BMC Geriatrics

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List of indicators for measuring programme outcomes
Article
Background Frailty is increasing in prevalence internationally with population ageing. Frailty can be managed or even reversed through community-based interventions delivered by a multi-disciplinary team of professionals, but to varying degrees of success. However, many of these care models’ implementation insights are contextual and may not be applicable in different cultural contexts. The Geriatric Service Hub (GSH) is a novel frailty care model in Singapore that focuses on identifying and managing frailty in the community. It includes key components of frailty care such as comprehensive geriatric assessments, care coordination and the assembly of a multi-disciplinary team. This study aims to gain insights into the factors influencing the development and implementation of the GSH. We also aim to determine the programme’s effectiveness through patient-reported health-related outcomes. Finally, we will conduct a healthcare utilisation and cost analysis using a propensity score-matched comparator group. Methods We will adopt a mixed-methods approach that includes a qualitative evaluation among key stakeholders and participants in the programme, through in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. The main topics covered include factors that affected the development and implementation of each programme, operations and other contextual factors that influenced implementation outcomes. The quantitative evaluation monitors each programme’s care process through quality indicators. It also includes a multiple-time point survey study to compare programme participants’ pre- and post- outcomes on patient engagement, healthcare services experiences, health status and quality of life, caregiver burden and societal costs. A retrospective cohort study will compare healthcare and cost utilisation between participants of the programme and a propensity score-matched comparator group. Discussion The GSH sites share a common goal to increase the accessibility of essential services to frail older adults and provide comprehensive care. This evaluation study will provide invaluable insights into both the process and outcomes of the GSH and inform the design of similar programmes targeting frail older adults. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT04866316 . Date of Registration April 26, 2021. Retrospectively registered.
 
Article
Background The Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created a spectrum of adversities that have affected older adults disproportionately. This paper examines older adults with multimorbidity using longitudinal data to ascertain why some of these vulnerable individuals coped with pandemic-induced risk and stressors better than others – termed multimorbidity resilience. We investigate pre-pandemic levels of functional, social and psychological forms of resilience among this sub-population of at-risk individuals on two outcomes – self-reported comprehensive pandemic impact and personal worry. Methods This study was conducted using Follow-up 1 data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA), and the Baseline and Exit COVID-19 study, conducted between April and December in 2020. A final sub-group of 9211 older adults with two or more chronic health conditions were selected for analyses. Logistic regression and Generalized Linear Mixed Models were employed to test hypotheses between a multimorbidity resilience index and its three sub-indices measured using pre-pandemic Follow-up 1 data and the outcomes, including covariates. Results The multimorbidity resilience index was inversely associated with pandemic comprehensive impact at both COVID-19 Baseline wave (OR = 0.83, p < 0.001, 95% CI: [0.80,0.86]), and Exit wave (OR = 0.84, p < 0.001, 95% CI: [0.81,0.87]); and for personal worry at Exit (OR = 0.89, p < 0.001, 95% CI: [0.86,0.93]), in the final models with all covariates. The full index was also associated with comprehensive impact between the COVID waves (estimate = − 0.19, p < 0.001, 95% CI: [− 0.22, − 0.16]). Only the psychological resilience sub-index was inversely associated with comprehensive impact at both Baseline (OR = 0.89, p < 0.001, 95% CI: [0.87,0.91]) and Exit waves (OR = 0.89, p < 0.001, 95% CI: [0.87,0.91]), in the final model; and between these COVID waves (estimate = − 0.11, p < 0.001, 95% CI: [− 0.13, − 0.10]). The social resilience sub-index exhibited a weak positive association (OR = 1.04, p < 0.05, 95% CI: [1.01,1.07]) with personal worry, and the functional resilience measure was not associated with either outcome. Conclusions The findings show that psychological resilience is most pronounced in protecting against pandemic comprehensive impact and personal worry. In addition, several covariates were also associated with the outcomes. The findings are discussed in terms of developing or retrofitting innovative approaches to proactive coping among multimorbid older adults during both pre-pandemic and peri-pandemic periods.
 
Flow chart of study participants. Initially, 7536 participants were enrolled and only 4500 participants did Bioelectric Impedance Analysis (BIA) analysis over 50 years old. Then we kept on excluding 342 subjects without nutrition assessment. Then 1 subject was excluded with missing information of teeth number. After that, 8 subjects were excluded without covariates data. Therefore, 4149 participants were analyzed in our study
Distribution of sarcopenia prevalence with changes in the number of teeth
Mediation effects of nutrition in the relationship between number of teeth with sarcopenia and the three diagnostic components of sarcopenia (gait speed, grip strength, SMI) in an unadjusted model. Nutrition revealed significant relative indirect effects for number of teeth and sarcopenia (ACME = − 0.0272). Nutrition also revealed significant relative indirect effects for SMI (indirect effect estimate = − 0.0283) and grip strength (indirect effect estimate = − 0.0067)
Path analysis of the nutrition’s mediation effects using the structural equation model (SEM) framework. SEM pathway analysis showed that the correlation between number of teeth and sarcopenia was negative (SEM co-efficient: − 0.18). The correlation between number of teeth and MNA-SF score was positive (SEM co-efficient: 0.11). The correlation between MNA-SF score and sarcopenia was negative (SEM coefficient: − 0.28)
Article
  • Xin XiaXin Xia
  • Zhigang XuZhigang Xu
  • Fengjuan HuFengjuan Hu
  • [...]
  • Xiaolei LiuXiaolei Liu
Objectives The relationship between the number of teeth and sarcopenia remains poorly investigated. Although nutrition plays an important role in maintaining bone and muscle health, the complex relationship between number of teeth and nutrition in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia remains to be elucidated. Methods A large multi-ethnic sample of 4149 participants aged over 50 years old from West China Health and Aging Trend (WCHAT) study was analyzed. We examined the associations between number of teeth with nutritional status and sarcopenia, and the mediating role of nutrition in the association between number of teeth and sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was defined according to the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia 2019. We assessed nutrition using Mini Nutrition Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF) scale. Direct relationships between number of teeth, nutrition and sarcopenia were assessed using multiple linear regression. Mediation models and structural equation model (SEM) pathway analysis were used to test the mediating role of nutrition in the relationship between number of teeth and sarcopenia. Results Of 4149 participants aged 50 years old or older, the prevalence of sarcopenia was 22.5, 9.0% for moderate sarcopenia, and 13.5% for severe sarcopenia, respectively. Regression analysis indicated a total association between number of teeth (β = − 0.327, 95% CI − 0.471 to − 0.237, p < 0.001) and sarcopenia. After adjusted MNA-SF scores, the association between number of teeth and sarcopenia was still significant (β = − 0.269, 95% CI − 0.364 to − 0.175, p < 0.001), indicating a partial mediation effect of nutrition. Mediation analysis verified nutrition partially mediate the associations between number of teeth and sarcopenia (indirect effect estimate = − 0.0272, bootstrap 95% CI − 0.0324 to − 0.0222; direct effect estimate = − 0.0899, bootstrap 95% CI − 0.1049 to − 0.0738). And this mediation effect was through impacting SMI (indirect effect estimate = − 0.0283, bootstrap 95% CI − 0.0336 to − 0.0232) and grip strength (indirect effect estimate = − 0.0067, bootstrap 95% CI − 0.0094 to − 0.0043). Structural equation model (SEM) framework pathway analysis confirmed the association between number of teeth, nutrition, and sarcopenia. Conclusions Our findings indicated that sarcopenia was associated with number of teeth and poorer nutritional status, with nutrition partially mediating the association between number of teeth and sarcopenia. Our findings supported early nutritional assessment and intervention in oral health to mitigate the risk of sarcopenia.
 
Article
  • Deborah TalamontiDeborah Talamonti
  • Christine GagnonChristine Gagnon
  • Thomas VincentThomas Vincent
  • [...]
  • Sarah FraserSarah Fraser
Background Aging is associated with an increased likelihood of developing dementia, but a growing body of evidence suggests that certain modifiable risk factors may help prevent or delay dementia onset. Among these, physical activity (PA) has been linked to better cognitive performance and brain functions in healthy older adults and may contribute to preventing dementia. The current pilot study investigated changes in behavioral and brain activation patterns over a 1-year period in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls taking part in regular PA. Methods Frontal cortical response during a dual-task walking paradigm was investigated at baseline, at 6 months (T6), and at 12 months (T12) by means of a portable functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) system. The dual-task paradigm included a single cognitive task (2-back), a single motor task (walking), and a dual-task condition (2-back whilst walking). Results Both groups showed progressive improvement in cognitive performance at follow-up visits compared to baseline. Gait speed remained stable throughout the duration of the study in the control group and increased at T6 for those with MCI. A significant decrease in cortical activity was observed in both groups during the cognitive component of the dual-task at follow-up visits compared to baseline, with MCI individuals showing the greatest improvement. Conclusions The observations of this pilot study suggest that taking part in regular PA may be especially beneficial for both cognitive performance and brain functions in older adulthood and, especially, in individuals with MCI. Our findings may serve as preliminary evidence for the use of PA as a potential intervention to prevent cognitive decline in individuals at greater risk of dementia.
 
Use of co-design terminology in included studies
a Distribution of studies according to phase of research in which end-users were involved. b Levels of involvement of end-users in the co-design process
Article
  • Natalie ConstantinNatalie Constantin
  • Holly EdwardHolly Edward
  • Hayley NgHayley Ng
  • [...]
  • Marla BeauchampMarla Beauchamp
Background Promoting physical activity (PA) participation in older adults is important for preserving quality of life and functional independence. Co-design has been shown to increase engagement of end-users in health-related policies and interventions. This scoping review aimed to examine how co-design has been used to develop PA interventions for older adults. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, and CINAHL. Peer-reviewed primary research studies that met the following criteria were included: had at least one participant aged ≥60 years involved in the co-design process and the intervention was delivered to individuals whose mean age was ≥60, used co-design methodologies, and any form of PA. After duplicate removal, two or more independent reviewers completed title and abstract and full text screening. Data were extracted from the included studies according to study aims. Results Of the 29 included studies, 12 different terms were used to describe co-design with variable operational definitions that we consolidated into five proposed components. Fifteen studies engaged users in a consultative way, 13 studies using collaboration, and one study engaged end-users in consumer-control. No studies involved end-users in the dissemination phase. Further, no studies directly measured the effectiveness of the co-design process. Five categories of barriers and facilitators to co-design were identified including frameworks and methodologies, logistics, relationships, participation, and generalizability. Conclusions There is a large degree of variability in how co-design is used to develop PA interventions for older adults. Our findings can be used by researchers to improve rigor and standardization in this emerging field. Trial registration osf.io/vsw2m.
 
Variables associated with HRQoL
Interaction between life-space and frailty and their association with EQ-5D
Article
Introduction Life-space and frailty are closely linked to health-related quality of life and understanding their inter-relationship could indicate potential intervention targets for improving quality of life. We set out to examine the relationship between frailty and life-space and their relative impact on quality of life measures. Methods Using cross-sectional data from a population-representative cohort of people aged ≥ 70 years, we assessed quality of life with the EuroQol Health Index tool (5-levels) (EQ-5D-5L). We also undertook a life-space assessment and derived a frailty index. Linear regression models estimated EQ-5D-5L scores (dependent variable) using life-space assessment, frailty index and interactions between them. All models were adjusted by age, sex, lifestyle, and social care factors. Results A higher EQ-5D Index was associated with higher life-space (0.02 per life-space assessment score, 95%CI: 0.01 to 0.03, p < 0.01) and decreasing frailty (-0.1 per SD, 95%CI: -0.1 to -0.1, p < 0.01). There was evidence of an interaction between life-space and frailty, where the steepest gradient for life-space and EQ-5D was in those with the highest frailty (interaction term = 0.02 per SD of frailty, 95%CI: 0.01 to 0.03, p < 0.01). Conclusion Individuals with the highest frailty were twice as likely to have higher quality of life in association with a larger life-space. Interventions designed to improve quality of life in frail older people could focus on increasing a person’s life-space.
 
Article
Background Frail older people are at higher risk of further deterioration if their needs are not acknowledged when they are acutely ill and admitted to hospital. Mental health comprises one area of needs assessment. Aims The aims of this study were threefold: to investigate the prevalence of depression in frail hospital patients, to identify factors associated with depression, and to compare depression management in patients receiving and not receiving Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA). Methods This secondary analysis from the CGA-Swed randomized control trial included 155 frail older people aged 75 years and above . Instruments included Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the ICE Capability measure for older people ( ICECAP-O) and the Fugl-Meyer Life Satisfaction scale (Fugl-Meyer Lisat). Depression was broadly defined as MADRS score ≥ 7. Regression models were used to identify variables associated with depression and to compare groups with and without the CGA intervention. Results The prevalence of a MADRS score indicating depression at baseline was 60.7%. The inability to do things that make one feel valued (ICECAP-O) was associated with a fourfold increase in depression (OR 4.37, CI 1.50–12.75, p = 0.007). There was a two-fold increase in odds of receiving antidepressant medication in the CGA intervention group (OR 2.33, CI 1.15–4.71, p = 0.019) compared to patients in the control group who received regular medical care. Conclusion Symptoms of depression were common among frail older people with unplanned hospital admission. Being unable to do things that make one feel valued was associated with depression. People who received CGA intervention had higher odds of receiving antidepressant treatment, suggesting that CGA improves recognition of mental health needs during unplanned hospital admissions in frail older people. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02773914. Retrospectively registered 16 May 2016.
 
Different CGA team members tasks specific to this study
Patient recruitment in our program
Forest plot of the relationships between preoperative parameters and postoperative complications
Article
Background The comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) has been proposed as a supplementary tool to reduce perioperative complications of geriatric patients, however there is no universally accepted standardization of CGA for orthopedic surgery. In this study, a novel CGA strategy was applied to evaluate the conditions of older patients undergoing orthopedic surgery from a broad view and to identify potential risk factors for postoperative complications. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted from March 2019 to December 2020.The study enrolled patients (age > 75 years) for elective or confined orthopedic surgery. All patients were treated by a multidisciplinary team. A structured CGA was conducted to identify high-risk older patients and to facilitate coordinated multidisciplinary team care by a geriatric team. The basic patient characteristics, CGA results, postoperative complication and mortality rates were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for postoperative complications. Results A total of 214 patients with an age of 81.07 ± 4.78 (range, 75–100) years were prospectively enrolled in this study. In total, 66 (30.8%) complications were registered, including one death from myocardial infarction (mortality rate, 0.5%). Poor Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) were accompanied by frailty, worse perioperative risk, pain, and nutritional status. Poor ADL was also associated with higher risks of falling, polypharmacy, and cardiac and respiration complications. Poor IADL was associated with a higher risk of cardiac and respiration complications. Higher stroke risk was accompanied by higher risks of cardiac complications, delirium, and hemorrhage. Worse American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score was associated with worse ADL, IADL, frailty, and higher delirium risk. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that spinal fusion (odds ratio [OR], 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.83; p = 0.0214), blood loss(OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.31 to 2.01; p = 0.0168), ADL (severe dysfunction or worse) (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.81; p = 0.0413), IADL (serious dependence) (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.33 to 1.63; p = 0.0436), renal function (chronic kidney disease (CKD) ≥ stage 3a) (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.54 to 2.55; p = 0.0133), and malnutrition(OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.74 to 2.56; p = 0.0101) were independent risk factors for postoperative complications. Conclusion The CGA process reduces patient mortality and increases safety in older orthopedic surgery patients. Spinal fusion, blood loss, ADL (severe dysfunction or worse), IADL (serious dependence), renal function (CKD ≥ stage 3a) and nutrition mini nutritional assessment (MNA) (malnourished) were independent risk factors of postoperative complications following orthopaedic surgery in older patients.
 
Flow chart showing the selection of the participants in this study
Distribution of progression and reversion
Results for the adjusted Cox Proportional Hazards Model of Progression and Reversion of Frailty. Note: Models were adjusted by age, sex, education level, marital status, current residence location, the presence of the chronic condition, ADLs, IADLs, living alone, and depressive symptoms. ADLs refer to Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and IADLs refer to Instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs)
Article
Background Frailty is a common condition in older adults that is characterized by transitions between frailty states in both directions (progression and reversion) over time. Loneliness has been reported to be associated with the incidence of frailty, but few studies have explored the impact of persistent loneliness over time on frailty. In this study, we aimed to whether and how two different types of loneliness, transient and chronic, were associated with changes in frailty status in older adults. Methods The analytic sample contained 2961 adults aged ≥ 60 years who completed interviews for both the 2011 and 2015 waves of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. The logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between transient and chronic loneliness and progression and reversion of frailty. Demographics (age, sex, education level, marital status, urban–rural residence), living alone, chronic conditions, physical function, and depressive symptoms from the 2011 wave were adjusted. Results After four years, 21% of the studied sample reported progression, 20% reported reversion in frailty, 31% reported transient loneliness, and 14% reported chronic loneliness. There was no significant difference in participants who reported transient loneliness (OR = 1.10, 95% CI [0.89,1.37]), or chronic loneliness (OR = 1.14, 95% CI [0.84,1.57]) on the progression of frailty, compared with no report of loneliness. Participants reporting chronic loneliness (OR = 0.68, 95% CI [0.50,0.93]) were less likely to report reversion in their level of frailty compared to participants who did not report loneliness but not transient loneliness (OR = 0.87, 95% CI [0.70,1.08]). Conclusions Roughly the same percentage, a fifth, of older Chinese adults progressed or reversed in frailty status without active intervention. Chronic loneliness was related to a lower probability of reversion in the frail group than in the no loneliness group, but not in the transient loneliness group. More attention should be given to older adults with chronic loneliness.
 
Schematic overview of the ALAPAGE study. S0-S6: diet and physical activity sessions of the ALAPAGE program; T0-T2: evaluation time points; V0-V3: measurement visits
aWeek number
Article
Background Diet and physical activity are key components of healthy aging. Current interventions that promote healthy eating and physical activity among the elderly have limitations and evidence of French interventions’ effectiveness is lacking. We aim to assess (i) the effectiveness of a combined diet/physical activity intervention (the “ALAPAGE” program) on older peoples’ eating behaviors, physical activity and fitness levels, quality of life, and feelings of loneliness; (ii) the intervention’s process and (iii) its cost effectiveness. Methods We performed a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial with two parallel arms (2:1 ratio) among people ≥60 years old who live at home in southeastern France. A cluster consists of 10 people participating in a “workshop” (i.e., a collective intervention conducted at a local organization). We aim to include 45 workshops randomized into two groups: the intervention group (including 30 workshops) in the ALAPAGE program; and the waiting-list control group (including 15 workshops). Participants (expected total sample size: 450) will be recruited through both local organizations’ usual practices and an innovative active recruitment strategy that targets hard-to-reach people. We developed the ALAPAGE program based on existing workshops, combining a participatory and a theory-based approach. It includes a 7-week period with weekly collective sessions supported by a dietician and/or an adapted physical activity professional, followed by a 12-week period of post-session activities without professional supervision. Primary outcomes are dietary diversity (calculated using two 24-hour diet recalls and one Food Frequency Questionnaire) and lower-limb muscle strength (assessed by the 30-second chair stand test from the Senior Fitness Test battery). Secondary outcomes include consumption frequencies of main food groups and water/hot drinks, other physical fitness measures, overall level of physical activity, quality of life, and feelings of loneliness. Outcomes are assessed before the intervention, at 6 weeks and 3 months later. The process evaluation assesses the fidelity, dose, and reach of the intervention as its causal mechanisms (quantitative and qualitative data). Discussion This study aims to improve healthy aging while limiting social inequalities. We developed and evaluated the ALAPAGE program in partnership with major healthy aging organizations, providing a unique opportunity to expand its reach. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05140330 , December 1, 2021. Protocol version: Version 3.0 (November 5, 2021).
 
Article
Background It is unclear whether people with dementia (PwD) have more negative attitudes toward own aging (ATOA) than people without dementia and what factors influence ATOA among PwD. We investigated whether PwD have more negative ATOA than individuals without dementia and whether cognition and dementia subtype are associated with ATOA in PwD. Methods Data from the IDEAL and PROTECT studies were used to compare ATOA between 1502 PwD (mean (SD) age = 76.3 (8.5)) and 6377 individuals without dementia (mean (SD) age = 66.1 (7.1)). Linear regressions and ANOVA were used. Results PwD reported slightly more negative ATOA than people without dementia; this relationship disappeared after controlling for depression and self-rated health. In PwD more positive ATOA showed negligible associations with better general cognition, memory performance, verbal fluency, and visuospatial ability. However, after adjusting for covariates only better visuospatial ability predicted more positive ATOA. Additional analyses showed that before and after controlling for covariates, individuals with poorer self-reported visual acuity have more negative ATOA. Amongst dementia subtypes, people with Parkinson’s disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies reported most negative ATOA. Conclusions ATOA between PwD and people without dementia do not differ. ATOA in PwD appear to be affected not by cognitive impairment but by other characteristics that vary across dementia subtypes. Among PwD, those with Parkinson’s disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies may have higher risk of experiencing negative ATOA due to the motor and visual impairments that they experience.
 
Detailed steps for the selection of the study observations
Article
Background The catastrophic health expenditure of older adults results in serious consequences; however, the issue of whether cognitive status and living situations contribute to such financial burdens is uncertain. Our aim was to compare the differences in catastrophic health expenditure between adults living alone with cognitive impairment and those adults living with others and with normal cognition. Methods We identified 909 observations of participants living alone with cognitive impairment (cases) and 37,432 observations of participants living with others and with normal cognition (comparators) from the 2011/2012, 2013, 2015 and 2018 waves of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). We used propensity score matching (1:2) to create matched cases and comparators in a covariate-adjusted logistic regression analysis. Catastrophic health expenditure was defined as an out-of-pocket cost for health care ≥40% of a household’s capacity to pay. Results In comparison with participants living with others and with normal cognition, those adults living alone with cognitive impairment reported a higher percentage of catastrophic health expenditure (19.5% vs. 11.8%, respectively, P < 0.001). When controlling for age, sex, education, marital status, residence areas, alcohol consumption, smoking status and disease counts, we found that this subpopulation had significantly higher odds of having catastrophic health expenditure (odds ratio [OR] = 1.89, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.40, 2.56). Additional analyses confirmed the robustness of the results. Conclusions This study demonstrated that adults living alone with cognitive impairment in the CHARLS experienced a high burden of catastrophic health expenditure. Health care policies on social health insurance and medical assistance should consider these vulnerable adults.
 
Selection flowchart
Article
Background Skeletal muscle mass is a central component of body composition and its decline is enhanced during aging. We verified the association between the appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI) with the anthropometric variables, biochemical variables, and lifestyle of postmenopausal women. Methods Cross-sectional observational study conducted with postmenopausal women. Sociodemographic, clinical, lifestyle, physical activity level, biochemical, and anthropometric markers were collected. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy densitometry. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied. Results One hundred fourteen women aged in average 66.0 ± 5.8 years were evaluated. There was a significant association between ASMI and age ( p = 0.004), body mass ( p < 0.001), body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.001), adductor pollicis muscle thickness (APMT) ( p < 0.001), plasma calcium levels ( p = 0.003), calf circumference (CC), and waist circumference (WC) (p < 0.001 for both). Adjusted regression analyses revealed the influence of BMI, CC , and APMT in the 1st tertile of ASMI ( p < 0.05), BMI and CC in the 2rd tertile of ASMI. Conclusions ASMI was associated with BMI and muscle mass reserve indicators such as CC and DAPMT. In clinical practice, this indicates that simple, low-cost measures with good applicability can be used to predict and track the risk of depletion of skeletal muscle mass and consequent sarcopenia.
 
Restricted cubic splines (RCS) for analysis of the relationship between sleep duration and incidence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The model was adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, TDI, education level, smoking, alcohol use, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, and diabetes
Kaplan–Meier survival curve demonstrating the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) among the three sleep duration groups. The normal sleep duration group was used as the control group, and the difference between the two groups was evaluated by log-rank tests
Cox proportional risk model estimating the hazard ratio of AD. Model 1 unadjusted; Model 2 adjusted for age and gender; Model 3 adjusted for terms in Model 2, ethnicity, TDI, and education level; Model 4 adjusted for terms in Model 3 and cardiovascular risk factors including smoking, alcohol use, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, and diabetes. The vertical line indicates the reference value of 1
The joint association between long sleep duration and AD-GRS for AD risk. A: The interaction between sleep duration and AD-GRS. B: Participants who had a low AD-GRS with normal sleep duration were used as the reference (Re). C: Participants who had an intermediate AD-GRS with long sleep duration were used as the reference (Re). The multivariable model was adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, TDI, education level, smoking, alcohol use, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, and diabetes. The vertical line indicates the reference value of 1. AD-GRS stands for Alzheimer's disease genetic risk score
of the Two Sample Mendelian Randomization-Based Analysis of Sleep Duration and Alzheimer's disease (AD)
Article
Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequently occurring type of dementia. Concurrently, inadequate sleep has been recognized as a public health epidemic. Notably, genetic and environmental factors are now considered contributors to AD progression. Objective To assess the association between sleep duration, genetic susceptibility, and AD. Methods and results Based on 483,507 participants from the UK Biobank (UKB) with an average follow-up of 11.3 years, there was a non-linear relationship between AD incidence and sleep duration (P for non-linear < 0.001) by restricted cubic splines (RCS). Sleep duration was categorized into short sleep duration (< 6 h/night), normal sleep duration (6–9 h/night), and long sleep duration (> 9 h/night). No statistically significant interaction was identified between sleep duration and the AD-GRS (Alzheimer's disease genetic risk score, P for interaction = 0.45) using Cox proportional risk model. Compared with the participants who had a low AD-GRS and normal sleep duration, there was associated with a higher risk of AD in participants with a low AD-GRS and long sleep duration (HR = 3.4806; 95% CI 2.0011–6.054, p < 0.001), participants with an intermediate AD-GRS and long sleep duration (HR = 2.0485; 95% CI 1.3491–3.1105, p < 0.001), participants with a high AD-GRS and normal sleep duration (HR = 1.9272; 95% CI 1.5361–2.4176, p < 0.001), and participants with a high AD-GRS and long sleep duration (HR = 5.4548; 95% CI 3.1367–9.4863, p < 0.001).In addition, there was no causal association between AD and sleep duration using Two Sample Mendelian randomization (MR). Conclusion In the UKB population, though there was no causal association between AD and sleep duration analyzed using Two Sample MR, long sleep duration (> 9 h/night) was significantly associated with a higher risk of AD, regardless of high, intermediate or low AD-GRS. Prolonged sleep duration may be one of the clinical predictors of a higher risk of AD.
 
Flowchart of participants in study
DAG for the effect of depression on 30-day readmission. Key backdoor paths and confounders are bolded. B DAG for the effect of malnutrition on 30-day readmission. Key backdoor paths and confounders are bolded
Article
Abstract Background Readmission in older adults is typically complex with multiple contributing factors. We aim to examine how two prevalent and potentially modifiable geriatric conditions – depressive symptoms and malnutrition – relate to other geriatric syndromes and 30-day readmission in hospitalized older adults. Methods Consecutive admissions of patients ≥ 65 years to a general medical department were recruited over 16 months. Patients were screened for depression, malnutrition, delirium, cognitive impairment, and frailty at admission. Medical records were reviewed for poor oral intake and functional decline during hospitalization. Unplanned readmission within 30-days of discharge was tracked through the hospital’s electronic health records and follow-up telephone interviews. We use directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) to depict the relationship of depressive symptoms and malnutrition with geriatric syndromes that constitute covariates of interest and 30-day readmission outcome. Multiple logistic regression was performed for the independent associations of depressive symptoms and malnutrition with 30-day readmission, adjusting for variables based on DAG-identified minimal adjustment set. Results We recruited 1619 consecutive admissions, with mean age 76.4 (7.9) years and 51.3% females. 30-day readmission occurred in 331 (22.0%) of 1,507 patients with follow-up data. Depressive symptoms, malnutrition, higher comorbidity burden, hospitalization in the one-year preceding index admission, frailty, delirium, as well as functional decline and poor oral intake during the index admission, were more commonly observed among patients who were readmitted within 30 days of discharge (P
 
Article
Abstract Background Evidence supports loneliness and social isolation as a strong risk factor for poor mental and physical health outcomes for older adults. The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated older adults isolate themselves for a prolonged duration. The Faculty of Medicine at the University of Toronto established the Student-Senior Isolation Prevention Partnership (SSIPP), a volunteer program involving telephone calls between medical students and older adults. Methods A mixed methods pre-post study design included collecting quantitative data from older adults using the UCLA Loneliness Scale and the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale. The study included 29 medical students and 47 older adults. The medical students filled out a questionnaire on self-perceived knowledge of social isolation, perception of seniors, attitudes towards seniors, and likelihood to engage in specialties focusing on older adults. Interviews were conducted with both the older adults and the medical students to understand each groups’ experiences and perspectives with taking part in the SSIPP program. Results Participation in the program resulted in significant changes for medical students in areas such as increasing their likelihood to engage in care for older adults (p
 
Article
Background In France, the increase in COVID-19 vaccine uptake among older adults slowed down between May and June 2021. Using the data from a national survey, we aimed to assess COVID-19 vaccine uptake among French residents aged 65 years and older, particularly at risk of severe form of the infection, and identify factors associated with non-vaccination. Methods A cross-sectional online survey collected the immunization status/intention to get the COVID-19 vaccine, reasons for vaccination/non-vaccination and factors potentially associated with vaccine uptake between May 10 and 23, 2021 among a large sample of French residents. Characteristics of participants were compared according to immunization status. Factors potentially associated with non-vaccination were computed into a multivariate logistic regression. Results Among the 1941 survey participants, 1612 (83%) reported having received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine. Among the 329 unvaccinated, 197 (60%) declared having the intention to get vaccinated. Younger age (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05–2.14), thinking previously having COVID-19 (aOR = 4.01; 95% CI, 2.17–7.40), having suffered economic impact due to the pandemic (aOR = 2.63; 95% CI, 1.71–4.04), reporting an “unsafe” opinion about COVID-19 vaccine safety (aOR = 6.79; 95% CI, 4.50–10.26), reporting an “unsupportive” opinion about vaccination in general (aOR = 4.24; 95% CI, 2.77–6.49) were independent risk factors for non-vaccination. On the other hand, trust in COVID-19 vaccine information delivered by the doctor (aOR = 0.28; 95% CI, 0.16–0.48) and trust in the government’s actions (aOR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.34–0.74) were independent protective factors for non-vaccination. Political affiliation also remained significantly associated with vaccine uptake. Conclusions Despite high overall COVID-19 vaccine uptake among the study participants, differences in vaccine uptake according to the level of concerns regarding COVID-19 vaccine safety, socioeconomic profile and trust in the government were observed. Our results reinforce the importance of “reaching out” vaccination strategy that specifically targets the most vulnerable fringe of older adult population.
 
Participant recruitment
Article
Abstract Background Good self-management behaviors in patients with knee osteoarthritis can improve disease awareness, treatment effectiveness, quality of life, and reduce medical costs. However, there is a paucity of studies focusing on patients with knee osteoarthritis. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the mediating effect of self-efficacy on aspects of social support and self-management behaviors in this population. Methods This study employed a cross-sectional design and convenience sampling to survey patients with knee osteoarthritis in an outpatient department of a regional hospital in northern Taiwan from February 22, 2021, to April 15, 2021. The inclusion criteria for patients were (1) those diagnosed by a physician with knee osteoarthritis and (2) who could communicate in Chinese or Taiwanese. Participants were asked to complete a demographic questionnaire, the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale (ASE), the Inventory of Socially Supportive Behavior (including enacted support and perceived social support), and the Arthritis Self-Management Assessment Tool (ASMAT). In addition, the Kellgren-Lawrence Grading Scale was obtained from a chart review. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson product-moment correlation, and mediation analysis. Results A total of 140 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age of participants was 70.21 ± 10.84years; most (73.6%) were female. The mean total score of the ASMAT was 64.27 ± 14.84. Scores for the ASE, enacted support, and perceived social support were significantly positively correlated with ASMAT (all p
 
Article
Background Falls are an important cause of injury and death of older people. Hence, analyzing the multifactorial risk of falls from past cases to develop multifactorial intervention programs is clinically significant. However, due to the small sample size, there are few studies on fall risk analysis of clinical characteristics of fallers, especially among older hospitalized patients. Methods We collected data on 153 inpatients who fell (age ≥ 60 years) from the hospital nursing adverse event reporting system during hospitalization at Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, China, from January 2018 to December 2020. Patient characteristics at the time of the fall, surrounding environment, primary nurse, and adverse fall events were assessed. The enumeration data were expressed as frequency and percentage, and the chi-squared was performed between recurrent fallers and single fallers, and non-injurious and injurious fall groups. Results Cross-sectional data showed 18.3% of the 153 participants experienced an injurious fall. Compared with single fallers, a large proportion of older recurrent fallers more often experienced preexisting conditions such as cerebrovascular disease or taking hypoglycemic drugs. They were exposed to higher risks and could experience at least 3 fall times in 3 months. Besides, the credentials of their responsible nurses were often higher. Factors that increased the risk of a fall-related injury were hypoglycemic drugs (OR 2.751; 95% CI 1.114–6.795), and nursing adverse events (OR 47.571; 95% CI 14.392–157.247). Older inpatients with bed rails (OR 0.437; 95% CI 0.190–1.005) or falling at the edge of the bed (OR 0.365; 95% CI 0.138–0.964) were less likely to be injured than those without bed rails or not falling at the edge of the bed. Fall risks were significantly correlated with more severe fall-related injuries. Older patients with moderate (OR 5.517; CI 0.687–44.306) or high risk (OR 2.196; CI 0.251–19.219) were more likely to experience fall-related injuries than those with low risk. Conclusions Older inpatient falls are an ongoing challenge in hospitals in China. Our study found that the incidence of fall-related injuries among inpatients aged ≥ 60 years remained at a minor level. However, complex patient characteristics and circumstances can contribute to fall-related injuries. This study provides new evidence on fall-related injuries of older inpatients in China. Based on the factors found in this study, regular fall-related injury epidemiological surveys that investigate the reasons associated with the injuries were crucial when considering intervention measures that could refine fall-related injuries. More prospective studies should be conducted with improved and updated multidisciplinary fall risk assessment and comprehensive geriatric assessment as part of a fall-related injury prevention protocol.
 
The scree plot
Article
Background Previous studies indicated that poor quantity and quality of instrumental support are one of the main barriers in the application of transitional care. Instrumental support, as one common function of social support, is the provision of financial assistance, material goods, or services. The purpose of our study is to develop an Instrumental Support in Transitional Care Questionnaire (ISTCQ) and use this questionnaire to make an assessment among older adults with chronic diseases. Methods The draft questionnaire was examined by 18 experts from different professional fields performing three rounds of content validity testing with the Delphi method. Afterward, we conducted a pilot test recruiting 174 participants as a convenience sample in Nantong, China. The construct validity was confirmed via exploratory factor analysis and reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Results The authority coefficient of experts was 0.74–0.99 and Kendall harmony coefficient W was 0.381. The exploratory factor analysis indicated that the questionnaire can be interpreted by three factors: namely, anticipated support (items 1, 2, 3, 4), received support (items 5, 6, 7, 8) and support satisfaction (items 9, 10, 11, 12). These three factors (eigenvalues > 1 and factor loading > 0.4) explained 69.128% of the total variance. Furthermore, the calculation of Cronbach's alpha and test–retest reliability have shown good reliability among each dimension of the 12-item questionnaire (Cronbach's alpha 0.711–0.827, test–retest reliability 0.704–0.818). Conclusion Results from the pilot test demonstrated excellent reliability and validity of ISTCQ through each dimension and as an entire.
 
Article
Background Dual sensory impairment is affecting over 10% of older adults worldwide. However, the long-term effect of dual sensory impairment (DSI) on the risk of mortality remains controversial. We aim to investigate the impact of single or/and dual sensory impairment on the risk of mortality in a large population-based sample of the adult in the UK with 14-years of follow-up. Methods This population-based prospective cohort study included participants aged 40 and over with complete records of visual and hearing functions from the UK Biobank study. Measurements of visual and hearing functions were performed at baseline examinations between 2006 and 2010, and data on mortality was obtained by 2021. Dual sensory impairment was defined as concurrent visual and hearing impairments. Cox proportional hazards regression models were employed to evaluate the impact of sensory impairment (dual sensory impairment, single visual or hearing impairment) on the hazard of mortality. Results Of the 113,563 participants included in this study, the mean age (standard deviation) was 56.8 (8.09) years, and 61,849 (54.5%) were female. At baseline measurements, there were 733 (0.65%) participants with dual sensory impairment, 2,973 (2.62%) participants with single visual impairment, and 13,560 (11.94%) with single hearing impairment. After a follow-up period of 14 years (mean duration of 11 years), 5,992 (5.28%) participants died from all causes. Compared with no sensory impairment, dual sensory impairment was significantly associated with an estimated 44% higher hazard of mortality (hazard ratio: 1.44 [95% confidence interval, 1.11–1.88], p = 0.007) after multiple adjustments. Conclusions Individuals with dual sensory impairment were found to have an independently 44% higher hazard of mortality than those with neither sensory impairment. Timely intervention of sensory impairment and early prevention of its underlying causes should help to reduce the associated risk of mortality.
 
Article
Background Older adults are one of the most vulnerable groups to the undesirable effects of low health literacy. Inadequate health literacy in older adults is associated with decreased physical activity, deviation from the path of health, and suffering from various diseases. Considering the role and importance of health literacy in promoting physical activity and improving health in older adults and the hypothesis that there are certain factors associated with health literacy in the field of physical activity, this study is aimed at understanding the factors related to older adults’ health literacy about physical activity. Methods This study is a qualitative study on older adults 60 to 75 years old in retirement centers in Kermanshah, Iran, in 2020. Totally, 25 participants were recruited through purposeful sampling with maximum variation until data saturation. The data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews and analyzed using directed qualitative content analysis. Results By analyzing the manuscripts obtained from the interviews, 59 initial codes were extracted, which were reduced to 32 main codes after careful assessment. The main codes were grouped into 13 subcategories under 5 categories. Subcategories are the detected factors that are related to health literacy and categories are the five aspects of health literacy including access, reading skill, comprehension, evaluation and decision-making, and application of information. Health literacy was the main theme that encompassed the categories. Conclusion This study provided a comprehensive understanding of beliefs, opinions and factors related to older adults’ health literacy about physical activity. According to these findings, physical problems and diseases are not obstacles to making decisions and applying physical activity information in older adults who have a high understanding and proper evaluation of physical activity recommendations. Support, advertising, and organizational facilities are related to all dimensions of older adults’ health literacy about physical activity, while socio-economic factors are related to the dimensions of access, comprehension, decision-making, and application of information. The factors related to older adults’ health literacy about physical activity that were identified in this study, can be used by organizations that are responsible for policy-making, decision-making, and implementing physical activity promotion programs to improve the health in older adults.
 
Changes in coagulation functional parameters with time after admission. PT, prothrombin time. APTT, activated partial thromboplastin time
Article
Background The development of coagulation disorders can be dangerous and fatal in the older people, especially those with multiple medical conditions. Vitamin K-dependent coagulation disorders are easily overlooked when anticoagulant drugs are not used and the patient shows no signs of bleeding. Case presentation We report a case of a 71-year-old male suffering from pulmonary infection with severe coagulation disorder without bleeding symptoms. He also had a history of Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and cardiac insufficiency. Coagulation tests were normal at the time of admission, prothrombin time (PT) is 13.9 (normal, 9.5–13.1) seconds and the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is 30.2 (normal, 25.1–36.5) seconds. But it turned severely abnormal after 20 days (PT: 136.1 s, APTT: 54.8 s). However, no anticoagulants such as warfarin was used and no bleeding symptoms were observed. Subsequent mixing studies with normal plasma showed a decrease in prothrombin times. Vitamin K deficiency was thought to be the cause of coagulation disorders considering long-term antibiotic therapy, especially cephalosporins, inadequate diet and abnormal liver function. After supplementation with 20 mg of vitamin K, coagulation dysfunction was rescued the next day and serious consequences were effectively prevented. Conclusions Overall, timely vitamin K supplementation with antimicrobials that affect vitamin K metabolism requires clinician attention, especially in older patients who are multimorbid, frail or nutritionally compromised, and are admitted to hospital because of an infection that needs antimicrobial therapy are at risk of clotting disorders due to abnormal vitamin K metabolism secondary to altered gut flora, which can exacerbate existing nutritional deficiencies.
 
STROBE flow of participants in the subsequent Cycles 1 and 2
Article
Background Combining smartphone-assisted group activities in the neighbourhood and training in physical and cognitive skills may offer the potential to promote social participation and connectedness of older adults. This non-controlled proof-of-concept, retrospectively registered study aimed to determine the feasibility of such an intervention approach, including its evaluation. Methods In two consecutive six-month intervention cycles, 39 community-dwelling adults were provided with weekly smartphone, physical and cognitive training by two tutors. Using a specifically designed app, the participants were also encouraged to join and later self-organise physically and cognitively stimulating activities related to hot spots in their Bochum neighbourhood. Indicators of feasibility were documented. Results The recruitment and assessments took 3 hours per participant. Excluding smartphone support, the preparation and the implementation of the intervention amounted to nine person-hours per week. Six participants dropped out, and 13 did not complete one or more assessments. The participants attended 76 ± 15% of the weekly training sessions. The instructors deemed the programme feasible, but familiarisation with the smartphone and the app was very time-consuming. Twenty-seven of 29 participants reported high overall satisfaction, and 22 agreed that the programme helped them to establish social contacts. The smartphones attracted substantial interest and were used frequently, despite mixed satisfaction with the project-specific app. From baseline to follow-up, the six-minute walking distance, lower extremity strength and moderate to vigorous physical activity, as well as quality of life, were preserved at a high level, while balance performance was significantly improved. Of the 11 tests related to cognitive functioning, 4 tests (a memory test, the Stroop test and 2 tests of verbal fluency) indicated significant improvement. No moderate or serious adverse events occurred in relation to the assessments or the intervention. Conclusions The multimodal approach seems safe and feasible and offers the potential to promote social connectedness, bonds in the residential neighbourhood and smartphone competency, as well as to preserve or improve physical and cognitive functions. Adaptations of the intervention and of the outcome assessments may contribute to better assessment and exploitation of the potential of this approach in a future study involving socially, physically and cognitively less active elderly persons.
 
Article
Objectives To explore the heterogeneous disability trajectories and construct explainable machine learning models for effective prediction of long-term disability trajectories and understanding the mechanisms of predictions among the elderly Chinese at community level. Methods This study retrospectively collected data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity and Happy Family Study between 2002 and 2018. A total of 4149 subjects aged 65 + in 2002 with completed activities of daily living (ADL) information for at least three waves were included. The mixed growth model was used to identify disability trajectories, and five machine learning models were further established to predict disability trajectories using epidemiological variables. An explainable approach was deployed to understand the model’s decisions. Results Three distinct disability trajectories, including normal class (77.3%), progressive class (15.5%), and high-onset class (7.2%), were identified for three-class prediction. The latter two were further merged into abnormal class, accompanied by normal class for two-class prediction. Machine learning, especially random forest and extreme gradient boosting achieved good performance in both two tasks. ADL, age, leisure activity, cognitive function, and blood pressure were key predictors. Conclusion The findings suggest that machine learning showed good performance and maybe of additional value in analyzing quality indicators in predicting disability trajectories, thereby providing basis to personalize intervention measures.
 
Derivation of MOVE UP Follow-up Caregiver Interview Sample
Change in SPPB Score, Gait Speed, Chair Stands, and Weight by Caregiver Status
Article
Background Older informal caregivers are prone to sedentary behavior and obesity. With great caregiving burdens and frequent physical and mental distress, older informal caregivers may have low adherence and poor results in behavioral intervention for weight management. This study examined whether overweight or obese older informal caregivers could benefit from a behavioral weight management program as much as non-caregivers. Methods The Mobility and Vitality Lifestyle Program (MOVE UP) was a pre-post, community-based, 13-month lifestyle intervention study to help older adults improve physical function performance and lose weight. We identified a subset of informal caregivers (n = 29) and non-caregivers (n = 65) from the MOVE UP participants retrospectively. Changes in lower extremity function, weight, depressive symptoms, and self-efficacy from baseline were compared between caregivers and non-caregivers using paired t-tests and ANCOVA. Results Older informal caregivers had significantly lower session attendance rates than non-caregivers (67.7% vs 76.8%, P < 0.05), however, both informal caregivers and non-caregivers improved significantly in lower extremity function, weight loss, and self-efficacy in diet (Ps < 0.05). For each outcome, changes from baseline to the 13-month endpoint were the same among informal caregivers and non-caregivers. Conclusion This study provides evidence that older informal caregivers can benefit from behavioral weight management interventions despite the challenge caregiving poses for effective self-care. Future behavioral intervention studies for older informal caregivers should adopt self-monitoring tools and extend the on-site delivery to home-based settings for higher adherence and greater flexibility. Trial registration Registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02657239).
 
Average percentage (%) of participants’ typical working week spent on completing different physiotherapy activities (x-axis) (error bars represent standard deviations in percentage)
Total number of participants who indicated that the equipment and facilities were used versus available
Article
Background With an increasingly ageing population in Australia, more older adults who are frail are living in residential aged care facilities (RACFs). The aim of this study was to detail the type, scope, and funding of physiotherapy utilised in Australian RACFs. Methods Registered physiotherapists ( n = 219, 72% female, mean age (SD) = 38.6 (12.9) years) working in Australian RACFs participated in a nationwide, cross-sectional online survey. The survey was developed iteratively through a review of the literature and clinical guidelines, consensus of final survey items by an expert panel of five senior physiotherapists and aged care managers. Survey questions related to the characteristics of the physiotherapists (e.g., age, gender, employment status), characteristics of the RACFs (e.g., state, remoteness, sector), the type and scope of physiotherapy provided by respondents, and the availability of equipment and certain spaces (e.g., gyms) in the RACFs that respondents worked in. Survey responses were analysed and presented descriptively. Correlation using Spearman’s rho (ρ) and the associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to determine whether the availability of equipment or space at the RACF was associated with the time dedicated to performing non-Aged Care Funding Instrument (ACFI) tasks. Results Common reasons for physiotherapy referral were chronic pain management as per the ACFI framework (89.7%), falls (69.2%), and reduced mobility (35.9%). Rehabilitation or short-term restorative care was provided in only 22.2% of the facilities. The ACFI funded 91.4% of all participants, which limited physiotherapists to low-value chronic pain management including massage and electrical stimulation. Respondents spent 64.5% of their time on ACFI tasks, which equated to 19 h per week. More time was spent on non-ACFI tasks particularly when resistance bands (ρ = 0.28, 95%CI 0.14–0.41) and a dedicated therapy space or gym (ρ = 0.19, 95%CI 0.04–0.33) were available. Conclusions The expertise of physiotherapists is currently being under-utilised in Australian RACFs, which may be related to the availability of public funding, equipment, and space for therapy. Therefore, public health policy should address the urgent need for high-value, evidence-based physiotherapy that supports the reablement and independence of older adults living in RACFs.
 
Map of Iran's geographical distribution according to the prevalence of solo living in the elderly, 2016
Article
Background This study first examines the pattern and trend of elderly living alone during the last five censuses in Iran. Then, after describing the characteristics of the elderly who live alone, it determines how social, economic, and demographic characteristics relate to the solo living of the elderly. Methods The data for people aged 60 and above are from two sources, including the aggregate data from five successive Iranian censuses and the individual data of 2% of the 2016 Iranian census. To determine the relative importance of variables such as sex, age, education, and activity status of the elderly, a set of logistic regression models using STATA software has been used for individual data analysis of the 2016 census. Results The proportion of older people living alone in 1986, 1996, 2006, 2011, and 2016 was 9.1, 9.0, 10.9, 14.5, and 14.9%, respectively. City residents are less likely to live alone than villagers, and women are more likely to live alone than men. The odds of living solo among Illiterate, Primary school, Secondary & High school and Holding a high school diploma elderly higher than those with university education. Being a student and homemaker increases solo living relative to employees, but pensioners reduce solo living relative to employees. Moreover, the odds of solo living of the elderly in the early and middle stages of old age is less than in late old age. Also, the variables included in the analysis explained 16% of the variation in solo living. Conclusion The prevalence of elderly solo living is increasing. And this increase continues due to the fundamental decline in childbearing, changes in family structure, and the effects of culture and tradition. Also, due to the rise in life expectancy, which increases the number of years of life with the disease, and disability, the lack of relief organizations will create more difficult conditions for the older people living alone.
 
Article
Background Existing evidence links hearing loss to depressive symptoms, with the extent of association and underlying mechanisms remaining inconclusive. We conducted a cross-sectional study to examine the association of hearing loss with depressive symptoms and explored whether social isolation mediated the association. Methods Eight thousand nine hundred sixty-two participants from Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study were included. Data on self-reported hearing status, the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), social isolation and potential confounders were collected by face-to-face interview. Results The mean (standard deviation) age of participants was 60.2 (7.8) years. The prevalence of poor and fair hearing was 6.8% and 60.8%, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, household income, education, occupation, smoking, alcohol use, self-rated health, comorbidities, compared with participants who had normal hearing, those with poor hearing (β = 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54, 0.94) and fair hearing (β = 0.59, 95% CI 0.48, 0.69) had higher scores of GDS-15. After similar adjustment, those with poor hearing (odds ratio (OR) = 2.13, 95% CI 1.65, 2.74) or fair hearing (OR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.43, 1.99) also showed higher odds of depressive symptoms. The association of poor and fair hearing with depressive symptoms attenuated slightly but not substantially after additionally adjusting for social isolation. In the mediation analysis, the adjusted proportion of the association mediated through social isolation was 9% (95% CI: 6%, 22%). Conclusion Poor hearing was associated with a higher risk of depressive symptoms, which was only partly mediated by social isolation. Further investigation of the underlying mechanisms is warranted.
 
Expected probability of needing help in each activity conditional on class membership. Notes: IADL: Instrumental Activities of Daily Living; Eat: eating; Dress: dressing; Care: personal care activities; Walk: displacing inside home; Bed: changing/maintaining position; Toilet: using the restroom; Risk: avoiding health risk; OutHH: displacing outside home; HouW: performing housework; Comm: communicating; Soc: participating in social life
Probability of being assigned to each class according to age, sex, and education level. Notes: The latent dependency classes identified are: ‘Non-dependent’, ‘IADL-dependent’, ‘Dependent’ and ‘Impaired’
Overlap of classification in four latent classes and the adaptation of BAREMO scale. Notes: Latent classes identified are: ‘Non-dependent’, ‘IADL-dependent’, ‘Dependent’ and ‘Impaired’. The degrees of dependency with the BAREMO are depicted by colours: ‘Non-dependent’, ‘Mild-dependent’, ‘Moderate-dependent’ and ‘Severe-dependent’
Article
Background Older adults living in the community may have daily needs for help to perform different types of activities. In developing countries, older adults face the additional challenge of lacking sufficient economic means to face their increasing needs with ageing, and health and social policies may be under pressure. The aim of this study was to assess dependency in the older population from a developing country using a latent class approach to identify heterogeneity in the type of activities in which dependent older adults require help. Methods In this cross-sectional evaluation of dependency, we considered individuals aged 60 years and older from a nationally representative study ( N = 5138) in Uruguay. We fitted latent class regressions to analyse dependency, measured by the need for help to perform Activities of Daily Living, adjusted by sociodemographic characteristics. Results Four latent classes were identified, 86.4% of the individuals were identified as non-dependent, 7.4% with help requirements to perform instrumental activities while individuals in the other two classes need help to perform all types of activities with different degrees (4.3 and 1.9%). Less educated women are more likely to be in the group with needs in instrumental activities. Conclusions The heterogeneous patterns of dependency have to be addressed with different services that meet the specific needs of dependent older adults.
 
Article
Background Improving health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is becoming a major focus of old age care and social policy. Researchers have been increasingly examining subjective social status (SSS), one’s self-perceived social position, as a predictor of various health conditions. SSS encompasses not only concrete socio-economic (SES) factors but also intangible aspects of status. This study’s main objective was to examine the association between SSS and long-term change in HRQOL in older Chinese adults. Methods A longitudinal Hong Kong study recruited 2934 community-dwelling adults (age > 65 years). Participants completed SF-12 physical health (PCS) and mental health (MCS) HRQOL scales. This study analyzed baseline SSS-Society (self-perceived social status within Hong Kong) and SSS-Community (self-perceived status within one’s own social network) as predictors of long-term HRQOL decline. After stratifying for sex, multiple-linear-regression was performed on 4-year follow-up SF-12 PCS and MCS scores after adjusting for baseline SF-12 scores, traditional SES indicators, demographic variables, clinical conditions, and lifestyle variables. Results In the multivariable analyses, lower SSS-Society was associated with declines in MCS in males (β standardized = 0.08, p = 0.001) and declines in PCS (β standardized = 0.07, p = 0.006) and MCS (β standardized = 0.12, p < 0.001) in females. SSS-Community was associated with declines in PCS in males (β standardized = 0.07, p = 0.005) and MCS in females (β standardized = 0.14, p < 0.001). Conclusions SSS may be a useful supplementary tool for predicting risk of long-term HRQOL decline in older Chinese adults. Strategies to reduce perceived social inequalities may improve HRQOL in older adults.
 
CONSORT Flow Chart – recruitment process for IG and CG
Article
Background Western countries emphasise the provision of assistive home care by implementing reablement services. Reablement services are offered to a limited degree in Sweden, and systematic research regarding outcomes and how reablement can be tailored to maximize benefits for older adults has been lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a novel reablement program (ASSIST 1.0) regarding study design and outcome measures, as well as fidelity, adherence, and acceptability of the program in a Swedish context. Method A non-randomised, quasi-experimental, mixed-method, pre/post-test design was applied with an intervention group receiving ASSIST 1.0 (n = 7) and a control group receiving regular home care (n = 10). ASSIST 1.0 was developed to empower older adults to increase their perceived performance and satisfaction of performing activities in everyday life as well as increase their perceived health, self-efficacy, and well-being. ASSIST 1.0 was founded on the concept of reablement and included three components: i) goal setting with The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), ii) provided support to home care staff to enhance their provision of reablement, and iii) explored the incorporation and use of an information- and communication technology (ICT) to facilitate information transfer. Results Using COPM for goal setting with older adults and providing support to the staff via workshops were valuable components in the delivery of ASSIST 1.0. The ICT product encountered several challenges and could not be evaluated. COPM and EQ-5D were deemed the most important instruments. Organisational and political barriers affected the feasibility. Although, the fidelity and adherence were complied the staff perceived the program to be acceptable. Conclusion The ASSIST 1.0 program was feasible in regard of study design, delivering the intervention, and evaluating instruments that detected a change. A logical progression would be to conduct a full-scale trial. In addition, a usability study to evaluate the technological component is also recommended. With minor improvements, the ASSIST 1.0 program has the potential to contribute to the development of a home care organisation that could enhance older adults possibility to age in place at home. Trial registration number NCT03505619
 
Article
Introduction The synergy of health care and elderly social care organizations has become the focus of the research on integrated health care and social care. This study aims to propose a collaborative strategy among health care and elderly social care service providers. Methods An evolutionary game model is applied for performance analysis and optimization of the cooperation between health care and elderly social care organizations. The behavioural strategies and the impact of key parameters on promoting the cooperation of the players are presented in detail. Results Simulation experiments and sensitivity analysis results indicate that (1) the behavioural evolution of health care organizations and elderly social care organizations forms three types of integrated health care and social care services, namely, the bilateral cooperation type, health care organization-led type and elderly social care organization-led type. (2) Increasing the additional benefits for cooperation and reducing the additional costs for cooperation can promote the willingness to synergize to provide integrated health care and elderly social care services. At the early stage of evolution, increasing the costs that elderly social care organizations pay to purchase health care services or pay for negotiation in the bilateral cooperation type can provide incentives for health care organizations to cooperate while reducing the cooperation preferences of elderly social care organizations. However, the long-term impact of the costs on the behavioural strategies for cooperation of the two players cannot be determined. Conclusion The behavioural decisions on cooperation between health care and elderly social care organizations influence each other; commitment to integration and effective collaboration can be achieved by increasing the additional benefits and reducing the marginal costs. The findings suggest that the political-economic context and government policies have a greater influence on promoting cooperation, thus yielding positive or negative results for integrated care practice.
 
Flow diagram for searching and selection of the included studies
Subgroup analysis by the type of cognitive impairment
Subgroup analysis of the inclusion or not of aerobic exercise
Sensitivity analysis
Article
Background Multicomponent physical exercise is the most recommended type of physical intervention in older adults. Experimental data suggest the relevance of the muscle-brain axis and the relationship between muscle contraction and release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, however, the impact of this relationship on cognition remains unclear, especially in people with diagnosis of cognitive impairment. This study assesses the effect of multicomponent physical exercise on global cognition in people with mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Methods Randomized controlled trials published until January 2021 were searched across three electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Database). Data about exercises included in the multicomponent intervention (endurance, strength, balance, or flexibility), the inclusion of aerobic exercise, and the change in global cognition were extracted. The effect size was represented as a standardized mean difference. Risk of bias was assessed by the RoB2 tool. Results A total of 8 studies were included. The overall effect size suggested an effect of multicomponent exercise on global cognition. However, the subgroup analysis showed an effect only when aerobic exercise was included in the intervention. No effect when mild cognitive impairment and dementia were assessed separately was found. Conclusion This study suggests that multicomponent physical exercise could have an effect on global cognition in people with mild cognitive impairment or dementia only when aerobic exercise is included in the intervention. Our results support the inclusion of structured physical exercise programs in the management of people with cognitive impairment.
 
PRISMA flow chart. Adapted From: Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, The PRISMA Group (2009). Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: The PRISMA Statement. PLoS Med 6(7): e1000097. doi:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed1000097 For more information, visit www.prisma-statement
Article
Background To review the validated instruments that assess gait, balance, and functional mobility to predict falls in older adults across different settings. Methods Umbrella review of narrative- and systematic reviews with or without meta-analyses of all study types. Reviews that focused on older adults in any settings and included validated instruments assessing gait, balance, and functional mobility were included. Medical and allied health professional databases (MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Embase, and Cochrane) were searched from inception to April 2022. Two reviewers undertook title, abstract, and full text screening independently. Review quality was assessed through the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Systematic Reviews (ROBIS). Data extraction was completed in duplicate using a standardised spreadsheet and a narrative synthesis presented for each assessment tool. Results Among 2736 articles initially identified, 31 reviews were included; 11 were meta-analyses. Reviews were primarily of low quality, thus at high risk of potential bias. The most frequently reported assessments were: Timed Up and Go, Berg Balance Scale, gait speed, dual task assessments, single leg stance, functional Reach Test, tandem gait and stance and the chair stand test. Findings on the predictive ability of these tests were inconsistent across the reviews. Conclusions In conclusion, we found that no single gait, balance or functional mobility assessment in isolation can be used to predict fall risk in older adults with high certainty. Moderate evidence suggests gait speed can be useful in predicting falls and might be included as part of a comprehensive evaluation for older adults.
 
Article
Objectives To evaluate dentition status amongst community-dwelling older adults and its association with frailty and cognitive impairment. Methodology One thousand forty-seven community-dwelling older adults aged ≥65 years were surveyed in an epidemiologic population-based cohort study in Singapore between April 2015 and August 2016. Data on demographics, dentition status, chronic diseases, activities and instrumental activities on daily-living, cognition (age- and education-specific MMSE cut-offs), frailty (FRAIL scale), perceived health and functional status were collected. Multiple logistic regression was performed to examine the association between dentition, frailty and cognition. Results Mean age of participants was 71.2 ± 5.5 years. The prevalence of denture use was 70.7% and edentulism 7.9%. Compared to edentulousness, having teeth was associated with lower odds of cognitive impairment and higher odds of being robust or pre-frail. Denture-wearers compared with edentulous persons were less likely to be male, had higher education level and more likely be robust or pre-frail. Conclusion and implications There were significant associations between dentition status, frailty and cognition in our study where those with remining teeth and / or dentures had better overall outcomes. As oral health, frailty and cognitive impairments are all modifiable risk factors for healthy ageing, countries should consider population level screening for oral health, frailty and cognitive impairment.
 
Article
Background Nursing homes (NHs) are populated by the frailest older people who have multiple physical or mental conditions and palliative care needs that may convey the violation of dignity. Although dignity is a commonly used concept and a core value of end-of-life care, it is assumed to be complex, ambiguous, and multivalent. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore aspects of dignity in older persons’ everyday lives in a NH. Design A focused ethnographic study design. Methods Data consisted of 170 h of fieldwork, including observations (n = 39) with residents (n = 19) and assistant nurses (n = 22) in a Swedish NH. Interviews were undertaken with residents several times (in total, n = 35, mean 70 min/resident). To study dignity and dignity-related concerns, we used the Chochinov model of dignity to direct the deductive analysis. Results The study showed that residents suffered from illness-related concerns that inhibited their possibilities to live a dignified life at the NH. Their failing bodies were the most significant threat to their dignity, as loss of abilities was constantly progressing. Together with a fear of becoming more dependent, this caused feelings of agony, loneliness, and meaninglessness. The most dignity-conserving repertoire came from within themselves. Their self-knowledge had provided them with tools to distinguish what was still possible from what they just had to accept. Socially, the residents’ dignity depended on assistant nurses’ routines and behaviour. Their dignity was violated by long waiting times, lack of integrity in care, deteriorating routines, and also by distanced and sometimes harsh encounters with assistant nurses. Because the residents cherished autonomy and self-determination, while still needing much help, these circumstances placed them in a vulnerable situation. Conclusions According to residents’ narratives, important dignity-conserving abilities came from within themselves. Dignity-conserving interventions did occur, such as emphatic listening and bodily care, performed in respect for residents’ preferences. However, no strategies for future crises or preparing for death were observed. To protect residents’ dignity, NHs must apply a palliative care approach to provide holistic care that comprises attention to personal, bodily, social, spiritual, and psychological needs to increase well-being and prevent suffering.
 
Trajectories of the MMSE scores. The solid lines (green: stable red: slow decline blue: decline) mean estimated values, and the dotted lines display the 95% CIs
Article
This study aims to investigate the association between trajectories of the cognition and body mass index (BMI) among Chinese middle and old-aged adults. A total of 5693 adults (age 45 +) whose cognitive score is higher than average at the baseline were included from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS:2011–2015). Cognitive function was measured by Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) in Chinese version. The Group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) was adopted to identify the potential heterogeneity of longitudinal changes over the past 5 years and to investigate the relationship between baseline BMI and trajectories of cognitive function. Three trajectories were identified in results: the slow decline (37.92%), the rapid decline (6.71%) and the stable function (55.37%). After controlling for other variables, underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m ² ) was associated with the rapid and slow decline trajectories. Obesity (BMI > 28 kg/m ² ) was associated with the slow decline trajectory. High-risk people of cognitive decline can be screened by measuring BMI.
 
Flow diagram of the study protocol
Article
Background Falls represent important drivers of intrinsic capacity losses, functional limitations and reduced quality of life in the growing older adult’s population, especially among those presenting with frailty. Despite exercise- and cognitive training-based interventions have shown effectiveness for reducing fall rates, evidence around their putative cumulative effects on falls and fall-related complications (such as fractures, reduced quality of life and functional limitations) in frail individuals remains scarce. The main aim of this study is to explore the effectiveness program combining an individualized exercise program and an executive function-based cognitive training (VIVIFRAIL-COGN) compared to usual care in the prevention of falls and fall-related outcomes over a 1-year follow-up. Methods This study is designed as a four-center randomized clinical trial with a 12-week intervention period and an additional 1-year follow-up. Three hundred twenty frail or pre-frail (≥ 1 criteria of the Frailty Phenotype) older adults (≥ 75 years) with high risk of falling (defined by fall history and gait performance) will be recruited in the Falls Units of the participating centers. They will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to the intervention group (IG) or the control group (CG). The IG will participate in a home-based intervention combining the individualized Vivifrail multicomponent (aerobic, resistance, gait and balance and flexibility) exercise program and a personalized executive function-based cognitive training (VIVIFRAIL-COGN). The CG group will receive usual care delivered in the Falls Units, including the Otago Exercise Program. Primary outcome will be the incidence of falls (event rate/year) and will be ascertained by self-report during three visits (at baseline, and 6 and 12 weeks) and telephone-based contacts at 6, 9 and 12 months after randomization. Secondarily, effects on measures of physical and cognitive function, quality of life, nutritional, muscle quality and psychological status will be evaluated. Discussion This trial will provide new evidence about the effectiveness of an individualized multidomain intervention by studying the effect of additive effects of cognitive training and physical exercise to prevent falls in older frail persons with high risk of falling. Compared to usual care, the combined intervention is expected to show additive effects in the reduction of the incidence of falls and associated adverse outcomes. Trial registration NCT04911179 02/06/2021.
 
Overview of the recruitment and study timeline
Profile plots of interaction effects before and after the intervention of total score and five dimensions scores
Article
Background Falls are common among adults aged 60 years and older because of physiological changes. Most falls in older adults occur most often at home. Coupled with the lack of awareness and knowledge of preventing falls, the proportion of injuries and deaths among older adults due to falls is increasing yearly. Our study developed a WeChat mini-program for urban elderly to implement teach-back health education (TBHE) that a repeated cycle process of health education, assessment, and re-education in preventing falls at home. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the application effect of the TBHE-based WeChat mini-program on health education knowledge for fall prevention at home for urban older adults. Design A single-blinded, two-arm parallel-group, randomized controlled trial was conducted. Setting Three residential communities, named Hot Spring Apartment, Hualinyuan, and Dongtang Community in Gulou District, Fuzhou, China. Participants Participants were older adults recruited from communities in Fuzhou from January to March 2021. Methods Fifty-nine participants agreed to participate and were assigned randomly to the intervention group ( n = 29) or the control group receiving traditional health education ( n = 30). Each participant in the intervention group received twice a week for a total of 8 weeks of health education interventions performed by the first author that she is intervenor according to specific themes. The trial statistician, recruiters, and participants were blinded to group allocation. The intervenor (first author) was blinded to the study hypotheses. To evaluate the effects of the intervention, we assessed participants’ knowledge total score and scores of physiology and disease; drug application; mental, cognitive, and spiritual well-being; lifestyle; and house environment at baseline and 1-week post-intervention and compared scores between two groups. A two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to examine the effects of time, group, and their interaction. Results There was a significant difference in knowledge of house environment ( p = 0.003) between the two groups. Within groups, total and five dimensions knowledge scores had a significant difference ( p < 0.001). Moreover, interaction effects were significant on drug application ( p = 0.012) and mental, cognitive, and spiritual well-being ( p = 0.015). Conclusions The TBHE can improve knowledge on fall prevention at home among urban older adults. The TBHE based on the WeChat mini-program could enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of being educated among urban older adults. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Register: ChiCTR2100052946 ; reg date: 06/11/2021.
 
The unadjusted longitudinal course of physical functioning by age, for men (blue dashed) and women (red solid). Modelled using a tobit model, predicted values may exceed the maximum score of 100
Difference between men and women in the longitudinal course of physical functioning, statistics belonging to Fig. 1
Article
Background To explore whether differences between men and women in the sensitivity to (strength of the association) and/or in the exposure to determinants (prevalence) contribute to the difference in physical functioning, with women reporting more limitations. Methods Data of the Doetinchem Cohort Study was used (n = 5856, initial ages 26–70 years), with follow-up measurements every 5 years (up to 20). Physical functioning (subscale SF-36, range:0–100), sex (men or women) and a number of socio-demographic, lifestyle- and health-related determinants were assessed. Mixed-model multivariable analysis was used to investigate differences between men and women in sensitivity (interaction term with sex) and in exposure (change of the sex difference when adjusting) to determinants of physical functioning. Results The physical functioning score among women was 6.55 (95%CI:5.48,7.61) points lower than among men. In general, men and women had similar determinants, but pain was more strongly associated with physical functioning (higher sensitivity), and also more prevalent among women (higher exposure). The higher exposure to low educational level and not having a paid job also contributed to the lower physical functioning score among women. In contrast, current smoking, mental health problems and a low educational level were more strongly associated with a lower physical functioning score among men and lower physical activity and higher BMI were more prevalent among men. Conclusions Although important for physical functioning among both men and women, our findings provide no indications for reducing the difference in physical functioning by promoting a healthy lifestyle but stress the importance of differences in pain, work and education.
 
Admission and discharge Barthel Index for activities of daily living across frailty status. Abbreviations: ADL Activities of daily living
Article
Background Evidence on the effects of Acute Care for Elders (ACE) units in frail older adults remains limited. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effects of the ACE unit on functional outcomes in frail older adults. Methods In this prospective observational study, we enrolled 114 consecutive patients aged 65 years and older admitted to the ACE unit for acute medical conditions between October 2019 and September 2020. The FRAIL scale (5-question assessment of fatigue, resistance, aerobic capacity, illnesses, and loss of weight) was used to classify the patients into three groups: robust (score = 0, n = 28), prefrail (score = 1–2, n = 57), and frail (score = 3–5, n = 29). The primary outcome was the activities of daily living (ADL) measured by the Barthel Index at admission and before discharge. Paired sample t-test was employed to determine the difference in ADL. Multiple linear regression analysis, with adjustment for covariates, was conducted to examine the association between frailty status and change in ADL. Results Among 114 patients enrolled (mean age, 79.8 ± 8.1 years; mean length of stay, 6.4 ± 5.6 days), 77 (67.5%) were female. ADL at admission (60.3 ± 31.9) and before discharge (83.7 ± 21.6) were significantly different (P < 0.001). After covariates adjustment, a significant association between frailty status and change in ADL was found (prefrail vs. robust: β = 9.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3–17.6, P = 0.04; frail vs. robust: β = 13.4, 95% CI 2.7–24.0, P = 0.01). Conclusions Older adults with frailty experienced functional improvement after admission to the ACE unit. Prefrail and frail groups were associated with a more significant change in ADL between admission and discharge compared to the robust group.
 
Distribution of the duration of concurrent use of anticholinergics used to treat the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease and ACHEIs in Parkinson’s disease patients with dementia. *ACHEI, acetylcholinesterase inhibitor
Article
Background The concurrent use of anticholinergics and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (ACHEIs) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with dementia should be avoided because the opposing pharmacological actions of both drugs reduce the treatment efficacy. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of the concurrent use of these two types of drugs in Korean patients. Methods In the 2017 Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service–National Aged Patient Sample data, comprising insurance claims records for a 10% random sample of patients aged ≥ 65 years in Korea, “concurrent use” was defined as the overlapping of anticholinergic and ACHEI doses for at least 2 months. Results Among 8,845 PD patients with dementia, 847 (9.58%) were co-administered anticholinergics, used to treat the motor symptoms of PD, and ACHEIs for a mean duration of 7.7 months. A total of 286 (33.77% of all co-administered) patients used both drug types concurrently all year. About 80% of concurrent users were prescribed each drug by the same prescriber, indicating that coadministration may not be due to a lack of information sharing between providers. Logistic regression analysis showed that patients mainly treated at clinics (odds ratio (OR), 1.541; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.158–2.059), hospitals (OR, 2.135; 95% CI, 1.586–2.883), and general hospitals (OR, 1.568; 95% CI, 1.221–2.028) were more likely to be co-prescribed anticholinergics and ACHEIs than those mainly treated at tertiary-care hospitals. PD patients with dementia treated at healthcare organizations located in areas other than the capital city had an approximately 22% higher risk of concurrent use (OR: 1.227, 95% CI: 1.046–1.441). Conclusions The concurrent use of anticholinergics for the motor symptoms of PD and ACHEIs in elderly Korean PD patients with dementia cannot be ignored, and strategies that mitigate potentially inappropriate concurrent drug use are required.
 
Current and previous administrative divisions of Jeju Island. The cross indicates the location of Jeju regional rheumatoid and degenerative arthritis center. The previous and current administrative districts are as indicated below. A: previous Jeju city district B: previous North Jeju County district C: previous Seogwipo City district D: previous South Jeju County district A and B: current Jeju city district C and D: current Seogwipo city district
Article
Background The geriatric population and advanced knee osteoarthritis are rapidly increasing in Korea, and the socioeconomic burden of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is increasing. This study aimed to analyze the demographic, clinical and socioeconomic characteristics of patients who underwent TKA and to differentiate the factors affecting participation in inpatient-intensive rehabilitation programs after TKA in the Jeju regional rheumatoid and degenerative arthritis center established by the government. Methods This retrospective cohort study included 845 patients (735 females; 72.0 ± 5.8 years) diagnosed with primary osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee who underwent elective unilateral primary TKA between January 2013 and June 2016. Demographic, clinical, and socioeconomic characteristics, including age, body mass index, obesity, length of stay, OA severity, underlying disease, education level, occupation, and location of residence were reviewed. Patients were allocated to the TKA-only group (home discharge) and to the TKA + rehab group (participation in post-TKA rehabilitation). The variables were analyzed and compared before and after the establishment of the center and according to participation in intensive rehabilitation. Results Patients who underwent TKA were mostly female, in the 60 s, and had a high prevalence of comorbidities and obesity. After the rehabilitation center's establishment, the intensive post-TKA participation increased profoundly from 3% to 59.2%. Participants after the center establishment had lower mean BMI and a higher proportion of K-L grade 4 compared to those before the center establishment. The location of residence was the only factor differentiating the participation in the intensive rehabilitation. Conclusion The regional rheumatoid and degenerative arthritis center was appropriate to satisfy the high unmet need for participating in the intensive rehabilitation after TKA and to execute the qualified integrated post-TKA care system. Policy support should ensure the early rehabilitation and a qualified integrated care system and prepare for the increased burden of revision. Future longitudinal studies should be conducted to assess the long-term effect of the integrated post-TKA rehabilitation program on functional outcomes and patient survivorship free from revision.
 
Diagnostic support tool implemented in the Emergency Department
Flow diagrams representing outcomes for diagnosed intracranial haemorrhages in the pre- and post-intervention groups. Note: ‘Medical management’ refers to pharmacological management, which may include alteration to the patient’s pre-existing medications or prescription of a reversal agent to anticoagulant therapy
Flow diagrams representing progress of study participants after ED treatment in the pre- and post-intervention groups
Article
Background: A large number of CT brain (CTB) scans are ordered in the ED for older patients with a confirmed or possible head strike but no ongoing symptoms of a head injury. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the Canadian CT head rule supplemented by the original published minimum inclusion criteria to assist clinician assessment of the need for CTB following minimal trauma fall in patients presenting from residential aged care facilities to a major metropolitan emergency department (ED). Methods: This study was conducted as a pre- and post-intervention retrospective audit. The intervention involved implementation of a decision support tool to help clinicians assess patients presenting to the ED following a fall. The tool integrated the Canadian CT Head Rule (CCHR) in conjunction with a simplified set of inclusion criteria to help clinicians define a minimum threshold for a "minor head injury". Outcome data pertaining to CT brain ordering practices and results were compared over symmetrical 3-month time periods pre- and post-intervention in 2 consecutive years. Results: The study included 233 patients in the pre-intervention arm and 241 in the post-intervention arm. Baseline demographics and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. There was a 20% reduction in the total number of CTB scans ordered following tool implementation, with 134 (57.0%) scans in the pre-intervention group and 90 (37.3%) in the post-intervention group (p < 0.01). The diagnostic yield in the pre- and post-intervention groups was 3.7 and 5.6% respectively (p = 0.52). No variation was observed in medical management between groups, and no patients in either group underwent neurosurgical intervention. Conclusions: Use of the CCHR supplemented by the original published minimum inclusion criteria appeared to safely reduce the number of CTB scans performed in residential aged care facility residents presenting to an ED after a fall, with no associated adverse outcomes. A larger study across multiple centres is required to determine widespread efficacy and safety of this tool.
 
Timeline of the first national lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic in England [16]
Average physical exercise time (minutes per week), self-reported by participants in the monthly calendars
Information on sessions
Article
Background The potential decrease in daily physical activity associated with the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns may have a negative impact on people living with dementia. Given the limited literature around the effects of home confinement in people living with dementia, this study investigated changes in physical exercise levels of participants in the intervention arm of the Promoting Activity, Independence and Stability in Early Dementia (PrAISED) Randomised Controlled Trial during the first COVID-19 national lockdown. It hypothesised that participants would maintain physical exercise levels. Methods A repeated measure (three time points) study involving 30 participants (mean age = 78.0 years, 15 male and 15 female, 22 (73.0%) living with their primary caregiver), from four regions in England receiving the PrAISED intervention. PrAISED is an individually tailored intervention of physical exercises and functional activities. Trained therapists deliver therapy sessions over a period of 52 weeks. Study participants received therapy sessions via phone or video calling during the COVID-19 lockdown. This study investigated self-reported minutes of physical exercise recorded on study calendars for the months of February (i.e., baseline – pre-lockdown), May (i.e., T1 – during lockdown), and August (i.e., T2—post-lockdown) 2020. Results Participants reported a statistically significant increase in activity levels between February and May (Wilcoxon Z = -2.013, p = 0.044) and a statistically significant decrease between May and August (Wilcoxon Z = -2.726, p = 0.004). No significant difference was found in the physical activity levels from pre- to post-lockdown (Wilcoxon Z = 0.485, p = 0.620). Conclusion Despite concerns that the restrictions associated with the COVID-19 pandemic might lead to reductions in physical exercise, participants in receipt of the PrAISED intervention increased their amount of physical exercise during lockdown. Our findings support the potential of remote support for people living with dementia to help them maintain physical exercise levels in circumstances where face-to-face service provision is not possible. Trial registration The PrAISED trial and process evaluation have received ethical approval number 18/YH/0059 from the Bradford/Leeds Ethics Committee. The Clinical Trial Identifier for PrAISED is: ISRCTN15320670 ( https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN15320670 ). Registration was made on 04/09/2018.
 
Recruitment process
Article
Background Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD) is primarily associated with dietary exposure to bovine-spongiform-encephalopathy. Cases may be missed in the elderly population where dementia is common with less frequent referral to specialist neurological services. This study’s twin aims were to determine the feasibility of a method to detect possible missed cases in the elderly population and to identify any such cases. Methods A multi-site study was set-up in Lothian in 2016, to determine the feasibility of enhanced CJD-surveillance in the 65 + population-group, and undertake a clinicopathological investigation of patients with features of ‘atypical’ dementia. Results Thirty patients are included; 63% male, 37% female. They were referred because of at least one neurological feature regarded as ‘atypical’ (for the common dementing illnesses): cerebellar ataxia, rapid progression, or somato-sensory features. Mean-age at symptom-onset (66 years, range 53–82 years), the time between onset-of-symptoms and referral to the study (7 years, range 1–13 years), and duration-of-illness from onset-of-symptoms until death or the censor-date (9.5 years, range 1.1–17.4 years) were determined. By the censor-date, 9 cases were alive and 21 had died. Neuropathological investigations were performed on 10 cases, confirming: Alzheimer’s disease only (2 cases), mixed Alzheimer’s disease with Lewy bodies (2 cases), mixed Alzheimer’s disease with amyloid angiopathy (1 case), moderate non-amyloid small vessel angiopathy (1 case), a non-specific neurodegenerative disorder (1 case), Parkinson's disease with Lewy body dementia (1 case), and Lewy body dementia (2 cases). No prion disease cases of any type were detected. Conclusion The surveillance approach used was well received by the local clinicians and patients, though there were challenges in recruiting sufficient cases; far fewer than expected were identified, referred, and recruited. Further research is required to determine how such difficulties might be overcome. No missed cases of vCJD were found. However, there remains uncertainty whether this is because missed cases are very uncommon or because the study had insufficient power to detect them.
 
Top-cited authors
Kenneth Rockwood
  • Dalhousie University
Arnold Mitnitski
  • Dalhousie University
Thomas Gill
  • Yale University
Samuel Searle
  • Dalhousie University
Lisa M Kalisch Ellett
  • University of South Australia