1 mM dibutyryl cAMP and 2.8-fold by 4% fetal calf serum. Fetal calf serum also stimulated the labeling of many other cellular proteins. This may be due to the conversion of putrescine to amino acids via the formation of gamma-aminobutyric acid. Aminoguanidine, a potent inhibitor of diamine oxidase, completely inhibited the fetal calf serum-stimulated labeling of these cellular proteins but had no effect on the labeling of the 18-kDa protein. The specific labeling of the 18-kDa protein by [14C]putrescine occurred in various mammalian cells examined including the N-18 mouse neuroblastoma cells, 3T3-L1 murine preadipocytes, and H-35 rat hepatoma cells. The specificity of labeling of the apparently ubiquitous 18-kDa protein and the stimulation of this labeling by fetal calf serum suggest that this protein may be important in mediating some of the actions of polyamines in cell growth regulation.
In assaying subcellular fractions of human neutrophils for N-formyl peptide binding sites using the photoaffinity ligand FMLPL-SASD-125I (125I-labelled N-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanyl-N epsilon- (2-(p-azidosalicylamido)ethyl-1,3'-dithiopropionyl)-lysine) several molecular species were observed. We confirmed localization of the N-formyl peptide receptor of Mr 50 000-70 000 in the plasma membrane and specific granule fractions. A species of Mr 33 000-35 000 was detected in the light Golgi/endosomal fraction, whose size is consistent with the deglycosylated form of the receptor. In addition, a major binding species of Mr 24 000 was identified that co-localized on sucrose gradients with specific granule markers. This Mr 24 000 species, which was investigated further, was found to be released upon cell stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate or FMLP in the presence of dihydrocytochalasin B. It had an affinity for FMLPL-SASD of 145 nM (cf. 0.3 nM for the cell surface receptor). The specificity for the formyl group was lost as the nonformylated Met-Leu-Phe was as effective FMLPL in competing with FMLPL-SASD-125I for binding to th Mr 24 000 species. A structurally unrelated peptide, however, did not compete for the binding. The labelling of the Mr 24 000 species was dependent on the presence of Ca2+, as was its apparent Mr, which shifted from 24 000 to 50 000-70 000 in the presence of Ca2+. By incubating photoaffinity-labelled plasma membrane fractions with specific granule fractions, we could generate a receptor fragment of Mr 24 000, although the relationship to this fragment of the specific granule species is unknown at present. The N-terminal sequence of the Mr 24 000 species was determined and it appears to be a novel protein. Further work will allow its relationship to the receptor, if any, to be elucidated and allow assignment of a function to this potentially important molecule.
A 340 000-dalton component "C-III" was found when Triton X-100-containing extracts of ileal mucosa were incubated with human or porcine intrinsic factor vitamin B-12 preparations. It was not formed when abnormal human intrinsic factor, unable to attach to the intrinsic factor receptor, was used. Prolonged storage promoted the trnasfer of vitamin B-12 to it from the vitamin B-12-intrinsic factor recptor species C-I and C-II. The component was also present in ileal extracts prepared with or without detergent and it bound vitamin B-12 directly. Immunologically and by electrofocusing it could be classified as a cobalophilin but its molecular dimensions were larger than described for cobalophilin. It thus represents a novel vitamin B-12 binding protein, possibly a macromolecular acceptor of vitamin B-12 which accepts vitamin B-12 bound via intrinsic factor to the ileal intrinsic factor recptor. In the presence of EDTA or at low pH, vitamin B-12-intrinsic factor did not bind to any of the receptor species and under the same conditions it could all be dissociated from the receptor complexes but not from C-III. The dissociated receptor was able to recombine with vitamin B-12-intrinsic factor and it appeared to bind free and vitamin B-12-bound intrinsic factor in vivo.
The M-line protein component of molecular weight 165 000 was isolated and purified from rabbit skeletal muscle using ion exchange chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulphate electrophoresis revealed that the protein was homogeneous. Circular dichroism measurements indicated that the protein interacts with myosin and heavy meromyosin subfragment 2 (S2). There was an increase in negative ellipticity at 221 nm upon interaction, relative to the calculated values assuming no interprotein interaction. The net increaes in negative ellipticity at 221 nm as a result of interaction of M-protein with myosin and subfragment 2 were 600 degrees and 800 degrees respectively. When the protein was mixed with subfragment 2 in a 1 : 1 mol ratio in 0.5 M KCl/25 mM Tris buffer at pH 8.0, low speed sedimentation equilibrium studies gave a molecular weight of 235 000 +/- 10 000 for the complex, indicative of an interaction of the two components. On a Bio gel A 0.5 m column, M-protein and S2 when applied in 1 : 1 mol ratio, were eluted as a single symmetrical peak and a molecular weight of 230 000 was obtained for the complex from the observed elution volume. Both circular dichroism and sedimentation equilibrium studies indicated no interaction of M-line protein with light meromyosin and subfragment 1. Interaction of the 165 000 component with the flexible hinge region of myosin may have special significance in terms of the mechanism accounting for the reversible expansion of the interfilament distance which occurs during contraction.
A catalytically active Mr 90 000 fragment was generated from native Mr 140 000 human plasma angiotensin-I-converting enzyme after treatment with reagents that induced a perturbation of the native tertiary conformation. Treatment of converting enzyme with 6 M urea produced an aggregation of molecules that was susceptible to proteolysis by either trypsin, chymotrypsin or Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase to generate the Mr 90 000 converting enzyme. Also, 1 M ammonium hydroxide, pH 11.3, or 0.01 M sodium hydroxide, pH 11.3, cleaved converting enzyme to the Mr 90 000 fragment. Degradation was not an autocatalytic phenomenon, since it was not prevented by inhibition of converting enzyme with EDTA. The enzymatically mediated, but not the alkaline mediated, cleavage was inhibited by specific converting enzyme inhibitors captopril and Merck L-154,826. This suggests that captopril and Merck L-154,826 can prevent converting-enzyme degradation by preserving a conformation that does not have sites exposed to proteolytic enzymes. This conformation may mimic the native conformation which is quite resistant to serine proteinases.
Solen ensisensis muscle arginine kinase (ATP : L-arginine phosphotransferase, EC 22.214.171.124) was isolated in an homogeneous state. Its molecular weight was found to be about 80 000. The properties of this enzyme were compared with those of arginine kinase from Sipunculus nudus, an enzyme which also has a molecular weight of about 80 000. Both enzymes have several reactive thiol groups (8 thiol groups in the Solen kinase and 12 in the Sipunculus enzyme were titrateable with 5,5'-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic) acid and histidine residues (both enzymes have 6 reactive histidine residues). These kinases were, therefore, highly susceptible to oxidation. Both enzymes show the same pH optimum and absolute specificity towards the guanidine substrate, L-arginine. The reaction kinetics of both enzymes are of the sequential type. In the presence of alpha-aminoacids of Mg2+-ADP, similar spectral effects were obtained. The enzymes differ in their enzymic activities and in their rate of recovery following urea denaturation. The most important difference that appeared to be a special feature of the Sipunculus enzyme is that the spectrum of the Mg2+-ADP-enzyme complex is strongly intensified by L-arginine.
Antineurofilament antisera raised against chicken brain antigen were used to isolate neurofilament protein from bovine brain filament preparations by immunoaffinity chromatography. Glial fibrillary acidic protein, the subunit of glial filaments, passed unabsorbed through the column. The Mr 70 000 component of the neurofilament triplet was tightly absorbed to the column and essentially the only protein eluted at pH 2.5. The other two components of the triplet, of approximately 200 000 and 150 000 daltons, were less tightly attached to the column and eluted at pH 6.0 in 5 M urea.
The 25 000-Da tryptic fragment from rabbit muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase was subjected to cyanogen bromide digestion, and the four fragments isolated. Only the 13 000-Da fragment induced ionophorous activity in planar thin lipid membranes made with 5:1 (w/w) phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol in decane. The membranes became cation selective, with a selectivity sequence among divalent of Mn2+ greater than Ca2+ greater than Ba2+ greater than Sr2+ greater than Mg2+. This is different from that of the 25 000-Da fragment (A.E. Shamoo, 1978, J. Memb. Biol. 43, 227-242), it's 'parent' 55 000-Da fragment, and the intact enzyme, all of which have the same selectivity sequence. The inhibitory effects of Hg2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ were also examined. All were inhibitory, with Zn2+ being the most effective of these. The heavy-metal-induced inhibition of Ca2+ conductance could be reversed by selective chelation of the heavy metals by EDTA. From changes in the selectivity as well as changes in heavy-metal-induced inhibition behavior, we conclude that the ion transport site of the 13 000-Da fragment may not be the same site as that of the parent fragment. It is either a different site altogether or has been physically modified by peptide cleavage.
Phosphorylation of NaI-treated bovine brain cortex microsomes by inorganic phosphate in the presence of Mg2+ and ouabain has been studied at 0 degrees C (pH 7.4) and 20 degrees C (pH 7.0). Nearly maximal (90%) and half-maximal phosphorylation are achieved at 20 degrees C within 2 min with 50--155 and 5.6--17 muM 32Pi, respectively, and at 0 degrees C within 75 s with 300--600 and 33--66 muM 32Pi, respectively. Maximal phosphorylation yields 146 pmol 32P - mg-1 protein. Without ouabain (20 degrees C, pH 7.0) less than 25% of the incorporation observed in the presence of ouabain is reached. Preincubation of the native microsomes with Mg2+ and K+, in order to decompose possibly present high-energy phosphoryl-bonds prior to ouabain treatment, does not affect the maximal phosphate incorporation. This indicates that the inorganic phosphate incorporation is not due to an exchange with high-energy phosphoryl-bonds, which might have been preserved in the microsomal preparations. Phosphorylation of the native microsomes by ATP in the presence of Mg2+ and Na+ reaches 90 and 50% maximal levels within 15--30 s at 0 degrees C and pH 7.4 at concentrations of [gamma-32P]ATP of 5--32 and 0.5--3.5 muM, respectively. The maximal phosphorylation level is 149 pmol 32P-mg-1 protein, equal to that of ouabain-treated microsomes phosphorylated by inorganic phosphate. Both inorganic phosphate and ATP phosphorylate on site per active enzyme subunit of 135 000 molecular weight. From the equilibrium constants for the phosphorylation of ouabain-treated microsomes by inorganic phosphate at 0 degrees C and 20 degrees C standard free-energy changes of --5.4 and --6.8 kcal/mol, respectively, are calculated. These values yield a standard enthalpy change of 14 kcal/mol and an entropy change of 70 cal/mol - degree K. This characterizes the reaction as a process driven by an entropy change. The intermediate formed by phosphorylation with Pi has maximal stability at acidic pH, as is the case for the intermediate formed with ATP. Solubilization in sodium dodecyl sulfate stabilizes the phosphoryl-bond in the pH range of 4--7. The non-solubilized preparation has optimal stability at pH 2--4, the level of which is equal to that of detergent-solubilized intermediate. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis of the microsomes at pH 3, following incorporation of 32Pi yields 11 protein bands, only one of which (mol. wt 100 000--106 000) carries the radioactive label. This protein has the same molecular weight as the protein, which is phosphorylated by ATP in the presence of Mg2+ and Na+.