Derivatives of 5-methyl-2,4-dihydro-pyrazol-3-one (1a), 5-methyl-2-phenyl-2,4-dihydro-pyrazol-3-one (1b) and 2-(2,4-dinitro-phenyl)-5-methyl-2,4-dihydro-pyrazol-3-one (1c) have been brominated in various ways. The compounds (1a, 1b, 1c) were synthesized by condensation reaction between the ethylacetoacetate and hydrazine derivatives. All the products have been characterized by extensive use of IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and Mass spectral analysis. Investigation of the cytotoxicity of these compounds was carried out against brine shrimp by lethality bioassay. The cytotoxicity studies of the synthesized compounds revealed that compound 4,4-dibromo-2-(2,4-dinitro-phenyl) -5-methyl -2,4-dihydro-pyrazol-3-one (2c) had shown tremendous bioactivity against brine shrimp. However, the compounds 4,4-dibromo-5-methyl-2,4-dihydro-pyrazol-3-one (2a), 4,4-dibromo-2-(2,4-dibromo-phenyl)-5-methyl-2,4-dihydro-pyrazol-3-one (2b) and 4,4-dibromo-2-(dinitro-phenyl)-5-methyl-2,4-dihydro-pyrazol-3-one (2c) showed higher activity leaving the other compounds almost inactive.
Post-surgical infections are polymicrobial and it is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The combination of ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole as well as several ß-lactum based regimens are commonly used regimens for the treatment of patients with such infections. Three hundred patients (age range 25-40 years) were taken from two teaching hospitals for interventional study. When patients were selected for appenditectomy or cholecystectomy, either ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole or cephalosporin plus metronidazole were given intravenously. The patients were then divided into 4 groups. Group I and Group II received drugs ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole and cephalosporin plus metronidazole in SSMC respectively and Group III and Group IV received drugs ciprofloxain plus metronidazole and cephalosporin plus metronidazole in DNMC respectively. There were 33 cases of infections out of total 300 study subjects. It was observed that in SSMC among ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole; the rate of infection was 10.6% and cephalosporin plus metronidazole group was 14.6% while that in DNMC the rate were 8% and 10.6% respectively. The overall rate of infection was 11%.
Equilibrium dialysis was used to study in vitro binding of warfarin at physiological pH and temperature in bovine serum albumin (BSA) along with the increasing concentration of acetaminophen and there interaction with the protein in presence of arsenic. The free fractions were determined by UV spectrophotometric technique. The binding of warfarin to BSA depended on both drug and arsenic concentrations. Free warfarin concentration increased due to addition of acetaminophen which reduced the binding of warfarin to BSA. Free warfarin concentration also increased accordingly by increasing the concentra-tion of acetaminophen when only the BSA was present. When the binding site was blocked by sufficient amount of arsenic the increment of free concentration of warfarin decreased to a lower extent. This suggests that in the presence of arsenic the warfarin being slowly displaced from its high affinity binding site with increasing acetamino-phen concentration.
Leaves of Actinodaphne hookeri Meissn (Family Lauraceae; local name: Pisa) has been in use traditionally for the treatment of diabetes and disorders of the urinary tract which are more common in Chattisgarh and eastern part of India. In the present study, leaves of A. hookeri were subjected to phytochemical investigation and evaluated for anti-diabetic activity. The ethanol and the chloroform extract were found to have significant (p<0.01) blood glucose lowering effect. The extracts also significantly (p<0.01) lowered the increased serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels. Preliminary phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids and glycosides as the major constituents in the ethanol extract. The chloroform extract also showed significant (p<0.01) antihyperglycemic activity and contained alkaloids and triterpenes. It is concluded that the antidiabetic activity of A. hookeri may be due to the presence of alkaloids and triterpenes, and might be promising for the development of phytomedicine for diabetes mellitus along with its associated complications.
The hypoglycemic effect of Lagerstroemia speciosa L. leaves hot water extract on chemically induced diabetes in rat was investigated. Experimental result showed that, streptozotocin significantly (p<0.001) elevated the normal blood sugar level whereas treatment with hot water extract depressed the streptozotocin-induced high blood sugar level about 43.20% as compare to diabetic controls. Treatment with hot water extract increased the activity of shunt enzyme glucose–6-phosphate dehydrogenase (33.81%) and glutathione level (31.25%) and depression of the activity of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes glucose-6-phasphatase (31.63%) and fructose–1,6-bisphosphatase (27.40%). These studies thus strongly suggest that the hot water extract of L. speciosa leave attributed its prominent hypoglycemic activity on experimental diabetic rats through suppression of gluconeogenesis and stimulation of glucose oxidation using the pentose phosphate pathway.
The present study was carried out to observe the hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract of the roots of Trianthema decandra Linn. (200 and 400 mg/kg) in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride for 8 weeks. Extract at the tested doses restored the levels of all serum (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and total protein) and liver homogenate enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase) significantly. Histology demonstrated profound steatosis degeneration and nodule formation were observed in the hepatic architecture of carbon tetrachloride treated rats which were found to acquire near-normalcy in extract plus carbon tetrachloride administrated rats, and supported the biochemical observations. This study suggests that ethanol extract of T. decandra has a liver protective effect against carbon tetrachloride- induced hepatotoxicity and possess antioxidant activities.
The methanol extract of leaves of Kydia calycina Roxb. was screened for the analgesic (using hot plate test and acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice) and anti-inflammatory (using rat paw edema test) activity at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. A significant (p<0.0005) analgesic effect was observed with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg in both tests. The maximum anti-inflammatory response was produced at 3 hour with extract doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. These results suggest that the methanol extract of K. calycina has exhibited significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, which were comparable with standard drugs.
A double blind randomized controlled trial was conducted to examine the efficacy of nebulized magnesium sulfate in the treatment of acute exacerbation of asthma in children. Thirty patients received nebulized salbutamol (0.15 mg/kg; minimum dose 2.5 mg) with 2.0 ml of isotonic magnesium sulfate solution and another 30 patients received same dose of salbutamol with 2.0 ml of normal saline on 3 occasions at 20 minute intervals. Mean percent of predicted peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) detected in both group at 0 minute were not significantly different. But from 10 minute up to 60 minute, the values were significantly different among the groups. Mean respiratory rate at 0 and 10 minute were similar in both groups and from 20 up to 60 minute, respiratory rate improvement were significantly different. Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) at presentation was not significantly different. But from 10 min up to 60 minute differences were significant. With single dose of nebulization, in the magnesium sulfate with salbutamol group, by 20 minute almost all (29 out of 30) patient achieved at least 60% of predicted PEFR. Within this 20 minute, from control group none could achieve 60% of predicted PEFR. After 2nd dose of nebulization control group started achieving 60% PEFR value. Regarding response criteria, with 2nd dose of nebulization, at 30 and 40 minute 9 (30.0%) and 17 (56.7%) patient from magnesium sulfate with salbutamol group showed good response (PEFR ≥ 70% predicted). But within this first 40 minutes time, none could show good response in control group. With 3rd dose of nebulization all from magnesium sulfate group showed good response but even at 60 minute, 4 (13.3%) patient in control group failed to be included as good responder. So, it is evident that nebulization by isotonic magnesium sulfate solution with salbutamol provide early and better response as compared to conventional approach (salbutamol plus normal saline) in acute exacerbation of asthma in children.
The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Adenosma capitatum and Limnophila aromatica and were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Forty six and thirty components were identified, representing 98.8% and 99.3% of the total oils respectively. Oil of A. capitatum rich in limonene (24.74%), fenchone (21.59%) and 2-carene (17.64%). On the other hand, L. aromatica rich in Z-ocimene (39.21%), terpinolene (17.24%) and camphor (12.89%).
The binding of atenolol (selective β1-blocker) and amlodipine (calcium channel blocker) to bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by equilibrium dialysis method in order to have an insight into the binding chemistry of these two to BSA. Free atenolol concentration was increased due to addition of amlodipine which reduced the binding of the compounds to BSA. However, the free fraction was increased to a level as it was expected from direct competitive displacement while the free atenolol concentration was increased according to increasing the amlodipine concentration when only the BSA was present. The result obtained when the binding site was blocked by sufficient amount of amlodipine was that the increment of free concentration of atenolol was prominent. When no amlodipine was added the free concentration of atenolol was only 28% whereas this release was 93 % to 98.01% when amlodipine was added with increasing concentration.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of death throughout the world and Bangladesh stands 4th among high burden countries. Treatment of TB hampered with poor patient compliance and intolerance at least partly due to the adverse drug reactions.A prospective longitudinal non-randomized case study was conducted on 64 admitted patients in Chest Disease Hospital and Shahid Shamsuddin Hospital, Sylhet diagnosed as primary (Category I) and resistant or treatment failure (Category II) to compare adverse effects between two anti-TB drug treatment regimen based on diagnostic category. Category I received four drug (rifampicin, isoniazide, ethambutol, pyrazinamide) and Category II received five drug (rifampicin, isoniazide, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, sparfloxacin) combination treatment for initial 2 months under DOTS during the period of July 2004 to July 2005. Adverse effect parameters e.g. GI disturbances, arthralgia, hepatic dysfunction and renal impairment were estimated before, two and eight weeks after initiation of treatment. Predisposing risk factors for adverse effects e.g. age, sex, nutritional status, associated disease, habits were also analyzed. In our study, 76.47% of total patients experienced some sorts of adverse effects. In four and five drug regimen group adverse reaction were observed in 50% and 95% of patients respectively. Serum bilirubin, SGPT, creatinine did not change in neither of the treated group while alkaline phosphatase tended to decrease and uric acid to increase . TB was common in males of poor nutritious group. No disease was established to be risk factor for drug intolerance.
Aedes aegypti is a vector parasite of the Dengue. New method to control the population of this insect is necessary. In the present work we evaluated the potential of extract from Cestrum nocturnum as larvicide. Methanol extract outstand as highly active larvicide, achieving 100 % larval mortality in 24 hours when tested in the concentration of 45 µg/mL (soxhlet) and 25 µg/mL (percolation). Any extract exhibiting significant larvicide activity was further fractioned and the fraction tested according to the WHO protocol. One fraction derived from methanol extract present remarkable LC100 at 12 µg/mL. LC50 of methanol extract and active fraction were found 14 µg/mL and 6 µg/mL respectively. These fractions will be submitted to further fractions aiming to identify the molecules responsible for the larvicide activity.
The methanol extract of the root of Aegle marmelos, a medicinal plant, was fractionated into eight fractions using column chromatography. The anti-diabetic activity of all the fractions was studied using the glucose uptake by isolated rat hemi-diaphragm in vitro model. Using the bioassay-guided fractionation, two compounds 1 and 2 were isolated by column chromatography and identified as 6-methyl-4-chromanone and skimmianine respectively by NMR and mass spectral methods.
The study was carried out to find out the differences in composition of oils obtained from healthy, naturally infected and artificially screws wounds eaglewood (Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.) using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Natural healthy plants agar contained octacosane (19.83%), naphthalene, 1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,8a-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethenyl)-, [1R-(1.alpha.,7.beta.,8a.alpha.)]- (12.67%), 5-isobutyramido-2-methyl pyrimidine (13.52%), caryophyllene oxide (11.25%) and (.+-.)-cadinene (5.46%). Natural infected plants agar (super agar) contained cycloheptane, 4-methylene-1-methyl-2-(2-methyl-1-propen-1-yl)-1-vinyl- (46.17%), caryophyllene oxide (33.00%) and 7-Isopropenyl-4a-methyl-1-methylenedecahydronaphthalene (20.83%). Artificially screw injected plants agar contained diisooctyl phthalate (71.97%), 1H-Cycloprop[e]azulen-4-ol, decahydro-1,1,4,7-tetramethyl-, [1ar-(1a.alpha.,4.beta.,4a.beta., 7.alpha., 7a.beta., 7b.alpha.)]- (9.16%), hexadecanoic acid (7.05%), naphthalene, 1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,8a-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethenyl)-, [1R-(1.alpha.,7.beta.,8a.alpha.)]- (6.45%) and aristolene (5.36%). This study showed a marked difference in the oil compositions among the treatments with regards to their quality.
Cancer is a major public health burden in both developed and developing countries. Plant derived agents are being used for the treatment of cancer. Several anticancer agents including taxol, vinblas-tine, vincristine, the camptothecin derivatives, topotecan and irinotecan, and etoposide derived from epipodophyllotoxin are in clinical use all over the world. A number of promising agents such as flavopiridol, roscovitine, combretastatin A-4, betulinic acid and silvestrol are in clinical or preclinical development.
In this animal model (Wistar rats of either sex) common bile duct was ligated for 28 days. Rats were treated for 28 days with methanol extract of Cocculus hirsutus. On day 29, blood and liver were collected for biochemical estimation and histopathological studies. Bile duct ligation produced liver fibrosis with generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of oxidative stress. Hence the different concentrations of methanolic extract of C. hirsutus were evaluated for in vivo glutathione reductase activity. On bile duct ligation the liver fibrosis was induced with significant rise in serum marker enzymes levels. The hydroxyproline accumulation caused by hydrophilic bile acids accompanied by elevated hepatic lipid peroxidation, and glutathione levels. Treatment with C. hirsutus extract decreased the elevated levels of serum marker enzymes showing hepatoprotection, which was further confirmed by histopathological results.
Antidermatophytic activity of dichloromethane and methanol extracts of whole plant of Allamanda cathertica was evaluated. Two pathogenic dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum gypseum were used that were collected from dermatophytoses patients. The dichloromethane extract was moderately active at concentration of 50 µg/disc but exhibited highly potent activity at concentration of 200 µg/disc. The methanol extract was not active against the tested fungi. Dichloromethane extract of A. cathertica may have antidermatophyte constituents that could be useful in ringworm diseases.
The present study aimed to obtain and evaluate remedy against viral hepatitis with Phyllanthus niruri (Bhui amla). Viral infection and toxic doses of paracetamol produce similar pattern of hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administering paracetamol (750 mg/kg body weight, single dose intraperitoneal) into one group (group P) of rats. Propylene glycol (vehicle) was administered (2 ml) into another group (group V) of rats. Four groups of P. niruri extract-pretreated (200 mg/kg body weight/day for 7 days) rats were administered the same single dose of paracetamol on the 7th day. Extract of P. niruri were obtained through ethanol (E), hexane (H), dichloromethane (D) and butane (B). Rat groups were V, P, E + P, H + P, D + P and B + P. Each group consisted of 6 rats and were sacrificed on the 9th day. Parameters for evaluation were biochemical (serum ALT, serum AST, serum ALP, serum bilirubin), hepatic reduced glutathione concentrations and hepatic histology. Propylene glycol (group V) appeared non-toxic to the liver while significant degrees of centrilobuler hepatotoxicity was observed in group P paracetamol-treated rats. The E + P group suggested significant improvements in the serum parameters but these parameters appeared better alleviated in the H + P group. Hepatic reduced glutathione concentrations were replenished to the control level in both E + P and H + P groups. Hepatic histology supported biochemical and other observations in the P, E + P and H + P groups. Lesser degrees of alleviations were observed in the D + P and B + P groups. However, the hexane extract-pretreated group (H + P) appeared to provide the most significant hepatoprotection against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in the rat. Titration of the dose following isolation of the active ingredient might offer complete alleviation.
The effects of dietary shochu kasu (5%) on orotic acid-induced fatty liver were studied in rats. Liver triglyceride content of orotic acid-fed rats increased by 5-fold in comparison to basal group. Shochu kasu reduced triglyceride content by two-third. The activities of fatty acid synthase and phosphatidate phosphohydrolase significantly decreased that was approximately by 35% and 20%, respectively. The serum lipid levels however were nearly unchanged. The alleviation of fatty liver in rats with shochu kasu, therefore, was associated with the inhibition of fatty acid synthase and phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activities.
The efficacy and safety of ondansetron, administered alone and in combination with domperidone to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting of breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy FAC regimen (5-fluorouracil, adriamycin and cyclophosphamide) were evaluated. A consecutive open-label interventional study was conducted on a total number of 86 female breast cancer patients who were receiving chemotherapy. Forty two patients received ondansetron (8 mg) intravenously 30 min before chemotherapy which is followed by ondansetron (8 mg) administered orally every 8 hourly for 2 days from the day of start of chemotherapy. Another 44 patients received ondansetron (8 mg) intravenously 30 min before chemotherapy followed by ondansetron (8 mg) plus domperidone (20 mg) administered orally 8 hourly for 48 hours from the day of start of chemotherapy. The number of emetic episodes, severity of nausea, assessment of appetite and adverse events were recorded at 8 hour intervals for two days study period using specific scoring criteria. Ondansetron in combination with domperidone significantly decreased the chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in comparison with ondansetron administered alone (P< 0.001). Appetite status was good with combination therapy (P<0.001). Improvement in appetite indicates that ondansetron plus domperidone exert protective effect against nausea and maintain normal appetite, while patients who were getting monotherapy experience loss of appetite. The common adverse event, headache was present in both the groups. No extrapyramidal reaction was observed in any group. This study showed that ondansetron plus domperidone exert more pronounced antiemetic effect in patients with breast cancer receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (FAC regimen) with good appetite status and less adverse effect.
The present study investigated whether the administration of amlodipine ameliorates oxidative stress induced by experimental myocardial infarction in rats. Adrenaline was administered and myocardial damage was evaluated biochemically [significantly increased serum aspertate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of myocardial tissue] and histologically (morphological changes of myocardium. Amlodipine was administered as pretreatment for 14 days in adrenaline treated rats. Statistically significant amelioration in all the biochemical parameters supported by significantly improved myocardial morphology was observed in amlodipine pretreatment. It was concluded that amlodipine afforded cardioprotection by reducing oxidative stress induced in experimental myocardial infarction of catecholamine assault.
The aim of the study was to compare the analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of fruits and whole plant of Fragaria vesca in experimental animal models. The extracts were prepared by percolation method and oral toxicity testing was performed as per OECD guidelines. Analgesic activity was assessed by tail flickmethod (for central action) and acetic acid-induced writhing test (for peripheral action). Fruit extract, whole plant extract and aspirin showed significant analgesic activity, both central and peripheral, as compared to control (p< 0.01). Although fruit extract at dose of 500 mg/kg showed better activity than 250 mg/kg (p<0.05). Analgesic activities of fruit extract 250 mg/kg and whole plantextract 500 mg/kg were almost equivalent while aspirin was most potent among all with significantly greater activities as compared to all the extracts (p<0.05).
The aim of the study was to evaluate the central and peripheral analgesic action of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus in experimental animal models. The extract was prepared by percolation method and acute oral toxicity testing was performed as per OECD guidelines. Analgesic activity was assessed by tail flick method (for central action) and glacial acetic acid-induced writhing test (for peripheral action). Leaves extract (500 mg/kg, p.o.) and aspirin (100 mg/kg) showed significant peripheral analgesic activity (p<0.05). Leaves extract (500 mg/kg, p.o.) and pethidine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) also showed significant central analgesic activity (p<0.05). Naloxone (1 mg/kg, s.c.) was used to find the mechanism of central analgesic action. Some partial agonistic activity for the opioid receptors seems to be probable mechanism of action.
The present study was designed to evaluate the prescribing pattern of analgesics in post-operative patients in a surgical unit. Total number of 180 prescriptions containing analgesics was collected randomly. The only drug in the operation day that was used was pethidine (90.6%). Patients (9.4%) did not receive any analgesics in the operation day. Associated analgesics in the operation day were either tramadol (42.2 %) or ketorolac (54.4%). Only 3.3% did not receive any such drugs. In first post-operative day most of the patients received single drug tramadol (48.3%), ketorolac (38.9%) and pethidine (0.6%). In second, third, forth and fifth post-operative day most patients received tramadol (47.8%) (44.4%), (41.4%) and (33.2%) respectively. In sixth post-operative day most of the patients (81.1%) did not receive any analgesics. In this study tramadol was found to be widely used post-operative analgesics with minimal side effects and better adherence to this drug by the patient.
The concentrations of 15 elements and heavy metals in the stem bark of Harungana madagascariensis were determined using an energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer. The anti-anemic activity was done using the changes in hematological parameters (PCV, RBC and Hb) influenced by phenylhydrazine HCL (80 mg/kg) and malaria parasites-induced anemia. Results show Cd, Ni, Mo, Cr and Br were in the range of 0.021–0.94 mg/g, while Pb, Zn, Fe, Cu and Hg were in the range of 1.50–7.24 mg/g. The elements with very high concentration were Ca, K, Sr, Mn and Cl and were in the range of 10.5–774.3 mg/g. Remarkable anti-anemic activity was obtained with PCV of 40–48%, RBC count of 81-155 x104 and Hb value of 57-66 g/dL after treatment; compared with 30% PCV, 67 x104 RBC count and 36.5 g/dL Hb value obtained for the untreated control animals. Our results suggest that H. madagascariensis stem bark extract constituents exhibit anti-anemic activity.
The aim of the present study is to investigate central nervous system (CNS) activity of the methanol extract of barks of Careya arborea (Myrtaceae) in Swiss albino mice and Wistar albino rats. General behavior, exploratory behavior, muscle relaxant activity and phenobarbitone sodium–induced sleeping time were studied. The results revealed that the methanol extract of barks of Careya arborea at 100 and 200 mg/kg caused a significant reduction in the spontaneous activity (general behavioral profile), remarkable decrease in exploratory behavioral pattern (Y–maze and head dip test), a reduction in muscle relaxant activity (rotarod and traction tests), and also significantly potentiated phenobarbitone sodium–induced sleeping time. The results suggest that methanol extract of Careya arborea exhibit CNS depressant activity in tested animal models.
The bark of Xeromphis spinosa extracted by a mixture of equal proportions of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol at an oral dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity when compared with control.
A cross-sectional study on consumption patterns of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by the community without prescription was conducted in Dhaka Metropolitan City. A total of 608 encounters from 16 pharmacies were interviewed from people found to purchase drugs of the pharmacy from their self demand. The commonest purchased NSAIDs per encounter was paracetamol (37.0%). Ibuprofen (13.8%), diclofenac sodium (12.7%), aspirin (7.4%), naproxen (6.9%) and other group of NSAIDs (22.2%) were also purchased. The influence by friends/relatives (30.3%) previously advised by the doctor to purchase the NSAIDs for the same complaint were (29.1%); pharmacy salesmen’s advice (28.3%) and other reasons (12.3%). The total cost of purchased NSAIDs per encounter were less than Tk. 5 (6.9%), Tk. 5 to less than Tk. 10 (45.4%), Tk. 10-25 (35.5%) and more than Tk. 25 (12.2%). Single item of drug was purchased along with NSAIDs by 17.1% of encounters.
The anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extract of neem leaf (400 mg/kg body weight) was compared with that of dexamethasone (0.75 mg, intraperitoneally) by administering one hour before the formalin injection and once daily for 7 days in rats. The percentage of inhibition of paw edema in case of neem after 3 hours, 6 hours, on day 3, on day 7 after formalin injection were 28%, 40%, 45%, 58% respectively and that in case of dexamethasone after 3 hours, 6 hours, on day 3, on day 7 after formalin injection were 43%, 58%, 61%, 65% respectively. The reduction was statistically significant in each case (p<0.001). The present study suggests that anti-inflammatory effect of neem extract is less than that produced by dexamethasone.
The prescribing pattern of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in prescriptions prescribed by the qualified medical personnel in the outpatient departments of three selected teaching hospitals in Dhaka city were studied. A total of 600 prescriptions containing NSAIDs were collected. The clinical conditions for which NSAIDs prescribed were identical in all the three hospitals, although there were wide variations in the prescribing pattern with respect to pharmacological sub-classes of NSAIDs. Analgesics with no or minimal anti-inflammatory effects were the most commonly prescribed NSAIDs in the medical outpatient departments of Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH) and Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Hospital (BSMMUH) whereas analgesics with potent anti-inflammatory effects were the most commonly prescribed NSAIDs in a private teaching hospital (PH). Moreover, the prescribers in PH had to prescribe additional drugs than those of the prescribers of DMCH and BSMMUH to counter the adverse effects of NSAIDs. Proton pump inhibitors were mainly used in medical outpatient departments whereas H2 blockers were in surgical outpatient departments. Consequently, the cost of prescribed NSAIDs per prescription and ultimately the cost of total drugs per prescription became more expensive in PH compared to DMCH and BSMMUH. In conclusion, it may be said that the overall prescribing pattern of NSAIDs among three hospitals is rational.
The anti-inflammatory activities of different extracts of leaves Symplocos cochinchnensis Lour ssp laurina (Symplococaceae) were investigated for In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity by human red blood cell membrane stabilization method. The methanol extract showed effective in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity was screened for in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat model. The potency of the extracts was compared with standard diclofenac (50 mg/kg). The methanol extract showed significant membrane stabilizing action on human red blood cell membrane and reduction of edema in carrageenan induced rat paw edema model.
The methanol and methanol-chloroform (1:1) extracts of the freshly collected Haliclona exigua showed minumim inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 125 μg/ml and 250 μg/ml respectively in in vitro studies, but when both of these were tested in vivo in rats, only methanol-chloroform showed 80% inhibition of trophozoites at the dose of 900 mg/kg body weight against Entamoeba histolytica. Therefore only methanol-chloroform extract was further fractionated into four fractions (hexane, chloroform, n-butanol soluble and n-butanol insoluble fractions). Out of these, only hexane and n-butanol soluble fractions showed 80% inhibition of trophozoites at 900 mg/kg dose. Further the chromatography of the n-butanol fraction yielded araguspongin-C which showed promising results at different doses.
Antiamoebic activity of methanol extract of mature seeds of Carica papaya was tested in vitro on axenic culture of Entamoeba histolytica using metronidazole as a reference amoebicidal agent. The MIC of seed extract was > 62.5 µg/mL as compared to < 0.8 µg/mL for metronidazole. The present study suggests that the mature seeds of C. papaya have antiamoebic effect but less pronounced than metronidazole.
Antibacterial properties of methanol extract of Argyreia argentea stem was studied on three Gram positive and seven Gram negative bacteria by disc diffusion method. The extract showed zone of inhibition against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis and B. megaterium) and Gram negative bacteria (Streptococcus aureus, E. Coli, Salmonella typhae, S. paratyphae, Pseudomonous sp (I), Pseudomonous sp (II) and Shigella sonnei). In addition, the extract was found effective against some fungi like Aspergillus flavous, Fusarium equiseti, Altenaria alternate, A. niger, Colletotrichum corphori.
The anticonvulsant activity of gossypin was investigated by studying the effects on seizures induced by pentelentetrazole, strychnine and maximal electroshock convulsive methods in mice. Gossypin (10 and 20 mg/kg) significantly reduced the duration of convulsion in tonic seizure induced by pentelenetetrazole (95 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Gossypin (20 mg/kg p.o) significantly reduced the tonic extensor convulsion induced by strychnine and maximum electroshock-induced convulsions. The data obtained suggest that gossypin have anticonvulsant property and may probably be affecting both GABA aminergic and glycine inhibitory mechanism.
Mangifera indica Linn, locally known as mango tree has been claimed to possess antidiabetic properties by many investigators. The present study was undertaken to screen the hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of both ethanol and water extracts of leaves and stem-barks of M. indica in nondiabetic and diabetic model rats in different prandial state. The results showed that all of the extracts had significant antihyperglycemic effect in type 2 diabetic model rats when fed simultaneously with glucose load (p<0.05-0.01; p<0.005-0.001). Moreover, the ethanol extract of stem-barks showed significant antihyperglycemic effect when the extract was fed 30 min prior to the glucose load (p<0.01). Investigations were carried out to evaluate the effect of M. indica on glucose absorption using a rat intestinal preparation in situ. The ethanol extracts of stem-barks reduced glucose absorption gradually during the whole perfusion period in type 2 diabetic rats.
The ethanolic bark extract of Mitragyna diversifolia showed significant (p<0.05) antidiarrheal activity on gastrointestinal motility with barium sulfate milk model and castor oil- induced diarrheal model in rats. These results revealed that the bark extract possess pharmacological activity against diarrhea and may possibly explain the use of the plant in traditional medicine.
he chloroform extract of the culture filtrate of an isolated Streptomyces species upon chromatographic analysis had lead to the isolation of two isomeric compounds (I and II). The structure of the compounds was considered to be Stretomysone A (I) and Streptomysone B (II) by its spectral data. Both the compounds showed significant antimicrobial activity against tested pathogenic bacteria and fungus. The compounds seem to be first report of isomeric compound from Streptomyces species having antimicrobial activity.
The aerial parts essential oils of Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae) from Togo were steam-distilled and investigated for their percentage composition (GC and GC/MS) and in vitro antimicrobial activities. Five oil chemotypes were identified and classified as follows in line with their principal components: estragole type; linalool/estragole type; methyleugenol type; methyleugenol/t-anethole type; t-anethole type. The in vitro microbiological experiments revealed that only the methyleugenol and methyleugenol/t-anethole chemotypes were active against tested fungi and bacteria. Their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 80 to 150 µl.l-1 and from 200 to 500 µl.l-1 respectively. Likewise, on tested bacteria the MIC varied from 200 µl.l-1 to 400 µl.l-1 and from 250 to 500 µl.l-1 respectively. These findings are supportive of the potential of both basil oil chemotypes for use as active ingredients in natural antibiotic drugs.
The study was carried out to find the antimicrobial activity of hemolymph of Macrobrachium rosenbergii and to evaluate the antimicrobial compounds. The highest inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumonia (12 mm) and antifungal activity was observed only against Fusarium moniliforme (11 mm). Antimicrobial peptide was characterized in molecular size ranging from 22 to 91KDa with antimicrobial activity against various infectious pathogens. Hemolymph plays a vital role in the disease prevention in crustaceans and there is no report on antimicrobial activities of the prawn M. rosenbergii.
The present study was carried out to investigate the antiobesity effect of methanolic extract of stem and root barks of Bauhinia variegata Linn in female rats fed with hypercaloric diet. Obesity was induced by administration of hypercaloric diet for 40 days. The plant extract (at the tested doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg) exhibited a significant hypolipidemic effect and thus reduced the obesity. The body weight and feed intake was reduced significantly. Treatment of obese animals with the methanolic extract of B. variegata exhibited an increased brain serotonin level and high density lipoprotein with a concomitant decrease in total cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipo protein. Thus the study indicates that the antiobesity activity of methanolic extract of B. variegata could be attributed to the presence of β-sitosterol in the stems and the tendency of the extract to reduce lipid profile and elicit the brain serotonin level.
The role of arsenic-safe drinking water and antioxidants in the management of arsenicosis patients were observed. Two hundred and fifty patients of arsenicosis from an arsenic-affected area of Bangladesh were included and divided into five groups based on the source of drinking water (green- or red-marked tube well) and intake of antioxidants (vitamin A, C and E). Melanosis improved in 43 patients of the group who took arsenic-safe drinking water from green-marked tube well and antioxidants regularly. Patients of the group who took green-marked tube well water regularly but not the antioxidant showed improvement in melanosis in 22 cases. The respondents who were using red-marked tube well water and antioxidants, only two of them improved; and all other respondents either deteriorated or did not improve. The respondents who were using red-marked tube well water but not the antioxidant, none did show any improvement of their illness. The respondents who took antioxidants irregularly and had irregular intake of safe water, were not considered to compare the prognosis of skin lesions. Regarding keratosis, the respondents who took green-marked tube well water regularly and antioxidant regularly, 8 of them improved, 1 case didn’t change; while the respondents who took green-marked tube well water regularly but not the antioxidant, 8 cases didn’t improve much but majority of them remain unchanged. Among the respondents of other groups, keratosis deteriorated. This study suggests that both arsenic-safe drinking water and use of antioxidants gave good result in improvement of the arsenicosis.
Aqueous extract of dried roots of Mimosa pudica was tested for inhibitory activity on lethality, phospholipase activity, edema forming activity, fibrinolytic activity and hemorrhagic activity of Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms. The aqueous extract displayed a significant inhibitory effect on the lethality, phospholipase activity, edema forming activity, fibrinolytic activity and hemorrhagic activity. About 0.14 mg and 0.16 mg of M. pudica extracts were able to completely neutralize the lethal activity of 2LD50 of Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms respectively. The present finding suggests that aqueous extract of M. pudica root possesses compounds, which inhibit the activity of Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms.
Nine endophytic fungal strains labeled as AL-1, AL-2, AS-1, AS-2, AS-3, AS-4, AR-1, AR-2 and AR-4 were isolated from the medicinal plant Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk. Three compounds 1,7-dihydroxy-3-methoxyanthraquinone, propyl p-methoxy phenyl ether and 6-methoxy-7-O-(p-methoxyphenyl)-coumarin were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the strain AL-2 by silica gel column chromatography and HPLC. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques i.e. UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR. Extracts of the strain AL-2 were assessed for antibacterial activities against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and general toxicity against brine shrimp lethality assay. The ethyl acetate extract showed only mild activity against two Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus).
A total 400 vegetable sample of 20 varieties of three categories were collected from a local market of Dhaka city. Speciation of arsenic (inorganic arsenic, MMA and DMM) and the amount of inorganic phosphate were estimated. There was no significant variation in the concentrations of inorganic phosphate levels amoung the three categories of vegetables. But in case of arsenic accumulation the fruiting vegetables, root and tuber vegetables and leafy vegetables showed significant variation. There was either positive or negative relationship present in inorganic phosphate and speciated arsenic among the vegetables. Significant negative relationship between inorganic phosphate and inorganic arsenic is observed in different types of fruiting vegetables e.g., bitter ground, tomato; between inorganic phosphate and DMA in bitter gourd; and between inorganic phosphate and total arsenic in bitter gourd, lady's finger, and tomato. The fruiting vegetables contained low level of arsenic, which might have some relationship with higher level of inorganic phosphate. In root and tuber vegetables, significant relationship was present in arum. But in case of arum loti significant positive relationship was observed between inorganic phosphate and DMA. The present study shows that the leafy vegetables contained higher level of inorganic phosphate in contrast to arsenic, though they had no significant relationship between inorganic phosphate and different speciated form of arsenic.
Extensive search is going on for a cheap, easily available and effective remedy of chronic arsenic poisoning. The present study was designed to find the effects of hexane extract of spinach in the removal of arsenic from arsenic treated rat. Rats were fed arsenic trioxide through Ryle’s tube for one month then they were fed on hexane extract (1-4%) of spinach for another one month. Hexane extract of spinach decreased accumulated arsenic from rat liver, spleen, kidney, intestine, lungs and skin significantly. Besides, it reduced the oxidative stress caused by arsenic which was evident by decreased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the above tissues. Hexane extract decreases both arsenic level and MDA level in rat tissues in dose dependent manner, which is more effective at lower doses.
Isolated liver tissues of rat were loaded with trivalent arsenic and were exposed in presence and absence of ascorbic acid. The amount of reduced glutathione (GSH) in normal liver tissue was 52.0 0.2 g/g protein. Addition of arsenic to the tissues reduced the amount of GSH to 11.5 0.3 g/g protein. But when the arsenic loaded liver tissues were incubated with ascorbic acid at the concentration of 20 g/ml, the amount of GSH was 14.2 0.1 g/g protein. There was 22.6% increase of GSH level which was statistically significant (p<0.001) when compared with arsenic alone. This study suggests that ascorbic acid increased the GSH level in arsenic-treated rat's liver.
Quest is still going on for a cheap, effective, and easily available remedy for chronic arsenic toxicity. This study was designed to investigate the effects of folic acid and tetrahydrofolate in lowering the arsenic burden in tissues. Rats received arsenic at 700 µg/day by gavage for 28 days except the control group. Arsenic accumulation was significantly lowered (p<0.05), in liver, kidney, heart, lung and skin in both the folic acid and tetrahydrofolate-treated groups compared to arsenic only treated group. The oxidative stress induced by arsenic treatment was reduced as evident by the reduction in rise of malondialdehyde level in both groups. But folic acid was found to be more efficacious compared to tetrahydrofolate.
The present study investigated whether the administration of the ethanol extract of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) ameliorates arsenic from arsenic-treated rats. To induce arsenic accumulation in different organs, arsenic trioxide was administered orally by gavage at a dose of 500 µg/rat/day for 7 days. In search of an effective therapeutic agent to counteract arsenic accumulation and arsenic-induced oxidative stress, different concentrations of ethanol extract of root of water hyacinth (100%, 75%, 50%, and 25%) were administered by intraperitoneal injection for last two days which significantly reduced the arsenic accumulation in liver, spleen, kidney, intestine, lungs and skin. Besides, it reduced the oxidative stress caused by arsenic, which was evident by decreased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the above organs. Treatment with either extract 50% or with alpha-tocopherol was applied singly and in combination to find out result for comparison of effectiveness on arsenic removal. But the reduction of arsenic and MDA was not dose dependent and not parallel. Water hyacinth, at the dose of 50% extract was observed to be most effective.
The patient of chronic arsenic toxicity shows oxidative stress. To overcome the oxidative stress, several antioxidants such as beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, zinc and selenium had been suggested in the treatment of chronic arsenic toxicity. In the present study universal antioxidant (both water and lipid soluble antioxidant) α-lipoic acid was used to examine the effectiveness of reducing the amount of arsenic from arsenic-loaded isolated liver tissues of rat. Isolated liver tissues of Long Evans Norwegian rats were cut into small pieces and incubated first in presence or absence of arsenic and then with different concentrations of α-lipoic acid during the second incubation. α-Lipoic acid decreases the amount of arsenic and malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver tissues as well as increases the reduced glutathione (GSH) level in dose dependent manner. These results suggest that α-lipoic acid remove arsenic from arsenic-loaded isolated liver tissues of rat.