BMC Women's Health

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Pie chart illustrating distribution of patients based on their satisfaction level after receiving same appointment screening results when compared to their old screening appointment without same day results
Histogram illustrating difference in points ranging 010 estimating the change in screening experience after same appointment screening results. 0 indicates no difference in satisfaction score, below 0 indicates negative difference in satisfaction score and above 0 indicates positive difference in satisfaction score
Article
  • Biren A. ShahBiren A. Shah
  • Anicia MirchandaniAnicia Mirchandani
  • Srishti AbrolSrishti Abrol
Background Most women undergoing screening examinations in the U.S. do not receive immediate results and for many this results in increased stress, inconvenience, delayed diagnosis, and potential loss to follow-up. Objective To study the impact of same appointment mammogram results on breast cancer screening experience and patient satisfaction. Materials and methods A 6-question survey with questions focused on breast cancer screening experience with our new service of same appointment mammogram results was distributed to 200 patients, with 185 patients returning their responses. Patients evaluated their current experience on receiving their screening results during the same appointment with their prior breast cancer screening experience. Patients who did not respond to their satisfaction score either before or after same appointment results were excluded from the patient cohort analyzing satisfaction score. Remaining questions were analyzed separately as additional satisfaction assessment tools. Results About 48% of the patients indicated an improvement in their screening experience with same appointment mammography results service, while 47% of the patients reported no significant difference in their experience. Conclusion Although not statistically significant, same appointment mammogram results were able to make a positive impact on breast cancer screening experience among 48% of the patients. Further research elucidating barriers to screening and other ways to improve patient satisfaction will be required to increase breast cancer screening compliance.
 
Schematic presentation of sample extraction
Proportion of fertility decisions by SSA region
Article
  • Achamyeleh Birhanu TeshaleAchamyeleh Birhanu Teshale
  • Misganaw Gebrie WorkuMisganaw Gebrie Worku
  • Getayeneh Antehunegn TesemaGetayeneh Antehunegn Tesema
Background Fertility desire is one of the predictors of contraceptive behavior and fertility-related outcomes. However, information is scarce on individual and community-level factors of women’s fertility decisions in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective To assess fertility decisions and their associated factors in Sub-Saharan Africa. Methods The 35 Sub-Saharan African country’s most recent demographic and health surveys (DHS) data conducted from 2008 to 2020 was used. A total of 284,744 (weighted) married women were used for analysis. The proportion of fertility decisions with their 95%CI was estimated. To assess the factors associated with fertility decisions, both random effect and fixed effect analyses were conducted. In the fixed analysis, particularly in the multivariable analysis, adjusted relative risk ratio (aRRR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was reported and variables with a p -value < 0.05 were considered significant predictors of fertility decisions. Results In this study, 64.35% (95%CI: 64.2%, 64.5%) of the study participants had fertility desire. However, 5.4% (95%CI: 5.3, 5.5) of the study participants had undecided fertility behavior. In the multivariable analysis, desire for more children and undecided fertility desire were relatively lower among older women, women with primary, secondary, and higher education, working women, women who currently use contraceptives, women with a higher number of living children, women with higher parity, women from eastern and southern Africa, and women from wealthy households. While, the ideal number of children, women who had decision-making autonomy, and women from the rural residence were all associated with a relatively higher desire for more children and undecided fertility desire. Furthermore, respondents' education and sex of household head were associated with the desire for more children while media exposure was associated with undecided fertility desire. Conclusion In this study, around two-thirds of women had a desire for more children and only 5.4% of women had undecided fertility desires. Both individual and community-level factors were associated with both desires for more children and undecided fertility desires. As a result, the aforementioned factors should be considered while developing reproductive health programs.
 
Article
  • Jiyeong KimJiyeong Kim
  • Melanie S. DoveMelanie S. Dove
  • Julie H. T. DangJulie H. T. Dang
Background Family caregivers may be at a higher risk for several chronic diseases, including cancer. Cervical cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer death among women. Despite family caregivers’ vulnerability, the status of their HPV awareness, knowledge, and preventive health behaviors, including cervical cancer screening, has been understudied. Thus, this study aimed to examine the sociodemographic factors associated with HPV awareness and knowledge and adherence to the cervical cancer screening guidelines among caregivers in the U.S. Methods Nationally representative cross-sectional survey data were obtained from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 5, 2017–2020). Female caregivers aged 21–65 were included (N = 1190). Weighted multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with HPV awareness (heard of HPV), knowledge (HPV can cause cervical cancer), and adherence to the United States Preventive Service Task Force 2018 cervical cancer screening guidelines by sociodemographic factors (age, race/ethnicity, education, household income, marital status,) and the intensity of caregiving. Results An estimated 79% of female caregivers were aware of HPV and 84% adhered to the cervical cancer screening guidelines. Caregivers who were older than 50 (OR = 3.62, 1.91–6.85, adherence of aged 21–50 vs. 51–65), Hispanics of race/ethnicity compared with Black/African Americans (OR = 3.14, 1.31–7.52, adherence of Black/African Americans vs. Hispanics ), with a high school education or less (OR = 2.34, 1.14–4.82, adherence of Some college or more vs. High school education or less ), and with intense caregiving duty (spending 35 h/week or more on caregiving) compared with light-duty (OR = 2.34, 1.10–5.00, adherence of 5–14 h vs. 35 h or more, weekly) had poor adherence to the cervical cancer screening guidelines. Caregivers who were older, racial minorities (Asian, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, American Indian/Alaska Native, Multiple races), and less educated showed lower HPV awareness (Heard of HPV) than their counterparts. Conclusions There are caregiving populations whose HPV awareness and cervical cancer screening adherence are low. To improve their awareness and knowledge of HPV and support their cervical cancer screening behaviors, we need to consider interventions that target those specific populations.
 
Number of correct answers in the pre- and post-hereditary breast cancer training workshop surveys by 9 participating promotores. Each survey included the same 16 questions (the questions are included in the Additional file 1)
Article
  • Micaela ReynaMicaela Reyna
  • Rebeca AlmeidaRebeca Almeida
  • Alejandra Lopez-MachaAlejandra Lopez-Macha
  • [...]
  • Laura FejermanLaura Fejerman
Background Awareness about hereditary breast cancer and the preventative steps to minimize disease risk is lower in Hispanic/Latina individuals than non-Hispanic White women in the United States. For this reason, we developed a promotor-based hereditary breast cancer education and risk identification program for self-identified Hispanic/Latina women, which included training promotores in basic genetics and hereditary breast cancer. This study explored promotores’ experiences receiving training and participating in virtual practice sessions as well as changes in knowledge about hereditary breast cancer. Methods A total of ten promotores underwent a two-week basic training led by the promotores organization and an eight-hour in person hereditary breast cancer training workshop. Demographic information along with pre- and post-training surveys were completed by ten promotores who participated in the training workshop. Surveys were given to determine changes in knowledge of hereditary breast cancer and genetics. Of the ten promotores, two were selected to lead community education sessions and participated in 6 semi-structured interviews. All interviews and practice sessions were conducted using a virtual platform. Results The data revealed that after the 8-h workshop and practice sessions, promotores felt confident about their ability to conduct virtual education sessions with the community. Interviews identified key facilitators to success such as a supportive environment, practice presentations, and personal motivation. Learning the online platform was considered the biggest challenge by the promotores, as opposed to learning complex genetics topics. Conclusions These results provide further evidence supporting promotores’ willingness and ability to provide health education on relatively complex topics. It also offers insight into the challenges of presenting information to vulnerable populations using an online platform and the additional support that is required to ensure a positive outcome.
 
MRI image showing the left uterine cavity (black arrow) communicating with the cervix and irregular fundus(white arrow)
3D ultrasound showing asymmetric uterine septum with a closed right uterine cavity (black arrow) and slightly sunken fundus (white arrow)
Image of hysteroscopic surgery A Asymmetric uterine septum visible under hysteroscopy. B Right fallopian tube opening revealed after mediastectomy. C Complete uterine cavity after hysteroscopy
Ultrasonic monitoring picture A Only the filling of the left uterine cavity could be seen on the ultrasound, and the asymmetric uterine septum could be clearly shown and measured in this section. B Real-time display of electric hook position under bladder filling (black arrow). C Abdominal ultrasound monitoring of uterine cavity communication
Article
  • Ying LiuYing Liu
  • Chenxiao HouChenxiao Hou
  • Yingjie ZhouYingjie Zhou
Background Rbert’s uterus, also known as asymmetric septate uterus, is a rare genital malformation first reported by Dr. Robert in 1970. Robert’s uterus is characterized by a septate uterus with a blind hemicavity and an intact external fundus. According to some reports, Robert’s uterus was typically managed by laparoscopic uterine resection of a hemicavity, laparoscopic endometrectomy, and even hysterectomy. Considering that fertility preservation is important in young patients, we recommend ultrasound-guided hysteroscopic septum resection as an optimum treatment for Robert’s uterus. Case presentation Herein is described a clinical case of Robert’s uterus in a 15-year-old girl who was misdiagnosed for primary dysmenorrhea in the beginning. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 3-dimensional (3D) ultrasound identified an asymmetrical uterine septum. The patient was treated using ultrasound-guided hysteroscopic treatment without laparoscopy. The surgical procedure lasted less than an hour, and the symptoms of dysmenorrhea were relieved during a six months follow-up. Conclusions Ultrasound-guided hysteroscopic septum resection is the preferred treatment for Robert’s uterus.
 
Article
Background Abortion is highly restricted in Indonesia; self-administered misoprostol can safely induce an abortion. Brick and mortar pharmacies, a common place to purchase misoprostol off-label in other parts of the world, are monitored closely by the government authority in Indonesia which controls drugs so that they cannot function outside the law without risking arrest and prosecution. An online marketplace has sprung up in response that sells misoprostol through in-country distributors. Such procurement offers a level of safety and anonymity to the buyer and seller. So as to understand online access to misoprostol, we created a protocol to identify the most visible universe of sellers. Methods We carried out a mystery client methodology to replicate the experiences of women procuring misoprostol online. Our study consisted of five stages: (1) identify the universe of online sellers using the most common search terms, drawn from multiple platforms to capture diversity in interactions as well as products sold (2) remove duplicates across sites as determined by their telephone numbers (3) draw a roughly probability proportional to size sample (4) contact sellers as mystery clients through text/chat, depending on the platform, and engage with them and (5) attempt to purchase drugs offered by the seller. Descriptive statistics are presented. Results The listing generated 727 sites: 441 websites, 153 marketplace sellers, and 133 Instagram profiles. After removing duplicate listings, we identified 281 unique sellers. We selected all sellers with greater than 12 listings, 60% of sellers with 4–12 listings, 50% of sellers with 2–3 listings, and 40% of sellers with only one listing. Mystery clients were able to send initial messages to 110 sellers, of which 16 never responded. The interaction progressed to purchasing misoprostol with 76 sellers, 64 of whom sent drugs. Conclusions As women seek to terminate unwanted pregnancies in legally restrictive settings, online sales of misoprostol must be considered. With the Covid pandemic constraining movement, the importance of this way of procuring misoprostol will likely become more appealing. Understanding this unregulated landscape is important if we are to try to improve women’s ability to safely conduct an abortion in highly restrictive settings.
 
Incidence of simultaneous endometrial and ovarian cancer among endometrial cancer patients. a Comparison between endometrial cancer (EC) patients with and without endometriosis. P values were obtained using Fisher’s exact test. b Comparison between patients with and without ovarian endometriomas among EC patients with endometriosis. EM, endometriosis; SEOC, simultaneous endometrial and ovarian cancer
Distribution of ovarian histological types in patients with simultaneous endometrial and ovarian cancer. a Total patients. b Patients with endometriosis. c Patients without endometriosis. SEOC, simultaneous endometrial and ovarian cancer; EM, endometriosis
Schema of carcinogenesis of endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer in endometrial cancer patients. EC, endometrial cancer; EAOC, endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer
Article
Background Endometriosis is assumed to be involved in ovarian cancer development, which is called endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (EAOC). Uterine endometrial cells may be the cell of origin of EAOC. Accumulated carcinogenic changes in the uterine endometrial cells may increase the risk of developing EAOC. To further understand the pathogenesis of EAOCs, we focused on the clinicopathological characteristics of EAOCs in endometrial cancer patients with concomitant endometriosis. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 376 patients who were surgically treated for stage I–III endometrial cancer. Clinicopathological characteristics were compared between patients with and without endometriosis. Furthermore, the incidence of simultaneous endometrial and ovarian cancer (SEOC) and the histological characteristics of SEOC were compared between the two groups. Results Among 376 patients with endometrial cancer, 51 had concomitant endometriosis. Patients with endometriosis were significantly younger and more frequently had endometrioid G1/G2 tumors than those without endometriosis. The incidence of SEOCs was significantly higher in endometrial cancer patients with endometriosis than those without it ( p < 0.0001); notably, 12 of 51 endometrial cancer patients with endometriosis (24%) had SEOCs. All of the ovarian cancers in endometrial cancer patients with endometriosis were endometrioid carcinomas. Moreover, even in those without endometriosis, endometrioid carcinoma was the most common histological type of SEOC. Conclusion We revealed that endometrial cancer patients with endometriosis had a high probability of SEOC and that endometrioid carcinoma was the most common histological subtype of SEOC regardless of the presence of endometriosis. For patients with endometrial cancer and endometriosis, careful examination of ovarian endometriotic lesions may be important to detect EAOCs.
 
Findings about nurses’ and midwives’ feedback on their sexual healthcare role
Article
Background Nurses and midwives role in sexual healthcare is essential to help patients, particularly women, ensure a satisfactory sexual wellbeing. Yet, these professionals often overlook this aspect of patients’ health. Little is known regarding nurses and midwives’ attitudes, views and experiences concerning sexual healthcare. Using a naturalistic inquiry approach, this qualitative study was conducted to overcome this limitation and gain insights into nurses and midwives' role in the delivery of sexual healthcare. Methods A purposive sample of nurses and midwives was chosen from different clinical sites. Data generated by focus group discussions were were analysed using the Framework Analysis while adopting different strategies to ensure rigour. The study aligns with the consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research checklist. Results Five themes illustrated the participants’ views and experiences. These are: ‘Perceptions of sexuality’, ‘Appreciating the discussion around the individuals' sexual issues’, ‘Muting the discussion around the individuals’ sexual issues, ‘Coping with embarrassment’, and ‘Promoting nurses’ and midwives’ roles sexual healthcare’. Nurses and midwives discussed the importance of sexuality in the couple's life. They reported controversial views and highlighted many challenges that make them reluctant in playing an efficient role in sexual healthcare. They discussed many suggestions, mainly getting a solid sexual health education to become better equipped to meet patients’ sexual health needs. Conclusion Findings are critical to empower nurses and midwives, break the barriers in discussing sexual healthcare and integrate this aspects of care more actively and confidently in daily practice.
 
National Cervical Cancer screening program algorithm—Turkey
Article
Background Cervical cancer is a preventable disease. This study aimed to share the results of the national cervical cancer screening program performed in primary health care institutions in Samsun between 2015 and 2019. Methods Women aged 30–65 years who were screened for cervical cancer in screening centers of Samsun between January 01, 2015, and December 31, 2019, were included in this descriptive study. The data were obtained from the automation program of the “National Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Laboratory Application” used by the Provincial Directorate of Health Cancer Unit through filtering the completion time of the tests, and all results were evaluated without sampling. Thus, data were presented using descriptive statistics. Results The mean age of 89,302 women included in the cervical cancer screening program was 45.9 ± 9.0 years. Of the samples obtained from the participants, 1.0% were determined as insufficient material, 94.1% as HPV-negative, and 4.9% as HPV-positive. The most common HPV genotypes were 16, 51, 31, and 52. Of the 4337 HPV-positive women, 74.7% of the pap smear results were negative (including infection, 36.5%), and the most common premalignant lesions were atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in 7.1% and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in 6.9%. HPV 16/18 was also observed in 31.7% of HPV-positive women. Seven hundred ninety-five women were referred to a specialist physician for further examination and treatment within the scope of the screening algorithm. Conclusion Detecting HPV-positivity by reaching more women within the national cervical cancer screening program’s scope is vital in fighting against this disease. The effectiveness of cancer screening programs should be increased by ensuring community participation through awareness activities.
 
Article
Background Approximately half of premenopausal women diagnosed with breast cancer desire to conceive after they finish treatment. Counseling about the risk of infertility prior to cancer treatment has been proven to improve quality of life after cancer treatment. As a result of this, guidelines focus on informing women on this topic prior to treatment. However, it is equally important to provide fertility related information after primary treatment has been completed, when the wish to conceive might become actual. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the fertility and early menopause related information needs of young breast cancer survivors and to design, develop and implement online information material with input of stakeholders. Methods A phenomenological qualitative study consisting of four phases was performed: identification of information needs through semi-structured interviews from a professional perspective (1) and a patient perspective (2). Exploration of stakeholders perspective regarding development and implementation of online information material (3) and development and implementation of the information material (4). Results Professionals indicated that there are no guidelines regarding the provision of fertility related information during cancer survivorship. Survivors reported unmet information needs. Women identified the following as most important information needs (a) fertility preservation options, (b) the risk of menopause or infertility, and (c) long term consequences of early menopause. A wide range of stakeholders involved in breast cancer care were interviewed. Based on their proposed design the information material was implemented on a nationwide website aiming at informing and supporting breast cancer patients. Conclusions Fertility and early menopause related information needs of young breast cancer survivors and their professionals were identified. Information material has been designed, developed and nationally implemented. This way, professionals in breast cancer care are provided with an information tool that helps them meet the information needs and preferences of their patients.
 
Participant flow chart for study sample of women reporting difficulty paying for health care among HER Salt Lake participants
Changes in contraceptive method selection across study periods
Article
Background Out-of-pocket costs continue to be a barrier to accessing necessary healthcare services, including contraception. We explored how eliminating out-of-pocket cost affects contraceptive method choice among people reporting difficulty paying for healthcare in the previous year, and whether method satisfaction differed by method choice. Methods We used data from the HER Salt Lake Contraceptive Initiative. This prospective cohort study provided participants with no-cost contraception (April 2016–March 2017) following a control period that provided no reduction in cost for the contraceptive implant, a reduced price for the hormonal IUD, and a sliding scale that decreased to no-cost for the copper IUD (September 2015–March 2016). We restricted the study population to those who reported difficulty paying for healthcare in the past 12 months. For our primary outcome assessing changes in method selection between intervention and control periods, we ran simultaneous multivariable logistic regression models for each method, applying test corrections for multiple comparisons. Among participants who continued their method for 1 year, we explored differences in method satisfaction using multivariable logistic regression. Results Of the 1,029 participants reporting difficulty paying for healthcare and controlling for other factors, participants more frequently selected the implant (aOR 6.0, 95% CI 2.7, 13.2) and the hormonal IUD (aOR 3.2, 95% CI 1.7, 5.9) during the intervention than control period. Comparing the same periods, participants less frequently chose the injection (aOR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3, 0.8) and the pill (aOR 0.4, 95% CI 0.3, 0.6). We did not observe a difference in uptake of the copper IUD (aOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0, 4.1).Contraceptive satisfaction scores differed minimally by contraceptive method used among contraceptive continuers (n = 534). Those who selected LNG IUDs were less likely to report low satisfaction with their method (aOR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3, 0.97). Conclusion With costs removed, participants who reported difficulty paying for healthcare were more likely to select hormonal IUDs and implants and less likely to select the injectable or contraceptive pills. Among continuers, there were few differences in method satisfaction. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02734199
 
Article
Abstract Background Loneliness, or the perception of social disconnectedness, is a public health concern and is reported to be a frequent experience during adolescence (10–19 years). This study investigates the prevalence of loneliness and associated health-risk behaviors among Indonesian female adolescents. Methods This was a cross-sectional study, data for which were extracted from the WHO’s Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS), which uses a globally standardized cross-sectional methodology to provide accurate data on behaviors and protective factors among students. Data from 4993 female students aged 13–17 years old from 74 schools were extracted from the 2015 survey in Indonesia and analyzed. Loneliness was used as a single measure, as happens in other studies using GSHS data. Descriptive analysis was done for age, socioemotional issues, health-risk behaviors, and contextual factors. This was followed by multiple logistic regression analysis to identify loneliness-associated factors. Results Approximately 6.5% of Indonesian female adolescents experience loneliness most of the time or always. Adolescents experiencing loneliness had a higher rate of sleep disturbance (37.6%), suicide ideation (21%), suicide plan (20.8%), smoking behavior (15%), and alcohol use (15.7%) than the general population. Multiple regression analysis confirms that adolescents who have no close friends, have been bullied during the past month, experience sleep disturbance, have had suicide ideation and suicide plans, are always feeling hungry, are exposed to passive smoking, and are engaged in a sedentary lifestyle are at a higher likelihood of suffering from loneliness (p
 
Flowchart of patient recruitment
Comparison of clinical pain evolution using the Visual Analogue Scale between intervention groups
Comparison of the evolution of clinical pain using the Numerical Categorical Scale between the intervention groups
Article
Background: Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is defined as recurrent or continuous pain in the lower abdomen or pelvis, either non-menstrual or noncyclical, lasting for at least 6 months. There is strong evidence that up to 85% of patients with CPP have serious dysfunctions of the musculoskeletal system, including abdominal myofascial pain syndrome (AMPS). AMPS is characterized by intense and deep abdominal pain, originating from hyperirritable trigger points, usually located within a musculoskeletal band or its lining fascia. In the literature, there are few studies that address AMPS. Objectives: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of therapeutic ultrasound (TUS) and injection of local anesthetic (IA) to improve pain in women with abdominal myofascial syndrome secondary to CPP. Study design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: Tertiary University Hospital. Materials and methods: A randomized clinical trial was conducted, patients were allocated to two types of treatment: group TUS (n = 18), and group IA (n = 20). The instruments used for evaluation and reassessment were the Visual Analog Scale, Numerical Categorical Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire, and SF-36 quality of life assessment questionnaire. They were evaluated before starting treatment, 1 week after the end of treatment, and at 1, 3, and 6 months. Results: TUS and IA were effective in reducing clinical pain and improving quality of life through the variables analyzed among study participants. There was no significant difference between groups. Limitations: absence of blinding; exclusion of women with comorbidities and other causes of CPP, the absence of a placebo group, the difference between the number of sessions used for each technique, and the COVID-19. Conclusion: Treatment with TUS and IA were effective in reducing clinical pain and improving quality of life in women with AMPS secondary to CPP. Trail registration: We declare that this clinical trial has been registered under the number [(ReBEC) no. RBR-39czsv] on 07/18/2018 in the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials.
 
Themes, subthemes and key codes developed in this research
The demographic characteristics of the participants
summary of themes, subthemes and key codes
Article
Background Breast cancer (BC) in women can bring various problems to their marital and family life. Sexual life based on the experiences of the husbands of women diagnosed with BC has not been fully understood. Therefore, this research aimed to explore changes and challenges in sexual life experienced by the husbands of women diagnosed with BC. Methods A qualitative research was carried out on 18 men whose wives had been diagnosed with BC at reproductive age. They were selected using purposeful sampling and were interviewed using in-depth semi-structured interviews. Collected data were analyzed using the conventional content analysis method. Results ‘Sexual life suspension’ was the main theme of this research. Also, ‘unfulfilled sexual expectations’, ‘perceived barriers to satisfy sexual expectations’, and ‘efforts to adapt to sexual problems’ were subthemes. Conclusions The husbands of women with BC need support to improve their sexual and marital relationships. Education and counseling about sexual life during the treatment of BC should be incorporated into the healthcare program.
 
(continued)
Abbreviations AOR:: Adjusted odds ratio; CI:: Confidence interval; COR:: Crude odds ratio; DHS:: Demographic health survey; ZDHS:: Zambia demographic health survey; OR:: Odds ratio; SD:: Standard deviation; WHO:: World health organization; SPSS:: Statistical package for social science.
Rural-Urban background characteristics of adolescents as per ZDHS 2018
Determinants of rural urban utilization of contraceptives among female adolescents in Zambia
Article
Background Modern contraceptive use among adolescents is low despite the adverse effects of adolescent pregnancies. Understanding correlates of modern contraceptive use in different settings is key to the design of effective context-specific interventions. We aimed to determine factors associated with modern contraceptives use among adolescents in rural and urban settings of Zambia. Methods We analyzed secondary data from 2018 Zambia demographic and health survey (ZDHS) focusing on adolescent girls aged 15–19 years. We used multivariable logistic regression in SPSS version 25 to examine rural-urban variations in factors associated with modern contraceptive utilization. Results Overall, 12.0% (360/3000, 95% CI: 10.9–13.2) of adolescents in Zambia were using modern contraceptives. Use of modern contraceptives was higher in rural areas at 13.7% (230/1677, 95% CI: 12.1–15.3) compared to 9.8% (130/1323, 95% CI: 8.3–11.6) in urban areas. In the rural areas, having a child (aOR = 13.99; 95% CI 8.60–22.77), being married (aOR = 2.13; 95% CI 1.42–3.18), being older at 19 years (aOR = 3.90; 95% CI 1.52–10.03), having been visited by a field health worker (aOR = 1.62; 95% CI 1.01–2.64), having been exposed to family planning messages on mass media (aOR = 2.87; 95% CI 1.01–8.18) and belonging to the richest wealth quintile (aOR = 2.27; 95% CI 1.43–3.62) were associated with higher odds of contraceptive utilization. Furthermore, adolescents in the Northern (aOR = 0.29; 95% CI 0.11–0.80) and Luapula (aOR = 0.35; 95% CI 0.15–0.81) provinces were associated with less odds of utilizing contraceptives compared to those in Western province. In the urban areas, older age at 19 years (aOR = 4.80; 95% CI 1.55–14.84) and having a child (aOR = 18.52; 95% CI 9.50–36.14) were the only factors significantly associated with modern contraceptive utilization. Conclusion Age and having a child were associated with modern contraceptive use in both rural and urban areas. In rural areas (province, marital status, being visited by field health workers, family planning messages exposure and wealth index) were the only associated factors. This indicates that interventions aiming to increase contraceptive utilization should be context specific.
 
ROC curve of psychological violence
ROC curve of economical violence
ROC curve of physical violence
ROC curve of sexual violence
ROC curve of total violence
Article
Introduction: Violence against women is a significant health and legal problem and has been declared as a health priority by the World Health Organization (WHO). The most common type of violence against women is domestic violence, more prevalent against women with disabilities than other women. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating neurological disease and has experienced sudden growth in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of domestic violence and its various types (psychological, economic, physical, and sexual) experienced by women with MS. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 275 married women with MS were selected using convenience sampling. After obtaining informed consent and reviewing the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the Domestic Violence against Women Questionnaire developed by Mohseni Tabrizi et al. was completed by the participants on a self-report basis. The results were analyzed using SPSS software version 16. To analyze data, statistical tests, including chi-square and Fisher exact tests for univariate analysis and logistic regression, were employed. Results: The mean age of participants was 37.12 ± 8.48 years. Domestic violence in different forms of psychological, economic, physical, and sexual violence was present in 53.1% , 63% , 33.6% , and 20.4% of participants, respectively. Economic violence (33.8%) was the highest, and sexual violence (5.1%) was the lowest rate of severe violence among participants. There was a significant relationship between the overall rate of domestic violence and the variables including income (P = 0.013), spouse income (P = 0.001), participant’s job (P = 0.036) and participant’s education (P = 0.001). In logistic regression, the overall rate of domestic violence was higher in participants with education less than a diploma than in participants with a diploma (P = 0.014) and participants with a university education (P = 0.016). Conclusion: According to the results, providing opportunities such as promoting the social status of women, fulfilling the rights of women with disabilities, and debilitating diseases such as MS in society is recommended. Additionally, educating men about the negative impact of domestic violence on the current and future status of the family seems necessary. Providing counseling facilities on various forms of violence, especially domestic violence, for women with MS, is also recommended. Keywords: Multiple sclerosis, Domestic violence, Psychological violence, Physical violence, Economic violence, Sexual violence, Iran.
 
a Preliminary thematic map showing preliminary themes and subthemes, b reworked thematic map after revision of themes. Themes are close to final
The final three themes that were constructed as a result of the analysis. The map shows the themes as a process
Article
Introduction Resistance training may be an effective intervention to improve menopausal symptoms and increase women’s quality of life. However, most postmenopausal women do not perform regular resistance training. The purpose of this study was to explore postmenopausal women’s experiences of participation in a resistance-training intervention to find barriers and motivators for the training. Methods Fifteen postmenopausal women with low physical activity, who participated in a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of a resistance-training program on vasomotor symptoms and health-related outcomes, were consecutively recruited to this qualitative study. After completion of the 15-week resistance-training program, they took part in individual semi-structured interviews, followed by a telephone interview 1 year later. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Results The analysis generated three themes that were involved at different time points. These were: “Trigger—Hopes of symptom relief”, “An evolving motivation as a driving force for change” and “Finding new triggers” . Accountability, and continuous professional and emotional support, were factors that fueled the women’s motivation to perform regular resistance training during the study. Resistance training improved general well-being and most women experienced improvement in vasomotor symptoms. The women’s motivation changed from being driven by a wish to improve bothersome symptoms, into a wish to achieve feelings of well-being and enjoyment. The change was seen regardless of effects of the intervention on vasomotor symptoms. Conclusion This first qualitative evaluation of physical exercise as an intervention to treat vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women, found that the symptoms acted as a motivational trigger to initiate resistance training in low-active women. The motivation to exercise changed during the intervention from a wish to ameliorate symptoms into something the women did for enjoyment and well-being in general. This change in motivating factors may have contributed to a behavior change since all participants had increased their physical activity after 1 year regardless of effects on VMS. Trial registration The trial was preregistered at ClinicalTrials.gov; www.clinicaltrials.gov , ID: NCT01987778 , date of first registration: 19/11/2013.
 
Percentage of depressive (A) and anxiety symptoms (B) by menopausal status
Article
Background Depression and anxiety have become main public health concerns globally. However, risk factors for depression and anxiety remain unclear. This study was to examine the prevalence and risk factors of depressive and anxiety symptoms in middle-aged Chinese women. Methods This cross-sectional study, conducted in 2018, included 7,727 women aged 40–60 years from the eastern, central and western regions of China. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were determined by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the Generalized Anxiety Disorders-7, respectively. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for depressive and anxiety symptoms in relation to sociodemographic, lifestyle and menopausal factors. Results Among all participants, 19.5% (1 422/7 275) and 14.2% (1 035/7 275) of participants experienced depressive and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The multivariable logistic regression models showed that age, household income, regular physical activity, chronic diseases, menopausal status, vasomotor symptoms, somatic symptoms and urogenital symptoms were associated with depressive symptoms, while place of residence, regular physical activity, chronic diseases, vasomotor, somatic and urogenital symptoms were associated with anxiety symptoms. Conclusion Depressive and anxiety symptoms were common among middle-aged Chinese women, and certain sociodemographic, lifestyle and menopausal symptoms have an important impact on the risk of depressive and anxiety symptoms.
 
Source of information about breast self-examination (BSE) among female secondary school teachers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2018 (n = 566)
Article
Background Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed reproductive organ cancer among women in Ethiopia. Even though breast self-examination (BSE) is shown to be the least expensive, less time-consuming, and non-invasive screening method, the practice of breast self-examination in Ethiopia is poor. Therefore this study aimed to assess breast self-examination practice and predictors among female secondary school teachers using the Health Belief Model. Materials and methods An institution-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among 589 female secondary school teachers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A self-administered questionnaire containing socio-demographic characteristics, sources of information, knowledge, perception on breast self-examination, and BSE practice was prepared based on the Champion's revised Health Belief Model and used as a data collection instrument. Multi-variable binary logistic regression was employed to identify the predictors of breast self-examination practice with significance set at p < 0.05 by controlling possible confounders. Result Breast self-examination was practiced by 43.6% of female secondary school teachers. Television and radio were the commonest sources of information about breast cancer and breast self-examination. Personal history of breast problem (AOR 3.27, 95% CI 1.13–9.45), teaching experience (AOR 2.46, 95% CI 1.33–4.56), knowledge (AOR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01–1.12) and perceived self-efficacy (AOR 1.07, 95% CI 1.01–1.12) were significantly associated with BSE practice. Conclusion The practice of breast self-examination was found to be low. Perceived self-efficacy, personal history of breast problems, and the knowledge level of female teachers were factors associated with the practice of BSE. This suggests the need for educational programs to enhance knowledge regarding breast cancer and improve the practice of breast self-examination.
 
Study framework integrated with Total Patient Delay by Andersen and Cacioppo [7]
Article
Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Early detection and intervention are associated with better prognosis and survival. The study aim was to investigate the factors associated with delayed presentation among women with breast symptoms. Methods: After ethics approval, a cross-sectional study was conducted from January to October 2020 in women with new breast cancer symptoms at their first visit to our clinic. The "Delayed Presentation" questionnaires in the Malay language were used and distributed among the participants. Demographic data and presentation time were recorded. Presentation time was defined as the duration of symptoms prior to visiting any health care facilities. Respondents with presentation times > 90 days comprised the delayed group. The potential factors associated with the delayed presentation were analyzed using cross-tabulation and multiple logistic regression. Results: There were 106 respondents to the questionnaire, with a mean age of 34.0 (SD: 11.2) years, and 73.6% (n = 78) were < 39 years old. A total of 35.8% (n = 38) visited the local government clinic first and only 28.3% (n = 30) came to the BestARi clinic directly. The reasons for presentation were a palpable breast lump on breast self-examination (75.5%, n = 80), mastalgia (15.1%, n = 16), nipple discharge (5.7%, n = 6), skin changes (0.9%, n = 1), and others (2.8%, n = 3). Among the respondents, 10.4% (n = 11) had alternative treatments prior to presentation to a hospital. The mean presentation time was 98.9 (SD: 323.7) days. Most of the participants (61.3%, n = 65) presented to us within 1 month. The delayed presentation group accounted for 19.8% (n = 21) of the respondents. The factor that was significantly associated with delayed presentation was the participants' perception of symptoms as not dangerous (adjusted OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.11, 8.38). Conclusions: The percentage of delayed presentations among our patients was lower than the percentage reported in a previous study. Interpretation of a symptom as harmless by the respondent was the only factor significantly associated with delayed presentation.
 
Flowchart of the participants
Article
Background Patients with Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are predisposed to the development of several mental comorbidities such as depression. According to several studies, PCOS can be managed by improving insulin sensitivity. The insulin-sensitizing effect of vitamin K has been reported in recent studies. Therefore, in the current trial, we assessed the effect of administrating vitamin K2 (Menaquinone-7) on depression status in women afflicted with PCOS. Methods Eighty-four PCOS women were allocated into the intervention and comparison groups; the intervention group (n = 42) administered 90 µg/day Menaquinone-7, and the comparison group (n = 42) consumed placebo capsules (containing avesil) for 8 weeks. In this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, depression status was measured by BECK depression inventory-II (BDI-II) before and after 8 weeks of intervention. Results Consumption of Menaquinone-7 in comparison with the placebo capsules significantly improved depression status ( P = 0.012). Conclusion This clinical study reported the advantageous effect of Menaquinone-7 administration on depression status in PCOS patients. Trial registration The present study was registered at http://www.IRCT.ir on 06/06/2018 (registration number: IRCT20170916036204N5).
 
Distribution of cervical cancer stages.
The treatment and prognosis of the 40 patients. MRH = modified radical hysterectomy, RH = radical hysterectomy, SRAC = simultaneous radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
Article
Abstract Objective Cervical cancer diagnosed during pregnancy is a rare event, and data regarding efficacy of cancer treatment during pregnancy is limited. This study aimed to assess the safety of continuation of the pregnancy for mother and fetus when concomitantly diagnosed with cervical cancer. Methods This study retrospectively analyzed all cervical cancer patients diagnosed while pregnant or immediately postpartum, inclusive from Jan 2010 to June 2019 at our institute. Patient clinical details and follow-up were obtained from hospital records. Results The study comprised 40 patients with clinical cancer stages of IA1 (1/40, 2.5%); IB1 (15/40, 37.5%); IB2 (10/40, 25%); IIA (12/40, 30%); and IIB (2/40, 5%). There were 38 patients diagnosed during pregnancy, and 2 diagnosed in the postpartum period. Of the 38 patients, 17 were diagnosed in the first trimester, 13 in the second trimester, and 8 in the third trimester. 10 of 38 patients (26.3%) continued their pregnancy after learning of their diagnosis; 7 (70%) in the third trimester and 3 (30%) in the second trimester. The mean time from diagnosis to surgery in the patients who continued their pregnancy was 52.7 days, which was statistically significantly greater than the termination of pregnancy group (52.7 vs. 16.3 days, P
 
Article
Background Despite the benefits of cervical cancer (CC) screening to reduce the disease burden, uptake remains limited in developing countries. This study aims to assess the individual and community-level determinants of cervical cancer screening among women of reproductive age in Zimbabwe. Methods We analyzed data collected from 400 communities from the 2015 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey with a sample size of 9955 women aged 15–49 years. The descriptive statistics and multi-level regression models adjusted for potential covariates were performed to examine the association between individual, household and community-level factors and the uptake of cervical cancer screening in women. Results The mean (SD) age of women in Zimbabwe using cervical cancer screening was 27.9 (9.9) years. A relatively small proportion of women, i.e., only 13.4% had ever screened for cervical cancer, with higher screening rates observed in the following sub-groups: middle aged women 31–49 years (odds ratio (OR) = 2.01; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.72–2.34), and currently working (OR = 1.35; 95% CI 1.17–1.55), those with health insurance (OR = 1.95; 95% CI 1.63–2.34), used modern contraceptives (OR = 1.51; 95% CI 1.22–1.86), exposed to multiple media (OR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.03–1.58), those living in communities that had a high predominance of women with favorable attitude towards Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) against women (OR = 1.21; 95% CI 1.04–1.41) and a non-poor wealth index (OR = 1.54; 95% CI 1.14–2.05). Conclusions Our data shows a significantly low prevalence of cervical cancer screening among reproductive age women in Zimbabwe. To increase the uptake of cervical cancer screening, there is an urgent need both to implement behavioral interventions targeted at women from low socio-economic groups and to advocate for universal health coverage that includes financial risk protection to help all women realize their right to health.
 
Prisma diagram depicting results of the search, screening and selection processes
Meta-analysis of injury rates in basic training
Meta-analysis of injury rates in officer training
Meta-analysis of injury incidence rates post basic training
Meta-analysis of injury incidence rates from studies which adjusted for fitness
Article
Background An effective military force is required to be agile, capable, efficient, and potent. Injuries to military personnel interrupt active-duty service and can detract from overall capability. These injuries are associated with a high individual and organizational burden, with lost work time and financial costs—all problematic for the ongoing functioning of a military force. Injury control strategies have therefore been described as force multipliers. Female personnel form an integral part of any modern defence force, but little research has examined their specific experiences of injury, to inform targeted injury control efforts. The aim of this review was to identify and synthesise findings from studies of injury rates and patterns in female military personnel, comparing them to those of male personnel. Methods A systematic search was conducted for studies which compared injury rates between the sexes at any stage of military service, from basic training through to deployment. Databases searched included PUBMED, CINAHL and Medline through OVID. Methodological quality of eligible articles was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP), and AXIS tools and data were extracted, synthesized, and, where possible, underwent meta-analysis. Results Of 2287 identified studies, a total of 25 studies were eligible and included. Methodological quality ranged from 60% up to a perfect score of 100%, with an average of 82% across all studies. Relative risks for injuries (reported as RR [95%CI]) to females when compared to males were 2.10 [1.89–2.33] during basic training, 1.70 [1.33–2.17] during officer training, and 1.23 [1.05–1.43] post initial training. After adjustment for differences between the sexes in average fitness levels (2-mile run time), there was no longer a significant difference in injury rates (adjusted RR: 0.95 [0.86–1.05]). Female personnel tended to make bigger improvements in their fitness during basic training than males and tended to report their injuries more frequently and sooner than males. Conclusion While this review found a higher rate of reported injuries in female military personnel when compared to male personnel, differences between the sexes in average fitness levels and injury reporting behaviours may largely explain this rate difference. The difference in rates of reported injuries was greatest during basic training, and reduced thereafter, possibly due in part to a reduced difference in fitness between the sexes or increased opportunity to self-determine workloads relative to fitness levels.
 
Article
Background A number of previous studies have explored international students’ adaptation process with regards to language, lifestyle, food, and environment. However, there have yet been no studies conducted to address the menstrual symptoms challenges faced by international female students during the acculturation period. Thus, this study aims to describe the prevalence of menstrual symptoms change and to explore the influencing factors among international female students studying in China during the acculturation period. Methods An online cross sectional study was conducted among international female students studying in China during the acculturation period (defined as the first six months of living in the host country) in Hunan Province of China from March 2019 to July 2019. Menstrual symptoms questionnaire, sociocultural adaptation scale, China higher education student satisfaction scale, perceived stress scale, and Pittsburgh sleep quality index were used for data collection. Descriptive analysis, ANOVA, paired t -test, Pearson correlation, and multivariate linear regressions were used to analyze the data using SPSS 21.0 software. Results Three hundred and forty-five (97.18%, 345/355) female students from 45 countries fully completed the questionnaire. The mean age of the participants was (26.59 ± 6.439) years. In total, 18.49% of participants had encountered menstrual symptoms change. There were significant differences in the menstrual symptoms score between before arrival and evaluation during the first six months of living in China ( t = − 11.700, p = 0.000). The main menstrual symptoms change included cramps (17.68%), irritation (14.78%), abdominal pain (12.46%), fatigue (12.46%), and headaches (9.85%). Cultural adaptation level (β = 0.198, 95% CI: 0.934, 2.995), sleep quality (β = 0.166, 95% CI: 0.112, 0.496), perceived stress (β = 0.193, 95% CI: 0.123, 0.410), time spent in the host environment, (β = − 0.270, 95% CI: − 3.200, − 1.444) and experience of visiting foreign countries (β = 0.184, 95% CI: 1.134, 4.125) were significantly correlated with menstrual symptoms change. Conclusion The prevalence of menstrual symptoms change among international female students should not be overlooked when considering menstrual health in this population. Poorer cultural adaptation, poorer sleep quality, higher stress, and lack of overseas living experiences significantly influence the menstrual symptoms of international female students studying in China.
 
Article
Background Unhealthy dietary patterns are the most important modifiable risk factors for obesity and overweight. This study aimed to examine the relationship between Dietary Phytochemical Index (DPI) and resting metabolic rate (RMR), mediated by inflammatory factors, in overweight and obese women. Methods A total of 404 women, aged 18–48 years, were included in the cross-sectional study. DPI was calculated using the 147-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Anthropometric measurements, RMR, and blood biomarkers were assessed using standard protocols. Results There was marginally significant association between adherence to DPI and RMR status in the crude model (OR = 1.41, 95% CI 0.94–2.11, P = 0.09). After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant association was seen between the DPI and increase RMR.per.kg (OR = 2.77, 95% CI 0.98–7.82, P = 0.05). Our results indicated that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), transforming growth factor (TGF-β), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) had a mediatory effect on the association between RMR and DPI (P > 0.05). Indeed, it was shown that, PAI-1, TGF-β, and MCP-1 destroyed the significance of this association and could be considered as mediating markers. However, no mediating effect was observed for high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP). Conclusions Adherence to DPI can improve the RMR by reducing levels of inflammatory markers, and may be considered as a treatment for obesity. However, more long-term studies are recommended.
 
Article
Background In 2020, the number of new cancer cases was estimated at 20 490 862 worldwide up from 18.1 million in 2018 and 14.1 million in 2012. Since the 2000s, cancer treatments have significantly improved, allowing either a cure or control of the disease. Patients share their experience of the disease and use supportive care solutions through involvement in patient associations and online forums. All the associations were built on the principle of “peer support,” which is based on mutual aid between people who suffer or have suffered from the same somatic or psychological illness or had the same life experience. This experiential knowledge can be explored to understand the role of peers and associations in the appropriation of their cancer. Methods A qualitative phenomenological study was undertaken through semi-structured interviews with 12 participants. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, then analyzed by means of triangulation up to the point of theoretical saturation by a semio-pragmatic method. Results Four categories emerged: (1) “Transforms a painful experience into a positive one. It mobilizes the human values of sharing, love, and humility, which facilitates resilience”; (2) “The characteristics of the association, a non-medical place between people sharing a common destiny, resonates with patients’ needs and improves their well-being”; (3) “The association transforms the patients’ experiences by facilitating engagement that leads to a patient-expert (empowerment)”; and (4) “Understanding what is happening to them is soothing, reassuring, because patients’ concerns need to be heard and their care understood”. Conclusions This study highlights patient associations can serve as the mediator of NPI and facilate the empowerment of breast cancer patients. Practice implications Educating health professionals in initial and continuing education about non-pharmacological interventions will be a major issue. Teaching the patient-centred approach to health professionals is one of the priorities in initial and continuing medical education.
 
Article
Background Compared with wage and salary work, self-employment has been linked to more favorable cardiovascular health outcomes within the general population. Women comprise a significant proportion of the self-employed workforce and are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease. Self-employed women represent a unique population in that their cardiovascular health outcomes may be related to gender-specific advantages of non-traditional employment. To date, no studies have comprehensively explored the association between self-employment and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among women. Methods We conducted a weighted cross-sectional analysis using data from the University of Michigan Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Our study sample consisted of 4624 working women (employed for wages and self-employed) enrolled in the 2016 HRS cohort. Multivariable linear and logistic regression were used to examine the relationship between self-employment and several self-reported physical and mental health risk factors for cardiovascular disease, controlling for healthcare access. Results Among working women, self-employment was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of reporting obesity, a 43% decrease in the odds of reporting hypertension, a 30% decrease in the odds of reporting diabetes, and a 68% increase in the odds of reporting participation in at least twice-weekly physical activity ( p < 0.05). BMI for self-employed women was on average 1.79 units lower than it was for women working for wages ( p < 0.01). Conclusions Employment structure may have important implications for cardiovascular health among women, and future studies should explore the causal relationship between self-employment and cardiovascular health outcomes in this population. Trial Registration : Not applicable.
 
Adjusted* associations of total lifetime breastfeeding duration (quartiles) with average of dominant and nondominant handgrip strength (kg). *Adjusted for race/ethnicity, education, marital status, ever smoker, household income at enrollment, age at 1st pregnancy, and age at handgrip strength (Model 3). Quartile (Q) of total lifetime breastfeeding duration [median, interquartile range (IQR) and range (min–max)]: Q1: 2 months (IQR: 0–5 months, range: 0–7 months), Q2: 12 months (IQR: 9.8–13 months, range 8–17 months), Q3: 24 months (IQR: 20–26 months, range 18–30 months), Q4: 42 months (IQR: 36–57 months, range 31–100 months), confidence interval (CI)
Article
Background Lactation has long term effects on maternal health, but the relationship between lactation and long-term handgrip strength, a marker of musculoskeletal function and healthy aging, has not been explored. Objective Examine the relationship between total lifetime breastfeeding duration (BFD) and midlife handgrip strength. Methods We measured handgrip strength as a marker of overall strength among 631 women in the Project Viva cohort. At the same visit, women reported their BFD for each birth, and we derived total lifetime BFD. We used multivariable linear regression models to estimate associations of lifetime BFD in months with midlife handgrip strength in kilograms, adjusted for race/ethnicity, education, marital status, household income, age at first pregnancy and age at handgrip strength assessment. Results Mean (standard deviation) age was 50.7 (5.1) years, lifetime BFD was 21.6 (19.5) months, and handgrip strength was 28.0 kg (6.0) in the dominant and 26.0 kg (5.6) in the non-dominant hand. In fully adjusted models, each 3-month increment in lifetime BFD was associated with 0.10 kg (95% CI 0.02, 0.18) higher handgrip strength for the dominant hand and 0.10 kg (95% CI 0.03, 0.18) for the nondominant hand. Results were similar in models examining mean BFD per pregnancy rather than total BFD. There was no evidence of effect modification by race/ethnicity. Conclusions Our study suggests that there is a small beneficial effect of lifetime BFD on handgrip strength. Future studies can explore mechanisms by which BFD affects body composition and associations with other outcomes related to lean mass such as sarcopenia.
 
Article
Background Cervical cancer is the most common indication for ovarian transposition in reproductive-age women. Ovarian transposition should be performed in premenopausal women undergoing pelvic irradiation to preserve ovarian function, and prevent early menopause. As women become more knowledgeable about their fertility options, it is still unclear who will benefit from the intervention. We updated our previous meta-analysis of ovarian function preservation, symptomatic ovarian cysts, and metastases to the transposed ovaries following ovarian transposition in cervical cancer patients to further guide current clinical practice. Methods A systematic search of Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library databases, dating from January 1980 to July 2021, was conducted. We computed the summary proportions of women who had ovarian function preservation, non-ovarian cyst formation and metastases to the transposed ovaries following ovarian transposition by random-effects meta-analysis and we explored study heterogeneity by type of radiotherapy. Results There were 29 publications reporting on 1160 women with cervical cancer who underwent ovarian transposition. In the group that underwent surgery alone, 91% of the women had preserved ovarian function (95% CI 83–100), 89% (95% CI 80–99) of women who did not develop ovarian cysts, and 99% (95% CI 1–5) of women who did not suffer metastases to the transposed ovaries. In the surgery ± brachytherapy (BR) group, the proportion of women with the preserved ovarian function was 93% (95% CI 76–113), 84% (95% CI 69–103) of women who did not develop ovarian cysts, and 99% (95% CI 82–120) of women who did not suffer metastases to the transposed ovaries. In the external beam pelvic radiotherapy (EBRT) ± BR ± surgery group, the proportion of women with the preserved ovarian function was 61% (95% CI 55–69), and 95% (95% CI 85–107) of women who developed ovarian cysts. There were no metastases to the transposed ovaries in that group. Conclusions In women with cervical cancer, ovarian transposition offers a significant preservation of the ovarian function. Despite an expected incidence of ovarian cyst formation, it carries almost no risk for metastases to the transposed ovaries.
 
Trajectory of association between mean blood pressures and age based on sex. Line graphs depicting the trend of association between mean blood pressures and age in females (red) and males (blue): A – systolic blood pressure; B – diastolic blood pressure
Trajectory of association between anthropometric indices (BMI and WC) and age based on sex. Line graphs depicting the trend of association between anthropometric indices and age in females (red) and males (blue): A – BMI; B – waist circumference (WC). Both BMI and WC were higher in females compared to males across all age categories, with significant differences across all age groups except ≤ 24 and ≥ 75 (p > 0.05)
Article
Background: Sex disparities in blood pressure and anthropometry may account for differences in cardiovascular (CV) risk burden with advancing age; modulated by ethnic variability. We explored trajectories of blood pressures (BPs) and anthropometric indices with age on the basis of sex in an urban Nigerian population. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis on data from 5135 participants (aged 16-92 years; 2671(52%) females) from our population-based cross-sectional study of BP profiles. We utilized the WHO STEPS and standardized methods for documenting BPs, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Data was analyzed using Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Spearman correlation analysis and mean difference in variables (with 95% confidence interval). We explored the influence of age and sex on BP profiles and specific anthropometric indices using generalized regression analysis. Results: In those aged 15-44 years, males had significantly higher systolic BP (SBP) and pulse pressure (PP). However, mean SBP and PP rose more steeply in females from 25 to 34 years, intersected with that of males from 45 to 54 years and remained consistently higher. Difference in mean BPs (95% Confidence Interval) (comparing < and > 45 years) was higher in females compared to males for SBP (17.4 (15.8 to 19.0) v. 9.2 (7.7 to 10.7), DBP (9.0 (7.9 to 10.1) v. 7.8 (6.7 to 8.9)), and PP (8.4 (7.3 to 9.5) v. 1.4 (0.3 to 2.5)). Females had significantly higher BMI and WC across all age groups (p < 0.001). Age more significantly correlated with BPs, BMI and WC in females. Interaction models revealed that SBP was significantly predicted by age category in females from (15-54 years), while DBP was only significantly predicted by age in the 15-34-year category (p < 0.01). BMI and WC were significantly predicted by age only in the 25-34-year category in females, (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Our population demonstrates sex disparity in trajectories of SBP, PP, BMI and WC with age; with steeper rise in females. There is a need to focus on CV risk reduction in females, starting before, or during early adulthood.
 
Prevalence of early sexual initiation among youth in eastern Africa countries
Socio-demographic characteristics of study participant
Multilevel binary logistic regression analysis of factors associated with early sexual initiation in East Africa
continued)
Article
Background Early sexual initiation is one of the risky sexual practices. Early sexual beginning is associated with an increased risk of HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), unexpected pregnancies, unsafe abortion, premature deliveries, and psychosocial issues. However, there is still a lack of evidence, particularly in East Africa, where community-level factors are not investigated. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence and to identify associated factors of early sexual initiation among female youth in Eastern Africa. Methods A total weighted sample of 49,716 female youth was included in this analysis. STATA version 14 software was used for data extraction, recoding, and analysis. A multilevel binary logistic regression model was fitted to identify determinants of early sexual initiation in the region. Finally, Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was reported to declare the factors that are significantly associated with early sexual initiation. Result The prevalence of early sexual initiation in East Africa was 21.14% [95% CI: 20.00%, 21.50%]. In the multivariable multilevel analysis; being age 20–24 years [AOR = 0.65: 95% CI; 0.61, 0.69], primary [AOR = 0.73: 95% CI; 0.67, 0.78], secondary &above education [AOR = 0.30: 95% CI; 0.27,0.33], married [AOR = 1.85: 95% CI; 1.73,1.97], middle wealth [AOR = 0.78: 95% CI; 0.72,0.84], richest [AOR = 0.74: 95% CI; 0.68,0.80], and reading newspaper [AOR 0.77: 95% CI;0.71,0.83] were significantly associated with early sexual initiation. Conclusion The study revealed that early sexual initiation among female youth was high in East Africa. Educational status, respondent age, marital status, wealth index, age at first cohabitation, contraceptive use, reading newspaper, and place of residence were associated with early sexual initiation. Therefore, the survey findings will help policymakers, as well as governmental and non-governmental organizations, design the most effective interventions. Moreover, strengthening information, education, and wealth status are important intervention areas to delay the age of early sexual debut.
 
Article
Introduction: Women heads of households (widows or divorcees) are vulnerable groups in society who face various psychological problems and have less resilience than other women. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of resilience educational intervention on the psychological capital of poor widows in Fasa city, south Iran. Materials and methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 120 widows covered by Imam Khomeini Relief Foundation were selected by a simple random sampling method based on a random Efron algorithm (Efron coin) and randomly assigned into two interventions and control groups (60 people each) in the second half of 2021. About 8 training sessions on resilience and psychological capital were held for the experimental group through training clips, audio transmissions, and podcasts. Data were collected using demographic characteristics forms, widowers' resilience assessment questionnaires, and Luten's psychological capital scale for testing and control before and two months after the intervention. Data were analyzed with Chi-square test, independent and paired t-test using SPSS V. 26 software. Results: There were differences between the two groups at pretest in demographic variables and psychological capital and its subscales, and resilience and its subscales (P ≥ 0.05).. But two months after the educational intervention, a statistically significant increase was observed in the experimental group in these variables compared to the control group (p < 0.05). It indicates that there was an improvement in the outcomes from pretest to post-test within the intervention and no change in the outcomes over time within the control group. Discussion and conclusion: Using a resilience-based educational approach as a novelty of this research to promote psychological capital and resilience can increase resilience and psychological capital in widows. Then, considering the positive effect of this educational approach and the low cost of this intervention, it seems that the implementation of such interventions should be included in the plans related to widows.
 
Respondent’s post-partum rest before returning to usual work at Public Hospitals in Hawassa City, Southern Ethiopia,
Modern contraceptive use of the respondents at Public Hospitals in Hawassa City, Southern Ethiopia, 2020
types of pelvic organ prolapse among cases at Public Hospitals in Hawassa City, Southern Ethiopia,
Article
Introduction: Even though the Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is outstanding gynecologic problem, most private and asymptomatic nature of the illness makes it the "hidden epidemic." The aim of this study was to identify the determinants of POP. Methods: Facility based unmatched case control study was conducted from June 15 to September 10, 2020. All cases diagnosed with POP were enrolled in the study by using consecutive random sampling method by assuming that patient flow by itself is random until the required sample size was obtained. Then 1:2 cases to control ratio was applied. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire and chart review for type and degree of prolapse was used. Epi-data was used for data entry and SPSS were used for analysis. Chi square test and binary and multivariable logistic regression analysis was employed. Multicollinearity was checked. Result: On multivariate logistic regression, heavy usual work load(AOR = 2.3, CI(1.066-4.951), number of pregnancy ≥ 5(AOR = 3.911, CI(1.108-13.802), birth space of < 2 years(AOR = 2.88, CI(1.146-7.232), history of fundal pressure (AOR = 5.312, CI(2.366-11.927) and history of induced labor (AOR = 4.436, CI(2.07-9.505) were significantly associated with POP with P value < 0.05 and 95% CI after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusion: Heavy usual work load, having pregnancy greater than five, short birth space, history of induced labor, and history of fundal pressure are independent predictors of pelvic organ prolapse. Hence the responsible body and obstetric care providers should counsel the women about child spacing, minimizing heavy usual work load and effect of multigravidity on POP. Incorporation of health education on those risk factors related to POP on antenatal and postnatal care should be considered. The obstetric care providers also avoid fundal pressure and labor induction without clear indication and favorability, and the hospital officials set a law to ban fundal pressure during labor.
 
PRISMA diagram illustrating the process by which articles were selected for inclusion
The contexts and mechanisms influencing engagement with prehabilitation to achieve intended outcomes
Article
Background There is increasing recognition that prehabilitation is important as a means of preparing patients physically and psychologically for cancer treatment. However, little is understood about the role and optimal nature of prehabilitation for gynaecological cancer patients, who usually face extensive and life-changing surgery in addition to other treatments that impact significantly on physiological and psychosexual wellbeing. Review question This scoping review was conducted to collate the research evidence on multimodal prehabilitation in gynaecological cancers and the related barriers and facilitators to engagement and delivery that should be considered when designing a prehabilitation intervention for this group of women. Methods Seven medical databases and four grey literature repositories were searched from database inception to September 2021. All articles, reporting on multimodal prehabilitation in gynaecological cancers were included in the final review, whether qualitative, quantitative or mixed-methods. Qualitative studies on unimodal interventions were also included, as these were thought to be more likely to include information about barriers and facilitators which could also be relevant to multimodal interventions. A realist framework of context, mechanism and outcome was used to assist interpretation of findings. Results In total, 24 studies were included in the final review. The studies included the following tumour groups: ovarian only (n = 12), endometrial only (n = 1), mixed ovarian, endometrial, vulvar (n = 5) and non-specific gynaecological tumours (n = 6). There was considerable variation across studies in terms of screening for prehabilitation, delivery of prehabilitation and outcome measures. Key mechanisms and contexts influencing engagement with prehabilitation can be summarised as: (1) The role of healthcare professionals and organisations (2) Patients’ perceptions of acceptability (3) Factors influencing patient motivation (4) Prehabilitation as a priority (5) Access to prehabilitation. Implications for practice A standardised and well evidenced prehabilitation programme for women with gynaecological cancer does not yet exist. Healthcare organisations and researchers should take into account the enablers and barriers to effective engagement by healthcare professionals and by patients, when designing and evaluating prehabilitation for gynaecological cancer patients.
 
Obstetric characteristics of the respondents
Article
Introduction Obstetric violence is an invisible wound which is being distorting the quality of obstetric care. Obstetric Violence, which is an issue spoken and amplified currently as a type of sexual violence and is of alarming seriousness and is an evolving field of inquiry despite women’s experience of institutional childbirth, has garnered unprecedented global attention in recent years. Losing on both counts: obstetric violence is a double burden among disabled women. Aim To explore the experience of disabled women towards obstetric violence during child birth in Gedio zone, South Ethiopia. Methods Twenty-two (22) women with disabilities were interviewed. They were recruited through a nonprobability snowball sampling method. The interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire in the Gedio zone, south Ethiopia. For coding purposes, NVivo (version 11) software was employed. Using a method known as continuous comparison, we classified the extracted codes based on their similarities and differences. The classes were then arranged in such a way that there was the greatest internal uniformity and the least external mismatch. Results The profile of the study group is predominantly of women between the ages of 21 and 30. Physical abuse, verbal abuse, stigma and discrimination, neglect and abandonment, and violations of privacy were the five major categories emerged during the thematic analysis describing the experience of obstetric violence. Women also observed these forms of obstetric violence among other disabled women during child birth. In addition to the violations of care, some of the participants described positive aspects of their childbirth experiences in one or more obstetric care settings. Conclusion This study concluded that the quality of service was deplorable, with reports of obstetric violence among this vulnerable group of women imposing a double burden on them. The findings suggest that there is a need to improve maternity care for disabled women by implementing comprehensive, culturally sensitive, client-sensitive special services and providing sensitivity training to healthcare providers, ensuring satisfied, equitable, and quality obstetric care.
 
The participants” recruitment flow diagram
Intervention procedure for both control and intervention groups
Article
Background/Objectives Breast neoplasm is one of the most common cancers in Iranian women due to the late diagnosis. Awareness of breast neoplasm and using Breast Self-Examination (BSE) assist in the early detection and treatment of cancer. This study examined the effectiveness of video-based multimedia training versus face-to-face training in awareness of breast neoplasm and BSE and possible factors affecting their effectiveness. Methods This research was a pre-test, a post-test experimental study comparing the knowledge, attitude, and performance of women about BSE across two training intervention groups (face-to-face versus video-based multimedia). The study was conducted at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS), and 100 women between 20 to 60 years old were allocated to each intervention group via multi-stage cluster sampling (n:110). Three valid and reliable researcher-made questioners were used. Data were analyzed using SPSS 24 with independent t -test, paired t -test, and ANOVA. Results Both video-based multimedia and face-to-face training methods significantly increased the participant's knowledge, attitude, and skills about breast self-examination ( P < 0.001). In the sub-categories, the results showed that the face-to-face training improved negligence and forgetfulness in applying BSE ( P = 0.03) and correcting or modifying the previous knowledge around the issue ( P = 0.02). The effect of the video-based method on participants with university education was more than on non-university ( P = 0.04). Conclusion Incorporating video-based multimedia training in awareness of breast neoplasm and breast self-examination provides an easy, flexible, and affordable way for detection, particularly considering crisis restrictions. This can be of particular attention in more populated, developing/low-income countries and rural and remote areas to enhance equitable access to training and facilitation diagnosis and treatment if applicable.
 
Contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen and pelvis showing a heterogeneously enhancing complex mass arising from the left adnexal region. In the axial image (a), it measures 11 × 8 cm. There is no calcification, fat content, or air-fluid level within. In the coronal (b) and sagittal (c) images, it extends up to the level of the umbilicus abutting the anterior abdominal wall. Mass merges with uterus and bladder with no intervening fat planes. The mass displaces the small and large bowel
Gross appearance of the surgical specimen. Yellowish left ovarian tumour measuring 16 cm × 8 cm × 9 cm with haemorrhagic and necrotic areas
Microscopic appearance of the Haematoxylin and Eosin-stained surgical specimen in × 400 magnification. There are nests and sheets of polygonal cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and brisk mitotic activity. There is moderate nuclear pleomorphism. Occasional spindled cells are present
Steps of androgen synthesis. Synthesis of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, and testosterone are common to both adrenal and ovary. Conversion of DHEA to dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) is specific to the adrenal cortex. Conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone is seen in peripheral tissues. CYP11A—P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme, CYP17A1—17α hydroxylase, HSD3B2—3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, SULT2A1—sulfotransferase 2A1
Article
Background The source of excess androgen can be obscure in postmenopausal women with new-onset hyperandrogenism. If serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) is raised, it is presumed to be of adrenal origin because DHEAS is exclusively produced from adrenal cortical cells. This reports an elderly female presenting with new-onset hyperandrogenism due to an ovarian sex cord-stromal tumour, associated with increased serum DHEAS levels. Case description A 76-year-old female with long-standing diabetes and hypertension presented with hirsutism and male type alopecia for six months. She had menopause at 55 years of age. There was a pelvic mass on examination. Total testosterone was 6.106 ng/ml (0.124–0.357) and DHEAS was > 1000 µg/dL (35–430). Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis showed a heterogeneously enhancing complex mass measuring 11 × 8 cm in the left adnexal region. Adrenal glands were normal. She underwent total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salphingo-oophorectomy, and omentectomy. Both testosterone and DHEAS normalised following surgery. Histology revealed a sex cord-stromal tumour, likely a steroid cell tumour with malignant potential. Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron emission tomography did not show any additional lesions. Conclusions Due to the lack of sulfotransferase in ovarian tissue, markedly elevated DHEAS originating from an ovarian neoplasm is unusual. This phenomenon has not been described except in a patient with a steroid cell tumour causing Cushing syndrome and hyperandrogenism. The mechanism of this rare occurrence remains elusive. Knowledge of this unusual presentation would enable the clinicians to be cautious in localising the androgen source in women with hyperandrogenism.
 
Article
Background Uterine adenomyosis is associated with chronic pelvic pain, abnormal uterine bleeding, and infertility. The pathogenesis of adenomyosis is still unclear. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been implicated in several benign diseases and malignant tumors. We aimed to explore the co-dysregulated circular RNA profile in the eutopic endometrium and endometrial–myometrial interface (EMI) of adenomyosis. Methods Total RNA was extracted from the eutopic endometrium and EMI of 5 patients with adenomyosis and 3 patients without adenomyosis. Next-generation sequencing was performed to identify the circRNA expression profile of the two tissue types. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to predict circRNA-binding miRNAs and miRNA-binding mRNAs and construct ceRNA networks, and functional enrichment analysis was performed to predict the biological functions of circRNAs. Results Among the adenomyosis patients, 760 circRNAs were significantly upregulated and 119 circRNAs were significantly downregulated in the EMI of adenomyosis, while 47 circRNAs were significantly upregulated and 17 circRNAs were significantly downregulated in the eutopic endometrium of adenomyosis. We identified hsa_circ_0002144 and hsa_circ_0005806 as co-upregulated and hsa_circ_0079536 and hsa_circ_0024766 as co-downregulated in the eutopic endometrium and EMI. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to construct a ceRNA network of codifferentially expressed circRNAs. The MAPK signaling pathway is the most important signaling pathway involved in the function of the ceRNA network. Conclusions Co-dysregulated circRNAs were present in the eutopic endometrium and EMI of adenomyosis. MiRNA binding sites were observed for all of these circRNAs and found to regulate gene expression. Co-dysregulated circRNAs may induce the eutopic endometrial invagination process through the MAPK signaling pathway and promote the progression of adenomyosis.
 
Article
Background Owing to the high morbidity and mortality, ovarian cancer has seriously endangered female health. Development of reliable models can facilitate prognosis monitoring and help relieve the distress. Methods Using the data archived in the TCPA and TCGA databases, proteins having significant survival effects on ovarian cancer patients were screened by univariate Cox regression analysis. Patients with complete information concerning protein expression, survival, and clinical variables were included. A risk model was then constructed by performing multiple Cox regression analysis. After validation, the predictive power of the risk model was assessed. The prognostic effect and the biological function of the model were evaluated using co-expression analysis and enrichment analysis. Results 394 patients were included in model construction and validation. Using univariate Cox regression analysis, we identified a total of 20 proteins associated with overall survival of ovarian cancer patients ( p < 0.01). Based on multiple Cox regression analysis, six proteins (GSK3α/β, HSP70, MEK1, MTOR, BAD, and NDRG1) were used for model construction. Patients in the high-risk group had unfavorable overall survival ( p < 0.001) and poor disease-specific survival ( p = 0.001). All these six proteins also had survival prognostic effects. Multiple Cox regression analysis demonstrated the risk model as an independent prognostic factor ( p < 0.001). In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the risk model displayed higher predictive power than age, tumor grade, and tumor stage, with an area under the curve value of 0.789. Analysis of co-expressed proteins and differentially expressed genes based on the risk model further revealed its prognostic implication. Conclusions The risk model composed of GSK3α/β, HSP70, MEK1, MTOR, BAD, and NDRG1 could predict survival prognosis of ovarian cancer patients efficiently and help disease management.
 
Flowchart
Infertility subtypes
Article
Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) are well-known risk factors for female infertility. But there is limited evidence from China. This study aimed to further explore the associations between previous/current chlamydial infection, PID, and infertility in China. Methods We performed a 1:2 matched case–control study with two control groups: pregnant controls and non-pregnant controls in China in 2019. Women diagnosed with infertility were selected as cases (n = 255). Controls were selected based on the following criteria: Pregnant women who were documented in the selected hospitals were chosen as Pregnant controls (n = 510), and people who sought health care in Obstetric/Gynecologic clinics, Family Planning clinics, Dermatology and STD Department or Urological department were selected as Non-pregnant controls (n = 510) . Infertility induced by male factors and people who used antibiotics in the vagina within two weeks were excluded. The first-stream specimen of urine samples was tested for chlamydia by nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT). Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the association. Results The prevalence of previous chlamydial infection and PID were significantly higher in cases (2.4%, 17.3%) than in controls (Non-pregnancy: 0.4%, 3.0%; Pregnancy: 0.4%, 9.0%). The current chlamydial infection rates were 5.9%, 7.3%, and 7.1% in infertile, pregnant, and non-pregnant women, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, PID largely elevated the risk of infertility (using non-pregnant controls: adjusted OR = 2.57, 95% CI 1.51, 4.39; using pregnant controls: adjusted OR = 6.83, 95% CI 3.47, 13.43). And the positive association between PID and tubal infertility was more obvious for both groups. For current chlamydial infection, none of the odds ratios were significant at the 0.05 level, while small sample size limited the evaluation of an association between prior chlamydial infection with infertility. Conclusions Previous PID was indicated to largely increase the risk of infertility, especially tubal infertility. And there should be continuing emphasis on highly sensitive and specific biomarker for prior chlamydial infection.
 
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Article
Background and aims The Healthy Beverage Index (HBI) is a valuable technique to estimate the synergistic effects of overall beverage consumption. Several studies have evaluated the associations between HBI and beneficial changes in the health status. however, there is no study on the association between patterns of beverage consumption and mental health status. Therefore, this study sought to examine the association between HBI and psychological disorders among overweight and obese women. Methods 199 overweight and obese women, between the ages of 18 and 55 y, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study in Tehran, Iran. To collect beverage dietary data, a validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used. Furthermore, the DASS-21 questionnaire was used to assess psychological profile states. Results The association of total depression anxiety stress (DASS) score with healthy beverage index (HBI) tertiles in models was marginally significant (OR =: 0.78; 95% CI 0.30–2.02; P -value = 0.074; (OR = 0.77; 95% CI 0.28–2.16; P -value = 0.062), respectively. In terms of stress, anxiety, and depression, after adjusting for confounders, participants with higher HBI in the third tertile had lower odds of depression vs. the first tertile (OR = 0.99; 95% CI 0.35–2.81; P -trend = 0.040). Conclusion We demonstrate that the total DASS score was associated with HBI tertiles. We also found that participants with higher HBI had lower odds of depression. However, additional well-designed studies are needed to confirm the veracity of these findings.
 
Content of sessions
Mean and standard deviation of quality of life and mental health scores for experimental and control groups
Results of multivariate analysis for effectiveness of training program
Results of MANCOVA for the effectiveness of training program in quality of life and mental health
Article
Background One of the major issues that immigrants, especially Afghan women face, is their self-care disability. This will cause problems in their mental health and quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of life skills training based on self-care on mental health and quality of life of married Afghan women living in Taft. Methods This quasi-experimental study was conducted using a pretest posttest design with control group. Statistical population was all married Afghan women living in Taft (Yazd province) of whom 60 women were selected using purposive sampling and were randomly allocated to two groups of 30 as experimental and control groups. The experimental group received 8 sessions of life skills training based on self-care. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and Quality of Life of the World Health Organization Questionnaire (WHOQ-BREF) were used to collect data. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to analyze the data. Results Results showed that following the intervention, the mean scores of quality of life ( p < 0.0001) and mental health ( p < 0.019) in the experimental group increased in the posttest compared to the pretest and the effect of intervention was significant. Conclusion Results suggested that providing a training opportunity for Afghan women to learn life skills based on self-care, enables them to realize their strengths and weaknesses and improve their quality of life and mental health.
 
TUI standard mode under TVS scanning
Ultrasonographic data modeling and computer post-processing (a) marking the image direction according to the body position, b image editing by Mimics, c post-processing of image by Geomagics, d preview of the colored images by Magics
3D-TVS images under Render Mode of normal uterus (a), incomplete septum uterus (b), complete septate uterus (c), uterus didephyl (d) and unicornous uterus (e)
3D printed models of normal uterus (a), incomplete septum uterus (b), complete septate uterus (c), uterus duplex (d), unicornous uterus (e), and all models’ collection (f)
Article
Background The three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has remarkable potential as an auxiliary tool for representing anatomical structures, facilitating diagnosis and therapy, and enhancing training and teaching in the medical field. As the most available diagnostic tool and it is routinely used as the first approach in diagnosis of the uterine anomalies, 3D transvaginal ultrasonography (3D-TVS) has been proposed as non-invasive “gold standard” approach for these malformations due to high diagnostic accuracy. Despite holding promise of manufacturing 3D printed models based on 3D-TVS data, relevant reports about 3D-TVS derived gynecological 3D printing haven’t been reported to the best of our knowledge. We found an opportunity to explore the feasibility of building 3D printed models for the abnormal uterus based on the data acquired by 3D-TVS. Methods The women suspected with congenital uterine anomalies (CUAs) were enrolled in the study. The diagnose of CUAs were made by 3D-TVS scanning and further confirmed under the hysteroscopy examination. One volunteer with normal uterus was enrolled as control. All subjects underwent 3D-TVS scanning for 3D printing data collection. Acquired images were stored and extracted as DICOM files, then processed by professional software to portray and model the boundary of the uterine inner and outer walls separately. After the computer 3D models were constructed, the data were saved and output as STL files for further surface restoration and smoothing. The colors of endometrium and uterine body were specified, respectively, in the print preview mode. Then the uncured photosensitive resin was cleaned and polished to obtain a smooth and transparent solid model after printed models were cooled down. Results 3D printing models of normal uterus, incomplete septate uterus, complete septate uterus, uterus didelphys and unicornuate uterus were produced on ultrasonographic data of 3D-TVS. Conclusions Our research and practice made the first try in modeling CUAs successfully based on ultrasonographic data entirely, verifying that it’s a feasible way to build 3D printed models of high-quality through 3D-TVS scanning.
 
Article
Background Anal intercourse (AI) is not uncommon among U.S. women and, when condomless, confers a far greater likelihood of HIV transmission than condomless vaginal intercourse. We aim to identify determinants preceding AI, among women with, and women without HIV. Methods 3708 women living with (73%), and without HIV (27%) participating in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study provided sexual behavior and other data at 6-monthly visits over a median of 9 years (1994–2014). We used generalized estimating equation models to examine sociodemographic, structural and behavioral determinants reported in the visit preceding (1) AI, and (2) condomless AI. Results AI was reported at least once over follow-up by 31% of women without, and 21% with HIV. AI was commonly condomless; reported at 76% and 51% of visits among women living without HIV, and with HIV, respectively. Women reporting AI were more likely to be younger (continuous variable, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI):0.96–0.98), Hispanic (aOR = 1.88, CI:1.47–2.41) or White (aOR = 1.62, CI:1.15–2.30) compared to Black, and have at least high school education (aOR = 1.33, CI:1.08–1.65). AI was more likely following the reporting of either (aOR = 1.35, CI:1.10–1.62), or both (aOR = 1.77, CI:1.13–2.82) physical and sexual violence, excessive drinking (aOR = 1.27, CI:1.05–1.66) or any drug use (aOR = 1.34, CI:1.09–1.66), multiple male partners (aOR = 2.64, CI:2.23–3.11), exchange sex (aOR = 3.45, CI:2.53–4.71), one or more female sex partners (aOR = 1.32, CI:1.01–1.75), condomless vaginal intercourse (aOR = 1.80, CI:1.53–2.09), and high depressive symptoms (aOR = 1.23, CI:1.08–1.39). Conclusion AI disproportionally follows periods of violence victimization, substance use, multiple sex partners and depression. Better prevention messaging and biomedical interventions that reduce acquisition or transmission risk are needed, but when AI occurs in the context of violence against women, as our findings indicate, focusing on gender-based violence reduction and immediate treatment to reduce HIV transmission risk is important.
 
Themes and subthemes—self-experienced sexual and reproductive health in young women with ADHD
Article
Background Sexual risk behaviors and struggles in romantic relationships result in higher risk of unplanned pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, sexual victimization and lower satisfaction in relationships for young women with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). There is a need to better understand sexual behaviors and the consequences of relational difficulties to help health professionals promote sexual and reproductive health. To deepen knowledge in this area, this study aimed to identify and describe self-experienced sexual and reproductive health in young women with ADHD. Methods A qualitative design was used. Data was collected with individual and focus group interviews with 15 young women, aged 15–29, with an ADHD diagnosis, and analyzed with thematic analysis. Results Data analysis identified the themes Acceptance of being different and Feeling sexually secure. The women reveal feelings of being different from others without ADHD as they break norms of sexual behavior, struggle with romantic relationships, and have difficulties concentrating during sex. There is a need to be understood and accepted, to not feel judged, and to manage romantic relationships. Self-knowledge helps them to recognize needs for support and to develop strategies that can improve sexual satisfaction. Feeling sexually secure illustrates the women’s need to feel comfortable with their own sexuality and in control in the sexual situation. Low self-esteem and a negative self-image, described as a consequence of living with ADHD, can compromise communication in sexual situations and increase fear of being rejected. Further, misjudging sexual partners and situations can contribute to sexual victimization. Conclusions This study provides knowledge of how ADHD affects emotions and sexual behaviors in young women. The results highlight the need for understanding and acceptance by peers and partners. It accentuates the value of involving the partner in counselling and the importance of self-knowledge. Feeling insecure in sexual relationships further implies the importance of early diagnosis to prevent secondary outcomes of ADHD, and the need for sexual victimization screening in professional settings.
 
Top-cited authors
Christoph Gerlinger
Ben W Mol
  • Monash University (Australia)
Ali Montazeri
  • Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research
Heather Boon
  • University of Toronto
Anne Zimmermann
  • Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin