BMC Oral Health

Published by Springer Nature

Online ISSN: 1472-6831


Table 1 : Prevalence of self-perceived malocclusion among 11-12-year-old Peruvian schoolchildren
Table 3 : Prevalence of the impacts associated with self-perceived malocclusion, by covariables, among 11-12-year-old Peruvian schoolchildren
Table 5 : Extent of the impacts associated with self-perceived malocclusion, by covariables, among 11-12-year-old Peruvian schoolchildren
Prevalence, intensity and extent of Oral Impacts on Daily Performances associated with self-perceived malocclusion in 11-12-year-old children
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February 2007


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Carlos Flores-Mir


To determine the prevalence, intensity and extent of the Oral Impacts on Daily Performances associated with self-perceived malocclusion among Peruvian schoolchildren. Eight hundred and five children aged 11 to 12 years attending 4 of 7 randomly selected schools linked to a Health Centre in Lima, Peru, participated in the study. The Spanish (Peru)Child-OIDP was used to assess the prevalence, intensity and extent of oral impacts on 8 daily performances (eating, speaking, teeth cleaning, sleeping, smiling, studying, emotion and social contact). Self-perceived malocclusion included complaints about position of teeth, spacing of teeth and deformity of mouth or face. The prevalence of oral impacts was compared by covariables using the Chi-square test, whereas the intensity and extent of oral impacts were compared by covariables through the Mann-Whitney test. Only 15.5% of children reported impacts associated with self-perceived malocclusion during the last 3 months. Of them, 18.4% reported impacts of severe or very severe intensity and 76.0% reported impacts on only one daily performance. Psychosocial activities such as smiling, emotion and social contact were the most frequently and severely impacted everyday activities. Impacts of self-perceived malocclusion primarily affected psychological and social everyday activities. These findings provide further evidence to support the importance of psychological and social components of oral health on children's lives.

Table 1 Frequency distribution of adolescents' socio-demographic and behavioral factors by urban and rural place of residence 
Validity and reliability of OIDP and OHIP-14: A survey of Chinese high school students

December 2014


454 Reads



Ing-Marie Nilsson




Anne Nordrehaug Astrom
To determine the impact of oral diseases on everyday life, measures of oral quality of life are needed. In complementing traditional disease-based measures, they assess the need for oral care to evaluate oral health care programs and management of treatment. To assess the reliability and validity of the Oral Impact of Daily Performance (OIDP) and the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) among high school students in Xi'an, the capital of Shanxi province, China. Cross-sectional one-stage stratified random cluster sample using high schools as the primary sampling unit. Students completed self-administered questionnaires at school. The survey included the OHIP-14 and OIDP inventories, translated and culturally adapted for China, and global oral health and socio-behavioral measures. A total of 5,608 students participated in the study, with a 93% response rate (mean age 17.2, SD 0.8, 52% females, 45.3% urban residents).The proportion experiencing at least one impact (at any frequency) during the previous six months was 62.9% for the OHIP-14 and 45.8% for the OIDP. Cronbach's alpha measured internal consistency at 0.85 for OHIP-14 and 0.75 for OIDP while Cohen's kappa varied between 0.27 and 0.58 for OHIP-14 items and between 0.23 and 0.65 for OIDP items. Kappa scores for the OHIP-14 and OIDP additive scores were 0.52 and 0.66, respectively. Both measures varied systematically and in the expected direction, with global oral health measures showing criterion validity. The correlation between OIDP and OHIP-14 was rs +0.65. That both measures varied systematically with socio-behavioral factors indicates construct validity. Both the OIDP and OHIP-14 inventories had reasonable reliability and construct validity in relation to subjective global oral health indicators among adolescents attending high schools in China and thus appear to be useful oral health -related quality of life measures in this context. Overall, the OHIP-14 and OIDP performed equally well, although OHIP-14 had superior content validity due to its sensitivity towards less severe impacts.

Mean overall CPQ8–10 scores in healthy children, children with clef lip and palate, and in children with rare oral diseases.
Mean overall CPQ11–14 scores in healthy children, children with clef lip and palate, children with rare oral diseases, and in children with fixed orthodontic appliances.
Development of Danish version of child oral-health-related quality of life questionnaires (CPQ8–10 and CPQ11–14)

May 2009


166 Reads

The Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ) is a self-reported questionnaire developed to measure oral health-related quality of life in children. The CPQ aims to improve the description of children's oral health, while taking into consideration the importance of psychological aspects in the concept of health. The CPQ exists in two versions: the CPQ8-10 for children aged 8-10 years and the CPQ11-14 for those aged 11-14 years. The aim of this study was to develop a Danish version of the CPQ8-10 and the CPQ11-14 and to evaluate its validity for use among Danish-speaking children. The instruments were translated from English into Danish in accordance with a recommended translation procedure. Afterwards, they were tested among children aged 8-10 (n = 120) and 11-14 years (n = 225). The validity was expressed by the correlation between overall CPQ scores and i) self-reported assessment of the influence of oral conditions on everyday life (not at all, very little, some, a lot, very much) and ii) the self-reported rating of oral health. Furthermore, groups of children with assumed decreased oral health-related quality of life were compared with children with healthy oral conditions. Finally, we examined the internal consistency. The correlation between overall CPQ scores and global assessments of the influence of oral conditions on everyday life showed Spearman correlation coefficients of 0.45, P < 0.001 for CPQ8-10 and 0.50, P < 0.001 for CPQ11-14. The correlation between overall CPQ scores and the self-reported rating of oral health showed Spearman correlation coefficients of 0.45, P < 0.001 for CPQ8-10 and 0.17, P = 0.010 for CPQ11-14.The median overall CPQ8-10 scores were 7 for individuals with healthy oral conditions, 5 for individuals with cleft lip and palate, and 15 for individuals with rare oral diseases. The median overall CPQ11-14 scores were 9 for individuals with healthy oral conditions, 9 for individuals with cleft lip and palate, 17.0 for individuals with rare oral diseases, and 22.0 for individuals with fixed orthodontic appliances. There were statistically significant differences between the groups of children with healthy oral conditions and each of the subgroups, except for children with cleft lip and palate.Chronbach'alpha were 0.82 for CPQ8-10 and 0.87 for CPQ11-14. The results of this study reveal that the Danish CPQ8-10 and CPQ11-14, seem to be valid instruments for measuring oral health-related quality of life in children although its ability to discriminate between children with cleft lip and palate and healthy children seem to be limited.

Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the population studied
Table 2 Internal consistency of the CPQ 11-14 scores number of items Cronbach's alpha (n=561)
Distribution of scores on the CPQ11-14 sub-scales.
Validity of Italian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14)

October 2013


197 Reads

The Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14) is the most commonly used indicator of child oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), and its validity and reliability have been studied both in English and in other linguistic contexts. The aim of this study was to develop a CPQ11-14 for use in Italy and to test its validity in a random sample of fourteen year-old Italian adolescents. Once the CPQ11-14was translated into Italian and adapted for an Italian public, five hundred sixty-one adolescents were recruited for testing. Parents rated their social status; the children/adolescents were administered the questionnaire and underwent a dental examination during which their dental status was taken and recorded. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess the questionnaire's internal consistency. Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated to assess construct validity between the total and subscale scores and the respondents' global ratings on oral health and well-being. Discriminant validity was analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis or Mann--Whitney tests in groups defined by gender, social position, caries experience and previous or no orthodontic treatment. The mean score on the CPQ11-14 was 15.4 (SD=11.9), and the scores on all the domains were found to be highly skewed. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.85 to 0.90. The global ratings on oral health and well-being were correlated to the total score and to the sub-scores except for those regarding the functional limitations. There were significant differences in the two genders, in the groups that had already or had not yet undergone orthodontic treatment, and in the social classification groups, while the difference between those who had and those who did not have caries experience did not reach statistical significance. The Italian version of the CPQ11-14 appears to be a reliable, valid instrument for Italian children/adolescents.

Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics of children and their parents at Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia, September 2011
Table 3 Dental cases of Gondar town children aged 7-14 years, North West Ethiopia, September 2011
Table 4 Factors associated with dental caries among children aged 7-14 years at Gonda town, Northwest Ethiopia, September 2011
Mothers reasons for not brushing their children’s teeth at Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia, September 2011.
Predictors of Dental caries among children 7-14 years old in Northwest Ethiopia: A community based cross-sectional study

January 2013


482 Reads

Background Dental caries in children remains a significant public health problem. It is a disease with multifactorial causes. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries among children between 7 to 14 years old. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gondar town from June 2011 to September 2011. A total of 842 children were involved in the study. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select the children. Pretested and structured questionnaires were used to collect data from mothers. Clinical examination of children was done using dental caries criteria set by world health organization. Data were entered, cleaned and edited using EPI Info version 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. Binary multiple logistic regression analyses was applied to test the association. Results Four hundred sixty three (55%) children were females. The prevalence of dental caries was 306(36.3%).The educational status of children’s father (AOR=0.3, 95%CI, 0.17, 0.80), monthly household income (AOR=0.59, 95%CI, 0.01, 0.45), regular teeth brushing (AOR=0.08, 95% CI, 0.03, 0.20) and using mouth rinsing (AOR=0.40, 95% CI, 0.2, 0.80) were found statistically significantly associated with dental caries. Conclusions Dental caries were high among children in Gondar town. Low socioeconomic status and poor oral hygiene practices were the influencing factors for dental caries. Oral hygiene, dietary habits and access to dental care services are supreme important for the prevention of the problem.

Distribution of probabilities of site susceptibilities.
Proportion of each tooth surface type affected by caries at each DMF-S score.
Grouping of tooth surfaces by susceptibility to caries: A study in 5-16 year-old children

February 2004


674 Reads

Background The decline in caries has slowed and this may be indicative of variation in the susceptibility of differing teeth to caries. This study tests the hypothesis that in children, there are groups of tooth sites that exhibit differences in caries susceptibility. Methods Probit analysis of caries data collected from a 4-year longitudinal study of 20,000 schoolchildren aged between 5 and 16 years in 10 differing locations in the United States. Results The development of dental caries within the mouth followed a fixed hierarchy indicating that tooth surfaces show variation in caries susceptibility. Certain teeth and tooth sites have similar susceptibilities and can be grouped, the sizes of the groups vary. The most susceptible group consists of six tooth surfaces: the buccal pits and occlusal fissured surfaces of the first molar teeth. The second group consisted of 12 sites on the second molar and premolar teeth. The group formed by the least susceptible sites included the largest number of tooth surfaces and consists of the majority of the lower anterior teeth and canines. Conclusion Variation in the caries susceptibility of tooth surfaces exists. Surfaces can be grouped according to caries susceptibility. An effect that reduces the cariogenic challenge of one of the sites within a group is likely to affect all the other sites within the particular group.

Use of 16S ribosomal RNA gene analyses to characterize the bacterial signature associated with poor oral health in West Virginia

March 2011


122 Reads

West Virginia has the worst oral health in the United States, but the reasons for this are unclear. This pilot study explored the etiology of this disparity using culture-independent analyses to identify bacterial species associated with oral disease. Bacteria in subgingival plaque samples from twelve participants in two independent West Virginia dental-related studies were characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM) analysis. Unifrac analysis was used to characterize phylogenetic differences between bacterial communities obtained from plaque of participants with low or high oral disease, which was further evaluated using clustering and Principal Coordinate Analysis. Statistically different bacterial signatures (P<0.001) were identified in subgingival plaque of individuals with low or high oral disease in West Virginia based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Low disease contained a high frequency of Veillonella and Streptococcus, with a moderate number of Capnocytophaga. High disease exhibited substantially increased bacterial diversity and included a large proportion of Clostridiales cluster bacteria (Selenomonas, Eubacterium, Dialister). Phylogenetic trees constructed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that Clostridiales were repeated colonizers in plaque associated with high oral disease, providing evidence that the oral environment is somehow influencing the bacterial signature linked to disease. Culture-independent analyses identified an atypical bacterial signature associated with high oral disease in West Virginians and provided evidence that the oral environment influenced this signature. Both findings provide insight into the etiology of the oral disparity in West Virginia.

Saliva sample analysis: cell count, DNA isolation and purity. A) Following centrifugation and cell resuspension in saline, cell number for each sample was determined revealing three-fourths of the UNLV samples were observed to have lower cell counts (0.8-1.4 x 106 cells/mL) while only one-third of CCSD sample were estimated* to have lower cell counts. B) DNA concentrations were found to be higher from the high-cell count samples within each cohort (CCSD: 859.4 and 707.1 ng/μL, respectively; UNLV: 886.3 and 910.2 ng/μL, respectively). DNA purity averaged between 1.71 and 1.82. C) Equal concentrations of extracted DNA (1 μL) was screened using GAPDH, which revealed no considerable variation in band intensity between cohorts of samples from high- and low-cell count categories.
Saliva sample screening: analysis of qPCR HPV results. A) Three samples were found to harbor HPV DNA: HPV16-positive samples (S5, S38); One sample was HPV-positive (S7). B) qPCR analysis revealed HPV-positive samples had values well above the established cutoff value (> 0.001 copies/genome). C) All three HPV-positive samples were male, representing 2.5% of the total (n = 118). Two of the three HPV-positive samples were from White participants. All three HPV-positive samples were from the CCSD cohort (ages: 12-17); Both HPV16-positive samples were obtained from 14-year old participants, while the HPV18-positive sample was obtained from a 15-year old.
Screening and detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) high-risk strains HPV16 and HPV18 in saliva samples from subjects under 18 years old in Nevada: A pilot study

October 2012


461 Reads

Background Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are oncogenic and mainly associated with cervical cancers. Recent evidence has demonstrated HPV infection in other tissues, including oral epithelia and mucosa. Although a recent pilot study provided new information about oral HPV status in healthy adults from Nevada, no information was obtained about oral HPV prevalence among children or teenagers, therefore, the goal of this study is to provide more detailed information about oral prevalence of high-risk HPV among children and teenagers in Nevada. Methods This retrospective study utilized previously collected saliva samples, obtained from pediatric dental clinic patients (aged 2 – 11) and local school district teenagers (aged 12-17) for high-risk HPV screening (n=118) using qPCR for quantification and confirmation of analytical sensitivity and specificity. Results A small subset of saliva samples were found to harbor high-risk HPV16 (n=2) and HPV18 (n=1), representing a 2.5% of the total. All three were obtained from teenage males, and two of these three samples were from White participants. Conclusions Although this retrospective study could not provide correlations with behavioral or socioeconomic data, this project successfully screened more than one hundred saliva samples for high-risk HPV, confirming both HPV16 and HPV18 strains were present in a small subset. With increasing evidence of oral HPV infection in children, this study provides critical information of significant value to other dental, medical, oral and public health professionals who seek to further an understanding of oral health and disease risk in pediatric populations.

Table 3 Dental caries experience of the studied young adults according to their behaviors (n = 324)
Frequency distribution of the studied young adults according to DMFT score (n = 324).
Frequency distribution of the studied young adults according to the number of sextants with healthy gums (n = 324).
Risk indicators of oral health status among young adults aged 18 years analyzed by negative binomial regression

August 2013


494 Reads

Limited information on oral health status for young adults aged 18 year-olds is known, and no available data exists in Hong Kong. The aims of this study were to investigate the oral health status and its risk indicators among young adults in Hong Kong using negative binomial regression. A survey was conducted in a representative sample of Hong Kong young adults aged 18 years. Clinical examinations were taken to assess oral health status using DMFT index and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) according to WHO criteria. Negative binomial regressions for DMFT score and the number of sextants with healthy gums were performed to identify the risk indicators of oral health status. A total of 324 young adults were examined. Prevalence of dental caries experience among the subjects was 59% and the overall mean DMFT score was 1.4. Most subjects (95%) had a score of 2 as their highest CPI score. Negative binomial regression analyses revealed that subjects who had a dental visit within 3 years had significantly higher DMFT scores (IRR = 1.68, p < 0.001). Subjects who brushed their teeth more frequently (IRR = 1.93, p < 0.001) and those with better dental knowledge (IRR = 1.09, p = 0.002) had significantly more sextants with healthy gums. Dental caries experience of the young adults aged 18 years in Hong Kong was not high but their periodontal condition was unsatisfactory. Their oral health status was related to their dental visit behavior, oral hygiene habit, and oral health knowledge.

Table 1 Distribution and percentage of malocclusion according to DAI 
Table 2 Distributions of OASIS components 
Table 3 Association between OASIS and socio- demographic and oral clinical data 
Table 4 Logistic regression results indicating associations between poorer OASIS and per capita income and oral clinical conditions 
Malocclusion, dental aesthetic self-perception and quality of life in a 18 to 21 year-old population: A cross section study

January 2013


446 Reads

Background Aesthetic alterations in the face can be self-perceived and can affect quality of life. For young people, physical attractiveness is an important factor affecting social relationships. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of malocclusion, identify the most common types and test its association with oral aesthetic self-perception in 18 to 21 year-old population of male young adults. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 138 Brazilian Army soldiers. Data collection included socio demographic profile, malocclusion status through the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and oral aesthetic self-perception as indicated by the Oral Aesthetic Subjective Impact Scale (OASIS). The chi-square and Fisher’s exact test were used to test for homogeneity of proportions. The stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to test for the relationship between the poorer oral aesthetic self-perception and parental and soldier’s education, per capita income, history of caries in all teeth and only on anterior teeth, dental trauma, previous orthodontic treatment and malocclusion. Results The prevalence of malocclusion was 45.6%. Incisor teeth crowding and misalignment of lower incisors were the most common types of malocclusions. A statistically significant and independent association between malocclusion and poorer oral aesthetic self-perception in the multivariate analysis was observed. Subjects with severe malocclusion conditions showed 88% higher prevalence [prevalence ratio =1.88 (95% CI, 1.30 – 2.72); p = 0.001] of poorer aesthetic self-perception comparing to those with minor malocclusion. Conclusions A high prevalence of malocclusion was observed. The young adults presenting severe malocclusion had a higher and independent prevalence of poorer oral aesthetic self-perception.

Table 2 : Gender distribution of the oral facial neoplasms
Table 3 : Combined age distribution of oral facial neoplasms biopsy results l
Table 4 : Site distribution of some selected oral facial neoplasms in Uganda and Tanzania
% distribution of Burkkit's lyphoma for those 10 years and below.
Oral maxillofacial neoplasms in an East African population a 10 year retrospective study of 1863 cases using histopathological reports

July 2008


163 Reads

Neoplasms of the oral maxillofacial area are an interesting entity characterized by differences in nomenclature and classification at different centers.We report neoplastic histopathological diagnoses seen at the departments of oral maxillofacial surgery of Muhimbili and Mulago referral hospitals in Tanzania and Uganda respectively over a 10-year period. We retrieved histopathological reports archived at the departments of oral maxillofacial surgery of Muhimbili and Mulago referral hospitals in Tanzania and Uganda respectively over a 10-year period from June 1989-July 1999. In the period between June 1989 and July 1999, 565 and 1298 neoplastic oro-facial cases were retrieved of which 284 (50.53%) and 967 (74.54%) were malignant neoplasms at Muhimbili and Mulago hospitals respectively. Overall 67.28% of the diagnoses recorded were malignant with Kaposi's sarcoma (21.98%), Burkiits lymphoma (20.45%), and squamous cell carcinoma (15.22%) dominating that group while ameloblastoma (9.23%), fibromas (7.3%) and pleomorphic adenoma (4.95%) dominated the benign group.The high frequency of malignancies could be due to inclusion criteria and the clinical practice of selective histopathology investigation. However, it may also be due to higher chances of referrals in case of malignancies. There is need to reexamine the slides in these two centers in order to bring them in line with the most recent WHO classification so as to allow for comparison with reports from else where.

Figure 1: Distribution of the participants in the study group according to their self-reported dental caries and considering also their smoking habit, BMI, gender and marital status.
Table 3 Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for reported oral health and various factors in 8,690 subjects included in the Northern Finland 1966 birth cohort
Self-reported oral health and associated factors in the North Finland 1966 birth cohort at the age of 31

December 2014


108 Reads

The Northern Finland 1966 birth cohort (NFBC 1966) is an epidemiological study where the participants have been controlled since pregnancy both in field tests and using questionnaires. This study aimed to evaluate cross-sectionally the association of self-reported oral symptoms (dental caries and bleeding of gums) with sociodemographic and health behavior factors among the subjects. Of the 11,541 original members of the cohort, 8,690 (75%) responded to the questionnaire on oral health (dental decay, gingival bleeding and self-estimated dental treatment need) and sociodemographic factors, general health and health behavior. Cross-tabulation and chi-squared tests as well as multiple logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the association between the outcome and explanatory variables. The study group was equally distributed between the genders. One third of the subjects reported having dental decay, one fourth gingival bleeding and a half a dental treatment need. As compared to woman, men reported significantly more frequently symptoms (p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed low tooth brushing frequency increasing the odds most for all oral symptoms ((OR 1.57 (1.39-1.78) for dental decay, 1.94 (1.68-2.24) for gingival bleeding and 1.42 (1.26-1.61) for dental treatment need). Frequent smoking was associated with dental decay (OR 1.63 (1.44-1.84)) and treatment need OR (1.39 (1.23-1.56)), whereas poor general health (OR 1.71 (1.48-1.96)) and high BMI (OR 1.19 (1.03-1.36)) both were associated with gingival bleeding. Males with single marital status, BMI over 25, poor general health and poor oral health behaviors are at risk for s elf-reported poor oral health and dental treatment need.

number of women aged 38 and 50 years in the studies from 1968/69 to 2004/05 according to marital status, social class and education 
Trends in tooth loss in relation to socio-economic status among Swedish women, aged 38 and 50 years: Repeated cross-sectional surveys 1968-2004

November 2013


159 Reads

Oral diseases are a health problem worldwide. Differences in oral health status may vary with geographical locations, but also within the same country and between groups with different social backgrounds. The specific aims were to describe secular trends in oral health status regarding number of remaining teeth and also to describe differences in socio-economic status, among 38- and 50-year-old women, over a 36-year period. Cross-sectional health surveys were performed at four occasions; 1968/69 (n = 746), 1980/81 (n = 532), 1992/93 (n = 165) and 2004/05 (n = 500), including randomly selected women aged 38 and 50 years. The number of teeth was determined using panoramic radiographs and self-reported measures of marital status, social class, educational level, and income were recorded. The mean number of teeth among women has increased significantly. The educational level has increased while fewer women are married/cohabiting over time. There has been a shift in the social group the women belong to, where proportionally more women were categorized in a higher social group in 2004/05 than in 1968/69. Moreover, there is a significant relationship between fewer teeth and a lower social group, and among the 50-year-old women, this was irrespective of examination year. However, multivariate analyses showed that the risk to be edentulous or not, or to have fewer remaining teeth was significantly higher for women of lower social group, or living alone, in all studies over the 36 year-period. This was independent of age group, even though the risk diminished over the study period. Cohort comparisons of women aged 38 and 50 years during 36 years showed that dental status improved, with (i) a decreasing prevalence of edentulism and, (ii) an increasing number of remaining teeth in dentate individuals over time. Differences due to social group and education were still present, with more remaining teeth in the women in the higher social group. A time trend analysis indicated that in the later examination years the individuals had fewer teeth lost, irrespective of age, marital status and, social group.

Table 3 Percentage distribution of respondents according to dental anxiety, gender, dental attendance patterns and survey year 1997 2007 
income, educational level and gender in the sample of 25-year old and in the total population of 25-year-olds in Western Norway in 2005, 2006 and 2007 
Dental anxiety and dental attendance among 25-year-olds in Norway: Time trends from 1997 to 2007

March 2011


185 Reads

So far, there are few studies considering the development of dental anxiety and dental attendance patterns across time in the general population of Norwegian adults. This study aimed to 1) determine the frequency of dental anxiety and regular dental attendance among 25-year-olds in Norway in 1997 and 2007, 2) to study the development (time trend) of dental anxiety and the socio-behavioral distribution of dental anxiety from 1997 to 2007. Random samples of 1,190 and 8,000 25-yr-olds were drawn from the populations of three counties in Western Norway in 1997 and 2007, respectively. The eligible participants received questionnaires by mail including questions on socio-demographics, dental anxiety (DAS) and dental attendance. In 1997, 11.5% males versus 23% females reported high dental anxiety (DAS ≥ 13). Corresponding figures in 2007 were 11.3% and 19.8%. The proportions who had attended yearly for a dental check-up during the past 5 years fell from 62% in 1997 (men 56.9% and women 66.4%) to 44.6% (men 38.1% and women 48.6%) in 2007. After controlling for potential confounding factors, the 25-year-olds were 1.4 times more likely to report dental anxiety in 1997 compared to 2007. The decrease was largely attributable to a lower mean DAS score among higher educated females in 2007 than in 1997. The discrepancy in dental anxiety between regular and non-regular dental attendees had decreased, largely attributable to a decline in dental anxiety among irregular dental attendees. The study showed reduced dental anxiety and dental attendance among 25 year-olds in Norway from 1997 to 2007. This study points to the importance of controlling for possible changes in socio-demographic distributions when different cohorts are compared.

Table 2 : DGA rates, unadjusted incidence rate ratios and generalised adjusted incident rate ratios among Australians aged 15+ years; 1998-1999 to 2004-2005
DGA rates by age-group and procedure, 1998–1999 to 2004–2005.
Dental general anaesthetic receipt among Australians aged 15+ years, 1998–1999 to 2004–2005

February 2008


97 Reads

Adults receive dental general anaesthetic (DGA) care when standard dental treatment is not possible. Receipt of DGA care is resource-intensive and not without risk. This study explores DGA receipt among 15+-year-old Australians by a range of risk indicators. DGA data were obtained from Australia's Hospital Morbidity Database from 1998-1999 to 2004-2005. Poisson regression modeling was used to examine DGA rates in relation to age, sex, Indigenous status, location and procedure. The overall DGA rate was 472.79 per 100,000 (95% CI 471.50-474.09). Treatment of impacted teeth (63.7%) was the most common reason for DGA receipt, followed by dental caries treatment (12.4%), although marked variations were seen by age-group. After adjusting for other covariates, DGA rates among 15-19-year-olds were 13.20 (95% CI 12.65-13.78) times higher than their 85+-year-old counterparts. Females had 1.46 (95% CI 1.45-1.47) times the rate of their male counterparts, while those living in rural/remote areas had 2.70 (95% CI 2.68-2.72) times the rate of metropolitan-dwellers. DGA rates for non-Indigenous persons were 4.88 (95% CI 4.73-5.03) times those of Indigenous persons. The DGA rate for 1+ extractions was 461.9 per 100,000 (95% CI 460.6-463.2), compared with a rate of 23.6 per 100,000 (95% CI 23.3-23.9) for 1+ restorations. Nearly two-thirds of DGAs were for treatment of impacted teeth. Persons aged 15-19 years were disproportionately represented among those receiving DGA care, along with females, rural/remote-dwellers and those identifying as non-Indigenous. More research is required to better understand the public health implications of DGA care among 15+-year-olds, and how the demand for receipt of such care might be reduced.

Table 1 Background variables of patients with oral candidiasis enrolled in the 2006-2007 and 2012-2013 studies 
Table 2 Distribution of Candida species isolated from patients with oral candidiasis in the 2006-2007 and 2012-2013 studies 
Frequency of clinically isolated strains of oral Candida species at Kagoshima University Hospital, Japan, and their susceptibility to antifungal drugs in 2006–2007 and 2012–2013

February 2014


95 Reads

The isolation frequency and susceptibility to antifungal agents of oral Candida isolates from patients with oral candidiasis (OC) were compared between studies conducted in 2006-2007 and 2012-2013. A total158 strains was isolated from 112 patients who visited Kagoshima University Hospital for the treatment of OC during the 14-month period from February 2012 and March 2013, and evaluated on the isolation frequency of each Candida strain and the susceptibility against antifungal drugs as compared to those evaluated in 2006-2007. There was a higher frequency of xerostomia as a chief complaint and of autoimmune disease in the 2012-2013 study than in the 2006-2007 study. More than 95% of Candida isolates were C. albicans and C. glabrata. In addition, the proportion of the latter increased from 12.3% in the 2006-2007 study to 23.4% in the 2012-2013 study, while the proportion of the former decreased from 86.2% to 72.8%, respectively. C. albicans was isolated in almost all patients, while C. glabrata was only isolated concomitantly with C. albicans. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were not significantly different between groups with a few exceptions. Candida isolates, of which MICs surpassed break points, apparently increased for miconazole and itraconazole against C. glabrata in the 2012-2013 study, but this was not statistically significant. As a result, more cases of autoimmune disease, a greater number of C. glabrata isolates, and higher resistance to azoles were seen in the 2012-2013 study than in the 2006-2007 study. These data indicate that with recent increases in C. glabrata infection, a causative fungus of OC, and in C. glabrata resistance to azoles, caution is needed in the selection of antifungal drugs for the treatment of OC.

Figure 1: Prevalence (%) of self-rated good dental health in different age groups among those with and without a cash margin (able to acquire 15,000 SEK in a week).
Table 1 Number of respondents, crude prevalence of self-rated good dental health and proportion visiting their dentist/dental hygienist regularly (last visit less than three years ago), stratified according to gender and age group
Figure 2: Prevalence (%) of self-rated poor dental health among those who, during the last three months, refrained from dental treatment for financial reasons and those who did not.
Socioeconomic differences in self-rated oral health and dental care utilisation after the dental care reform in 2008 in Sweden

November 2014


111 Reads

The aims of this study were to determine self-rated oral health and dental attendance habits among Swedish adults, with special reference to the role of social inequalities, after the Swedish dental care reform in 2008. The study is based on a survey questionnaire, sent to 12,235 residents of a Swedish county, in 2012. The age group was 16-84 years: 5,999 (49%) responded. Using chi-square statistics, differences in prevalence of self-rated oral health and regular dental attendance were analysed with respect to gender, age, educational level, family status, employment status and country of birth. Self-rated poor oral health was analysed by multivarite logistic regression adjusting for the different socio-demographic factors, financial security and having refrained from dental treatment for financial reasons. Three out of four respondents (75%) reported fairly good or very good oral health. Almost 90% claimed to be regular dental attenders. Those who were financially secure reported better oral health. The differences in oral health between those with a cash margin and those without were large whereas the differences between age groups were rather small. About 8% reported that they had refrained from dental treatment for financial reasons during the last three months. Self-rated poor oral health was most common among the unemployed, those on disability pension or on long-term sick leave, those born outside the Nordic countries and those with no cash margin (odds ratios ranging from 2.4 to 4.4). The most important factor contributing to these differences was having refrained from dental treatment for financial reasons. The results are relevant to strategies intended to reduce social inequalities in oral health, affirming the importance of the provision of equitable access to dental care.

Table 3 : Means, medians (SDs) and percentiles for total MDAS scores broken down by sex and age group
The modified dental anxiety scale: UK general public population norms in 2008 with further psychometrics and effects of age

September 2009


2,892 Reads

The Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) is a brief, self-complete questionnaire consisting of five questions and summed together to produce a total score ranging from 5 to 25. It has reasonable psychometric properties, low instrumental effects and can be integrated into everyday dental practice as a clinical aid and screen for dental anxiety. The objectives were to (i) produce confirmatory evidence of reliability and validity for the MDAS, (ii) provide up-to-date UK representative norms for the general public to enable clinicians to compare their patients' scores, (iii) to determine the nature of the relationship between dental anxiety and age. Telephone survey of a representative quota sample of 1000 UK adults (>18 years of age) conducted between 7-21 April, 2008. Attrition of potential participants was high in the recruitment process, although bias was minimal. Estimated proportion of participants with high dental anxiety (cut-off score = 19) was 11.6%. Dental anxiety was four times greater in the youngest age group (18-39 yrs) compared to older participants (60+ yrs), controlling for sex, social class and self-reported dental visiting behaviour confirming previous developed-world reports. The scale's psychometrics is supportive for the routine assessment of patient dental anxiety to compare against a number of major demographic groups categorised by age and sex. Dental anxiety was high in younger compared to older people.

UK population norms for the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale with percentile calculator: adult dental health survey 2009 results

June 2013


643 Reads

A recent UK population survey of oral health included questions to assess dental anxiety to provide mean and prevalence estimates of this important psychological construct. A two-stage cluster sample was used for the survey across England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. The survey took place between October-December 2009, and January-April 2010. All interviewers were trained on survey procedures. Within the 7,233 households sampled there were 13,509 adults who were asked to participate in the survey and 11,382 participated (84%). The scale was reliable and showed some evidence of unidimensionality. Estimated proportion of participants with high dental anxiety (cut-off score = 19) was 11.6%. Percentiles and confidence intervals were presented and can be estimated for individual patients across various age ranges and gender using an on-line tool. The largest reported data set on the MDAS from a representative UK sample was presented. The scale's psychometrics is supportive for the routine assessment of patient dental anxiety to compare against a number of major demographic groups categorised by age and sex. Practitioners within the UK have a resource to estimate the rarity of a particular patient's level of dental anxiety, with confidence intervals, when using the on-line percentile calculator.

The Hall Technique; A randomized controlled clinical trial of a novel method of managing carious primary molars in general dental practice: Acceptability of the technique and outcomes at 23 months

December 2007


3,056 Reads

Scotland has high levels of untreated dental caries in primary teeth. The Hall Technique is a simplified method of managing carious primary molars using preformed metal crowns (PMCs) cemented with no local anaesthesia, caries removal or tooth preparation. This study compared the acceptability of the Hall Technique for children, their carers, and dentists, and clinical outcomes for the technique, with conventional restorations. General dental practice based, split mouth, randomized controlled trial (132 children, aged 3-10). General dental practitioners (GDPs, n = 17) in Tayside, Scotland (dmft 2.7) placed conventional (Control) restorations in carious primary molars, and Hall Technique PMCs on the contralateral molar (matched clinically and radiographically). Dentists ranked the degree of discomfort they felt the child experienced for each procedure; then children, their carers and dentists stated which technique they preferred. The teeth were followed up clinically and radiographically. 128 conventional restorations were placed on 132 control teeth, and 128 PMCs on 132 intervention teeth. Using a 5 point scale, 118 Hall PMCs (89%) were rated as no apparent discomfort up to mild, not significant; for Control restorations the figure was 103 (78%). Significant, unacceptable discomfort was recorded for two Hall PMCs (1.5%) and six Control restorations (4.5%). 77% of children, 83% of carers and 81% of dentists who expressed a preference, preferred the Hall technique, and this was significant (Chi square, p < 0.0001). There were 124 children (94% of the initial sample) with a minimum follow-up of 23 months. The Hall PMCs outperformed the Control restorations:a) 'Major' failures (signs and symptoms of irreversible pulpal disease): 19 Control restorations (15%); three Hall PMCs (2%) (P < 0.000);b) 'Minor' failures (loss of restoration, caries progression): 57 Control restorations (46%); six Hall PMCs (5%) (P < 0.000)c) Pain: 13 Control restorations (11%); two Hall PMCs (2%) (P = 0.003). The Hall Technique was preferred to conventional restorations by the majority of children, carers and GDPs. After two years, Hall PMCs showed more favourable outcomes for pulpal health and restoration longevity than conventional restorations. The Hall Technique appears to offer an effective treatment option for carious primary molar teeth. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN47267892 - A randomized controlled trial in primary care of a novel method of using preformed metal crowns to manage decay in primary molar teeth: the Hall technique.

Distribution according to age of cases of mucoceles diagnosed between April 1980 and February 2003 at the Discipline of Stomatology Department of Biosciences and Oral Diagnosis, São José dos Campos Dental School, São Paulo State University.
Turgid nodular lesions located on the lower lip.
Mucocele of the gland of Blandin-Nuhn (ventral tongue). Pediculated turgid nodular lesion, measuring 3.0 cm in diameter.
Asymptomatic turgid nodular lesion located on the floor of the mouth, measuring 4.0 cm in diameter.
Turgid nodular lesion located on the lower lip of an infant.
Mucus extravasation and retention phenomena: A 24-year study

June 2010


17,007 Reads

Mucoceles are benign lesions related to the minor salivary glands and their respective ducts frequently affecting oral structures which are generally asymptomatic. Mucoceles are generally characterized by swollen nodular lesions preferentially located on the lower lip and differ from the so-called ranulas, which are lesions located on the floor of the mouth and related to the sublingual or submandibular glands. The objective of the present study was to analyze data such as age, gender, race and site of the lesion of 173 mucocele cases diagnosed at the Discipline of Stomatology, São José dos Campos Dental School, UNESP, over a period of 24 years (April 1980 to February 2003). Of the 173 cases analyzed, 104 (60.12%) were females and 69 (39.88%) were males. Age ranged from 4 to 70 years (mean +/- SD: 17 +/- 9.53) and most patients were in the second decade of life (n = 86, 49.42%); white (n = 124, 71.68%). The lower lip was the site most frequently affected by the lesions (n = 135, 78.03%), whereas the lowest prevalence was observed for the soft palate, buccal mucosa, and lingual frenum. In this study, mucoceles predominated in white female subjects in the second decade of life, with the lower lip being the most frequently affected site.

Table 1 Distribution of adults (N = 1150) according to individual characteristics, social structure and social context
Table 2 Bivariate and multivariate analyses, Poisson regression; adults aged 35 to 44 years (N = 1138)
Independent variables employed in the bivariate and multivariate analyses.
An approach to a framework for explaining caries in populations[3]
Distribution of individuals based on the severity of dental caries (DMFT ≥ 14 = high severity).
The severity of dental caries in adults aged 35 to 44 years residing in the metropolitan area of a large city in Brazil: A cross-sectional study

July 2012


169 Reads

Abstract Background In recent decades, studies in the field of public health have increasingly focused on social determinants that affect the health-illness process. The epidemiological perspective considers oral health to be a reflection of socioeconomic and environmental aspects, and it is particularly influenced by the social context. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the severity of dental caries among adults aged 35 to 44 years and characteristics on the different levels at which the determinants of caries operate (individual, social structure and social context). Methods A home-based, cross-sectional field study was carried out involving a sample of 1,150 adults (35 to 44 years of age) residing in metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The DMFT (decayed, missing, filled tooth) index (≥14) was used to determine the severity of dental caries. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out using the Poisson regression model with the level of significance set at 5% (p

Figure 1: Frequency distribution of caries experience according to tooth type in Manyara, Tanzania (high fluoridated rural area) and Kampala, Uganda (low fluoridated urban area).
Figure 2: Frequency distribution of caries experience according to Sex and tooth type in Kampala, Uganda (low fluoridated urban area).
Table 2 Any caries experience (dt > 0), and caries experience in anterior maxillary, anterior mandibular and molar teeth (upper and lower) by age group and breastfeeding status sex in Manyara and Kampala
Figure 3: Frequency distribution of caries experience according to Sex and tooth type in Manyara, Tanzania (high fluoridated rural area).
Table 4 Children's sugar intake by socio-demographic and behavioral factors
Prevalence and socio-behavioral influence of early childhood caries, ECC, and feeding habits among 6–36 months old children in Uganda and Tanzania

July 2012


186 Reads

Early childhood caries (ECC) is a serious problem that has remained unexplored in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to identify possible socio-behavioral correlates of ECC focusing 6-36 months old children and their caretakers. Cross sectional studies were conducted in a high fluoride rural area, Manyara, Tanzania and a low fluoride urban area, Kampala, Uganda. Totals of 1221 and 816 child - caretaker pairs attending health care facilities for growth monitoring were recruited in Manyara and Kampala, respectively. All caretakers completed face to face interviews at the health care facility. Children underwent oral clinical examination whereby ECC and Enamel hypoplasia were recorded using the dmft (WHO 1997) and the DDE index (FDI 1992). The prevalence of ECC was 3.7% in Manyara and 17.6% in Kampala. According to multiple logistic regression analyses, received oral health information from health worker was the strongest determinant of ECC in Manyara, adjusted OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.09 - 0.93. In Kampala, visible plaque, high sugar intake and presence of enamel hypoplasia associated with ECC, adjusted ORs 2.8 (95% CI 1.61- 4.95), 3.0 (95% CI 1.39 - 6.34) and 2.3 (95% CI 1.36 - 3.95). Oral health education aimed at caretakers of 6-36 months, including health care workers' information regarding the detrimental consequences for oral health of frequent sugar consumption and poor oral hygiene is important for prevention of ECC in Tanzania and Uganda.

Table 1 The frequency distribution of socio-behavioral characteristics
Table 2 Percentage distribution (n) and number of teeth affected by enamel defects
Frequency distribution of enamel hypoplasia according to tooth type in low and normal birth weight children.
Developmental defects of enamel in primary teeth and association with early life course events: A study of 6-36 month old children in Manyara, Tanzania

May 2013


778 Reads

Background: Children with low birth weight show an increased prevalence of developmental defects of enamel in the primary dentition that subsequently may predispose to early childhood caries (ECC).Focusing 6-36 months old, the purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of enamel defects in the primary dentition and identify influences of early life course factors; socio-demographics, birth weight, child's early illness episodes and mothers' perceived size of the child at birth, whilst controlling for more recent life course events in terms of current breastfeeding and oral hygiene. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the high fluoride area of Manyara, northern Tanzania including 1221 child-mother pairs who attended Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) clinics for immunization and/or growth monitoring. After the primary caregivers had completed face to face interviews at the health care facility, children underwent oral clinical examination whereby ECC and developmental defects of enamel were recorded using field criteria. All erupted teeth were examined and the enamel defects were assessed on buccal surfaces according to the modified DDE Index. Results: The prevalence of enamel defects was 33.3%. Diffuse opacities were the most common defects identified (23.1%), followed by hypoplasia (7.6%) and demarcated opacities (5.0%). The most frequently affected teeth were the upper central incisors (29.0% - 30.5%), whereas lower central incisors (4.3% to 4.5%) were least frequently affected. Multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusting for confounding the factors revealed that having normal birth weight (equal or more than 2500 g) associated with lower odds of having enamel hypoplasia [OR 0.2 (95% CI 0.1-0.7)]. No statistically significant association occurred between birth weight and diffuse opacities, demarcated opacities or combined DDE. Conclusion: Children with the history of low birth weight were more likely than their normal birth weight counterparts to present with enamel hypoplasia. In view of the frequent occurrence of enamel defects and the fact that hypoplasia may constitute a risk factor for future ECC, enamel defects should be included as a dental health indicator in epidemiological studies of children in northern Tanzania.

Association of a genetic polymorphism (-44 C/G SNP) in the human DEFB1 gene with expression and inducibility of multiple -defensins in gingival keratinocytes

September 2009


183 Reads

Human beta-defensins (hBDs) are antimicrobial peptides with a role in innate immune defense. Our laboratory previously showed that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 5' untranslated region of the hBD1 gene (DEFB1), denoted -44 (rs1800972), is correlated with protection from oral Candida. Because this SNP alters the putative mRNA structure, we hypothesized that it alters hBD1 expression. Transfection of reporter constructs and evaluation of antimicrobial activity and mRNA expression levels in keratinocytes from multiple donors were used to evaluate the effect of this SNP on constitutive and induced levels of expression. Transfection of CAT reporter constructs containing the 5' untranslated region showed that the -44 G allele yielded a 2-fold increase in CAT protein compared to other common haplotypes suggesting a cis effect on transcription or translation. The constitutive hBD1 mRNA level in human oral keratinocytes was significantly greater in cells from donors with the -44 GG genotype compared to those with the common CC genotype. Surprisingly, the hBD3 mRNA level as well as antimicrobial activity of keratinocyte extracts also correlated with the -44 G allele. Induced levels of hBD1, hBD2, and hBD3 mRNA were evaluated in keratinocytes challenged with Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 ligands, interleukin-1beta, TNFalpha, and interferon-gamma (IFNgamma). In contrast to constitutive expression levels, IFNgamma-induced keratinocyte hBD1 and hBD3 mRNA expression was significantly greater in cells with the common CC genotype, but there was no clear correlation of genotype with hBD2 expression. The DEFB1 -44 G allele is associated with an increase in overall constitutive antimicrobial activity and expression of hBD1 and hBD3 in a manner that is consistent with protection from candidiasis, while the more common C allele is associated with IFNgamma inducibility of these beta-defensins and is likely to be more protective in conditions that enhance IFNgamma expression such as chronic periodontitis. These results suggest a complex relationship between genetics and defensin expression that may influence periodontal health and innate immune responses.

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