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Behavioural Neurology

Published by Hindawi
Online ISSN: 1875-8584
Discipline: Neurology
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Aims and scope

Behavioural Neurology is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal which publishes original research articles and review articles based on various diseases and syndromes in behavioural neurology. The aim of the journal is to provide a platform for researchers and clinicians working in various fields of neurology including cognitive neuroscience, neuropsychology and neuropsychiatry.

 

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Article
Objective. To characterize the cerebral imaging and electroclinical features and investigate their etiological contributions to seizures in pseudoparathyroidism (PHP). Methods. The clinical symptoms, biochemical imaging by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) tests, and electroencephalogram (EEG) manifestations of five PHP patients with seizures were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Results. Physical examination showed an average stature in cases 2~4 and short stature in cases 1 and 5. X-ray tests suggested ectopic calcification in four patients. The seizures in four cases were effectively controlled with antiseizure medicines (ASMs). Cerebral CT scans showed extensive brain calcifications in the bilateral basal ganglia (all five cases), cerebellum (cases 1, 3, and 5), thalamus (case 4), and cerebral cortex. Cerebral MRI showed short T1 signals mainly in the basal ganglia. EEG records revealed focal EEG abnormalities, including abnormal slow waves and epileptiform discharges, mainly over the temporal and frontal lobes. The brain areas with focal EEG abnormalities and calcification did not always coincide. Conclusion. The seizures in PHP can be focal to bilateral tonic–clonic. ASMs are effective in epilepsy combined with PHP. Intracranial calcification is not a reliable etiological cause of epilepsy in PHP patients.
 
Statistical diagrams of partial mediation effects of depression and pain catastrophizing between clinical pain (total and intensity) and FIQ score. Note: all coefficients are standardized and significant at p<0.01∗. BDI: Beck Depression Inventory; CSQ: Coping Strategies Questionnaire; FIQ: Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire; MPQ: McGill Pain Questionnaire; VAS: Visual Analogue Scale.
Article
Background: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic musculoskeletal pain condition characterized by widespread pain, sleep problems (i.e., insomnia and unrefreshing sleep), fatigue, cognitive, and emotional difficulties. Although pain has been proposed the factor mostly impacting in the FMS patients' function, emotional and psychological FMS-associated factors are also known to exert a negative impact in quality of life and functional capacity. Nonetheless, the relationship between these factors and functional limitations in FMS patients is considered to be complex and not clearly defined. Therefore, the present study is aimed at assessing the associations between FMS functional capacity, FMS symptoms (pain, fatigue, insomnia, depression, and state and trait anxiety), and associated psychological factors such as pain catastrophizing, as well as the possible mediating role of these latter in the relationship between pain and FMS functional capacity. Method: 115 women diagnoses with FMS completed a set of self-administered questionnaires to evaluate the clinical and psychological variables of the study. Results: FMS functional capacity was positively associated with the majority of FMS symptoms except state anxiety. Regression analyses confirmed a greater prediction for FMS functional capacity by depression, fatigue, and pain catastrophizing, in this sequence. Both, pain catastrophizing and depression were important factors mediating the association between clinical pain (total and intensity) and FMS functional capacity. Conclusions: Findings support a key role of pain catastrophizing and depression in the disability associated to pain in FMS. Treatment goals directed to lessen depression and pain catastrophizing levels should be promoted to reduce the impact of pain in FMS patients' daily function.
 
Article
Extraction and analysis of the EEG (electroencephalograph) information features generated during behavioral decision-making can provide a better understanding of the state of mind. Previous studies have focused more on the brainwave features after behavioral decision-making. In fact, the EEG before decision-making is more worthy of our attention. In this study, we introduce a new index based on the reaction time of subjects before decision-making, called the Prestimulus Time (PT), which have important reference value for the study of cognitive function, neurological diseases, and other fields. In our experiments, we use a wearable EEG feature signal acquisition device and a systematic reward and punishment experiment to obtain the EEG features before and after behavioral decision-making. The experimental results show that the EEG generated after behavioral decision due to loss is more intense than that generated by gain in the medial frontal cortex (MFC). In addition, different characteristics of EEG signals are generated prior to behavioral decisions because people have different expectations of the outcome. It will produce more significant negative-polarity event-related potential (ERP) in the forebrain area when the humans are optimistic about the outcomes.
 
Article
Methods: B35 neuronal cells and C6 glial cells were incubated with MK-801 for 7 days followed by MK-801, MK801 in combination with water extracts of P. cocos (PRP for P. cocos cum Radix Pini or WP for White Poria) treatment for an additional 7 days. Analysis of cell mobility, F-actin aggregation, and Rho signaling modulation was performed to clarify the roles of PRP or WP in MK-801-treated B35 and C6 cells. Results: MK-801 decreases B35 cell mobility, whereas the inhibited cell migration ability and F-actin aggregation in MK-801-treated B35 or C6 cells could be reversed by PRP or WP. The CDC42 expression in B35 or C6 cells would be reduced by MK-801 and restored by treating with PRP or WP. The RhoA expression was increased by MK-801 in both B35 and C6 cells but was differentially regulated by PRP or WP. In B35 cells, downregulation of PFN1, N-WASP, PAK1, and ARP2/3 induced by MK-801 can be reversely modulated by PRP or WP. PRP or WP reduced the increase in the p-MLC2 expression in B35 cells treated with MK-801. The reduction in ROCK1, PFN1, p-MLC2, and ARP2/3 expression in C6 cells induced by MK-801 was restored by PRP or WP. Reduced N-WASP and PAK1 expression was differentially regulated by PRP or WP in MK-801-treated C6 cells.
 
Hit rate across the six blocks of the Go/No-Go task.
Article
In addition to chronic widespread pain and depression and anxiety symptoms, patients with fibromyalgia frequently experience cognitive problems. This study investigated executive functions in fibromyalgia via a Go/No-Go task. To obtain comprehensive information about performance, traditional and ex-Gaussian parameters of reaction time (RT) variability were used, in addition to speed and accuracy indices. Ex-Gaussian parameters show an excellent fit to empirical RT distributions. Fifty-two female fibromyalgia patients and twenty-eight healthy controls participated. The task included 60 visual stimuli, which participants had to respond to (Go stimuli) or withhold the response to (No-Go stimuli). After 30 trials, the task rule changed, such that previous No-Go stimuli had to be responded to. Performance was indexed by the hit rate, false alarm rate, and mean (M) and intraindividual standard deviation (SD) of RT and the ex-Gaussian parameters mu, sigma, and tau. Mu and sigma indicate the M and SD of the Gaussian distribution; tau reflects the M and SD of the exponential function. Patients exhibited a lower hit rate, higher M RT, and higher tau than controls. Moreover, patients showed greater decrease of the hit rate after the change of task rule. In the entire sample, SD, sigma, and tau were inversely associated with the hit rate and positively associated with the false alarm rate. While the greater decline in hit rate after the change in task rule indicates deficient cognitive flexibility, the lack of any difference in false alarm rate suggests intact response inhibition. Higher M RT reflects reduced cognitive or motor speed. Increased tau in fibromyalgia indicates greater fluctuations in executive control and more frequent temporary lapses of attention. For the first time, this study demonstrated that indices of RT variability, in particular those derived from the ex-Gaussian function, may complement speed and accuracy parameters in the assessment of executive function impairments in fibromyalgia. Optimized assessment may facilitate the personalization of therapies aimed at improving the cognitive function of those with the disorder.
 
Article
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has been widely employed to examine brain functional connectivity (FC) alterations in various neurological disorders. At present, various computational methods have been proposed to estimate connectivity strength between different brain regions, as the edge weight of FC networks. However, little is known about which model is more sensitive to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) progression. This study comparatively characterized topological properties of rs-FC networks constructed with Pearson correlation (PC), dynamic time warping (DTW), and group information guided independent component analysis (GIG-ICA), aimed at investigating the sensitivity and effectivity of these methods in differentiating AD stages. A total of 54 subjects from Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ANDI) database, divided into healthy control (HC), mild cognition impairment (MCI), and AD groups, were included in this study. Network-level (global efficiency and characteristic path length) and nodal (clustering coefficient) metrics were used to capture groupwise difference across HC, MCI, and AD groups. The results showed that almost no significant differences were found according to global efficiency and characteristic path length. However, in terms of clustering coefficient, 52 brain parcels sensitive to AD progression were identified in rs-FC networks built with GIG-ICA, much more than PC (6 parcels) and DTW (3 parcels). This indicates that GIG-ICA is more sensitive to AD progression than PC and DTW. The findings also confirmed that the AD-linked FC alterations mostly appeared in temporal, cingulate, and angular areas, which might contribute to clinical diagnosis of AD. Overall, this study provides insights into the topological properties of rs-FC networks over AD progression, suggesting that FC strength estimation of FC networks cannot be neglected in AD-related graph analysis.
 
Flow chart of study participants.
Article
Background: Research suggests a significant association between increasing age and memory impairments. Nevertheless, for some individuals, memory performance stays within or above the normative values of younger subjects. This is known as successful memory aging and is associated with specific neurophysiological features and psychological and lifestyle-related variables. To date, little is known about the association between successful memory aging and intrinsic capacity (IC) defined as "the composite of all the physical and mental (including psychosocial) capacities that an individual can draw on at any point in time" and resilience. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine if longitudinal associations between IC and successful memory aging and resilience exist and to find differences in cognitive performance between Mexican older adults with successful memory aging, older adults with average memory, and older adults with memory impairment. Methods: Longitudinal data from 590 individuals from the third wave (2012) and the Mex-Cog subsample (2016) of the Mexican Health and Aging Study was analysed. Subjects were classified into 3 groups: (1) older adults with successful memory aging (SUMA), (2) older adults with average memory (AVMA), and (3) older adults with memory impairment (IMA). Cognitive domains of orientation, language, attention, constructional praxis, and executive function were evaluated. IC and resilience were measured using items from the MHAS battery. Analysis of variance and multinomial logistic regressions were used to find differences in IC and resilience across the memory aging groups. Results: ANOVAs showed significant differences across the three cognitive performance groups in all cognitive domains. Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that respondents with higher scores in the psychological and cognitive domains of IC at baseline were more likely to have successful memory aging in the subsequent wave of the study. More resilient subjects in 2012 were not more likely to become a SUMA in 2016. However, this could be a result of the way resilience was measured. Conclusion: Our main findings suggest that intrinsic capacity could be used as a predictor of successful memory aging specifically in the psychological and the cognitive domains. More longitudinal studies are needed to further examine these associations.
 
Sex differences in the association between sleep duration and cognitive performance. CI: confidence interval; MMSE: Mini-Mental State Examination; BMI: body mass index; SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; Hcy: homocysteine; TG: triglycerides; HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; eGFR: estimated glomerular filtration rate. P for interaction: 2-way interaction of sleep duration and sex on cognitive performance. The multivariate model adjusted for sex, age, education, physical activity, current smoking, current drinking, BMI, SBP, DBP, coronary heart disease, diabetes, antihypertensive drugs, antidiabetic drugs, statin-lowering drugs, Hcy, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, and eGFR, except for the variable that was stratified.
Stratified analyses of the association between sleep duration and cognitive performance by sex. (a) Male. (b) Female. Adjusted for age, education, physical activity, current smoking, current drinking, BMI, SBP, DBP, coronary heart disease, diabetes, antihypertensive drugs, antidiabetic drugs, statin-lowering drugs, Hcy, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, and eGFR, except for the variable that was stratified. CI, confidence interval; BMI: body mass index; SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; Hcy: homocysteine; TG: triglycerides; HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; eGFR: estimated glomerular filtration rate.
Stratified analyses of the association between sleep duration and cognitive performance by sex. (a) Male. (b) Female. Adjusted for age, education, physical activity, current smoking, current drinking, BMI, SBP, DBP, coronary heart disease, diabetes, antihypertensive drugs, antidiabetic drugs, statin-lowering drugs, Hcy, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, and eGFR, except for the variable that was stratified. CI, confidence interval; BMI: body mass index; SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; Hcy: homocysteine; TG: triglycerides; HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; eGFR: estimated glomerular filtration rate.
Article
Objectives: Cognitive decline could be seen as the sign of preclinical phase of dementia, which was found to be sex differentiated. Previous studies had discovered that there might be some link between abnormal sleep duration and cognitive performance. Additionally, hypertension was found to be one of the important risk factors for cognitive decline and abnormal sleep duration was also a significant risk factor for hypertension. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate sex differences in the association of sleep duration with cognitive performance and to further explore potential effect modifiers that may exist. Methods: Data analyzed in this study was from the China H-type Hypertension Registry Study. Sleep duration was assessed with a sleep questionnaire and categorized as <5 hours, 5-8 hours, and ≥8 hours. Cognitive performance was evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Result: A total of 9527 subjects were included. The average age was 63.7 ± 9.8 years. Linear regression analyses showed that the association between long sleep duration (≥8 h) and MMSE score adjusting for pertinent covariables was stronger in female (β = -0.95, 95% CI: -1.23 to -0.68, P < 0.001) than in male (β = -0.29, 95% CI: -0.53 to -0.06, P = 0.013). Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between sleep duration and age on cognitive performance only in female. Conclusion: In summary, this study found that long sleep duration (≥8 h) was associated with poorer cognitive performance. Furthermore, this association was more pronounced in female than in male, especially in older female.
 
Effects of using the GLP-1 receptors antagonist (exendine-3) during treadmill exercise on learning tested by the MWM task. Data are expressed as the mean±SEM. ∗ is for P<0.05 and # is for P<0.01.
Effect of using the GLP-1-receptors antagonist (exendin-3) during treadmill exercise on memory tested by the MWM task. (a) Mean escape latencies. (b) Meantime spent in the target zone. Data are expressed as the mean±SEM. ∗ is for P<0.05 and # is for P<0.01.
Effect of using the GLP-1-receptors antagonist (exendin-3) during treadmill exercise on memory tested by the MWM task. (a) Mean escape latencies. (b) Meantime spent in the target zone. Data are expressed as the mean±SEM. ∗ is for P<0.05 and # is for P<0.01.
Article
The glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a hormone which is produced in the enteroendocrine L-cells in the ileum and the neurons of nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) in the brain which has numerous metabolic effects. The central GLP-1R’s role in cognitive functioning is well known. On the contrary, it has been shown that exercise has positive effects on brain function. So, we decided to elucidate whether the central GLP-1 has a role in memory and learning. Thirty-two rats were used in this experiment in 4 groups. After anesthetizing the rats, the right lateral ventricle was detected, and a cannula was directed to the ventricle. Ten micrograms of exendin-3 or sterile saline, according to the group, was injected via ICV once daily for seven days. The rats in the exercise group considered an exercise period of one hour each day (17 meters per minute) for seven consecutive days. To evaluate the performance of memory and learning, a standard Morris water maze (MWM) tank was utilized. According to the results, the TE-exendin group showed a statistically significant difference from the TE-SAL group in both parameters of latency and time in the zone. In summary, memory and learning were improved by GLP-1R in the exercise group, but not in the sedentary group, which we can hypothesize that exercise can affect memory and learning through this pathway.
 
Article
Background: Decreased cognitive function is a common problem in the old adults, which has high risk of progression to Alzheimer's diseases (AD) and other dementias. This study was aimed at finding out the association between physical activity and cognitive function. Methods: In total, 1514 participants with the age ≥ 55 years old registered in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) database were selected in this study. The association between physical activity and cognitive function was analyzed via the generalized additive model. The association between the variables and the cognitive function score was expressed as β coefficient with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: After adjusting age, ethnicity, stratum, marital status, education, memory status, and memory changes, the cognitive function score was increased by 0.011 points for every 1-point increase in domestic score (β = 0.011, P = 0.043). Subgroup analysis indicated that in the female group, for every 1-point increase in the domestic score, the cognitive function score increased by 0.019 points (β = 0.019, P = 0.017). In people with good memory status, each 1-point increase in domestic score increased the cognitive function score of 0.020 points (β = 0.020, P = 0.017). Conclusions: The decreased cognitive function was correlated with decreased domestic physical activity. The increased domestic physical activity was associated with an increased cognitive function in females and people with good memory status. The findings might offer a reference for deep understanding of the association between physical activity and cognitive function.
 
Article
Exercise performance and zinc administration individually yield a protective effect on various neurodegenerative models, including ischemic brain injury. Therefore, this work was aimed at evaluating the combined effect of subacute prophylactic zinc administration and swimming exercise in a transient cerebral ischemia model. The prophylactic zinc administration (2.5 mg/kg of body weight) was provided every 24 h for four days before a 30 min common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO), and 24 h after reperfusion, the rats were subjected to swimming exercise in the Morris Water Maze (MWM). Learning was evaluated daily for five days, and memory on day 12 postreperfusion; anxiety or depression-like behavior was measured by the elevated plus maze and the motor activity by open-field test. Nitrites, lipid peroxidation, and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were assessed in the temporoparietal cortex and hippocampus. The three nitric oxide (NO) synthase isoforms, chemokines, and their receptor levels were measured by ELISA. Nissl staining evaluated hippocampus cytoarchitecture and Iba-1 immunohistochemistry activated the microglia. Swimming exercise alone could not prevent ischemic damage but, combined with prophylactic zinc administration, reversed the cognitive deficit, decreased NOS and chemokine levels, prevented tissue damage, and increased Iba-1 (+) cell number. These results suggest that the subacute prophylactic zinc administration combined with swimming exercise, but not the individual treatment, prevents the ischemic damage on day 12 postreperfusion in the transient ischemia model.
 
Seizure threshold (second) in the experimental groups. Data are reported as mean±standard deviation from 8 animals and statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. ∗∗∗P<0.001 in comparison to the control group (saline-treated), ###P<0.001 in comparison to the group that received EA at a dose of 6.25 mg/kg, and &P<0.05 in comparison to the group that received EA at a dose of 25 mg/kg. EA: ellagic acid.
Expression of NMDA receptor genes in the prefrontal cortex in the experimental groups: (a) Nr2a; (b) Nr2b. Data are reported as mean±standard deviation and statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. ∗P<0.05 in comparison with the control group (saline-treated), #P<0.05 in comparison with the group that received EA at the dose of 6.25 mg/kg, and &P<0.05 in comparison with the group that received EA at the dose of 25 mg/kg. EA: ellagic acid.
Expression of NMDA receptor genes in the prefrontal cortex in the experimental groups: (a) Nr2a; (b) Nr2b. Data are reported as mean±standard deviation and statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. ∗P<0.05 in comparison with the control group (saline-treated), #P<0.05 in comparison with the group that received EA at the dose of 6.25 mg/kg, and &P<0.05 in comparison with the group that received EA at the dose of 25 mg/kg. EA: ellagic acid.
Article
Methods: In this experimental study, 64 mice were divided into 8 groups and received the following: normal saline; EA at doses of 6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg; NMDA agonist at a dose of 75 mg/kg; NMDA antagonist (ketamine) at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg; an effective dose of EA plus NMDA agonist; and a subeffective dose of EA plus ketamine. We induced seizure using intravenous administration of PTZ. 60 minutes before induction of seizure, drugs were administrated. Duration lasts to seizure-induced was measured. Finally, the gene expression of NMDA receptor subunits (Nr2a and Nr2b) was assessed in the prefrontal cortex. Results: Results showed that EA increased the seizure threshold and decreased the expression of Nr2a and Nr2b. We determined that ketamine potentiated and NMDA attenuated the effects of subeffective and effective doses of EA. Conclusion: EA probably via attenuation of the NMDA-R pathway possesses an anticonvulsant effect in PTZ-induced seizure in mice.
 
Flowchart of the search strategy and screening process.
Most prevalent NPS in the PD sample. Only data from articles which reported NPS prevalence in percentage format was included in this figure [8, 11, 16, 20, 24, 25, 29, 30, 33, 36]. It should be noticed that the data reported may not have a unique origin as different instruments of assessment were used. Data reported in scoring format was not included.
Article
Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are a common and potentially serious manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PD) but are frequently overlooked in favor of a focus on motor symptomatology. Here, we conducted a literature review of the prevalence and type of NPS experienced by PD patients with a clinically defined course of their illness. Methods: We identified reports of NPS in patients with PD and mean disease duration over 3 years. Three databases-PubMed, Scopus, and Dialnet-were searched for relevant literature published between 2010 and 2020. Predefined exclusion criteria were applied prior to a descriptive analysis of the literature base. Results: In all, 87 unique reports were identified and 30 met inclusion and exclusion criteria. These included 7142 patients with PD (male: 67.3%; mean age: 66.2 years; mean disease duration: 6.7 years). The most frequent NPS were mood disorders (apathy, depression, and anxiety), psychosis, and impulse control disorders (ICD). Treatment with dopamine agonists was identified as an important risk factor for ICD. Co-occurrence of NPS and cognitive dysfunction was also evidenced in a number of studies. Patients with more significant cognitive deficits and higher levels of NPS appeared to be of older age with a longer disease duration and to have more severe motor symptoms. Conclusions: NPS, most commonly mood disorders (apathy, depression, and anxiety), psychosis, and ICDs are frequent manifestations of PD. The results of this review reflect the need to develop unified validated assessment protocols for NPS in PD, as well as to improve their management in clinical practice.
 
Genetic pathologies linked with epilepsy and ASD. Synaptic plasticity can be altered by epilepsy or seizures in an early phase of infantile development leading to ASD. Anomalies in neural plasticity can be a result of malfunctioning neurotrophins, signaling molecules, or receptors, resulting in a 30% reduction in dendritic spine density in hippocampus (Cornu Ammonis) CA3 neurons and a 40% reduction in prefrontal cortex (PFC) neurons. Several genes involved in autism and epilepsy pathogenesis have been linked to this biochemical pathway critical in brain development and function.
PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Receptor tyrosine kinase activates the mTOR pathway. Hyperactivation of mTOR1 occurs due to TSC1/2 mutations. Downstream signaling pathway results in lipid and protein synthesis, ribosome biosynthesize, and autophagy. Similarly, mTOR2 downstream signals to lipid and glucose metabolism and cytoskeleton organization which accelerated cell division, proliferation, and irregular gene expression that exemplify TSC; RTKs: receptor tyrosine kinase; PDGFR: plate-let-derived growth factor receptor; KIT: protooncogene receptor; IGFR: insulin-like growth factor receptor; mTOR: mammalian target of rapamycin; PI3K: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PTEN: phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10; RHEB: Ras homologue a small GTP-binding protein enriched in the brain; TSC: tuberous sclerosis.
Significant characteristics in TSC. This demonstrates the correlation between phenotypic characteristics and predictive risk factors in patients with TSC.
Article
Autism spectrum disorders and epilepsies are heterogeneous human disorders that have miscellaneous etiologies and pathophysiology. There is considerable risk of frequent epilepsy in autism that facilitates amplified morbidity and mortality. Several biological pathways appear to be involved in disease progression, including gene transcription regulation, cellular growth, synaptic channel function, and maintenance of synaptic structure. Here, abnormalities in excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) balance ratio are reviewed along with part of an epileptiform activity that may drive both overconnectivity and genetic disorders where autism spectrum disorders and epilepsy frequently co-occur. The most current ideas concerning common etiological and molecular mechanisms for co-occurrence of both autism spectrum disorders and epilepsy are discussed along with the powerful pharmacological therapies that protect the cognition and behavior of patients. Better understanding is necessary to identify a biological mechanism that might lead to possible treatments for these neurological disorders.
 
Article
Stroke is a disease with a high disability rate, having a serious impact on that patient’s working and daily survival quality and bringing economic burden to the family and society. Patients with stroke hemiplegia are mostly tetraplegic and have difficulty regulating their balance, and their long-term symmetry has been destroyed. The application in the rehabilitation process of acupuncture in patients with hemorrhagic stroke may produce unexpected effects. It is very effective to study the effect of acupuncture combined with rehabilitation training on limb movement and patient survival. It is very helpful in improving normal motor function and normal life, increasing joint mobility and muscle strength, and reducing muscle tension. In this paper, it is found that the observational group has a complication rate of 2.13%, in contrast to 17.02% as in the group of control, and the pin-prick combined with a rehabilitative training makes a significant improvement to the patients. This study provides suggestions for the study to investigate acupuncture combined with recovery exercise on limb movement and living capacities of people with stroke paraparesis.
 
Article
Methods: Pregnant Wistar rats were randomly assigned into five groups: control, NP (25 mg/kg), NP (25 mg/kg)+MLT (10 mg/kg), NP (25 mg/kg)+MLT (20 mg/kg), and MLT (20 mg/kg). The duration of treatment was 21 days from gestation time. Morris water maze was used to assess learning and memory. NP concentrations of serum and testicular tissue were measured by HPLC. Histological analysis of testicular tissues was done by H&E staining. Results: Behavioral study showed that NP does not impair learning and memory in first-generation rats. Histomorphometric results showed that NP can significantly reduce the cross-sectional area of the seminiferous tubules and the epithelium, the diameter and number of seminiferous tubules, the thickness of the epithelium, and the number of spermatocytes and spermatogonia compared to other groups. MLT reversed the NP-induced histomorphometric. Also, it changes and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and catalase (CAT). The level of malondialdehyde (MDA) significantly decreased in MLT-treated groups compared with the NP group. Conclusion: Our finding showed that MLT enhanced the learning process and reduced NP-induced testicular tissue damage through its antioxidants and cytoprotective effects.
 
(a) Directed speech graphs of three representative participants. HC004, a healthy control subject; PD021, a patient with Parkinson’s disease; AD663, a patient with Alzheimer’s disease. (b) Graph geodesic as the shortest path (green) between two nodes (blue) in the three participants.
(a) Directed speech graphs of three representative participants. HC004, a healthy control subject; PD021, a patient with Parkinson’s disease; AD663, a patient with Alzheimer’s disease. (b) Graph geodesic as the shortest path (green) between two nodes (blue) in the three participants.
(a) Means and standard errors of correct words, repetitions, incorrect words, metalinguistic reference, and metacognitive reference in healthy controls (HC), patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), and patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). (b) Means and standard errors of graph density, diameter, and average shortest path in each group. The asterisks (∗) indicate significant differences between PD patients and two control groups in standard and graph parameters. (c) In patients with PD, the density of speech graphs was correlated with the severity of non-motor symptoms (MDS-UPDRS I score) but not the severity of motor symptoms (MDS-UPDRS III score). Values were demeaned.
(a) Means and standard errors of correct words, repetitions, incorrect words, metalinguistic reference, and metacognitive reference in healthy controls (HC), patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), and patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). (b) Means and standard errors of graph density, diameter, and average shortest path in each group. The asterisks (∗) indicate significant differences between PD patients and two control groups in standard and graph parameters. (c) In patients with PD, the density of speech graphs was correlated with the severity of non-motor symptoms (MDS-UPDRS I score) but not the severity of motor symptoms (MDS-UPDRS III score). Values were demeaned.
(a) Means and standard errors of correct words, repetitions, incorrect words, metalinguistic reference, and metacognitive reference in healthy controls (HC), patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), and patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). (b) Means and standard errors of graph density, diameter, and average shortest path in each group. The asterisks (∗) indicate significant differences between PD patients and two control groups in standard and graph parameters. (c) In patients with PD, the density of speech graphs was correlated with the severity of non-motor symptoms (MDS-UPDRS I score) but not the severity of motor symptoms (MDS-UPDRS III score). Values were demeaned.
Article
Semantic fluency is the ability to name items from a given category within a limited time, which relies on semantic memory, working memory, and executive function. Semantic disfluency is a common problem in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We demonstrated a graph theoretical analysis of semantic fluency in patients with PD ( N = 86 ), patients with AD ( N = 40 ), and healthy controls (HC, N = 88 ). All participants completed a standard animal fluency test. Their verbal responses were recorded, transcripted, and transformed into directed speech graphs. Patients with PD generated fewer correct words than HC and more correct words than patients with AD. Patients with PD showed higher density, shorter diameter, and shorter average shortest path length than HC, but lower density, longer diameter, and longer average shortest path length than patients with AD. It suggests that patients with PD produced relatively smaller and denser speech graphs. Moreover, in PD, the densities of speech graphs correlated with the severity of non-motor symptoms, but not the severity of motor symptoms. The graph theoretical analysis revealed new features of semantic disfluency in patients with PD.
 
Transition from the impulsive (acute) to the compulsive (abuse) patterns of drug-taking. Adapted from Meyer and Quenzer [8] using BioRender.com.
Median saccharin preference scores for animals previously given saccharin access during radiation exposure. Redrawn from Garcia et al. [33].
A hypothetical model of the aversive and rewarding effects of a drug and their potential interaction to impact its self-administration (which is a function of the overall affective response to the drug). The drug produces both aversive and rewarding effects in a dose-dependent manner. As illustrated in this specific example, the drug’s rewarding effects are produced at lower doses that increase the drug’s overall affective property that, in turn, drives the drug’s intake. With increases in the dose, the drug’s rewarding effects asymptote while the drug’s aversive effects increase, reducing the overall affective value of the drug and decreasing the drug’s self-administration. In this model, the drug’s rewarding effects are assumed to initiate and maintain drug intake (at least under acute conditions) while its aversive effects limit it. The nature of such an interaction is not static and depends upon a host of factors (see Sections 11 and 12). Further, the relative contributions of the aversive effects in limiting intake change as drug intake go from regulated to dysregulated given the change in the reward valence from positive to negative. Created with BioRender.com.
Article
Drug use and abuse are complex issues in that the basis of each may involve different determinants and consequences, and the transition from one to the other may be equally multifaceted. A recent model of the addiction cycle (as proposed by Koob and his colleagues) illustrates how drug-taking patterns transition from impulsive (acute use) to compulsive (chronic use) as a function of various neuroadaptations leading to the downregulation of DA systems, upregulation of stress systems, and the dysregulation of the prefrontal/orbitofrontal cortex. Although the nature of reinforcement in the initiation and mediation of these effects may differ (positive vs. negative), the role of reinforcement in drug intake (acute and chronic) is well characterized. However, drugs of abuse have other stimulus properties that may be important in their use and abuse. One such property is their aversive effects that limit drug intake instead of initiating and maintaining it. Evidence of such effects comes from both clinical and preclinical populations. In support of this position, the present review describes the aversive effects of drugs (assessed primarily in conditioned taste aversion learning), the fact that they occur concurrently with reward as assessed in combined taste aversion/place preference designs, the role of aversive effects in drug-taking (in balance with their rewarding effects), the dissociation of these affective properties in that they can be affected in different ways by the same manipulations, and the impact of various parametric, experiential, and subject factors on the aversive effects of drugs and the consequent impact of these factors on their use and abuse potential.
 
Article
Stroke is the most common reason for adult disabilities and the second ground for death worldwide. Our previous study revealed that selegiline serves as an alternative candidate in transient hypoxia-ischemia. However, aggressive and restless behavior was observed in stroke-induced rats receiving 4 mg/kg selegiline. In comparison, 1 mg/kg selegiline could induce negligible therapeutic effects on mitochondrial dysfunction and histopathological changes. Therefore, we designed oral noisome-based selegiline attached to 4-(4-nitrobenzyl) pyridine to improve transient global ischemia by attenuating cognitive impairments, oxidative stress, and histopathological injury. The investigation was performed in transient hypoxia-ischemia-induced rats by oral administration of nanoformulation containing selegiline (0.25-1 mg/kg) for 4 weeks (3 times a week). Novel object recognition (NOR) was considered to evaluate their cognitive dysfunction. Oxidative stress parameters and brain histopathological assessments were determined following the scarification of rats. Outstandingly, our data demonstrated slower selegiline release from niosomes relative to free drug, which was also in a controlled manner. Our data confirmed significant improvement in cognitive behavior in the NOR test, an increase in glutathione level and total antioxidant power, a decline in MDA and protein carbonyl level, as well as a decreased number of dead cells in histopathological assessment after being exposed to (0.5-1 mg/kg) selegiline-NBP nanoformulation. These data manifested that the selegiline-NBP nanoformulation (0.5-1 mg/kg) could significantly reduce oxidative damage, cognitive dysfunction, and histopathological damage compared to transient hypoxia-ischemia rats, which is 20 times lower than the therapeutic dose in humans. Therefore, the proposed nanoformulation would be capable as an alternative candidate without side effects in stroke.
 
Article
Multimodal medical image fusion is a current technique applied in the applications related to medical field to combine images from the same modality or different modalities to improve the visual content of the image to perform further operations like image segmentation. Biomedical research and medical image analysis highly demand medical image fusion to perform higher level of medical analysis. Multimodal medical fusion assists medical practitioners to visualize the internal organs and tissues. Multimodal medical fusion of brain image helps to medical practitioners to simultaneously visualize hard portion like skull and soft portion like tissue. Brain tumor segmentation can be accurately performed by utilizing the image obtained after multimodal medical image fusion. The area of the tumor can be accurately located with the information obtained from both Positron Emission Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Image in a single fused image. This approach increases the accuracy in diagnosing the tumor and reduces the time consumed in diagnosing and locating the tumor. The functional information of the brain is available in the Positron Emission Tomography while the anatomy of the brain tissue is available in the Magnetic Resonance Image. Thus, the spatial characteristics and functional information can be obtained from a single image using a robust multimodal medical image fusion model. The proposed approach uses a generative adversarial network to fuse Positron Emission Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Image into a single image. The results obtained from the proposed approach can be used for further medical analysis to locate the tumor and plan for further surgical procedures. The performance of the GAN based model is evaluated using two metrics, namely, structural similarity index and mutual information. The proposed approach achieved a structural similarity index of 0.8551 and a mutual information of 2.8059.
 
Article
The emergence of the latest technologies gives rise to the usage of noninvasive techniques for assisting health-care systems. Amongst the four major cardiovascular diseases, stroke is one of the most dangerous and life-threatening disease, but the life of a patient can be saved if the stroke is detected during early stage. The literature reveals that the patients always experience ministrokes which are also known as transient ischemic attacks (TIA) before experiencing the actual attack of the stroke. Most of the literature work is based on the MRI and CT scan images for classifying the cardiovascular diseases including a stroke which is an expensive approach for diagnosis of early strokes. In India where cases of strokes are rising, there is a need to explore noninvasive cheap methods for the diagnosis of early strokes. Hence, this problem has motivated us to conduct the study presented in this paper. A noninvasive approach for the early diagnosis of the strokes is proposed. The cascaded prediction algorithms are time-consuming in producing the results and cannot work on the raw data and without making use of the properties of EEG. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to devise mechanisms to forecast strokes on the basis of processed EEG data. This paper is proposing time series-based approaches such as LSTM, biLSTM, GRU, and FFNN that can handle time series-based predictions to make useful decisions. The experimental research outcome reveals that all the algorithms taken up for the research study perform well on the prediction problem of early stroke detection, but GRU performs the best with 95.6% accuracy, whereas biLSTM gives 91% accuracy and LSTM gives 87% accuracy and FFNN gives 83% accuracy. The experimental outcome is able to measure the brain waves to predict the signs of strokes. The findings can certainly assist the physicians to detect the stroke at early stages to save the lives of the patients.
 
An illustration of the correlations between the brain parcels (left accumbens, left inferior frontal orbital gyrus, and right posterior insula) and preference for immediate rewards (IR) and sensitivity to punishment (SP) for each risk group.
Article
Personality traits such as impulsivity or sensitivity to rewards and punishments have been associated with risky driving behavior, but it is still unclear how brain anatomy is related to these traits as a function of risky driving. In the present study, we explore the neuroanatomical basis of risky driving behavior and how the level of risk-taking influences the relationship between the traits of impulsivity and sensitivity to rewards and punishments and brain gray matter volume. One hundred forty-four participants with different risk-taking tendencies assessed by real-life driving situations underwent MRI. Personality traits were assessed with self-report measures. We observed that the total gray matter volume varied as a function of risky driving tendencies, with higher risk individuals showing lower gray matter volumes. Similar results were found for volumes of brain areas involved in the reward and cognitive control networks, such as the frontotemporal, parietal, limbic, and cerebellar cortices. We have also shown that sensitivity to reward and punishment and impulsivity are differentially related to gray matter volumes as a function of risky driving tendencies. Highly risky individuals show lower absolute correlations with gray matter volumes than less risk-prone individuals. Taken together, our results show that risky drivers differ in the brain structure of the areas involved in reward processing, cognitive control, and behavioral modulation, which may lead to dysfunctional decision-making and riskier driving behavior.
 
Article
Electromyograms (EMG) are a recorded galvanic action of nerves and muscles which assists in diagnosing the disorders associated with muscles and nerves. The efficient discrimination of abnormal EMG signals, myopathy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, engage crucial role in automatic diagnostic assistance tools, since EMG signals are nonstationary signals. Hence, for computer-aided identification of abnormalities, extraction of features, selection of superlative feature subset, and developing an efficient classifier are indispensable. Initially, time domain and Wigner-Ville transformed time-frequency features were extracted from abnormal EMG signals for experiments. The selection of substantial characteristics from time and time-frequency features was performed using bat algorithm. Extensively, deep neural network classifier is modelled for selected feature subset using bat algorithm from extracted time and time-frequency features. The performance of deep neural network exerting selected features from bat algorithm was compared with conventional artificial neural network. Results demonstrate that the deep neural network modelled with layers 2 and 3 ( neurons = 2 and 4) using time domain features is efficient in classifying the abnormalities of EMG signals with an accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 100% and also exhibited finer performance. Correspondingly, the developed conventional single layer artificial neural network ( neurons = 7 ) with time domain features has shown an accuracy of 83.3%, sensitivity of 100%, and specificity of 71.42%. The work materializes the significance of conventional and deep neural network using time and time-frequency features in diagnosing the abnormal signals exists in neuromuscular system using efficient classification.
 
PRISMA flow chart for inclusion of eligible studies.
Forest plot of the P2Y12 platelet inhibitor for migraine headaches responder rate in migraine with or without PFO.
Forest plot of the P2Y12 platelet inhibitor for the rate of migraineurs with the ongoing benefit of the responder who underwent PFO closure, after discontinuation of the P2Y12 platelet inhibitor.
Forest plot of antiplatelet regimens including P2Y12 inhibitors vs. antiplatelet regimens excluding P2Y12 inhibitors in preventing new-onset migraine headaches after transcatheter ASDC.
Article
There have been speculation and research linking migraine with abnormalities of platelet aggregation and activation. The role of the P2Y12 platelet inhibitor in the treatment of migraine has not been established. We aim to evaluate the efficacy of the platelet P2Y12 inhibitor in the treatment of migraine and prevention of new-onset migraine headache (MHA) following transcatheter atrial septal defect closure (ASDC). We searched the PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases for relevant studies. The primary outcomes were the headache responder rate and the rate of new-onset migraine attacks following ASDC. Four studies for a total of 262 migraine patients with or without patent foramen ovale (PFO) and three studies involving 539 patients with antiplatelet treatment in the prevention of new-onset migraine following ASDC were included. The pooled responder rate of the P2Y12 inhibitor for migraine was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.43 to 0.81). For patients who underwent ASDC, the use of antiplatelet regimens including the P2Y12 inhibitor, compared with regimens excluding P2Y12 inhibitor, resulted in a lower rate of new-onset migraine (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22 to 0.77, P = 0.005 ). We concluded that the P2Y12 platelet inhibitor may have a primary prophylactic role in migraine patients with or without PFO and prevent new-onset MHA after ASDC. The responsiveness of the P2Y12 inhibitor could help select candidates who would benefit from PFO closure. It warrants further large-scale research to explore the role of the P2Y12 inhibitor, particularly in a proportion of migraine patients.
 
Article
Factors that influence the decision of voluntary driving cessation in patients living with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are still unclear. We aimed to reveal the factors affecting the decision of voluntary driving cessation in patients with PD. This hospital-based cross-sectional study recruited consecutive outpatients with PD. Data on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and medication use were collected from the patients using semistructured interviews. Cognitive function was evaluated using the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-J). We excluded patients with dementia or motor impairment ( Hoehn − Yahr stage > 3 ). We divided the patients into two groups, with and without voluntary driving cessation (D: driver; RD: retired driver), and conducted investigations using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Of the 40 patients, 8 (20.0%) voluntarily retired from driving. Patients who decided on driving cessation had a higher prevalence of freezing of gait (FOG) (D vs. RD, 25.0% vs. 87.5%; P = 0.001 ) and tended to have lower scores for attention in the MoCA-J (D vs. RD, 5.0 ± 1.2 vs. 4.1 ± 1.4 ; P = 0.086 ). Multivariable analysis showed that FOG was independently associated with driving cessation (odds ratio: 14.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.91–303.74). FOG was associated with voluntary driving cessation in patients with PD without dementia or severe motor impairment. Physicians should consider providing extensive social support to maintain patients’ mobility and independence, especially if the patients have these clinical factors.
 
Article
Objectives: Assessing the effectiveness and tolerability of medical cannabis (MC) treatment on Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) patients. Methods: We report on an open-label, prospective study on the effect of MC on adult GTS patients. MC mode of use was decided by the treating neurologist and the patient. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) content within MC product and monthly dose were titrated during the study. Following treatment initiation, patients were assessed after 4 and 12 weeks for efficacy, tolerability, and side effects. Results: Eighteen patients entered the study. Baseline Yale Global Tic Severity Scale- (YGTSS) Total (range 0-100) was 60.3 ± 17.1. Three patients did not reach the end of follow-up period. The most common mode of administration was smoking (80%). Following twelve weeks of treatment, a significant 38% average reduction (p = 0.002) of YGTSS-Total and a 20% reduction (p = 0.043) of Premonitory Urge for Tic Scale (PUTS) were observed. Common side effects were dry mouth (66.7%), fatigue (53.3%), and dizziness (46.7%). Three patients suffered from psychiatric side effects including worsening of obsessive compulsive disorder (stopped treatment), panic attack, and anxiety (resolved with treatment modification). Six patients (40%) reported cognitive side effects regarding time perception, visuospatial disorientation, confusion, slow processing speed, and attention. Conclusions: MC treatment demonstrates good efficacy and tolerability in adult GTS patients. Predilection for smoking rather than using oil drops requires further comparative studies to evaluate the efficacy of each. Cognitive and psychiatric side effects have to be monitored and addressed.
 
The role of homocysteine in the methionine cycle. In the presence of folate and vitamin B12, homocysteine (Hcy) is converted to methionine. Methionine is converted back to Hcy through a series of reactions under the catalysis of catechol-O-methyltransferase, and this catalytic reaction can reduce levodopa. On the one hand, Hcy can cause synaptic dysfunction and cell death through DNA strand breakage, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. On the other hand, Hcy can be converted to cysteine, which is the raw material of glutathione. Glutathione can reduce the adverse effects of Hcy to a certain extent. 3-OMD: 3-O-methyldopa; 5-CH3THF: 5-methyltetrahydrofolate; COMT: catechol-O-methyltransferase; Glu: glutamate; Gly: glycine; GSH: glutathione; Hcy: homocysteine; L-DOPA: levodopa; SAH: s-adenosyl-homocysteine; SAM: s-adenosyl-methionine; THF: tetrahydrofolate; VB12: vitamin B12; VB6: vitamin B6.
Study flow chart. PD: Parkinson’s disease; COMT: catechol-O-methyltransferase; MH: minor hallucination; NH: no hallucinations.
Comparison of Hcy, folate, and vitamin B12 levels between MH and NH patients, according to gender. (a) Comparison of Hcy level between the PD-MH and PD-NH groups. PD-MH (total) vs. PD-NH (total), P=0.001; PD-MH (male) vs. PD-NH (male), P=0.012; PD-MH (female) vs. PD-NH (female), P=0.05. (b) Comparison of folate level between the PD-MH and PD-NH groups. PD-MH (total) vs. PD-NH (total), P=0.053; PD-MH (male) vs. PD-MH (female), P=0.045; PD-NH (male) vs. PD-NH (female), P=0.039. (c) Comparison of vitamin B12 level between the PD-MH and PD-NH groups. PD-MH (total) vs. PD-NH (total), P=0.461; PD-MH (male) vs. PD-NH (male), P=0.585; PD-MH (female) vs. PD-NH (female), P=0.145. Hcy: homocysteine.
Comparison of Hcy, folate, and vitamin B12 levels between MH and NH patients, according to gender. (a) Comparison of Hcy level between the PD-MH and PD-NH groups. PD-MH (total) vs. PD-NH (total), P=0.001; PD-MH (male) vs. PD-NH (male), P=0.012; PD-MH (female) vs. PD-NH (female), P=0.05. (b) Comparison of folate level between the PD-MH and PD-NH groups. PD-MH (total) vs. PD-NH (total), P=0.053; PD-MH (male) vs. PD-MH (female), P=0.045; PD-NH (male) vs. PD-NH (female), P=0.039. (c) Comparison of vitamin B12 level between the PD-MH and PD-NH groups. PD-MH (total) vs. PD-NH (total), P=0.461; PD-MH (male) vs. PD-NH (male), P=0.585; PD-MH (female) vs. PD-NH (female), P=0.145. Hcy: homocysteine.
Comparison of Hcy, folate, and vitamin B12 levels between MH and NH patients, according to gender. (a) Comparison of Hcy level between the PD-MH and PD-NH groups. PD-MH (total) vs. PD-NH (total), P=0.001; PD-MH (male) vs. PD-NH (male), P=0.012; PD-MH (female) vs. PD-NH (female), P=0.05. (b) Comparison of folate level between the PD-MH and PD-NH groups. PD-MH (total) vs. PD-NH (total), P=0.053; PD-MH (male) vs. PD-MH (female), P=0.045; PD-NH (male) vs. PD-NH (female), P=0.039. (c) Comparison of vitamin B12 level between the PD-MH and PD-NH groups. PD-MH (total) vs. PD-NH (total), P=0.461; PD-MH (male) vs. PD-NH (male), P=0.585; PD-MH (female) vs. PD-NH (female), P=0.145. Hcy: homocysteine.
Article
Purpose: Minor hallucinations (MHs) are the most common psychotic phenomena in Parkinson's disease (PD), and it has important clinical and prognostic implications in PD. Plasma homocysteine (Hcy) has been reported to predict the outcome of PD; whether or not Hcy is associated with MH is not known. We aim to investigate the Hcy level and related factors in patients with PD and MH. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study and included 99 patients with PD, 34 with MH, and 65 without any hallucinations. The clinical and demographic data of the patients with and without hallucinations were compared. Hcy-related clinical factors were also analyzed. Results: The plasma Hcy level was higher in MH patients than in patients without hallucinations, and the result was more pronounced in male patients than in female patients. Differences were also observed when the groups were divided on the basis of levodopa equivalent daily dose and disease duration. The high Hcy concentration was correlated with some symptoms in patients with MH, including motor dysfunction and nonmotor symptoms, such as symptoms of the gastrointestinal tract, angiocarpy, sleep/fatigue, and poor visuospatial/executive function. Conclusions: Results indicated a higher plasma Hcy concentration in MH patients than in their counterparts and revealed that Hcy is associated with certain motor and nonmotor symptoms in patients with MH. Hcy may be a marker of MH and have important therapeutic implications in PD.
 
Article
Evidence is mounting that the gut microbiome is related to the underlying pathogenesis of schizophrenia. However, effects of amisulpride on gut microbiota are poorly defined. This study was aimed at analyzing cytokines and fecal microbiota in patients with exacerbated symptoms of schizophrenia treated with amisulpride during four weeks of their hospital stay. In the present study, feces collected from patients with schizophrenia were analyzed using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing and bioinformatic analyses to ascertain gut microbiome composition and fasting peripheral blood cytokines. We found that patients undergoing treatment of schizophrenia with amisulpride had distinct changes in gut microbial composition at the genus level, increased levels of short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria (Dorea and Butyricicoccus), and reduced levels of pathogenic bacteria (Actinomyces and Porphyromonas), but the level of Desulfovibrio was still high. We also found a significant downregulation of butanoate metabolism based on functional analysis of the microbiome. After treatment, elevated levels of interleukin- (IL-) 4 and decreased levels of IL-6 were found. Our findings extend prior work and suggest a possible pharmacological mechanism of amisulpride treatment for schizophrenia, which acts via mediation of the gut microbiome.
 
PRISMA flow diagram of the study selection process.
Tendency of studies based on 10-year periods worldwide.
The distribution of papers by their conducted countries.
Genres and subgenres of games according to the platform. AR: augmented reality; VR: virtual reality.
Article
Attention is a basic and main mental task and can play an important role in the functioning of other brain abilities such as intelligence, memory, learning, and perception, and its deficit occurs in 80% of patients with traumatic brain injury. The use of game-based tools for rehabilitation is rapidly expanding. Cognitive rehabilitation via video games is an emerging hot topic in cognitive science. Serious games serve a specific purpose in addition to entertainment. They can be more engaging than exercises since they replace reward and motivation systems with real-world motivations as a complement for rehabilitation activities. This study was aimed at identifying and categorizing serious computer games used for attention rehabilitation and evaluating their effects. Six electronic databases (Scopus, PubMed, ISI, Embase, IEEE, and Cochrane) were searched in August 2021. The search strategy consisted of three main concepts of “serious game”, “cognitive deficits”, and “cognitive rehabilitation”. The inclusion criteria were (1) journal articles, (2) English language, (3) being published in the last 10 years, (4) human participants, and (5) game-based intervention. In the 30 included studies, 22 unique games were utilized for attention rehabilitation. Lumosity (20%), Brain Age (Dr. Kawashima’s Brain Training) (10%), and MoHRS (6.66%) were the most common games among the studies. There were (57%) casual, (23%) action, (10%) simulation, and (10%) multiple genres. Of the 47 tools used in the studies, 5 utilized cross-modal oddball attention tasks, 4 utilized game performance, 3 utilized the paced auditory serial additional test (PASAT), and the rest employed other tools. A total of 73 outcome measures were related to attention, 42 measures did not have significant results, 30 were significantly improved, 1 was significantly deteriorated, and 4 articles did not have any specific measures for attention evaluation. Thus, the results revealed the positive effect of serious games on attention. However, issues such as absence of scientific teams, the variety of the disorders that cause defects, the variety of criteria, differences in measurements, lack of long-term follow-up, insufficient RCT studies, and small sample sizes should be considered when designing, developing, and using game-based systems to prevent bias.
 
Iron detection related to MRI techniques.
Rendering of axial sequence comparison in the same patient; iron distribution is much more detected by T2∗, R2∗, SWI, and QSM.
Article
Brain iron load is one of the most important neuropathological hallmarks in movement disorders. Specifically, the iron provides most of the paramagnetic metal signals in the brain and its accumulation seems to play a key role, although not completely explained, in the degeneration of the basal ganglia, as well as other brain structures. Moreover, iron distribution patterns have been implicated in depicting different movement disorders. This work reviewed current literature on Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Brain Iron Detection and Quantification (MRI-BIDQ) in neurodegenerative processes underlying movement disorders.
 
Article
Objective: The glutamate system plays a major role in the development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as addiction, epilepsy, dementia, and psychosis. MK-801 (dizocilpine), an uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, could increase locomotor activity and stereotyped neurobehaviors mimicking schizophrenic-like features in the mouse model. The study would explore the neuropharmacological differences of risperidone and valproic acid on the MK-801-induced neurobehavioral changes. Methods: The subjects were male C57BL/6J mice obtained from the National Laboratory Animal Center. Drug effects were assessed using the open field with a video-tracking system and gaiting tests. After habitation, risperidone (0, 0.1 mg/kg) or valproic acid (0, 200 mg/kg) was injected and ran locomotion for 30 mins. Sequentially, mice were followed by intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) with MK-801 (0, 0.2 mg/kg) and ran locomotion for 60 mins. Gaiting behaviors such as step angles, stride lengths, and stance widths were measured following the study drugs. Results: The results showed that risperidone and valproic acid alone could not alter the locomotor activities. Following the MK-801 injection, the travelled distance and speed in the entire open field dramatically increased. The dose 0.1 mg/kg of risperidone could totally inhibit the MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion compared with that of the saline-injected group (p < 0.001). The valproic acid (200 mg/kg) partially suppressed the hyperlocomotion which is induced by MK801. Conclusion: The more dominant effect of risperidone to rescue MK-801 induced hyperlocomotion compared with that of valproic acid. The partial suppression of valproic acid may imply the psychopharmacological evidence as adjuvant effect to treat psychotic patients through tuning glutamatergic neurotransmission.
 
Article
The biological mechanisms linking diet-related obesity and autistic behaviors remain unclear. Metformin has proven to be beneficial in the treatment of many syndromes, including autism spectrum disorder. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether metformin treatment could ameliorate metabolic and behavioral alterations in C57BL/6 mice kept on a high-fat diet (HFD), and whether these changes were related to modifications in the gut microbiota and 5-HT levels. As expected, ten weeks of HFD ingestion increased body weight, adiposity, and glucose levels. HFD-fed mice showed a marked aggravation of repetitive behaviors (marble burying and self-grooming), and this was prevented by metformin administration. In addition, HFD-fed mice increased the total distance travelled in the open field test. This hyperactivity was counteracted by metformin cotreatment. In the elevated plus maze test, HFD-fed mice showed a reduced number of entries into the open arms. Interestingly, both HFD and metformin cotreatment increased social interactions in the three-chamber test. HFD increased the levels of intestinal tryptophan and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. Metformin stimulated gut tryptophan and promoted the synthesis of 5-HT in the HFD group. Lactococcus, Trichococcus, Romboutsia, and Faecalibaculum were enriched in HFD-fed mice, whereas the HFD group cotreated with metformin was enriched in Intestinimonas and L. reuteri. Faecalibacterium was positively correlated with sociability and 5-HT pathway components in mice that received metformin. In summary, HFD consumption elicited a complex phenotype comprising higher levels of anxiety-like and repetitive behaviors but also increased sociability. Metformin could potentially improve HFD-induced disorders in the autistic spectrum through a mechanism involving positive modulation of 5-HT levels in the gut and its microbiota composition.
 
Article
Introduction: Individuals with substance use disorders, particularly those with alcohol use disorder (AUD), have a high risk of suicide. Therefore, identifying risk factors for suicide in these individuals is crucial. Methods: This retrospective study reviewed the medical records of individuals with AUD who participated in an alcohol treatment program in central Taiwan during 2019-2020. We collected data using the Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, and Eye-opener questionnaire, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Brief Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and a suicidal ideation question. Furthermore, we collected information on several related variables, namely, sex, age, marital status, years in school, employment status, family history of alcohol problems, age at first exposure to alcohol, duration of alcohol use, history of alcohol cessation, history of domestic violence, and history of drunk driving. In total, 136 individuals were recruited to participate in this study. Results: The suicidal ideation group had significantly younger participants, a higher proportion of women, a higher proportion of participants with a history of domestic violence, a greater severity of alcohol addiction (based on both AUDIT and MAST scores), higher depression scores, higher anxiety scores, less social support, a lower quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)), and poorer sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PSQI) compared with the nonsuicidal ideation group. The suicidal ideation score was correlated with the AUDIT score after age, and BDI, BAI, WHOQOL, and PSQI scores were controlled for (P = 0.034). Conclusion: Individuals with higher AUDIT scores visiting a clinic for alcohol treatment might have a higher risk of suicidal ideation. Therefore, clinicians should pay close attention to the suicidal ideation problem in this population. Furthermore, appropriate medication or management programs for suicide prevention should be considered.
 
Article
A growing body of evidence showed that environmental enrichment (EE) ameliorated footshock-induced fear behavior of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, no research comprehensively tested the effect of EE, cue, and the combination of EE and cue in footshock-induced fear behavior of PTSD symptoms. The present study addressed this issue and examined whether the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, including the cingulate cortex 1 (Cg1), prelimbic cortex (PrL), and infralimbic cortex (IL)), the nucleus accumbens (NAc), the basolateral amygdala (BLA), and the hippocampus (e.g., CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG)) regulated the amelioration of the EE, cue, or the combination of EE and cue. The results showed that EE or cue could reduce fear behavior. The combination of EE and cue revealed a stronger decrease in fear behavior. The cue stimulus may play an occasion setting or a conditioned stimulus to modulate the reduction in fear behavior induced by footshock. Regarding the reduction of the EE in fear behavior, the Cg1 and IL of the mPFC and the NAc upregulated the c-Fos expression; however, the BLA downregulated the c-Fos expression. The mPFC (i.e., the Cg1, PrL, and IL) and the hippocampus (i.e., the CA1, CA3, and DG) downregulated the c-Fos expression in the suppression of the cue in fear behavior. The interaction of EE and cue in reduction of fear behavior occurred in the Cg1 and NAc for the c-Fos expression. The data of c-Fos mRNA were similar to the findings of the c-Fos protein expression. These findings related to the EE and cue modulations in fear behavior may develop a novel nonpharmacological treatment in PTSD.
 
Article
Stroke, also known as a cerebrovascular accident, is a medical emergency that causes temporary or permanent behavioral dysfunction in people. Sleep deprivation affects our brains in a variety of ways. The advantages of sleep much justify the risks of not having enough sleep. Sleep deprivation (SD) includes a variety of factors, including prolonged awake. Neuroimaging investigates SD’s impact on attention, working memory, mood, and hippocampal learning. We analyzed how this data enriches our mechanistic understanding of these alterations and the clinical illnesses linked with sleep disruption. We have used Cronbach’s alpha to test the reliability of a scale, so we then have 19 individual attributes responding to 174 participants via survey. The evaluated result shows the reliability statistics; the value for Cronbach’s alpha is .962, which is very excellent as it reaches 1. So, there is very strong reliability. If the value falls under .6, we look back to the mean and standard deviation table and remove the attribute with low values for mean or standard deviation and try the remaining attributes. Cronbach’s alpha tells us which attribute or item to delete to increase the reliability, and we also have analyzed the correlation among the class students while watching the same video lecture. We have collected data for at least ten students watching the same video using a webcam. Once the data is collected, we then have applied some correlation techniques to determine the class students’ behavior towards the same video lecture. This way, we can see the overall behavior of the class upon a specific video lecture. The study further reveals that subjective happiness is influenced by its efficiency, entertainment value, and effectiveness. Does the research offer an original emphasis on analyzing how does lack of sleep affect our brains? Sleep loss frameworks are minimal compared to the benefits of sleep.
 
Article
Objective: Recent evidence suggests that obesity is increasing worldwide and may negatively impact neurocognition. Local studies on the association of weight status with neurocognitive function are sparse. This study is aimed at examining the association between body mass index (BMI) and neurocognitive functioning scores in a cohort of adult women. Methods: A convenience sample of 175 women aged 18 to 59 years (28.03 ± 8.87) recruited in a community-based quantitative study completed the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The BMI metric was used to measure body fat based on weight and height and was stratified as high BMI (overweight or obese) or low BMI (normal weight). The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess depression. Pearson's correlation analysis and the student's t-test analysis were performed. Results: We observed a significant inverse association between BMI and performance on MoCA (r(173) = -0.32, p < 0.001). Performance on subtest of attention, memory, constructive abstraction, and executive functions significantly and inversely correlated with BMI. Significantly lower scores on the MoCA were found in women with a high BMI compared to women with a low BMI (23 ± 4 vs. 26 ± 3), t(173) = 4.12, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: BMI and MoCA were inversely associated on both global and domain-specific neurocognitive test of attention, memory, and executive function; key neurocognitive control; and regulatory functions underlying behavior and decision-making. The findings provide a rationale for further research into the long-term effects of BMI on neurocognition.
 
Article
Nowadays, sentimental analysis of consumers' review is becoming much crucial in the marketing world. It is not just giving ideas to the firms that how consumers like their product or service, but it would also help them make their service better. In this article, the statistical method identifies the relationship of many factors in consumer feedback. It introduces a deep-based learning method called DSC (deep sentiment classifier) to determine whether or not to recommend the reviewed product thoroughly. Our suggested method also investigates the effect sizes of the feedback, such as positives, negatives, and neutrals. We used the women's clothing review dataset containing 22,642 records after preprocessing of the results. Experimental studies show that the recommendations are an excellent positive sentiment indicator. In comparison, ratings become fuzzy performance metrics in product reviews. The 10-fold cross-validation analysis shows that the recommended form has the top F1 score (93.56%) in the sentimental classification on average and the recommended classification (88.32%) on average. A comparative description of other classifiers focused on machine learning, for example, KNN, random forest, logistic regression, decision tree, support vector machine multilayer perceptron, and naïve Bayes, also demonstrates that DSC gives the best possible result. We have tested DSC on the dataset IMDB (Internet Video Database), which includes the sentiment of the 50,000 movie reviews (25000 for training and 25000 for testing). In comparison to other baseline methods, DSC obtained an excellent classification score for this experiment.
 
Article
Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between cadherin gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the risk of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP). Materials and methods: A total of 416 patients with DEACMP and 754 patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACMP) were recruited. We used the Sequenom MassARRAY® system to detect cadherin gene SNPs related to DEACMP. Using different genetic analysis models, we evaluated the relationship between the cadherin gene polymorphisms and risk of DEACMP. Results: We found that rs1944294 in the N-cadherin (CDH2) gene showed significant differences in genotype frequencies between the two groups under codominant and dominant inheritance models. Similarly, rs2513796 in the cadherin-17 (CDH17) gene showed significant differences under the codominant, dominant, and overdominant genetic models. And the T allele frequency of rs1944294 in the DEACMP group was significantly higher than that in the ACMP group (P = 0.023). Conclusions: Cadherin gene SNPs (rs1944294, rs2513796) are associated with an increased risk of DEACMP in the Chinese population.
 
Article
The pathogenesis of sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) involves many aspects, including intracellular peroxidative stress damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell apoptosis. In this study, we mainly explored the influence of P2X7R on the cognitive function of SAE and its molecular mechanism. We established a sepsis model using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, followed by an assessment of cognitive function using Morris water maze, and then Western Blot was used to analyze the expression of tight junction proteins ZO-1 and Occludin in the hippocampus of mice. TUNEL assay was used to analyze the apoptosis of brain cells in frozen brain slices of mice during sepsis. Human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) were used to research the molecular mechanism of brain cell damage induced by P2X7R. The results showed that P2X7R inhibitors dramatically improved the survival rate of mice, relieved the cognitive dysfunction caused by LPS stimulation, and significantly reduced the brain cell apoptosis caused by LPS. In addition, the inhibition of P2X7R can also reduce the production and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HBMECs in vitro and inhibit the apoptosis signaling pathway associated with mitochondrial serine protease Omi/HtrA2 in HBMECs in vitro. These results suggest that P2X7R has strong value as a potential target for the treatment of SAE.
 
Article
Background. In an effort to boost aphasia recovery, modern rehabilitation, in addition to speech and language therapy (SALT), is increasingly incorporating noninvasive methods of brain stimulation. The present study is aimed at investigating the effectiveness of two paradigms of neuronavigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS): (i) 1 Hz rTMS and (ii) continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) each as a standalone treatment for chronic aphasia poststroke. Methods. A single subject experimental design (SSED) trial was carried out in which six people with aphasia (PWA) were recruited, following a single left hemispheric stroke more than six months prior to the study. Three individuals were treated with 1 Hz rTMS, and the remaining three were treated with cTBS. In all cases, TMS was applied over the right pars triangularis (pTr). Language assessment, with standardized and functional measures, and cognitive evaluations were carried out at four time points: twice prior to treatment (baseline), one day immediately posttreatment, and at follow-up two months after treatment was terminated. Quality of life (QoL) was also assessed at baseline and two months posttreatment. In addition, one of the participants with severe global aphasia was followed up again one and two years posttherapy. Results. For all participants, both rTMS paradigms (1 Hz rTMS and cTBS) generated trends towards improvement in several language skills (i.e., verbal receptive language, expressive language, and naming and reading) one day after treatment and/or two months after therapy. Rated QoL remained stable in three individuals, but for the other three, the communication scores of the QoL were reduced, while two of them also showed a decline in the psychological scores. The participant that was treated with cTBS and followed for up to two years showed that the significant improvement she had initially exhibited in comprehension and reading skills two months after TMS (1st follow-up) was sustained for at least up to two years. Conclusion. From the current findings, it is suggested that inhibitory TMS over the right pTr has the potential to drive neuroplastic changes as a standalone treatment that facilitates language recovery in poststroke aphasia. 1. Introduction To boost poststroke aphasia rehabilitation further, several noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques have been applied to poststroke aphasia individuals over the past 20 years with promising results. Two of the most common methods that are being investigated are transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). The rationale behind their application is that both methods modulate neuronal plasticity and, in this way, facilitate language recovery. Transcranial magnetic stimulation has shown exploratory potential to induce language recovery in aphasia poststroke [1]. Before 2014, only a few rTMS studies on poststroke aphasia recruited sufficiently large numbers of participants [2]. The majority of those studies explored the effects of low-frequency (LF) TMS over the contralesional inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) followed by speech and language therapy (SALT) in a clinically heterogeneous group of people with aphasia (PWA) at the postacute phase of recovery [3–6] with mixed results; hence, no conclusions could be drawn regarding the efficacy of LF rTMS over the contralesional IFG on recovery of poststroke aphasia [2]. After 2014, additional research with larger numbers of PWA has offered further insight on the possible effectiveness of rTMS on aphasia recovery in subacute aphasia [7, 8] and in the chronic stage [9–11]. The potential positive outcomes of rTMS on aphasia recovery poststroke have been further investigated by trials applying short rTMS burst protocols (e.g., theta burst stimulation (TBS)) with promising results [12–16]. For a review of TBS, see Huang and Rothwell [17] and Huang et al. [18]. Collective findings from LF rTMS in poststroke aphasia suggest that LF rTMS over the right IFG has the potential to reorganize the language networks and drive language improvement in people with poststroke aphasia. Nevertheless, with regard to high-frequency (HF) TMS, according to a recent review [2], no recommendations can be made for its use in poststroke aphasia rehabilitation. Research on TMS aphasia rehabilitation is ongoing and promising but remains inconclusive for several reasons. For example, there are many inconsistencies between studies in several domains such as the following: (i) number of participants, (ii) paradigms employed (inhibitory vs. excitatory rTMS and inhibitory together with excitatory rTMS), (iii) anatomical sites of stimulation, (iv) methods of localization of stimulation sites (e.g., 10-20 international system vs. frameless stereotactic neuronavigation systems), (v) type and intensity of SALT, and (vi) the use of reliable outcome measures. With regard to SALT that is used as adjuvant to TMS, there are several studies that highlight major inconsistencies in SALT types and intensities. Examples of relevant randomized controlled trials include a study [7] in which a 45-minute SALT program was applied according to best-practice guidelines [19], a trial [20] in which a 30-minute SALT program focusing on language comprehension and expression was followed, a study [21] that used a 30-minute SALT regimen focusing on naming, another study [8] that applied a 45-minute SALT program aimed at reactivation of word retrieval, another trial [11] that used a 60-minute SALT program twice a week emphasising verbal expressive skills, five trials that followed a 45-minute SALT program focused on patient-specific language problems [3–5, 22, 23], and a study [6] that applied a 45-minute program focusing on expression and comprehension of spoken language. The wide variability in the reported studies and the absence of standardization of the SALT programs question their efficacy by not allowing the disentanglement of the beneficial effects of TMS from those of SALT. Therefore, the extent of the improvement on language abilities attributed to TMS cannot be evaluated. The present study is aimed at measuring the effectiveness of rTMS as a standalone treatment for chronic stroke-induced aphasia. The objectives of the study were as follows: (i)To explore whether continuous 1 Hz rTMS and cTBS (independent variables, IV) could modify performance on language tests (dependent variables, DV) one day (short-term) and/or two months (long-term) posttreatment when administered for 10 consecutive days over the right pars triangularis (pTr) of individuals with chronic aphasia(ii)To explore whether the above protocols (i.e., cTBS and 1 Hz rTMS) could bring about similar changes in language performance in the cohort of PWA under investigation 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Bioethics Approval Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Cyprus National Bioethics Committee (CNBC) (EEBK/EΠ/2017/37). 2.2. Participants A single-subject experimental design (SSED) trial was undertaken at the University Rehabilitation Clinic of the Department of Rehabilitation Sciences at the Cyprus University of Technology (CUT). Adults who had suffered a single left hemisphere stroke at least six months prior to participating in the study were actively sought for recruitment. The recruitment phase was open for 15 months. The inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) aged between 18 and 75 years of age, (2) native speakers of (Cypriot) Greek, (3) right-handed, (4) a diagnosis of a first ever left-sided middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke verified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computerized tomography (CT), (5) chronic aphasia stage (>6 months poststroke), (6) no history of dementia or other neurological illnesses, and (7) no current participation in any type of language rehabilitation. Exclusion criteria included the following: (1) Greek not the mother tongue; (2) left-handedness; (3) prior stroke(s); (4) MRI and TMS exclusion criteria; (5) severe dysarthria affecting intelligibility; (6) any other neurological condition affecting the sensorimotor system (e.g., brain tumour); (7) medication that alerts brain excitability to avoid pharmacological influences on TMS, as there is evidence that the extent and direction of NIBS-induced plasticity can be significantly modulated by many neuropharmacological agents [24]; (8) cognitive disorders known before the stroke; and (9) involvement in behavioral language rehabilitation. Overall, 20 people were recruited but only eight actively took part and completed all phases of the study. Two participants were recruited to the pilot study (see [25]) and the remaining six to the main study (see Table 1 for demographics and clinical characteristics of the six participants and Figure 1 for brain MRIs). The remaining seven individuals from the initial cohort did not participate due to caregivers’ reluctance/refusal because of time commitment to the study, and three PWA withdrew from the study during the TMS treatment stage while two more withdrew because of claustrophobia and subsequent failure to undergo an MRI scan. Participant Sex Age (years) Handedness Education (years) Type of stroke Months post stroke Lesion site (left hemisphere) Type of aphasia Severity of aphasia SALT prior to enrolment Termination of SALT 1 F 74 Right 6 Ischemic 48 Diffuse frontal, parietal, and temporal (middle and superior gyri) lobes; insula; basal ganglia Global Severe 20 months–2 times per week–45 min of SALT 2 years before enrolment 2 M 61 Right 12 Ischemic 9 Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas; arcuate fasciculus; insula; inferior precentral gyrus; temporal pole Anomic Moderate-severe 6 months–2 times per week–45 min of SALT 2 months before enrolment 3 M 48 Right 15 Ischemic 11 IFG; internal capsule; insula; caudate nucleus; putamen; inferior precentral gyrus Broca’s Moderate-severe 8 months–4 times per week–45 minutes 10 days before enrolment 4 F 72 Right 12 Ischemic 50 Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas; arcuate fasciculus; insula; superior posterior temporal gyrus; middle posterior temporal gyrus Anomic Moderate-severe 24 months–2 times per week–45 min of SALT 2 years before enrolment 5 M 55 Right 17 Ischemic 8 Precentral gyrus; postcentral gyrus; arcuate fasciculus; internal capsule; caudate nucleus; putamen Global Severe 4 months–4 times per week–45 minutes 10 days before enrolment 6 M 26 Right 16 Ischemic 109 IFG; MFG; SFG; insula; basal ganglia; arcuate fasciculus; internal capsule; anterior temporal lobe; Wernicke’s area, anterior temporal lobe most likely due to an arachnoid cyst Anomic Mild 10 months–4 times per week–45 minutes 7 years before enrolment
 
Article
Background: Balloon guide catheters (BGCs) have good performance in terms of radiological outcomes in acute ischemic thrombectomy. It is not uncommon for BGCs to be blocked by thrombi, especially in cases with acute intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. Our initial experience using repeat thrombectomy with a retrieval stent (RTRS) with continuous proximal flow arrest by BGC for acute intracranial ICA occlusion is presented. Methods: In patients with acute intracranial ICA occlusion treated with RTRS, clinical data, including the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score at admission and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 90 days, and procedural data, including the Extended treatment in Cerebral Infarction (eTICI) score, procedural time, and complications, were analyzed. Results: Thirty-two consecutive patients (12 men (37.5%); mean age: 73 years) were treated with RTRS using a BGC. The median NIHSS score was 19. The median puncture-to-reperfusion time was 46 minutes (range: 22-142 minutes). All patients were successfully revascularized; eTICI 2c or better recanalization was achieved in 30 (93.8%) patients. No procedure-related complications or symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred. Two cases (6.3%) had distal emboli, but none had emboli to the anterior cerebral artery. Fourteen patients (43.8%) achieved a good outcome with an mRS score of 0-2 at 90 days, and 8 patients (25.0%) died. Conclusions: In patients with intracranial ICA occlusion, RTRS with proximal flow arrest by BGC is effective and safe, achieving good clinical and angiographic outcomes. This method may reduce the incidence of distal emboli in thrombectomy with stent retrievers.
 
Overview of PDPNI study process.
PDPNI website interface-patient information list.
Clinical examination items of PDPNI.
Acquisition protocols of MRI.
Characteristics of subjects.
Article
The Parkinson’s Disease Progressive Neuroimaging Initiative (PDPNI) is a longitudinal observational clinical study. In PDPNI, the clinical and imaging data of patients diagnosed with Parkinsonian syndromes and Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) were longitudinally followed every two years, aiming to identify progression biomarkers of Parkinsonian syndromes through functional imaging modalities including FDG-PET, DAT-PET imaging, ASL MRI, and fMRI, as well as the treatment conditions, clinical symptoms, and clinical assessment results of patients. From February 2012 to March 2019, 224 subjects (including 48 healthy subjects and 176 patients with confirmed PDS) have been enrolled in PDPNI. The detailed clinical information and clinical assessment scores of all subjects were collected by neurologists from Huashan Hospital, Fudan University. All subjects enrolled in PDPNI were scanned with ¹⁸F-FDG PET, ¹¹C-CFT PET, and MRI scan sequence. All data were collected in strict accordance with standardized data collection protocols.
 
Article
The excessive number of COVID-19 cases reported worldwide so far, supplemented by a high rate of false alarms in its diagnosis using the conventional polymerase chain reaction method, has led to an increased number of high-resolution computed tomography (CT) examinations conducted. The manual inspection of the latter, besides being slow, is susceptible to human errors, especially because of an uncanny resemblance between the CT scans of COVID-19 and those of pneumonia, and therefore demands a proportional increase in the number of expert radiologists. Artificial intelligence-based computer-aided diagnosis of COVID-19 using the CT scans has been recently coined, which has proven its effectiveness in terms of accuracy and computation time. In this work, a similar framework for classification of COVID-19 using CT scans is proposed. The proposed method includes four core steps: (i) preparing a database of three different classes such as COVID-19, pneumonia, and normal; (ii) modifying three pretrained deep learning models such as VGG16, ResNet50, and ResNet101 for the classification of COVID-19-positive scans; (iii) proposing an activation function and improving the firefly algorithm for feature selection; and (iv) fusing optimal selected features using descending order serial approach and classifying using multiclass supervised learning algorithms. We demonstrate that once this method is performed on a publicly available dataset, this system attains an improved accuracy of 97.9% and the computational time is almost 34 (sec).
 
Article
The terms atypical parkinsonian disorders (APDs) and Parkinson plus syndromes are mainly used to describe the four major entities of sporadic neuronal multisystem degeneration: progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), multiple system atrophy (MSA), and dementia with Lewy bodies (LBD). APDs are characterized by a variety of symptoms and a lack of disease modifying therapies; their treatment thus remains mainly symptomatic. Brain stimulation via repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a safe and noninvasive intervention using a magnetic coil, and it is considered an alternative therapy in various neuropsychiatric pathologies. In this paper, we review the available studies that investigate the efficacy of rTMS in the treatment of these APDs and Parkinson plus syndromes. Τhe majority of the studies have shown beneficial effects on motor and nonmotor symptoms, but research is still at a preliminary phase, with large, double-blind studies lacking in the literature.
 
showing the main blood biomarkers and brain imaging markers suggesting neuroinflammation in epilepsy. IL: interleukin; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor-α; ICAM: intercellular cell adhesion molecule; VCAM: vascular cell adhesion molecule; NLRP: NOD-like receptor protein; ASC: apoptosis speck-like protein; TSPO PET: translocator protein positron emission computed tomography; MRI: magnetic resonance imaging.
Article
A rapidly growing body of evidence supports that neuroinflammation plays a major role in epileptogenesis and disease progression. The capacity to identify pathological neuroinflammation in individuals with epilepsy is a crucial step on the timing of anti-inflammatory intervention and patient selection, which will be challenging aspects in future clinical studies. The discovery of noninvasive biomarkers that are accessible in the blood or molecular neuroimaging would facilitate clinical translation of experimental findings into humans. These innovative and noninvasive approaches have the advantage of monitoring the dynamic changes of neuroinflammation in epilepsy. Here, we will review the available evidence for the measurement of neuroinflammation in patients with epilepsy using noninvasive techniques and critically analyze the major scientific challenges of noninvasive methods. Finally, we propose the potential for use in clinical applications.
 
Article
Methods: All rats were randomly divided into four groups, namely, control, CUMS, CUMS + CUR, and CUMS + CUR + SR18292 (PGC-1α inhibitor). Behavioral tests were conducted to assess the antidepressant-like effects of CUR. The expressions of PGC-1α, estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα), FNDC5, and BDNF were determined to investigate the regulatory effects of CUR on the PGC-1α/FNDC5/BDNF pathway. The PGC-1α inhibitor SR18292 was used to explore the role of PGC-1α in the induction of BDNF by CUR. Results: Daily gavage of 100 mg/kg CUR successfully attenuated the abnormal behaviors induced by CUMS and effectively prevented CUMS-induced reduction of PGC-1α, ERRα, FNDC5, and BDNF expressions. CUR also enhanced PGC-1α and ERRα translocation from cytoplasm to nucleus. Furthermore, we found that CUR supplementation effectively promoted neurocyte proliferation and suppressed neuronal apoptosis induced by CUMS. Of note, the PGC-1α inhibitor SR18292 remarkably reversed the beneficial effects of CUR on depressed rats, indicating an important role of PGC-1α in the antidepressant-like effects of CUR. Conclusion: Collectively, our data evaluating the neuroprotective action of CUR in the CUMS rats highlights the involvement of the PGC-1α/FNDC5/BDNF pathway in the antidepressant-like effects of CUR.
 
Venn diagrams displaying the number of identified unique glycoproteins for control and AD groups.
Protein-protein interaction identified from serum of the AD group. Stronger associations are represented by thicker lines. Protein-protein interactions are shown in grey, chemical-protein interactions in green, and interactions between chemicals in red.
Article
Objectives: This study compares glycoproteomes in Thai Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with those of cognitively normal individuals. Methods: Study participants included outpatients with clinically diagnosed AD (N = 136) and healthy controls without cognitive impairment (N = 183). Blood samples were collected from all participants for biochemical analysis and for Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping by real-time TaqMan PCR assays. Comparative serum glycoproteomic profiling by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was then performed to identify differentially abundant proteins with functional relevance. Results: Statistical differences in age, educational level, and APOE ɛ3/ɛ4 and ɛ4/ɛ4 haplotype frequencies were found between the AD and control groups. The frequency of the APOE ɛ4 allele was significantly higher in the AD group than in the control group. In total, 871 glycoproteins were identified, including 266 and 259 unique proteins in control and AD groups, respectively. There were 49 and 297 upregulated and downregulated glycoproteins, respectively, in AD samples compared with the controls. Unique AD glycoproteins were associated with numerous pathways, including Alzheimer's disease-presenilin pathway (16.6%), inflammation pathway mediated by chemokine and cytokine signaling (9.2%), Wnt signaling pathway (8.2%), and apoptosis signaling pathway (6.7%). Conclusion: Functions and pathways associated with protein-protein interactions were identified in AD. Significant changes in these proteins can indicate the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of AD, and they have the potential to serve as AD biomarkers. Such findings could allow us to better understand AD pathology.
 
Journal metrics
16 days
Submission to first decision
94 days
Submission to final decision
22 days
Acceptance to publication
24%
Acceptance rate
$1,450
APC
3.112 (2021)
Journal Impact Factor™
4.8 (2021)
CiteScore
Top-cited authors
Chris Rorden
  • University of South Carolina
Matthew Brett
  • University of California, Berkeley
Aileen K Ho
  • University of Reading
Robert Iansek
  • Kingston Centre Monash Health
Hans Markowitsch
  • Bielefeld University