Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy

Published by Cambridge University Press (CUP)
Online ISSN: 1469-1833
Publications
Article
Background: Health anxiety is common, impairing, and costly. The role of catastrophizing of bodily sensations (i.e. rumination about, overconcern with, and intolerance of bodily sensations) in maintaining health-related anxiety (i.e. anxiety about perceived health problems) is important, but understudied, in the health anxiety literature. Aims: The present study investigates the role of catastrophizing of bodily sensations as a maintenance factor for health-related anxiety over time. Method: Undergraduates (n = 226 women; n = 226 men) completed a baseline assessment, 14-day daily diary study, and 14-day longitudinal follow-up. Results: Path analysis indicated catastrophizing of bodily sensations maintains health-related anxiety from one month to the next in both men and women. Conclusions: The present study bridges an important gap between theory and evidence. Results support cognitive behavioral theories and extend cross-sectional research asserting catastrophizing of bodily sensations maintains health-related anxiety over time. A cyclical, self-perpetuating pattern was observed in the present study wherein catastrophizing of bodily sensations and health-related anxiety contribute to one another over time. Results also suggest targeting catastrophizing of bodily sensations may reduce health-related anxiety.
 
Article
Hairpulling (trichotillomania) is often linked to stressful circumstances and may produce feelings of guilt, shame and humiliation. In a behavioural model, affective experience was identified as an important maintaining factor, as both a cue and reinforcer. Habit Reversal is one of the more successful behavioural treatment options. The present study evaluated the role of emotional arousal in the intensity of urges to pull hair in a teenaged patient with trichotillomania. Using an experimental ABCD/DCBA reversal design, the patient used imagery to increase her emotional arousal through the presentation of a manipulation script based on her own experience, after baseline and during a rumination, cognitive and a behavioural distraction phase. Subjective measures of urge intensity were collected at five time points during completion of a task, and a tally was made of an overt hair touching behaviour operationalized as a hairpulling substitute behaviour. The patient experienced more intense urges to pull whilst ruminating on the arousal script compared to either of the distraction phases. The findings support the view that the experience of negative emotional arousal can exacerbate and intensify the experience of urges to pull hair in patients with trichotillomania, and that both cognitive and behavioural distraction techniques have some effect in controlling them. Demonstrating this to the patient aided engagement in treatment.
 
Article
Background: Clark and Wells' cognitive model of social anxiety proposes that socially anxious individuals have negative expectations of performance prior to a social event, focus their attention predominantly on themselves and on their negative self-evaluations during an event, and use this negative self-processing to infer that other people are judging them harshly. Aims: The present study tested these propositions. Method: The study used a community sample of 161 adolescents aged 14-18 years. The participants gave a speech in front of a pre-recorded audience acting neutrally, and participants were aware that the projected audience was pre-recorded. Results: As expected, participants with higher levels of social anxiety had more negative performance expectations, higher self-focused attention, and more negative perceptions of the audience. Negative performance expectations and self-focused attention were found to mediate the relationship between social anxiety and audience perception. Conclusions: The findings support Clark and Wells' cognitive model of social anxiety, which poses that socially anxious individuals have distorted perceptions of the responses of other people because their perceptions are coloured by their negative thoughts and feelings.
 
Article
Common factors are important for the therapy outcome and also mediate the specific factors of therapy. As one of the common factors, client's expectations towards treatment have been understudied. The aim was to examine the pre-treatment expectations of outpatient substance abuse treatment clients (N=327, 111 females, 216 males) and its impact on retention, effectiveness and satisfaction at 6-month follow-up. Dependent variables included the clients' attitudes towards the twelve-step principles and participation, medical treatment and therapists' role. An emphasis on the importance of medical treatment at baseline predicted dropping out. Similarly, it predicted a lower percent days abstinent (PDA6) at 6 months follow-up in comparison to those who did not consider medical treatment important for recovery. Percent days abstinent increased with a more positive attitude to mutual support. At follow-up, those who had assessed the therapist's role in recovery to be most important at the baseline were most satisfied with the treatment. The client's pre-treatment expectations have an impact on treatment retention and effectiveness. Further effort should be made to study how clients' image of treatment could be improved and also how the commitment of the clients with multiple problems could be improved.
 
Article
Background: Breaking Free from OCD is a cognitive behavioural self-help book for young people with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The book is written for 11–16 year olds as a first step intervention for reducing mild to moderate symptoms of OCD. Aims: This report describes a preliminary evaluation of the feasibility and acceptability of the book as a self-help intervention. Method: Using a case-series design, eight 11–16 year olds with OCD were monitored for symptom stability 3 weeks prior to receiving Breaking Free from OCD for use over an 8-week period. Weekly telephone calls were received to complete the CY-BOCS for symptom severity and to monitor adherence to the intervention. The CHOCI and SDQ were sent to participants and their parents pre-, mid- and post-intervention. Results: There was a significant reduction in CY-BOCS symptom severity over the course of the intervention; however, there were no statistically significant changes on the self-report measures. The intervention was well received by the majority of young people who took part. Conclusions: Breaking Free from OCD may help young people with OCD and is an acceptable low intensity intervention. This evaluation is the first step in developing low intensity approaches for child OCD.
 
Commonalities and differences between Motivational Interviewing and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy at the conceptual and clinical levels Commonalities Differences 
Article
Motivational Interviewing (MI) and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) are two emerging therapies that focus on commitment to behavior change. The aim was to provide the first systematic comparison of MI with ACT. A systematic comparison was undertaken of MI and ACT at the conceptual level, with a focus on their philosophical and theoretical bases, and at the clinical level, with a focus on the therapeutic relationship, use of language in therapy, and use of values in therapy. Conceptually, MI and ACT have distinct philosophical bases. MI's theoretical basis focuses on language content, whereas ACT's theoretical basis focuses on language process. Clinically, ACT and MI have distinct approaches to the therapeutic relationship, fundamentally different foci on client language, and different uses of client values to motivate behavior change. ACT, but not MI, directly targets the willingness to experience thoughts, feelings, and sensations. Despite their conceptual and clinical differences, MI and ACT are complementary interventions. Collaborations between MI and ACT researchers may yield fruitful cross-fertilization research on core processes and clinical outcomes.
 
The total number and percentage per session of methods used by all therapists, showing all clients attending all four sessions (n = 41); the number in each cell states for how many clients the method was used during each session 
Participant flow through the study 
Mean scores (standard deviations), interaction effect and between group effect sizes (Cohen's d) of the intent-to-treat sample 
Article
Background: Depressive symptoms are one of the main reasons for seeking psychological help. Shorter interventions using briefly trained therapists could offer a solution to the ever-rising need for early and easily applicable psychological treatments. Aims: The current study examines the effectiveness of a four-session Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) based treatment for self-reported depressive symptoms administered by Masters level psychology students. Method: This paper reports the effectiveness of a brief intervention compared to a waiting list control (WLC) group. Participants were randomized into two groups: ACT (n = 28) and waiting list (n = 29). Long-term effects were examined using a 6-month follow-up. Results: The treatment group's level of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory) decreased by an average of 47%, compared to an average decrease of 4% in the WLC group. Changes in psychological well-being in the ACT group were better throughout, and treatment outcomes were maintained after 6 months. The posttreatment "between-group" and follow-up "with-in group" effect sizes (Cohen's d) were large to medium for depressive symptoms and psychological flexibility. Conclusions: The results support the brief ACT-based intervention for sub-clinical depressive symptoms when treatment was conducted by briefly trained psychology students. It also contributes to the growing body of evidence on brief ACT-based treatments and inexperienced therapists.
 
Example of theme development 
Table of themes and subthemes 
Article
Background: There is limited research on the applicability and effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for people experiencing psychotic disorders. Clinical trials suggest ACT may be efficacious in reducing distress and rehospitalization rates in psychosis. Mindfulness and reduced literal believability of thought content have been associated with reduced distress for this population. Aims: To better understand ACT for psychosis, this study investigated clients' perspectives of the hypothesized active therapeutic processes of ACT. Method: Semi‑structured interviews, conducted with nine adults diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and persistent positive symptoms, were analysed thematically. Results: Four themes emerged: Usefulness of therapy; Changes attributed to ACT; Understanding of therapy; and Non-specific therapy factors. All participants found therapy useful and recommended ACT. Mindfulness, defusion, acceptance and values work were described as the most useful therapy components and contributing to positive changes. Self-rated frequency of symptoms did not change; however a reduction in the intensity and distress associated with symptoms was reported. Non-specific therapy factors were deemed useful by participants but not directly related to outcome. Conclusions: These findings are consistent with the theoretically defined underlying active processes of ACT and are relevant for this population. The findings also indicate important clinical implications for ACT for this client group: greater attention to the client connecting metaphors and concepts to the intended meaning may be valuable; caution should be used with some mindfulness and defusion techniques for intense experiences; and values work may be particularly useful for this population.
 
Article
Increased heartbeat perception accuracy (HBP-accuracy) may contribute to the pathogenesis of Panic Disorder (PD) without or with Agoraphobia (PDA). Extant research suggests that HBP-accuracy is a rather stable individual characteristic, moreover predictive of worse long-term outcome in PD/PDA patients. However, it remains still unexplored whether HBP-accuracy adversely affects patients’ short-term outcome after structured cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for PD/PDA. Aim: To explore the potential association between HBP-accuracy and the short-term outcome of a structured brief-CBT for the acute treatment of PDA. Method: We assessed baseline HBP-accuracy using the “mental tracking” paradigm in 25 consecutive medication-free, CBT-naive PDA patients. Patients then underwent a structured, protocol-based, 8-session CBT by the same therapist. Outcome measures included the number of panic attacks during the past week, the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ), and the Mobility Inventory-Alone subscale (MI-alone). Results: No association emerged between baseline HBP-accuracy and posttreatment changes concerning number of panic attacks. Moreover, higher baseline HBP-accuracy was associated with significantly larger reductions in the scores of the ACQ and the MI-alone scales. Conclusion: Our results suggest that in PDA patients undergoing structured brief-CBT for the acute treatment of their symptoms, higher baseline HBP-accuracy is not associated with worse short-term outcome concerning panic attacks. Furthermore, higher baseline HBP-accuracy may be associated with enhanced therapeutic gains in agoraphobic cognitions and behaviours.
 
Percentage of therapists endorsing each learning method as preferred method of learning (First, Second or Third preference): items endorsed by >50% of respondents are highlighted 
Article
A theoretical and empirical base for CBT training and supervision has started to emerge. Increasingly sophisticated maps of CBT therapist competencies have recently been developed, and there is evidence that CBT training and supervision can produce enhancement of CBT skills. However, the evidence base suggesting which specific training techniques are most effective for the development of CBT competencies is lacking. This paper addresses the question: What training or supervision methods are perceived by experienced therapists to be most effective for training CBT competencies? 120 experienced CBT therapists rated which training or supervision methods in their experience had been most effective in enhancing different types of therapy-relevant knowledge or skills. In line with the main prediction, it was found that different training methods were perceived to be differentially effective. For instance, reading, lectures/talks and modelling were perceived to be most useful for the acquisition of declarative knowledge, while enactive learning strategies (role-play, self-experiential work), together with modelling and reflective practice, were perceived to be most effective in enhancing procedural skills. Self-experiential work and reflective practice were seen as particularly helpful in improving reflective capability and interpersonal skills. The study provides a framework for thinking about the acquisition and refinement of therapist skills that may help trainers, supervisors and clinicians target their learning objectives with the most effective training strategies.
 
Article
Background: Research suggests that core schemas are important in both the development and maintenance of psychosis. Aims: The aim of the study was to investigate and compare core schemas in four groups along the continuum of psychosis and examine the relationships between schemas and positive psychotic symptomatology. Method: A measure of core schemas was distributed to 20 individuals experiencing first-episode psychosis (FEP), 113 individuals with "at risk mental states" (ARMS), 28 participants forming a help-seeking clinical group (HSC), and 30 non-help-seeking individuals who endorse some psychotic-like experiences (NH). Results: The clinical groups scored significantly higher than the NH group for negative beliefs about self and about others. No significant effects of group on positive beliefs about others were found. For positive beliefs about the self, the NH group scored significantly higher than the clinical groups. Furthermore, negative beliefs about self and others were related to positive psychotic symptomatology and to distress related to those experiences. Conclusions: Negative evaluations of the self and others appear to be characteristic of the appraisals of people seeking help for psychosis and psychosis-like experiences. The results support the literature that suggests that self-esteem should be a target for intervention. Future research would benefit from including comparison groups of people experiencing chronic psychosis and people who do not have any psychotic-like experiences.
 
Article
A better understanding of relationships between adolescent depression and family functioning may help in devising ways to prevent development of depression and design effective therapeutic interventions. This study explored the relationship of parental emotional attitudes, (perceived criticism and expressed emotion) to adolescent self-evaluation and depression. A sample of 28 clinic-referred adolescents and their mothers participated. The Five Minute Speech Sample was used to measure parental expressed emotion, and the adolescents completed the Children's Depression Inventory, Self-Perception Profile for Children global self-worth scale, a self-criticism scale and a perceived parental criticism scale. There was partial support for a model of adolescent negative self-evaluation as a mediator in the relationship between parental emotional attitudes and adolescent depressive symptoms. The data also supported an alternative hypothesis whereby adolescent depressive symptoms are related to negative self-evaluation. The overall pattern of results emphasizes the significance of adolescents' perceptions of parental criticism, rather than actual levels, in understanding the relationship between parental emotional attitudes and adolescent depressive symptoms.
 
Article
Comprehensive cognitive theories of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) propose that clinical obsessions and compulsions arise from specific sorts of dysfunctional beliefs and appraisals, such as inflated sense of responsibility, thought-action fusion (TAF), and thought suppression. The present study aimed to examine the mediator roles of responsibility and thought suppression between TAF and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Specifically, it aimed to explore the relative effects of TAF factors (i.e. morality and likelihood) on inflated sense of responsibility and on thought suppression to increase the obsessive qualities of intrusions. Two hundred and eighty-three Turkish undergraduate students completed a battery of measures on responsibility, thought suppression, TAF, OC symptoms, and depression. A series of hierarchical regression analyses, where depressive symptoms were controlled for, indicated that TAF-morality and TAF-likelihood follow different paths toward OC symptoms. Although TAF-morality associated with inflated sense of responsibility, TAF-likelihood associated with thought suppression efforts, and in turn these factors increased OC symptoms. These findings provide support for the critical role of sense of responsibility and thought suppression between the relationship of TAF and OC symptoms. Findings were discussed in line with the literature.
 
Article
When using Motivational Interviewing (MI), once resistance or ambivalence are resolved and motivation is solidified, many practitioners struggle with how best to transition the discussion toward action planning, while still retaining the spirit and style of client centeredness, i.e., moving from the WHY phase to the HOW phase of counseling in a style that is MI-consistent. For many, there is a perception that the counseling style, skills, and strategies used to build motivation are distinct from those used in the action planning phase. The WHY to HOW transition does not, however, necessitate abandoning a client-centered style for a more overtly educational or directive style. Goal setting, action planning, provision of advice, and relapse prevention can be implemented from an autonomy supportive, MI consistent framework. To this end, this article will present a new class of reflection, which we have termed "action reflections", that can be used to help bridge the WHY-HOW gap. Action reflections (AR) allow the clinician to maintain a tone and orientation that are consistent with MI, i.e. autonomy support; guiding versus directing, during the action phase of counseling. They differ from reflecting change talk as they focus not on the WHY of change, but the HOW, WHEN, or WHERE. Action Reflections (ARs) also differ from the more common type of reflections such as those that focus on client feelings, rolling with resistance, or acknowledging ambivalence as ARs usually contain a potential concrete step that the client has directly or obliquely mentioned. Like any type of reflection, ARs represent the clinician's best guess for what the client has said or, more apropos here, where the conversation might be heading. This article describes the various types of ARs and provides examples of each to help clinicians incorporate them into their behavior change counseling.
 
Article
Although behavioural activation therapy is effective for depression there is always room for improvement, and also the need to extend this treatment modality to anxiety disorders. A search was conducted for an easy to apply and effective method of achieving these aims. To both enhance the effectiveness of behavioural activation treatment for depression and facilitate its extension to anxiety disorders, it is proposed that the Behavioral Approach/Activation System (BAS) and Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) be incorporated. BIS/BAS Scales are easy to administer and evaluate ensuring that there is minimal added complexity. Overall, BAS, BAS subscale (Drive, Reward Responsiveness, and Fun Seeking) and BIS scores provide valuable information pertaining to a person's approach and avoidance responses. This general information, plus that derived from specific scale items, can be used to guide more focused and effective behavioural activation strategies. Brief case examples are provided to demonstrate how the BIS/BAS Scales can be applied. BIS/BAS Scales offer an easy to apply and effective means of enhancing behavioural activation therapy for depression and extending this treatment modality to anxiety disorders.
 
(Colour online) Association between total activities and change in symptomatology 
(Colour online) Association between functional and pleasant activities and change in symptomatology 
(Colour online) Association between social activities and change in symptomatology 
Article
: Accumulating evidence supports behavioral activation (BA) as an effective stand-alone treatment for improving depression and related conditions, though little is known about the factors that influence positive outcomes. Such research is ripe for future dissemination and implementation efforts, particularly among vulnerable older adult populations in need of such efficacious and transportable treatments. Aims : Given the central but largely unexamined role that increasing activities plays in BA, we investigated the association between participation in weekly activities and treatment outcome. Method : As a preliminary study of this research question, we report on a sample of 20 older adults with symptoms of depression and complicated bereavement who completed 5 weeks of BA, pre- and posttreatment measures, and weekly planners of BA activities. All activities were coded as either functional or pleasurable (by participants) and if they were social in nature (by trained coders). Results : Overall, BA was associated with reductions in symptomatology. However, participants’ total number of reported activities, and their relative proportion of functional, pleasurable, and social activities, did not significantly relate to their improvement in symptoms. Conclusion : One interpretation of the findings suggests that countering avoidance more generally, potentially independent of the specific type or total amount of activation activities, may be associated with amelioration of symptomatology.
 
Article
While research indicates cognitive biases in individuals vulnerable to bipolar symptoms, the specificity of these biases to the self and others, and to low or high activation states, is underexplored. These biases were investigated using individuals with high (n = 24) and low levels (n = 24) of hypomanic personality (HPS) during word rating and free recall of a list of trait words after a positive versus neutral mood induction. The mood induction was not successful. Also, in contrast to the predicted self-serving bias, there was a self-denigratory bias in self-ratings relative to ratings of another person. In post hoc analyses, the study succeeded in producing a rating task of trait words that differentiated between high and low hypomania-prone individuals, as the high HPS group made higher ratings of high activation trait words (e.g. dynamic) to describe positive and neutral attributes regardless of whether it referred to themselves or another person. The high HPS group also showed a negative recall bias, but it was not specific to the self, questioning assumptions made about negative biases in existing research. Furthermore, a strong relationship emerged between greater use of imagery at encoding and greater recall of self-referent, positive, high activation words, suggesting a role for the intensity of images associated with the amplification of emotions in people with bipolar disorder (Holmes et al., 2008). It seems important to consider various multiple factors in memory bias research in people vulnerable to bipolar disorder, including self versus other encoding, high versus low activated states and the role of mental imagery. Further research is needed to spell out their interactive contribution.
 
Article
Physical injury and psychological trauma associated with combat in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan frequently lead to a constellation of symptoms including pain, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression. This single case study describes the application of a behaviorally-based psychotherapy known as behavioral activation for the treatment of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms in a recent combat veteran with multiple physical injuries sustained from a blast injury. Treatment was provided concurrently with other rehabilitation services and consisted of weekly individual sessions for 4 months, followed by monthly sessions for 4 months. Clinically significant reductions in PTSD and depressive symptoms were noted between baseline and 1 year follow-up. Preliminary evidence from this case suggests that behavioral activation may be a promising treatment for PTSD and depression, and can be readily tailored to individuals with physical limitations such as pain and mobility restriction. Treatment can be provided in the context of concurrent interdisciplinary medical and rehabilitation care.
 
Change in PHQ-9 severity categories pre/post/follow-up
Article
Background: Behavioural Activation (BA) is an evidence-based psychological treatment for depression based on behavioural theory. However, in common with other talking therapies, there is limited evidence about occupational factors related to treatment. This is an important gap in the research given the emphasis placed on employment considerations in recent service initiatives. Aim: A service evaluation to investigate the clinical and fitness to work outcomes of a group BA programme for serving military personnel. Method: 46 patients experiencing moderate to severe depression attended a 12-session Military Behavioural Activation and Rehabilitation Course (MBARC). The primary outcomes were the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), a self-report measure of depression and the patient's medical employability category. Results: Clinical and statistically significant changes were found on the PHQ-9 between pre-course and 3-month follow-up. Pretreatment 3 patients (6.5%) were psychologically fit to deploy on full operational duties in their primary role; this increased to 25 (56.8%) and 29 (65.9%) at 3 and 6-months respectively. Conclusion: Preliminary findings suggest that MBARC is a clinically and occupationally effective treatment for depression in military personnel. Further research is required to identify if BA delivered in a group setting would be effective in non-military settings and whether treatment benefits are maintained in the longer term.
 
Article
Background: Despite the availability of evidence-based treatments for depression, large gaps exist between empirical research and clinical practice. Aims: To make preliminary steps toward the dissemination of Behavioural Activation (BA) via online training by examining clinicians' interest in learning BA via online training and the effects of a preliminary version of BA online training. Method: In study 1, practising clinicians (n = 540) completed a survey that assessed attitudes towards learning BA using an online training format. In study 2, we conducted a small, pilot randomized controlled trial (n = 46) to examine preliminary efficacy of teaching BA principles and treatment strategies with a precursor version of BA online training. Results: Study findings suggest that clinicians have interest in learning about BA via online training and that clinicians participating in BA online training evidence high satisfaction and significant gains in self-efficacy using BA and knowledge of BA terms and concepts. Conclusions: These results support the importance of efforts to disseminate BA and the viability of online training as an easily accessible and affordable training option.
 
Demographic and clinical data of clinical sample (N = 60) Acute Stable Variable Category n = 30 n = 30 
Mean scores, standard deviations and significance values (N = 90) 
Article
This study investigated the role of cognitive mechanisms underlying obsessive compulsive and panic disorders in psychosis, and in particular, their possible contributions to acute psychosis. A total of 90 participants were recruited comprising three equal-size groups, including two clinical groups (acute and stable) and one non-clinical matched control group. Symptom severity and distress was assessed using the PSYRATS, and questionnaire measures of anxiety and obsessive beliefs were administered to all participants. Individuals with a diagnosis of psychosis reported significantly higher levels of obsessional beliefs and anxiety sensitivity than the non-clinical group. Furthermore, acutely psychotic patients reported a significantly higher sense of responsibility and catastrophic misinterpretation than the stable psychiatric controls, and than samples of OCD and GAD patients. Results suggest that these anxiety processes are particularly important during acute psychotic episodes, beyond the reported comorbidity. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings, the limitations of the methodology employed, and suggestions for future research are discussed.
 
Article
Group CBT (G-CBT) for heterogeneous acute psychiatric inpatients (HAPIs), which allows patients to choose the group therapeutic target, might have clinical utility but is empirically untested. To test the feasibility, acceptability and patient-rated effectiveness of G-CBT for HAPIs in which patients' themselves choose the group therapeutic targets, within a previously rarely used sole-standalone session format. Weekly G-CBT was run for two HAPI wards. The G-CBT was evaluated in terms of attendances/re-attendances, and patient feedback on 5-point scales of how strongly patients agreed/disagreed that the group was useful, enjoyable, worth re-attending, and had led to them learning something they could use to reduce their distress. One hundred and thirty-seven separate patients attended a total of 291 times across 31 groups. Being female or having a diagnosis of bipolar disorder significantly predicted re-attendance. Sixty-three percent of patient feedback questionnaires were obtained from groups 10-31 and over 75% of respondents agreed positively with each of the evaluation dimensions. Practise-based evidence from this pilot study suggests that G-CBT for HAPIs, allowing patients to choose therapeutic targets in a sole-session format, is feasible, acceptable and patients find it effective. This supports more widespread deployment of this CBT treatment format. Future research might now test the format's clinical effectiveness with standardized and objective clinical outcome measures.
 
Article
Background: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Psychosis (CBTp) has a strong evidence base and is practised widely in the Western World. Psycho-social interventions, on the other hand, including Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) are hardly used in the low and middle income countries for psychosis. It has been suggested that adaptations in content, format and delivery are needed before CBT can be used outside the Western cultures. We describe preliminary evaluation of Culturally Adapted Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Psychosis (CaCBTp) in in-patient settings in Lahore, Pakistan. Aims: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of culturally adapted CBT for psychosis (CaCBTp) in Pakistan in a pilot project. Method: In a randomized controlled trial we tested CaCBTp against treatment as usual (TAU) in in-patient settings in Pakistan. Those diagnosed with schizophrenia according to the DSM-IV-TR, and who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were recruited into the study. Patients (n = 42) were randomized into two equal groups, i.e. CaCBTp and TAU. Assessments were carried out both at the baseline and then at the end of the therapy by raters blind to the groupings. Psychopathology was measured using PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale of Schizophrenia), PSYRATS (Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales), and the Insight Scale. Results: Patients receiving CaCBTp showed statistically significant improvement on measures of positive symptoms (p = .000), negative symptoms (p = .000), overall psychotic symptoms (p = .000), hallucinations (p = .000), delusions (p = .000) and insight (p = .000) at the end of the therapy. Conclusions: The CaCBTp was effective in reducing symptoms of psychosis and in improving insight in in-inpatient settings in Pakistan.
 
Frequency of therapy contamination of 51 ACE and 49 Befriending sessions rated on the ATIM 
Article
Background: High quality randomized controlled trials (RCT) of psychotherapeutic interventions should ensure that the therapy being tested is what is actually delivered. However, contamination of one therapy into the other, a critical component of treatment adherence, is seldom measured in psychotherapy trials of psychosis. Aims: The aim of the study was to determine whether a purpose-designed measure, the ACE Treatment Integrity Measure (ATIM) could detect therapy contaminations within a controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) versus Befriending for first-episode psychosis and to compare the ATIM to a more traditional adherence measure, the Cognitive Therapy Scale (CTS). Method: Therapy sessions were audio-recorded and at least one therapy session from 53 of the 62 participants in the RCT was rated by an independent rater using the CTS and ATIM. Results: Ninety-nine therapy sessions were rated. All Befriending sessions and all but three CBT sessions were correctly identified. The ATIM showed that 29 of the 99 (29%) sessions were contaminated by techniques from the other therapy. Within the CBT sessions, 19 of the 51 sessions (37%) were contaminated by one or more Befriending techniques. Of the Befriending sessions, 10 of 48 (21%) were contaminated by ACE techniques. The mean CTS score was higher in the CBT than the Befriending group. Conclusions: The ATIM was able to detect contaminations and revealed more meaningful, fine-grained analysis of what therapy techniques were being delivered and what contaminations occurred. The study highlights the benefit of employing purpose-designed measures that include contamination when assessing treatment adherence.
 
Inter-rater reliability of the items of the ROSTA scale as demonstrated by free-marginal multirater kappa values (multirater kfree) 
Article
Background: Recent research has highlighted the importance of psychological interventions such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in improving outcomes and promoting recovery for people with experience of psychosis, although a lack of trained therapists means that availability of face-to-face CBT is low. Alternative modes of delivering CBT are being explored, such as telephone and self-help methods, although research to date on whether they can be implemented effectively is limited. Aims: The aims of the present study were to describe and evaluate a new therapy fidelity scale (ROSTA; Recovery Oriented Self-help and Telephone therapy Adherence). This scale was developed to assess fidelity to cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis (CBTp) focused on improving recovery, with optional subscales for delivery over the telephone and alongside a self-help guide. Method: Experienced CBT therapists rated recorded therapy sessions using the ROSTA scale. The scores were used to assess internal consistency and inter-rater reliability, before being compared to scores from an independent expert rater using an alternative fidelity scale for cognitive therapy in psychosis (the CTS-Psy), to investigate concurrent validity. Results: The ROSTA scale demonstrated excellent internal consistency, inter-rater reliability and validity when evaluated as a whole, although findings were mixed in terms of the individual subscales and items. Conclusions: The ROSTA scale is, on the whole, a reliable and valid tool, which may be useful in training and supervision, a utility that would be further emphasized if the therapeutic intervention it assesses is deemed to be efficacious based on future work.
 
Participant demographics 
Parental contact with health professionals in the last 6 months 
Final model, multiple regression with forward entry, CES total, CHAOS and emotional symptoms on the SDQ 
Article
Children of parents with bipolar disorder are at increased risk of disturbance. This study examined relationships between parental mood, parenting, household organization and child emotional and behavioural adjustment in families with a parent with bipolar disorder to determine areas of specific need for parenting support. 48 parents were recruited through advertisements via self-help organizations. The study was conducted online. Parental mood and activity was assessed by self-report questionnaires (CES-D, ISS, MDQ and SRM); parenting was assessed using the Parenting Scale (PS). The SDQ was used to assess the parent's view of their child's emotional and behavioural difficulties. The Confusion, Hubbub and Order Scale (CHAOS) assessed household organization. Parents reported high levels of difficulties across all measures and scores were above clinical cut-offs on most scales. Children were reported as showing high levels of disturbance on the SDQ, including all sub-scales. Parenting and depression scores were significantly positively correlated, as were depression, parenting and CHAOS score. Regression analyses indicated that CHAOS was the strongest predictor of Total Difficulties and Emotional Symptoms on the SDQ. Families are likely to benefit from interventions tailored to meet their parenting needs.
 
Correlations between the Work and Social Adjustment Scale and the 
Treatment sensitivity: WSAS scores across two assessment points for patients receiving cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia, behaviour therapy for insomnia, behaviour therapy for insomnia plus constructive worry compared to a wait-list control 
Article
Background: Dysfunction is an integral part of chronic insomnia. Despite this, very little effort has yet been made to design and psychometrically validate an insomnia-specific measure of dysfunction. Aims: The purpose was to examine the psychometric properties of the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) as a measure of dysfunction in chronic insomnia. Method: Seventy-three patients with chronic insomnia from three subsamples participated. All the patients completed the WSAS, the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and sleep diaries over one week. Results: An exploratory factor analysis suggested a one-factor solution for the WSAS, determining dysfunction, accounting for 73.7% of the variance. The internal consistency of the WSAS was α = .91. The test-retest reliability for the WSAS items was high at .90-.99 and for the entire scale .99. A cut-off at 17 points was established, discriminating those with subclinical versus moderate or severe clinical insomnia (88% sensitivity and 78% specificity). Evidence of convergent and criterion validity was documented via (1) a significant, positive association between the WSAS and ISI and (2) a higher WSAS score among those with severe clinical insomnia, relative to those with moderate clinical and subthreshold insomnia, as well as a higher WSAS score among those with moderate clinical insomnia relative to those with subthreshold insomnia. The WSAS was also shown to be a treatment-sensitive measure for insomnia patients. Conclusions: The WSAS appears as a reliable and valid measure of dysfunction in chronic insomnia. Additional advantages are its shortness, easiness, and treatment-sensitivity.
 
Article
The likelihood of developing depression increases throughout adolescence. Understanding the relative contribution of psychosocial and cognitive variables to depressive symptoms during the transitional stage of late adolescence should increase the scope for effective prevention and intervention. The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA), Adolescents' Cognitive Style (ACSQ), Relationship Rating Scales (RRS), The Life Events Checklist, and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) were completed by 140 adolescents aged 16-18 years. Alienation from parents and peers, helpless attributional style, gender, and perceived criticism from teachers contributed significantly to variance in scores for depressive symptoms. Negative self-inference and helpless attributions moderated the relationship between perceived criticism and depression in male participants. Different approaches to intervention may be more successful for males and females.
 
Article
Manualized cognitive-behavioural therapy (MCBT) approaches to treating adolescent anxiety and depression have been shown to be effective in recent years, as have MCBT for adult self-harm (SH). This paper describes the rationale for, development and pilot evaluation of the efficacy of a novel manualized CBT package for adolescent self-harm (SH). It also addresses the acceptability of this treatment package to therapists and patients. Twenty-five adolescents (aged 12-18 years) presenting to a Community Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) in Greater London with SH behaviour began the "Cutting Down" programme and 16 (64%) completed the treatment. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, at the end of treatment and at 3 month follow up. Significant reductions in self-harm behaviour, depression symptoms and trait anxiety were reported. There was no change in state anxiety or in levels of parental expressed emotion as perceived by the adolescent. These pilot findings provide preliminary support for the efficacy and acceptability of this time-limited CBT package for adolescents who self-harm.
 
Article
Background: Shame and disgust are often associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following interpersonal traumas such as sexual assault. It has been suggested that individuals with high levels of shame might do less well in standard cognitive behavioural (CBT) interventions. Aims: To see whether applying compassion-focused therapy and developing a compassionate mind can enhance trauma-focused CBT in an adolescent with high levels of shame and disgust the way it has been shown to within the adult population. Method: This single case study describes how trauma-focused CBT was enhanced by compassionate mind training. It details work using this approach with an adolescent female experiencing shame and disgust-based flashbacks. Treatment was provided for 20 sessions over 8 months. Symptoms of PTSD, depression and self-criticism, as well as the ability to self-soothe/reassure, were measured at assessment/start of treatment, mid- and end of treatment. Results: Clinically significant reductions in PTSD, depressive, shame and self-attacking symptoms were found between assessment and completion of treatment. Clinically significant increases in self-reassurance were also reported. Following treatment, symptoms of PTSD and depression were sub-clinical. Conclusion: This case study suggests that developing a compassionate mind alongside trauma-focused CBT may be beneficial to adolescents experiencing shame and disgust with consideration for the young person's level of development and personal circumstances.
 
Advantages of computerized therapy (based on NICE, 2004) 
Study design flow chart of participants’ pathway through the study 
Mean depression scores (MFQ-S) before each session 
Article
"Stressbusters" is an interactive computer software programme based on a clinically effective face-to-face CBT protocol for young people with depression. It was designed for teenagers with mild to moderate depression, and comprises eight 45-minute sessions. Twenty-three young people (aged 12-16; mean age 14.87 years) with symptoms of depression were recruited from CAMHS teams in Manchester and London, and received the Stressbusters treatment (range 1 - 8 sessions, mode 8 sessions). On the K-SADS at initial assessment, 95% met diagnostic criteria for a depressive disorder, with a high group mean score of 35.48 (SD 9.84) on the MFQ. Post-treatment, 22% of young people met criteria for a depressive disorder, with the group mean score on the MFQ falling significantly below clinical cut-off to 20.32 (SD 11.75). These gains were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Significant improvements were also found in the adolescents' global functioning (CGAS), self-reported anxiety (RCMAS), depressive cognitions and attributions (ATQ and CTI-C), and in adolescent- and parent-reported emotional and behavioural difficulties (SDQ). Taken together, these results provide promising preliminary data for the clinical efficacy of Stressbusters as a valid form of CCBT for adolescents with depression.
 
Article
An inflated sense of responsibility is characteristic of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). No previous studies have investigated its origins. Five potential pathways to inflated responsibility beliefs have been proposed; these are tested in this study. A novel measure, the Origins Questionnaire for Adolescents (OQA), was developed to assess experiences on these five pathways. Reliability of the OQA was investigated. The experiences on the five pathways to inflated responsibility beliefs of 16 adolescents with a history of OCD were compared to 16 adolescents with no history of OCD. Parents also reported on adolescents' experiences on the five pathways. Test-retest reliability was high. The internal consistency of the subscales was only partly satisfactory. The groups differed on one pathway; the clinical group reported a higher sense of responsibility for significant incidents with a negative outcome prior to onset of OCD. An inflated sense of responsibility, in combination with the occurrence of specific incidents, might act as a vulnerability factor for development of OCD. Future research should consider how to measure the subtle effects of experiences of responsibility over the course of development.
 
Article
Background: Meta-worry is considered a central component of the Metacognitive Model of Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Although initial research provides support for the applicability of this model to adolescent samples, the construct of meta-worry has yet to be examined in adolescents. Aims: The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Meta-Worry Questionnaire (MWQ), a measure designed to assess negative beliefs about worry, in an adolescent sample, and to examine the degree to which meta-worry is associated with pathological worry in adolescents. Method: A non-referred sample of 175 adolescents completed a modified version of the MWQ along with the Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire-Children (MCQ-C) and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire for Children (PSWQ-C). Results: The MWQ was found to exhibit strong psychometric properties. Most noteworthy, the MWQ was found to be a particularly robust predictor of scores on the PSWQ-C, and incremental validity was also demonstrated. Conclusions: Overall, the current findings provide support for the reliability and validity of the MWQ in adolescents and support for meta-worry as a predictor of worry symptoms in adolescents.
 
Article
Extreme appraisals of internal states correlate with and prospectively predict mood symptoms in adults, and discriminate individuals with bipolar disorder from individuals with unipolar depression and non-clinical controls. These findings required replication in adolescents. This study sought to investigate the relationships between appraisals of internal states, mood symptoms and risk for bipolar disorder in an adolescent sample. A non-clinical sample (n = 98) of adolescents completed measures of mood symptoms, appraisals, and mania risk, alongside covariates. Appraisals of internal states were associated with analogue bipolar symptoms, independently of impulsivity and responses to positive affect. Positive appraisals of activated mood states were uniquely associated with hypomania, whilst negative appraisals were uniquely associated with depression and irritability symptoms. Individuals who appraised activated states as both extremely positive and extremely negative were more likely to score at high or moderate risk for future mania. This study is the first to demonstrate associations between appraisals of internal states, analogue mood symptoms and mania risk in adolescents. Clinical implications are discussed.
 
Flow diagram of participants' progress through the study  
Values for diagnostic status and outcome variables for the ITT sample across time and condition 
Values for diagnostic status and outcome variables for the completer sample across time and condition 
(a) BDI-II scores for ITT sample from pre-treatment to 12-month follow-up. (b) CGAS scores for ITT sample from pretreatment to 12-month follow-up  
(a) BDI-II scores for completer sample from pre-treatment to 12-month follow-up. (b) CGAS scores for completer sample from pretreatment to 12-month follow-up  
Article
This study adds to the limited evidence concerning the benefits of Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) with depressed adolescents. It evaluates the long-term effects of group versus individual delivery of this treatment approach. To conduct a small-scale examination of the long-term efficacy of group versus individual delivery of IPT for depressed adolescents. Thirty-nine adolescents, aged 13-19 years, with a primary diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder, were randomly assigned in blocks to either group or individual delivery of IPT. Standardized clinical interview and questionnaire assessments were conducted at pre- and posttreatment, and 12-month follow-up. Intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses indicated significant improvements in depression, anxiety, youth-reported internalizing problems, and global functioning from pre- to posttreatment for those receiving IPT, with no significant differences in outcome between group and individual formats of delivery. Improvements were maintained at 12-month follow-up. Completer analyses also revealed significant and sustained improvements on these measures for those receiving IPT, with no differences in outcome between therapy formats for most measures. Individual IPT showed significantly greater improvements than group IPT in parent-reported internalizing problems for the completer but not the ITT analyses. Both individual and group formats of IPT offer promise in producing long-term benefits in the treatment of depression among adolescents.
 
Article
The perceived control of intrusive thoughts is important in our understanding of a variety of psychological disorders, but particularly in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Little research has explored thought control strategies in younger populations, despite the frequent onset of OCD in childhood. This study examined thought control strategies and meta-cognitive beliefs in relation to Obsessive Compulsive (OC) interference scores in an adolescent sample. A non-referred sample of 151 adolescents aged 13-16 completed the Thought Control Questionnaire, the Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire - Adolescent version, and the Leyton Obsessional Inventory - Child Version. Adolescents reported using distraction and worry as thought control strategies as much as adults, but social control and reappraisal less frequently, with adolescent males also reporting less use of punishment as a strategy. The strategies of worry and punishment, and positive beliefs about worry, uncontrollability and danger beliefs (UCD) and superstition punishment and responsibility beliefs (SPR) predicted OC interference scores. Furthermore, these meta-cognitive beliefs mediated the relationships between punishment and worry and OC interference scores. Given the similarities between our results and those from research exploring these variables in adults, it is proposed that cognitive behavioural models of OCD that have been developed in adult populations may be relevant to adolescents, but that meta-cognitive beliefs about superstition, punishment and responsibility may be important in adolescence.
 
Article
Quality of attachment relations between adolescents and their parents and peers may be related to early maladaptive schemas as well as to symptoms of depression. The aim of the current study was to assess whether schema domains and maladaptive schemas mediate the relation between indices of quality of attachment relationships with parents and peers and symptoms of depression in non-clinical adolescents (N = 222). Method: A battery of questionnaires was completed, including measures of quality of attachment relations, maladaptive schemas, and depression. The schema domains of disconnection and rejection and other-directedness mediated the relation between quality of attachment relationships and symptoms of depression. More precisely, the schemas' mistrust/abuse and social isolation mediated the relation between trust in parents and depressive symptoms, whereas the schemas' social isolation and self-sacrifice mediated the relation between alienation from peers and symptoms of depression. The mediation analyses suggest that treatment of adolescent depression could be focused on both attachment bonds and on changing maladaptive schemas.
 
Article
The present study evaluated attentional bias in adolescents diagnosed with panic disorder. Although a large body of research exists in the area of attentional bias in adults, this feature of panic disorder is not well understood in adolescents. Twenty-five adolescents, aged 12-17, with a panic disorder diagnosis were included in the study. An emotional Stroop task was utilized to assess whether: (1) adolescents with panic disorder exhibit an attentional bias to panic-relevant stimuli; (2) this bias diminishes after completing a course of CBT; and (3) a specific attentional bias towards disorder-relevant stimuli exists. An attentional bias to panic-relevant stimuli was found at pre-treatment but was no longer present following an intensive CBT intervention. Contrary to some findings in the adult literature, no significant differences were found between panic-relevant versus other threatening stimuli. These results suggest that adolescents with panic disorder, similar to adults, do exhibit an attentional bias towards panic-relevant stimuli, and treatment seems to normalize this cognitive process.
 
Article
Background: Depressive disorder is common in adolescents and largely untreated. Computers offer a way of increasing access to care. Computerized therapy is effective for depressed adults but to date little has been done for depressed adolescents. Aims: The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of The Journey, a computerized cognitive behavioural therapy (cCBT) program for depressed adolescents. Method: Thirty-four adolescents (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.5) referred by school counsellors were randomly assigned to either cCBT or a computer-administered attention placebo program with psychoeducational content (CPE). Participants completed the intervention at school. Data were collected at baseline, post-intervention and at a 1-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure was the Child Depression Rating Scale Revised (CDRS-R); secondary outcome measures were: RADS-2; Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory; Adolescent Coping Scale (short form); response and remission rates on CDRS-R. Completion rates and self-reported satisfaction ratings were used to assess feasibility and acceptabililty of the intervention. Results: Ninety-four percent of cCBT and 82% of CPE participants completed the intervention. Eighty-nine percent liked The Journey a lot or thought it was "okay" and 89% of them would recommend it for use with others as is or after some improvement. Adolescents treated with cCBT showed greater symptom improvement on CDRS-R than those treated with CPE program (mean change on cCBT = 17.6, CI = 14.13-21.00; CPE = 6.06, CI = 2.01-10.02; p< .001). Conclusions: It is feasible, acceptable and efficacious to deliver computerized CBT to depressed adolescents in a school setting. Generalizability is limited by the size of the study.
 
Ratings on potential of cCBT to help children and adolescents 
Ratings of potential problems with using cCBT with children and adolescents 
Ratings of potential advantages of using cCBT with children and adolescents 
Article
Research has begun to examine the effectiveness of computerized cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT) with children and adolescents. Although cCBT appears promising, the attitudes of clinicians towards this type of intervention with children and young people have not been assessed, yet these are important in determining when and if cCBT will be offered. To survey clinicians' attitudes towards cCBT with children and adolescents. Method: A self-report questionnaire was completed by 43 mental health professionals attending a conference. Clinicians were cautious but generally positive about the use of cCBT with children and adolescents, particularly for the delivery of prevention programmes and in the treatment of mild/moderate problems. Few felt that cCBT should be available freely online without any professional support. Indeed, the lack of a therapeutic relationship and professional support were identified as the biggest problems, whilst the potential to use cCBT at home was the greatest advantage identified. This survey suggests that clinicians are generally positive about the use of cCBT with children and adolescents for the prevention and treatment of mild/moderate problems. Further research is required to address clinicians' concerns about the effectiveness of cCBT for more substantial problems and the level of therapeutic support required.
 
Article
Background: Attitudes of social service providers towards computerized CBT (cCBT) might affect use of cCBT by their clients and may provide important insights that should be considered in dissemination. There is no literature exploring the attitudes of providers of youth work services towards cCBT despite the likelihood of them having close relationships with young people at high risk of mental ill-health. Method: Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a total of 40 providers (21 youth workers and social service staff providing alternative schooling, justice or other intensive youth work programmes to adolescents, 6 youth service managers, 2 trainers, 5 peer leaders and 6 trainees). Results: Participants considered supporting young people who were distressed to be an important part of their role. They were generally interested in cCBT, especially those who were more mental health oriented and those who saw a cCBT programme in action. Their greatest concerns regarding cCBT related to it possibly displacing human contact, while advantages were seen as its appeal to young people and its potential therapeutic power. They would utilize cCBT in a range of ways, with many wishing to offer it in group settings. Training and resources would be required for them to use cCBT. Conclusions: Many providers of youth work services would like to be involved in the use of cCBT; this might extend the reach of cCBT to vulnerable young people. They would wish to utilize cCBT in ways that fit their current approaches. Providers' opinions need to be considered in the dissemination of cCBT.
 
Pre-, post-, and follow-up anxiety scores for individual and group cognitive behavior therapy 
Program components
Pre-, post-, and follow-up depression scores for individual and group cognitive behavior therapy 
Pre-, post-, and follow-up cognitive errors scores for individual and group cognitive behavior therapy 
Article
Thirty-three Japanese children and adolescents diagnosed with an anxiety disorder participated in individual or group Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) that was modelled after evidence-based intervention programs developed in Western countries. The treatment consisted of: (a) building rapport and education; (b) identifying emotions and recognizing cognitive self-talk; (c) challenging anxious self-talk; (d) developing an anxiety hierarchy and in vivo exposures; and (e) planning for future challenges. Three months following treatment, 20 of the 33 children and adolescents (60.91%) no longer met criteria for their principal anxiety disorders and 16 (48.48%) were free from all anxiety disorders. Self-reported anxiety, depression, and cognitive errors also decreased significantly from pre- to post-treatment and these gains were maintained at 3-month follow-up. For the most part, similar outcomes were found in both the group and individual formats of CBT. This study provides preliminary support for the transportability of CBT in both an individual and group format to Japan.
 
Flow chart of participants in the trial  
Article
Background: Adolescents excluded from mainstream education have high mental health needs. The use of computerized Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (cCBT) has not been investigated with this group. Aims: To test the efficacy of the SPARX cCBT programme for symptoms of depression among adolescents in programmes for students excluded or alienated from mainstream education. Method: Adolescents (32; 34% Maori, 38% Pacific Island, 56% male) aged 13-16 with Child Depression Rating Scale Revised (CDRS-R) scores indicating possible through to almost certain depressive disorder were randomized to SPARX to be completed over the following 5 weeks (n = 20) or to waitlist control (n = 12). Assessments were at baseline, 5 weeks and 10 weeks. Those in the wait condition were invited to complete SPARX after the 5 week assessment. Results: Most participants (n = 26, 81%) completed at least 4 levels of SPARX and 22 (69%) completed all 7 levels. Among the 30 (94%) participants who began treatment as randomized and provided 5-week data, significant differences were found between cCBT and wait groups on the CDRS-R (baseline to 5-week mean change -14.7 versus -1.1, p<.001), remission (78% vs. 36%, p = .047) and on the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (-4.6 vs. +3.2 p = .05) but not on other self-rating psychological functioning scales. In intent-to-treat analyses CDRS-R changes and remission remained significant. Gains were maintained at 10-week follow-up. Conclusions: SPARX appears to be a promising treatment for students with symptoms of depression who are in alternative schooling programmes for those excluded from mainstream education.
 
Continued 
Patient characteristics and details of BDD symptoms 
BDD and depressive symptoms over the course of CBT 
Article
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is relatively common in adolescents and can have serious negative consequences. However, the treatment of BDD in young people has received virtually no empirical attention to date, and the evidence-base for cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in this population is limited to a small number of single case reports. This study aimed to investigate treatment outcomes associated with CBT, primarily consisting of exposure and response prevention, in a group of young people with BDD. Six adolescents with a diagnosis of BDD received a course of developmentally appropriate CBT for BDD with parental involvement. BDD and depressive symptoms were evaluated at pre-treatment, post-treatment and at 3- or 6-month follow-up, using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for BDD (BDD-YBOCS) and the Beck Depression Inventory-Youth, respectively. Scores on the BDD-YBOCS indicated a 44% improvement in BDD symptoms at post-treatment and a 57% improvement at follow-up for the group. Considering response as a ≥ 30% reduction in BDD-YBOCS score, four of the six adolescents were classified as treatment responders. Improvements in depressive symptoms were observed among the treatment responders, but not the non-responders. These findings indicate the potential efficacy of CBT, including exposure and response prevention for adolescents with BDD, and highlight the need for further controlled trials.
 
The daily changes in Sleep Onset Latency (SOL) and Total Sleep Time (TST) for the three participants. Cut-off for normal SOL = 30 min as indicated by the dotted horizontal line. 
Daily measures of daytime symptoms at baseline, treatment and follow-up. 1 = not at all – 5 = a lot. 
Article
Sleeping difficulties are an increasing problem for youths, but there is a lack of treatment research for this age group. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Cognitive Therapy for Insomnia (CT-I) on youths with primary insomnia; this treatment has never been tested on youths before. The study was conducted according to an AB single-case experimental phase design, with pre-tests and post-tests. After 7-10 days of baseline assessment, three youths aged 16-18 (2 male) with primary insomnia participated in a 7-week long treatment. A sleep diary was used throughout the treatment. A follow-up assessment including one week with a sleep diary was conducted 3 months later. Visual inspection was used to analyze outcome. Insomnia severity was greatly reduced for all participants after treatment. Daily measures showed that sleep onset latency was reduced for two participants but no change in total sleep time was confirmed. Daytime symptoms fluctuated for the participants. The insomnia-specific psychological processes were reduced to varying extents. These results were maintained at the follow-up measure. CT-I may be a promising treatment for youths with insomnia and the treatment should be tested further in randomized controlled studies.
 
Demographic and clinical characteristics, and treatment compliance of the Computer Assisted Cognitive Remediation (CACR) and Computer Games (CG) groups CACR (n = 18) CG (n = 14) Group comparison test 1 
(Colour online) Flow diagram of the study (n = whole sample, n with psychosis/n at risk) 
Article
Background: Computer assisted cognitive remediation (CACR) was demonstrated to be efficient in improving cognitive deficits in adults with psychosis. However, scarce studies explored the outcome of CACR in adolescents with psychosis or at high risk. Aims: To investigate the effectiveness of a computer-assisted cognitive remediation (CACR) program in adolescents with psychosis or at high risk. Method: Intention to treat analyses included 32 adolescents who participated in a blinded 8-week randomized controlled trial of CACR treatment compared to computer games (CG). Cognitive abilities, symptoms and psychosocial functioning were assessed at baseline and posttreatment. Results: Improvement in visuospatial abilities was significantly greater in the CACR group than in CG. Other cognitive functions, psychotic symptoms and psychosocial functioning improved significantly, but at similar rates, in the two groups. Conclusion: CACR can be successfully administered in this population; it proved to be effective over and above CG for the most intensively trained cognitive ability.
 
Article
This paper investigates the relationship between care staff perceptions' of self-harm behaviours presented by adult and adolescent inpatients and the emotional responses and helping behaviours of the staff. Seventy-six nursing staff participated, including qualified and unqualified staff, who worked in either adolescent or adult secure inpatient settings within a single organization. Participants completed vignette, knowledge, and attitudes questionnaires, related to working with patients who display deliberate self-harm. Further support was found for attributional theories suggesting that views on deliberate self-harm are linked to propensity to help, and that emotional responses can be a mediating factor. Staff who reported feeling more negative about patients who self-harm reported more worry about working with this patient group. Unqualified nursing staff reported more negativity and worry than qualified staff. Neither gender nor length of work experience was found to be significant factors. These findings indicate that training and support should be aimed at helping nursing staff, particularly unqualified staff working in inpatient settings where self-harm is frequent, feel more positive and less concerned about working with patients who self-harm. Such needs of unqualified nursing staff have not been highlighted in previous research.
 
Participant flow 
Outcome measures at each assessment CBT (n = 18) WL (n = 18) Assessment Mean SD Mean SD Group effect 
Article
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common and debilitating consequence of natural disaster in children and adolescents. Accumulating data show that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for PTSD. However, application of CBT in a large-scale disaster in a setting with limited resources, such as when the tsunami hit several Asian countries in 2004, poses a major problem. Aims: This randomized controlled trial aimed to test for the efficacy of the modified version of CBT for children and adolescents with PSTD. Method: Thirty-six children (aged 10–15 years) who had been diagnosed with PSTD 4 years after the tsunami were randomly allocated to either CBT or wait list. CBT was delivered in 3-day, 2-hour-daily, group format followed by 1-month posttreatment self-monitoring and daily homework. Results: Compared to the wait list, participants who received CBT demonstrated significantly greater improvement in symptoms of PTSD at 1-month follow-up, although no significant improvement was observed when the measures were done immediately posttreatment. Conclusions: Brief, group CBT is an effective treatment for PTSD in children and adolescents when delivered in conjunction with posttreatment self-monitoring and daily homework.
 
Examples of TFD content. From top left clockwise: Character placement in a situation video, Identifying body signals, Recording good things that have happened, Identifying emotions in different situations. 
Topics covered in each session
Examples of TFD content. From top left clockwise: Identifying thinking traps, Identifying thoughts in a situation video, Looking at ways to stay calm, Examining problem solving techniques. 
Changes in standardized measures for control and TFD groups individually
Article
Research has demonstrated the effectiveness of computerized cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT) for depression and anxiety in adults, but there has been little work with children and adolescents. To describe the development of a cCBT intervention (Think, Feel, Do) for young people, and preliminary outcomes and feedback from a pilot randomized controlled trial. Twenty participants aged 11 to 16 with depression or anxiety were randomized to receive cCBT immediately or after a delay. Standardized measures were used to assess self-reported anxiety, depression, self-esteem and cognitions, as well as parent rated strengths and difficulties. A feedback form was also completed to assess young people's views of the programme. A total of 15 participants completed the pre and post assessments in the trial, and 17 provided feedback on the intervention. Paired samples t-tests demonstrated significant improvements on 3 subscales in the control condition, compared to 7 subscales in the cCBT condition. Feedback showed moderate to high satisfaction for participants. This study provides encouraging preliminary results for the effectiveness and acceptability of cCBT with this age group.
 
Article
Background: Despite the prevalence of co-morbid anxiety and depression in older adults, evaluation of suitable clinical models is rare. Aims: This study tested the acceptability and effectiveness of a transdiagnostic approach to treating co-morbid anxiety and depression in an older adults in a routine clinical setting. Method: In an A/B single case experimental design, a patient completed five daily ideographic measures of anxiety and depression across baseline and treatment and the HADS at five time points over time, including 3-month follow-up. The 8-session treatment was transdiagnostic CBT informed by the Unified Protocol. Results: All sessions were attended. Significant baseline-treatment improvements were found for daily structure, mood, confidence and worry, with large associated effect sizes. The HADS showed that the patient met recovery criteria by the end of treatment, with some evidence of anxious relapse at follow-up. Conclusion: Transdiagnostic CBT offers promise as a treatment approach to mixed anxiety and depression in older adults. The model needs to be further tested using more rigorous and suitably powered methodologies.
 
Top-cited authors
Stephen Rollnick
  • Cardiff University
Paul Martin Salkovskis
  • University of Oxford
Adrian Wells
  • The University of Manchester
David M Clark
  • University of Oxford
James Bennett-Levy
  • The University of Sydney