BMC Endocrine Disorders

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Online ISSN: 1472-6823
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Article
Endocrine disorders represent a large component of the so-called “chronic non-communicable diseases” , which are responsible for the lion share of morbidity and mortality in contemporary societies. As discussed in this retrospective collection of articles, solid evidence from diabetes mellitus, the exemplar of common chronic endocrine disorders, highlights profound inequity in all aspects of endocrine disorders’ management and outcomes that should be considered and addressed at large.
 
Mothers' sample characteristics at child-age 15 months by country (Continued)
Article
Background: Participants' study satisfaction is important for both compliance with study protocols and retention, but research on parent study satisfaction is rare. This study sought to identify factors associated with parent study satisfaction in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study, a longitudinal, multinational (US, Finland, Germany, Sweden) study of children at risk for type 1 diabetes. The role of staff consistency to parent study satisfaction was a particular focus. Methods: Parent study satisfaction was measured by questionnaire at child-age 15 months (5579 mothers, 4942 fathers) and child-age four years (4010 mothers, 3411 fathers). Multiple linear regression analyses were used to identify sociodemographic factors, parental characteristics, and study variables associated with parent study satisfaction at both time points. Results: Parent study satisfaction was highest in Sweden and the US, compared to Finland. Parents who had an accurate perception of their child's type 1 diabetes risk and those who believed they can do something to prevent type 1 diabetes were more satisfied. More educated parents and those with higher depression scores had lower study satisfaction scores. After adjusting for these factors, greater study staff change frequency was associated with lower study satisfaction in European parents (mothers at child-age 15 months: - 0.30,95% Cl - 0.36, - 0.24, p < 0.001; mothers at child-age four years: -0.41, 95% Cl - 0.53, - 0.29, p < 0.001; fathers at child-age 15 months: -0.28, 95% Cl - 0.34, - 0.21, p < 0.001; fathers at child-age four years: -0.35, 95% Cl - 0.48, - 0.21, p < 0.001). Staff consistency was not associated with parent study satisfaction in the US. However, the number of staff changes was markedly higher in the US compared to Europe. Conclusions: Sociodemographic factors, parental characteristics, and study-related variables were all related to parent study satisfaction. Those that are potentially modifiable are of particular interest as possible targets of future efforts to improve parent study satisfaction. Three such factors were identified: parent accuracy about the child's type 1 diabetes risk, parent beliefs that something can be done to reduce the child's risk, and study staff consistency. However, staff consistency was important only for European parents. Trial registration: NCT00279318 .
 
Comparison of miR-27a-3p and miR-148b-3p expressions in the control, pre-diabetic, and diabetic groups. U6 snoRNA used as an internal control
ROC curves analysis of plasma miR-27a-3p and miR-148b-3p for discrimination between the cases of prediabetic, diabetics and the control group. The area under the curve of miR-27a-3p can differentiate the diabetic patients from the control group with an AUC of 0.71 (95% CI 0.53–0.89, P = 0.02), while the AUC for discriminating the pre-diabetics from the control group is 0.56 (95% CI 0.37–0.74, P = 0.51) and the AUC for discriminating the pre-diabetics from the diabetics is 0.67 (95% CI 0.48–0.85, P = 0.06).For miR-148b-3p AUC is of 0.87 (95% CI 0.74–0.99, P < 0.0001) for discriminating the T2D patients from the control subjects,for discriminating the pre-diabetic patients from the control group the AUC is 0.74 (95% CI 0.56–0.91, P = 0. 009) and the AUC of 0.78 (95% CI 0.64–0.92, P = 0.002) can differentiate the pre-diabetic from the diabetic patients
Interactions between miRNAs and target genes. MiRNAs are shown by yellow ellipses, whereas target genes are illustrated by gray ellipses
Article
  • Elnaz GhoreishiElnaz Ghoreishi
  • Seyedeh Zahra ShahrokhiSeyedeh Zahra Shahrokhi
  • Faranak KazerouniFaranak Kazerouni
  • Ali RahimipourAli Rahimipour
Background In view of the growing global prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), detection of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in the early stages is necessary to reduce the risk of developing diabetes, prevent the progression of the disease, and dysfunction of different organs. Since miRNAs are involved in the initiation and progression of numerous pathogenic processes, including diabetes, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the expression of miR-148b-3p and miR-27a-3p in prediabetic and T2D patients and to evaluate the diagnostic potential of these miRNAs. Methods We evaluated the expression of miR-148b-3p and miR-27a-3p in the plasma of three groups: 20 prediabetic patients, 20 T2D patients, and 20 healthy controls. The biochemical parameters were determined by the auto-analyzer. The possible target genes of these miRNAs were identified using an in-silico approach. Results Our results showed that, as compared to the healthy controls, there was a significant up regulation and down regulation in the expression of miR-148b-3p and miR-27a-3p in the T2D patients, respectively. The results of receiver operating characteristic curve analysis also suggested that miR-148b-3p acted successfully in discriminating the prediabetic and diabetic patients from the control group. According to in-silico analysis, miRs influence biological pathways involved in T2DM development, such as insulin signaling. Conclusions The miR148b-3p and miR-27a-3p expression levels were deregulated in diabetes and pre-diabetes. Furthermore, miR-148b-3p showed significant ability in discriminating between diabetic and healthy individuals, suggesting a potential diagnostic use of miR-148b-3p in the detection of T2D.
 
Ethnic differences in plasma fetuin-A levels and adipose tissue insulin resistance. A Insulin-induced suppression of lipolysis during the 2-step euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, and B plasma fetuin-A concentrations in Norwegian (NOR) and South-Asian (SA) persons. C Correlations between plasma fetuin-A concentration and insulin-induced suppression of lipolysis during the 2-step euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. The thick lines represents the correlation across all persons, and the stapled lines represent within-group correlations. D Mediation analyses on effects of plasma fetuin-A concentration on adipose tissue insulin resistance. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01. AT-IR; Adipose tissue insulin resistance. NEFA; non-esterified fatty
Ethnic differences in markers of adipose tissue inflammation. A-D Group comparisons. E-F Correlation scatter plots. *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01. NOR; Norwegian. SA; South-Asian (Pakistani)
Ethnic differences in markers of liver fat content. A Group comparison of the waist-hip-ratio (WHR), B estimated liver fat content, and plasma levels of C ASAT and D ALAT. E Correlation between plasma fetuin-A levels and the waist-hip-ratio (WHR), F liver fat, G plasma ASAT and H ALAT levels. The grey stapled lines and the rho-values represent correlations in Pakistani patients. *p < 0.05, and ***p < 0.001. HUE = Hounsfield units. NOR; Norwegian. SA; South-Asian (Pakistani)
Plasma fetuin-A and IL-1β, INF-γ, and IL-4 levels. A Correlation scatter plots between plasma levels of fetuin-A and IL-1β, B INF-γ and C IL-4. D Group comparisons of plasma levels of IL-1β, E INF-γ and F IL-4. *p < 0.05. NOR; Norwegian. SA; South-Asian (Pakistani)
Article
  • Sindre Lee-ØdegårdSindre Lee-Ødegård
  • Thor UelandThor Ueland
  • Per M. ThorsbyPer M. Thorsby
  • [...]
  • Kåre I. BirkelandKåre I. Birkeland
Background South-Asian immigrants to Western countries have a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and increased adipose tissue insulin resistance (AT-IR), as compared to their Western counterparts. Fetuin-A is a hepatokine known to influence AT-IR. Aim Can plasma fetuin-A concentrations explain an ethnic difference in adipose tissue insulin resistance? Methods We performed a two-step euglycemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp and measured plasma concentrations of fetuin-A and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), in 18 Pakistani and 21 Norwegians with T2DM (age 29–45y) in Norway. AT-IR was calculated as NEFA-suppression during the clamp. The adipokines/cytokines leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, PTX3, IL-1β, INF-γ, and IL-4 were measured in fasting plasma. Liver fat was estimated by CT-scans. Results Despite a lower BMI, Pakistani patients displayed higher AT-IR than Norwegians. NEFA-suppression during clamp was lower in Pakistani than Norwegians (mean=-20.6%, 95%CI=[-40.8, -0.01] and p = 0.046). Plasma fetuin-A concentration was higher in Pakistani than Norwegians (43.4 ng/mL[12.7,74.0], p = 0.007) and correlated negatively to %NEFA-suppression during clamp (rho=-0.39, p = 0.039). Plasma fetuin-A concentration explained 22% of the ethnic difference in NEFA-suppression during the clamp. Pakistani patients exhibited higher plasma leptin and lower PTX3 levels than Norwegian, and plasma visfatin correlated positively to plasma fetuin-A levels in the Pakistani patients. We observed no correlation between plasma fetuin-A and liver fat, but fetuin-A correlated negatively with plasma IL-1β, INF-γ, and IL-4 concentrations. Plasma IL-4 concentration was lower in Pakistani than in Norwegian patients. Conclusion Fetuin-A may contribute to explain the discrepancy in T2DM prevalence between Pakistani and Norwegians patients by influencing AT-IR.
 
The prevalence and severity of sexual dysfunction among study participants
Longitudinal images acquired during penile Colour Doppler ultrasonography in two participants. Normal waveform with peak systolic velocity > 35 cm/s during the tumescent phase (A) in a participant without arterial insufficiency compared to a participant with peak systolic velocity < 25 cm/s (B)
Characteristics of the study participants
Associations of erectile dysfunction among the study participants (continuous variables)
Article
  • Nipun Lakshitha de SilvaNipun Lakshitha de Silva
  • Tharaka AthukoralaTharaka Athukorala
  • Jayathra Liyana GamageJayathra Liyana Gamage
  • [...]
  • Noel SomasundaramNoel Somasundaram
Background Male sexual dysfunction in diabetes is often an unrevealed clinical issue. Though many publications report the prevalence, there is limited data on its associations, impact, and health-seeking behaviour. The objectives were to assess the prevalence of male sexual dysfunction, its associations, impact and treatment-seeking among men with diabetes in a selected tertiary care Diabetes Clinic. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Diabetes Clinic, National Hospital of Sri Lanka, from January to September 2020. Men with diabetes aged 18 to 70 years undergoing annual assessment were recruited consecutively. Socio-demographic and clinical information were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Erectile dysfunction (ED), premature ejaculation, mental health and quality of life were assessed using validated self-administered questionnaires. Cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests and total testosterone levels were performed. Penile colour Doppler ultrasonography was performed on consenting participants with erectile dysfunction. Associations were assessed using the chi-square test or Fisher’s exact for dichotomous variables and independent sample t-test for continuous variables. Results Two hundred and twelve participants were recruited with a mean age of 54.1 (SD = 10.1) years. Erectile dysfunction was present in 168 (79.2%), (mild: 45, mild-moderate: 56, moderate: 26, severe: 41). Premature ejaculation was present in 26 (18.7%). Libido was low among 16%. Sexual dysfunction was not revealed to a health provider by 85.6% despite 60.5% experiencing psychological and/or relationship effects. Out of 18 who sought treatment, only 4 achieved a good response. Mean age (55.4 ± 9.5 vs 48.7 ± 10.6 years, p < 0.001) and duration of diabetes (10.9 ± 7.6 vs 5.8 ± 4.6 years, p < 0.001) were higher while eGFR was lower (73.9 ± 27.7 vs 100.51 ± 28.08 years, p < 0.008) among those with ED compared to those without. Diabetic retinopathy (4% vs 42%, p < 0.001), peripheral neuropathy (17.9% vs 38.4%, p = 0.041) and lower limb arterial disease (0% vs 12.2%, p = 0.04) were associated with ED. Arterial insufficiency was seen among 50% of the participants who underwent penile colour Doppler ultrasonography. Conclusions Male sexual dysfunction is a pervasive yet underappreciated problem in diabetes care despite its effect on the individual. Patient and disease characteristics would guide the identification of high-risk individuals for targeted screening in clinical practice.
 
Article
  • Sankalp P. PatelSankalp P. Patel
  • Medjine JarbathMedjine Jarbath
  • Lauren SaravisLauren Saravis
  • [...]
  • Ricardo A. FrancosadudRicardo A. Francosadud
Background Pheochromocytomas are neoplasms originating from neuroectodermal chromaffin cells leading to excess catecholamine production. They are notorious for causing a triad of headaches, palpitations, and sweats. Though the Menard triad is one to be vigilant of, symptomatic presentation can vary immensely, hence the tumor earning the label “the great masquerader.” Case presentation We report a case of pheochromocytoma initially presenting with cortical blindness secondary to posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and thrombotic microangiopathy from malignant hypertension. Our patient was seen in our facility less than a week prior to this manifestation and discharged after an unremarkable coronary ischemia work-up. In the outpatient setting, she had been prescribed multiple anti-hypertensives with remarkably elevated blood pressure throughout her hospitalization history. Conclusion Pheochromocytoma presenting with malignant hypertension and hypertensive encephalopathy should be expected if left untreated; nonetheless, the precipitation of cortical blindness is rare in the literature. This case contributes an additional vignette to the growing literature revolving adrenal tumors and their symptomatic presentation along with complex management. It also serves to promote increased diagnostic suspicion among clinicians upon evaluating patients with refractory hypertension.
 
Representative microphotographs of TIGIT immunostaining in non-neoplastic and neoplastic thyroid tissues. Non-neoplastic thyroid tissue (H&E staining) (A). Macrophages were diffusely positive for TIGIT. TIGIT-positive small lymphocytes were scattered in the non-neoplastic thyroid tissue (B). Follicular thyroid adenoma (H&E) (C). The tumor cells lacked immunoreactivity for TIGIT (D). Papillary thyroid carcinoma (H&E) (E). These neoplastic cells were negative for TIGIT, while the macrophages were positive (F). Medullary thyroid carcinoma (H&E) (G). Tumor cells were diffusely positive for TIGIT (H)
Representative immunohistochemical results of TIGIT in poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC). Neoplastic cells were arranged in a solid or trabecular architecture (A) (H&E, low magnification). About half of PDTC cells were positive for TIGIT in this area (upper and right) (B). TIGIT-positive area of PDTC (H&E, high magnification) (C). Cytoplasmic TIGIT reactivity was observed (D)
Representative results of TIGIT immunostaining in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC). Pleomorphic/giant cell-shaped tumor cells (H&E staining) (A). ATC cells were stained with strong intensity (B). Epithelioid/squamoid tumor cells (H&E) (C). The tumor cells were negative for TIGIT, while scattered lymphocytes were positive (D). Neoplastic cells displayed a spindle-shaped, sarcomatoid feature (H&E) (E). These ATC cells uniformly lacked immunoreactivity for TIGIT (F)
Microphotographs of ATC on H&E- (A), TIGIT- (B), and AE1/AE3- (C) stained serial sections. ATC cells harbored pleomorphic large nuclei and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm with a heavy infiltrate of immune cells (A). Tumor cells were concurrently positive for TIGIT (B) and pancytokeratin AE1/AE3 (D)
TIGIT immunohistochemical results of composite type ATCs. In H&E-stained sections, ATC components showing pleomorphic/giant cell shape (left) were concomitantly seen with adjacent FTC components (right) (A). The FTC cells were completely negative for TIGIT, while ATC cells were starkly positive (B). In PTC-composite ATC, the PTC cells showed tall cell morphology with partial hobnail structures (H&E) (C). These neoplastic cells completely lacked immunoreactivity for TIGIT (D)
Article
Background Immune checkpoint proteins have not been fully examined in follicular cell-derived thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive carcinomas. Even multimodal treatment does not result in favorable clinical outcomes for patients with ATC. Anti-tumor immunity has therefore been highlighted as having therapeutic promise for ATC. Methods We examined a novel immune checkpoint receptor, T-cell immunoreceptor with immunoglobulin and tyrosine-based inhibitory motif domains (TIGIT), in variable thyroid lesions: adenomatous goiter, follicular adenoma, and thyroid carcinoma (TC) using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results Our IHC results showed that TIGIT expression was detected in cancer cells of MTC and high-grade TC: poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) and ATC. Neoplastic cells were positive for TIGIT in four of five MTCs (80.0%), 17 of 31 ATCs (54.8%) and in 3 of 12 PDTCs (25.0%). TIGIT was not detected in any adenomatous goiters, thyroid benign tumors, or differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTCs). Intriguingly, ATC cells showing pleomorphic/giant cell features were positive for TIGIT, while ATC cells with other cell morphologies lacked the immunoreactivity. Intra-tumoral immune cell was inclined to be enriched in TIGI-positive ATC. Although coexisting papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) components demonstrated high-grade microscopic features, neither the PTC nor follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) components expressed TIGT in any composite ATCs. Conclusion TIGIT was immunohistochemically found in MTC with high frequency and partially in high-grade TC. TIGIT expression in cancer cells may be beneficial for a potential utility in MTC and a subset of high-grade TC, especially ATC therapy.
 
Timing of Therapeutic Intervention for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus study design. Abbreviations: GDM, gestational diabetes mellitus; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test
Article
Background To investigate whether false-positive early gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) women can be managed similarly as normal glucose tolerance (NGT) women. Methods This retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary care center in Japan. Pregnancy and neonatal outcomes of 67 singleton pregnancies with false-positive early GDM and 1774 singleton pregnancies with NGT who delivered after 22 weeks of gestation were compared. GDM was diagnosed according to the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria (patients having one or more of the following: fasting plasma glucose ≥ 92 mg/dL and a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) value ≥ 180 mg/dL at 1 h, or ≥ 153 mg/dL at 2 h). Pregnant women diagnosed with GDM in early pregnancy who did not meet the diagnostic criteria on the second OGTT were defined as having false-positive early GDM. Women with false-positive early GDM did not receive any therapeutic intervention during gestation. Results Maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and gestational weight gain were significantly higher in the false-positive GDM group than in the NGT group. No significant differences were found in pregnancy outcomes, including gestational age, birth weight, large for gestational age rate, and cesarean delivery rate. Except for a higher neonatal hypoglycemia rate in the false-positive early GDM group, no significant differences were found in neonatal outcomes. Conclusions There were no clinically significant differences between early GDM false-positive women exhibiting GDM patterns only during early pregnancy and NGT women. False-positive early GDM women can be managed similarly as NGT women, suggesting that World Health Organization diagnostic guidelines, applying the IADPSG criteria during early pregnancy, need revision.
 
The prevalence of HUA of males and females in different age groups and BMI groups in 2009 and 2019 participants
Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the ability of BMI to discriminate the HUA patients from the non-HUA participants in 2009 participants and 2019 participants. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) = 0.722 for BMI in 2009 participants, P < 0.001, 95%CI 0.701-0.743; AUC = 0.679 for BMI in 2019 participants, P < 0.001, 95%CI 0.667-0.691.
Article
Background With the continuous improvement of people's living standards, the incidence of hyperuricemia (HUA) is increasing globally. The prevalence of HUA ranged in terms of region, race, and age. This study aims to investigate the changes in the prevalence of HUA in clients of health examination in Eastern China between 2009 and 2019. Methods Chinese men and women aged 20–79 years ( n = 4847 in the 2009 group and n = 12,188 in 2019 group) who had received health examinations were enrolled. Serum uric acid (UA) levels and biochemical parameters, including fasting blood-glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (CHOL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were evaluated. The prevalence of HUA in different age groups were measured, and the correlation of biochemical parameters with HUA were analyzed. Results The prevalence of HUA was 18.7% in the 2019 group, which was significantly higher than that in 2009 (11.1%). In females, the prevalence of HUA was significantly higher in 2019 than 2009 for age groups of 20–29 and 30–39 years. In male population, 2019 participants had significantly higher age-specific prevalence for all age groups than 2009 participants. Young men aged 20–29 years became the main population of HUA in the 2019 participants, whereas middle-aged men aged 40–49 years had the highest prevalence of HUA in the 2009 participants. The prevalence rates of HUA in all BMI groups in 2019 participants were significantly higher than those in 2009 participants. Spearmen’s correlation analysis and Logistic regression analysis indicated that BMI was positively correlated with HUA. The receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis showed BMI > 24.48 kg/m2 and BMI > 23.84 kg/m2 displayed good capacities to discriminate the population with HUA from those without HUA in 2009 and 2019 participants, respectively. Conclusions In recent 10 years, the prevalence of HUA was increased rapidly in Chinese adults, especially in males. In 2019, the young male group (20–29 years old) replaced the middle-aged male group (40–49 years old) in 2009 as the leading age group for male HUA. BMI was positively correlated with HUA, and might be a potential risk factors to predict HUA.
 
The distribution of 6-month ΔHt SDS in different groups
The 6-month ΔHt SDS distribution in different baseline IGF-1 SDS combined with different treatment dosages
Article
Background To evaluate the effectiveness of individualized-dose polyethylene glycol recombinant human growth hormone (PEG-rhGH) for short stature. Methods This real-world study enrolled children with short stature in 19 hospitals throughout China. They were treated with PEG-rhGH for 6 months. The starting dosage ranged from 0.10 to 0.20 mg/kg/week. The primary outcome was the change in height standard deviation score (ΔHt SDS). Results Five hundred and ten patients were included and grouped based on dosage as A (0.10–0.14 mg/kg/week), B (0.15–0.16 mg/kg/week), C (0.17–0.19 mg/kg/week), and D (0.20 mg/kg/week). The mean 6-month ΔHt SDS for the total cohort was 0.49 ± 0.27, and the means differed among the four dose groups ( P = 0.002). The ΔHt SDS was lower in group A than in groups B (LSM difference [95%CI], -0.09 [-0.17, -0.01]), C (LSM difference [95%CI], -0.10 [-0.18, -0.02]), and D (LSM difference [95%CI], -0.13 [-0.21, -0.05]) after adjusting baseline covariates. There were no significant differences among groups B, C, and D. When the baseline IGF-1 was < -2 SDS or > 0 SDS, the △Ht SDS was not different among the four groups ( P = 0.931 and P = 0.400). In children with baseline IGF-1 SDS of -2 ~ 0 SDS, a higher dosage was associated with a better treatment effect ( P = 0.003), and the △Ht SDS was lower in older children than in younger ones ( P < 0.001). Conclusions PEG-rhGH could effectively increase height in prepubertal short children. When the baseline IGF-1 was < -2 SDS, 0.10 mg/kg/week could be a starting dose. In other IGF-1 statuses, 0.15–0.20 mg/kg/week might be preferred. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03249480 , retrospectively registered.
 
A Thyroid Ultrasound performed at the time of diagnosis. B Thyroid uptake and scan
Article
Background Graves’ disease (GD) and papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) can be concomitant. The existence of a link between these entities has long been investigated, but a clear correlation hasn’t been established. We report a case of GD resistant to medical treatment in which surgery revealed unsuspected PTC and we aim to study the prevalence of PTC in Graves’ disease, its clinical characteristics and review of the literature. Case presentation Report of a 32 yo man who presented with weight loss and was found to be biochemically hyperthyroid. Antibodies were positive. Incremental doses of methimazole provided no improvement in thyroid tests. Hypervascularity and a spongiform nodule were noted on ultrasound. Thyroid uptake and scan showed 70.2% uptake. Thyroidectomy was performed due to inadequate therapeutic response. Pathology revealed PTC with extrathyroidal extension and positive lymph nodes. A retrospective review (2000–2021) and literature review of PTC in GD was performed. Clinical data were reviewed. Statistical analysis was calculated to identify correlations. 243 GD patients had total thyroidectomy at an academic center, 50 (20%) had PTC, 14% were microcarcinomas. 76% of cases were less than 55yo, 82% female, 78% stage 1, PTC diagnosis was incidental in 48%, hyperthyroidism was difficult to treat in 10% and only 2% had recurrence of PTC. There was no correlation between demographic or clinical data. Conclusions Evidence is controversial with some studies showing GD does not affect PTC prognosis. PTC may not be well recognized in GD, pre-operative assessment should consider risk of cancer.
 
A Neck MRI showing a hyperdense lesion in the left lower thyroid gland, and trachea displacement to right side; B 99mTcO4 scintigraphy: A focus of increased uptake at the left thyroid pole, and multiple ‘hot’ thyroid nodules in the left and isthmus of thyroid gland, making the consideration of giant thyroid goiter; C 30 min after intravenous injection with 99MTC-MIBI showed abnormal appearance and left thyroid gland enlargement. 2 h later, there was a slightly hyperactive area in the left lower thyroid gland
30 min after intravenous injection with 99mTc-MIBI showing an enlarged right lobe of thyroid and a slight hyperactive zone in the middle and lower part. 2 h later, there was persistent radioactive focal in the middle and lower part of right lobe. A SPECT scan revealed an enlarged thyroid gland in the right lobe, with a focal area (7.2 × 8 mm) in the middle and lower part
A Gray scale ultrasonography of neck before ablation (Color box placed in the suspected parathyroidoma lesion); B Neck CEUS before ablation showed continuous enhanced lesion (1.4cmx1.0cmx1.0 cm); C Ultrasonography visualization during ablation; D Neck Gray scale ultrasonography visualization after ablation; E Neck CEUS after ablation
Gradual variation of serum calcium, PTH, ALP and 25-D3 during the post-operation
Article
Background The coexistence of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and giant toxic nodular goiter is very rare. Moreover, PHPT could be easily overlooked because hyperthyroidism may also lead to hypercalcemia. A 99mTc-MIBI scan of the parathyroid glands is often negative when they are concomitant. Case presentation Here, we report a rare case of the coexistence of giant toxic nodular goiter and PHPT that had been ignored for many years but was successfully treated with an ultrasound-guided parathyroid adenoma microwave ablation (MWA). Conclusion Reoperation for PHPT carries an increased risk of cure failure and complications. Thermal ablation has been proven effective in inactivating hyperfunctioning parathyroid lesions and in normalizing both serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium.
 
Association between uric acid and thyroid nodules. Logistic restricted cubic spline regression with three knots was performed to explore the non-linear association between uric acid and thyroid nodules. Variables in this model included uric acid per 100 mmol/L (restricted cubic spline), age, sex, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, uric acid, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, white blood cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, creatinine, and follow-up time. P-overall < 0.05 suggests a significant association between uric acid per 100 mmol/L and thyroid nodules. P-non-linear < 0.05 suggests a significant non-linear association between uric acid per 100 mmol/L and thyroid nodules
Article
Background Uric acid was found to have a positive correlation with thyroid nodules in the cross-sectional studies recently. We aimed to conduct a retrospective cohort study to investigate whether uric acid is a risk factor for the development of thyroid nodules. Methods We reviewed the data of individuals who attended the medical check-ups in our hospital from 2010 to 2019. A total of 6587 adults without thyroid nodules at baseline were enrolled in this study. Logistic regression with or without restricted cubic spline function was used to investigate the non-linear or linear association between uric acid and thyroid nodules, respectively. Results Baseline characteristics showed that subjects mainly consisted of the healthy, young population. After fully adjusting for the potential confounders, such as age, sex, metabolic and inflammatory indicators, hepatic and renal function, a logistic restricted cubic spline regression model suggested that uric acid had a significant association ( P = 0.028) with the development of thyroid nodules, but the association was not non-linear ( P = 0.516). The results indicate that the association between them is linear, which was demonstrated by a logistic regression model, in which the odds ratio of uric acid per 100 mmol/L was 1.137 ( P = 0.004). Age, sex, diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, and blood monocyte were found to be risk factors for thyroid nodules as well. Conclusion Uric acid is an independent risk factor for the formation of thyroid nodules. This finding warrants attention to this risk factor in apparently healthy adults.
 
The heatmap shows the correlational relationship between the MFS and other parameters. The degree of the gradient in red represents the degree of positive correlation, and the blue represents the degree of negative correlation. Note: fall score: the score of Morse fall scale; Total number: the total numbers of lacunar infarction in MRI; SCr: serum creatine; eGFR: estimated glomerular filtration rate
The heatmap shows the factors associated with the size and numbers of lacunar infarction: the age and level of the homocysteine were positively correlated whereas the eGFR was negatively correlated with the size and numbers of lacunar infarction
Article
Purpose The aim of this study is to explore the factors associated with the fall risk in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients with a lacunar stroke. Materials and methods We compiled data of 146 T2D patients (mean age 68 years), including the Morse fall scale data (MFS), nutrition score, self-care scale, laboratory data, and data from continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) from 2019 to 2021 in Shanghai Pudong Hospital. Thereby, we evaluated the associations between MFS and other clinical parameters. Results The analyses showed that there were significantly increased size and numbers of lacunar infarction ( p < 0.05). Furthermore, the greater risk group had an older mean age ( p < 0.05), and significant decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), total triglyceride (TG), while increased microalbuminuria, magnesium, lipoprotein A (LP(a)), anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) ( p < 0.05). However, the time in range (TIR) was very comparable ( p > 0.05). The correlational study revealed the higher score of MFS was associated with the age ( r = 0.41), number of lacunar infarction ( r = 0.18), nutrition score ( r = 0.20), self-care score ( r = − 0.43), serum creatine level ( r = 0.19), eGFR ( r = − 0.26) ( p < 0.05). The total numbers of lacunar infarction were associated with age ( r = 0.36), eGFR ( r = − 0.40), homocysteine level ( r = 0.33) ( p < 0.05). Conclusions Age, nutrition, self-care ability, and renal function are all critical factors associated with the risk of fall in T2D with lacunar infarction. The age, eGFR, and homocysteine are closely associated with lacunar infarction, suggesting that in T2D, evaluation of kidney dysfunction, homocysteine level in the elderly can predict lacunar infarcts and falls.
 
Article
Background: Prevalence rates of hyperuricemia and gout are increasing. Clinical investigations of hyperuricemia-related risk factors aid in the early detection, prevention, and management of hyperuricemia and gout. Ongoing research is examining the association of obesity, dietary patterns, and blood pressure (BP) with serum uric acid (sUA). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The exposures included body mass index (BMI), dietary patterns, and BP. The outcome variable was sUA level. The weighted multivariate linear regression models and smooth curve fittings were used to assess the association of BMI, dietary patterns, and BP with sUA. Results: There was a significantly positive correlation between BMI and sUA (β = 0.059, 95% CI: 0.054 to 0.064, P < 0.00001). Overweight and obese individuals had higher sUA levels than those with the normal BMI (β = 0.451, 95% CI: 0.357 to 0.546, P < 0.00001; β = 0.853, 95% CI: 0.760 to 0.946, P < 0.00001; respectively). Dietary energy intake was positively correlated with sUA (β = 0.000, 95% CI: 0.000 to 0.000, P = 0.01057). Dietary intake of carbohydrate and fiber were negatively correlated with sUA (β = - 0.001, 95% CI: - 0.002 to - 0.000, P < 0.00001; β = - 0.008, 95% CI: - 0.011 to - 0.004, P = 0.00001; respectively). Moreover, systolic BP was positively correlated with sUA (β = 0.006, 95% CI: 0.003 to 0.009, P = 0.00002). However, no statistical differences were found about the associations of dietary intake of total sugars, protein, total fat, cholesterol, and diastolic BP with sUA. Conclusions: The current cross-sectional investigation of a nationally representative sample of US participants showed that BMI, dietary energy intake, and systolic BP were positively correlated with sUA levels; dietary carbohydrate and fiber intake were negatively correlated with sUA levels. The findings might be helpful for the management and treatment of hyperuricemia and gout.
 
CONSORT Flow Diagram
Bland and Altman representation of the differences between the percentages of total body fat assessed by Tanita® BC-532 and DEXA (Hologic® QDR4500W) in boys of White European ethnicity (N = 93)
Bland and Altman representation of the differences between the total body fat percentages assessed by Tanita® BC-532 and DEXA (Hologic® QDR4500W) in girls of White European ethnicity (N = 104)
Article
Background Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a widely used method to assess total body fat (TBF) depots characterising obesity. Automated BIA devices provide an inexpensive and easy assessment of TBF, making them widely available to the general public and healthcare providers without specific qualification to assess body composition. The equations included in the automated BIA devices have been developed in very few specific populations, which means that they are not suitable to assess TBF for everyone and need to be validated before use in other populations. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the accuracy of the automated BIA device Tanita® BC-532 in youth of White European ethnicity, compared with the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), gold standard measurement of TBF. Methods Total body fat percentage (TBF%) was measured with the BIA device Tanita® BC-532 and DEXA (Hologic® QDR4500W) in 197 youth of White European ethnicity (N = 104 girls), 7-17 years old, and visiting the Diabetes & Endocrinology Care Paediatrics Clinic, Centre Hospitalier de Luxembourg, for overweight or obesity management. Results TBF% evaluated with BIA was significantly correlated with TBF% measured with DEXA in both boys (r Pearson = 0.617) and girls (r Pearson = 0.648) (p < 10− 4). However, the residual mean between the assessment of TBF% by BIA and by DEXA [TBF BIA (%)-TBF DEXA (%)] is extremely high (mean ± standard deviation = 10.52% ± 5.22% in boys, respectively 9.96% ± 4.40% in girls). The maximal absolute residual value is also very high, about 24% in both genders. Conclusions The automated BIA device Tanita® BC-532 appears to be not accurate to assess total body fat in youth with overweight or obesity. There is a need to calibrate the BIA device before its use in the populations where it was not previously validated.
 
Article
Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is considered as one of the major public health problems globally. Health education strategies can help in managing blood glucose level and complications among DM patients. Health education intervention is effective to manage and control the blood glucose levels among diabetic patients. This study explored the effectiveness of health education intervention on DM among school teachers in public sector schools of Pakistan. Methods: This was quasi-experimental study where baseline & end line assessments were conducted on teachers of public sector schools of Sindh province, Pakistan, from October to December 2019. Pretested structured questionnaire was used in this study. Participants (n = 136). were randomly selected from the list of government schools registered with district education department An intervention comprised of health education sessions with DM patients was undertaken after conducting baseline assessment followed by end line assessment. The institutional review board of Health Services Academy Pakistan ethically approved this study. Results: All the respondents completed post-test with mean ± SD age of participants being 39.2 ± 1.34 years. Female teachers comprised 65% out of which 70% were living in rural areas. Knowledge on DM pre-test score was 20.03 ± 3.31 that increased in post-test to 49.11 ± 2.21 (p < 0.05). Mean score of information on symptoms and causes of DM was 1.98 ± 0.21 for pre-test whereas for post-test it was 4.78 ± 0.12 (p < 0.05). The effect of intervention was significant on diabetes related complications (p < 0.05), symptoms (p < 0.05), overall score (p < 0.05) and preventive practices (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The study provides evidence of the importance and effectiveness of health education intervention related to diabetes among school teachers, which has a positive impact on the knowledge and practices. We concluded that the health education session sensitized the teachers and they can bring cogent changes to enhance their knowledge about diabetes and its risks.
 
Correlation between adropin and total testosterone levels in normal-weight and obese men
Correlation between adiponectin and total testosterone levels in normal-weight and obese men
Correlation between adiponectin and adropin levels in normal-weight and obese men
Article
Background Obesity is associated with low testosterone levels that could be caused by many mechanisms. Adropin, a peptide hormone, its levels are decreased in obesity and its receptors are expressed in the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the testis. Adropin association to total testosterone in obese men is not detected yet. This study tries to find out possible associations between serum levels of adropin, adiponectin, total testosterone, and lipid profile in obese men. Methods Serum levels of adropin, adiponectin, total testosterone, and lipid profile parameters were measured in 43 obese men and 40 age-matched normal-weight men. Results Adropin, adiponectin, and testosterone levels were significantly lower in obese men versus normal-weight men. In all participants, positive correlations between adropin, adiponectin, and total testosterone were detected. Adropin is considered a predictor risk factor for testosterone. Conclusions This study suggests a possible causal relationship between adropin and total testosterone which needs further investigation. Trial registration Clincialtrials.gov NCT03724825, registered October 30th, 2018.
 
Ultrasound of a 68-year-old man without type 2 diabetes mellitus or obesity. This long-axis sonographic image of the left deltoid muscle (open arrows) is obtained at the anterior aspect of the supraspinatus tendon (S), at its insertion at the greater tuberosity (solid star) of the proximal humerus (H). The 3 circles overlying the deltoid muscle indicate the location of the grayscale pixel intensity region of interest measurements that were obtained to calculate the mean deltoid muscle value. The open star indicates the location of the single region of interest measurement obtained on the osseous cortex of the humeral head, near the anatomic neck. Notice the hypoechoic appearance of the deltoid muscle. The patient had a body mass index of 24 kg/m2. The calculated ratio (deltoid muscle/humeral cortex) for this patient was equal to 0.29, consistent with a non-type 2 diabetes mellitus status
Ultrasound of a 47-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This long-axis sonographic image of the right deltoid muscle (open arrows) image is also obtained at the anterior aspect of the supraspinatus tendon (S), at its insertion at the greater tuberosity (solid star) of the proximal humerus (H). Notice the significant, diffusely hyperechoic (echogenic) appearance of the deltoid muscle. The patient had a body mass index of 32 kg/m2. The calculated ratio (deltoid muscle/humeral cortex) for this patient was equal to 0.67, consistent with a type 2 diabetes mellitus status
Article
Background: In our previous published study, we demonstrated that a qualitatively assessed elevation in deltoid muscle echogenicity on ultrasound was both sensitive for and a strong predictor of a type 2 diabetes (T2DM) diagnosis. This study aims to evaluate if a sonographic quantitative assessment of the deltoid muscle can be used to detect T2DM. Methods: Deltoid muscle ultrasound images from 124 patients were stored: 31 obese T2DM, 31 non-obese T2DM, 31 obese non-T2DM and 31 non-obese non-T2DM. Images were independently reviewed by 3 musculoskeletal radiologists, blinded to the patient's category. Each measured the grayscale pixel intensity of the deltoid muscle and humeral cortex to calculate a muscle/bone ratio for each patient. Following a 3-week delay, the 3 radiologists independently repeated measurements on a randomly selected 40 subjects. Ratios, age, gender, race, body mass index, insulin usage and hemoglobin A1c were analyzed. The difference among the 4 groups was compared using analysis of variance or chi-square tests. Both univariate and multivariate linear mixed models were performed. Multivariate mixed-effects regression models were used, adjusting for demographic and clinical variables. Post hoc comparisons were done with Bonferroni adjustments to identify any differences between groups. The sample size achieved 90% power. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated based on set threshold ratios. Both intra- and inter-radiologist variability or agreement were assessed. Results: A statistically significant difference in muscle/bone ratios between the groups was identified with the average ratios as follows: obese T2DM, 0.54 (P < 0.001); non-obese T2DM, 0.48 (P < 0.001); obese non-T2DM, 0.42 (P = 0.03); and non-obese non-T2DM, 0.35. There was excellent inter-observer agreement (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.87) and excellent intra-observer agreements (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.92, 0.95 and 0.94). Using threshold ratios, the sensitivity for detecting T2DM was 80% (95% CI 67% to 88%) with a specificity of 63% (95% CI 50% to 75%). Conclusions: The sonographic quantitative assessment of the deltoid muscle by ultrasound is sensitive and accurate for the detection of T2DM. Following further studies, this process could translate into a dedicated, simple and noninvasive screening method to detect T2DM with the prospects of identifying even a fraction of the undiagnosed persons worldwide. This could prove especially beneficial in screening of underserved and underrepresented communities.
 
The curves of diabetes probability by FPG changes. FPG changes was defined as the difference between the baseline and final visit FPG (FPG2) (mmol/L). FPG changes were categorized into three stages based on the curves by two turning points
The cumulative diabetes free probability by Kaplan–Meier survival curves in women (A), men (B) and overall (C). FPG changes was defined as the difference between the baseline and final visit FPG (FPG2) (mmol/L). FPG changes was categorized into three stages based on the curves: stage-1: women < -0.24, men < -0.05 and overall < -0.04 mmol/L; stage-2: women -0.24—1.15, men -0.05—1.31 and overall -0.04—1.24 mmol/L; stage-3: women ≥ 1.16, men ≥ 1.32 and overall ≥ 1.25 mmol/L
Article
Background Limited data show that changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG changes) are related to the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We aimed to correlate FPG changes with incident diabetes and evaluate FPG changes as a marker to screen participants at high risk of T2D in China. Methods A total of 116,816 individuals were followed during a median follow-up of 3.10 years by secondary analysis in a nondiabetic Chinese cohort. The turning points were derived from a receiver operating characteristic curve. Hazard ratios (HRs) were evaluated by Cox proportional hazards models. Results A total of 2669 cases of T2D were identified (788 women and 1881 men). The age-standardized incidence of diabetes was 12.87 per 1000 person-years (women: 11.04; men: 14.69). A nonlinear relationship between FPG changes and incident diabetes is shown by the fitting curves. The curves were categorized into three stages by two turning points (-0.04 and 1.25 mmol/L) and conformed to the hook-like pattern: an initial decrease (stage-1), then a transient sharp elevation (stage-2), followed by a slow increase (stage-3). HRs per SD of FPG changes on incident diabetes varied with stage: stage-1: 0.16 (0.12, 0.23), stage-2: 0.20 (0.15, 0.28) and stage-3: 0.22 (0.16, 0.31). Compared with stage-1, the HR in stage-3 was significantly higher at 28.05 (23.99, 32.79), while the increase in stage-2 was slight at 2.16 (1.79, 2.61), and the HR in stage-3 rose to 30.09 (25.02, 36.19). Conclusions FPG changes had a strong correlation with the incidence of T2D and was a steady indicator that was used to distinguish the participants at high risk of diabetes.
 
Interaction effect between NEAP (mEq/d) and APOA2–256 (C > T) on a BMI, b WC, c TC, d Ghrelin, e Leptin. P 1 = P value with unadjusted (crude) model, P 2 = P value with adjustments for potential confounding factors including (age, physical activity, sex, smoking, alcohol, energy intake, alcohol, lipid and glucose-lowering medications). The lines indicate mean ± Error bar (SD). BMI: body mass index, WC: waist circumstance, TC: total cholesterol
Interaction effect between PRAL (mEq/d) and APOA2–256 (C > T) on a BMI, b WC, c TC, d Ghrelin, e Leptin. P 1 = P value with unadjusted (crude) model, P 2 = P value with adjustments for potential confounding factors including (age, physical activity, sex, smoking, alcohol, energy intake, alcohol, lipid and glucose-lowering medications). The lines indicate mean ± Error bar (SD). BMI: body mass index, WC: waist circumstance, TC: total cholesterol
Article
This investigation with aimed the effect of APOA2 -265T>C polymorphism and dietary acid load (DAL) as either potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP) intake interaction on metabolic markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In present cross-sectional study, 737 patients with T2DM (290 men and 447 women) were enlisted from diabetes centers in Tehran. The dietary intakes of all participants during the last year was acquired by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency (FFQ) questionnaire. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for genotyping the APOA2-265T>C. Biochemical indises containing leptin, ghrelin, total cholesterol [1], low-density lipoprotein cholestrol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholestrol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), superoxide dismutase (SOD), high sensitivy C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), pentraxin-3 (PTX3), prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) and interleukin 18 (IL18) were measured by standard method. Atherogenic indices (AIP, AC, CR-I, CR-II) were calculated. The gene-diet interactions were evaluated using an GLM. The frequency overall prevalence of rs5082 genotypes was 63.82 % and 36.17 % for T-allele and C-allele respectively. TG, Ghrelin, and hs-CRP concentrations were significantly higher among carriers with C allele than TT homozygotes. However, TC/CC genotypes have lower PTX3 than TT homozygotes (P<0.05). C-allele carriers had highest mean of BMI (PNEAP=0.04, PPRAL=0.006), WC (PNEAP=0.04, PPRAL=0.04), TC (PNEAP=0.03, PPRAL=0.01), ghrelin (PNEAP=0.01, PPRAL=0.04), and leptin (PNEAP=0.04, PPRAL=0.03) when placed in top tertiles of NEAP and PRAL.BMI, WC, TC, ghrelin, and leptin levels may be modified in C carriers by decreasing DAL, though, further investigations are required to confirm these findings.
 
Metformin promotes the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells under HG conditions. CCK-8 was applied to detect the proliferation of cells in each group, **P < 0.01, vs. Control; ##P < 0.01, vs. HG. Met, metformin; HG, 35 mM glucose
Metformin enhances the osteogenic differentiation ability of MC3T3-E1 cells under HG conditions. A ARS was applied for the assessment of calcification in MC3T3-E1 cells in each group. B ALP colorimetric assay kit was utilized to measure the activity of ALP in each group of cells; C/D Western blot was performed for the detection of the expression of osteogenic differentiation-related genes (Runx2, OCN) in each group of cells, **P < 0.01, vs. Control; ##P < 0.01, vs. HG
Metformin activates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in MC3T3-E1 cells under HG conditions. A/B Western blot to detect the expression of Wnt/β-catenin pathway-related proteins (Wnt1, β-catenin, and C-myc) in cells of each group, **P < 0.01, vs. Control; ##P < 0.01, vs. HG
Article
Background With the deepening of social aging, the incidence rate of osteoporosis and diabetes continues to rise. More and more clinical studies show that diabetes is highly correlated with osteoporosis. Diabetes osteoporosis is considered as a metabolic bone disease of diabetes patients. This study aims to explore the role and mechanism of metformin (Met) in diabetic osteoporosis. Methods Mouse MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with Met (0.5 mM) and exposed to high glucose (HG, 35 mM). The cells were cultured in an osteogenic medium for osteogenic differentiation, and the cell proliferation ability was determined using Cell Counting Kit-8; Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity detection and alizarin red staining were utilized to evaluate the effect of Met on MC3T3-E1 osteogenic differentiation. Western blot was used to detect the expressions of osteogenesis-related proteins (Runx2 and OCN) as well as Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway-related proteins in MC3T3-E1 cells. Results HG inhibited proliferation and calcification of MC3T3-E1 cells, down-regulated ALP activity, and the expression of Runx2 and OCN in MC3T3-E1 cells. Meanwhile, the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was inhibited. Met treatment was found to significantly stimulate the proliferation and calcification of MC3T3-E1 cells under HG conditions, as well as increase the ALP activity and the protein expression level of Runx2 and OCN in the cells. As a result, osteogenic differentiation was promoted and osteoporosis was alleviated. Apart from this, Met also increased the protein expression level of Wnt1, β-catenin, and C-myc to activate the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Conclusion Met can stimulate the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells under HG conditions. Met may also treat diabetic osteoporosis through Wnt/β-catenin activation.
 
Article
Background To investigate the diagnostic value of ultrasound gray scale ratio (UGSR) in differentiating papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMCs) from benign micronodules (BMNs) in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT). Methods The ultrasound images of 285 PTMCs (from 247 patients) and 173 BMNs (from 140 patients) in the HT group, as well as 461 PTMCs (from 417 patients) and 234 BMNs (from 197 patients) in the non-HT group were retrospectively analyzed. The diagnosis of all cases was confirmed by histopathological examinations. The gray scale values of the nodules and surrounding thyroid tissues were measured and subsequently the UGSRs were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the area under the curve (AUC), optimal UGSR threshold, sensitivity and specificity in differentiating PTMCs and BMNs in the two groups. Results The UGSR of PTMC and BMN was 0.52 ± 0.12 and 0.85 ± 0.24 in the HT group ( P < 0.001), and 0.57 ± 0.13 and 0.87 ± 0.20 in the non-HT group ( P < 0.001), respectively. The difference in PTMC-UGSR was significant between the two groups ( P < 0.001), whereas BMN-UGSR did not differ between the two groups ( P = 0.416). The AUC, optimal UGSR threshold, sensitivity and specificity of UGSR for differentiating PTMC and BMN in the HT and non-HT group were 0.890 versus 0.901, 0.68 versus 0.72, 91.23% versus 90.67%, and 77.46% versus 82.05%, respectively. Conclusions The USGR of the HT group was lower than that of the non-HT group. Moreover, UGSR exhibited important diagnostic value in differentiating PTMC from BMN in both HT and non-HT groups.
 
Article
Background Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an effective drug for multiple sclerosis and can improve the cognitive dysfunction caused by streptozotocin, but the effect on cognitive dysfunction caused by hypothyroidism is unclear. Methods After the hypothyroidism rat model induced by propylthiouracil, we gave rats 25 mg/kg DMF by gavage. The body weight during model building and administration was recorded. The levels of T4 and T3 in serum were detected by an automatic biochemical analyzer. Morris water maze test was used to detect the effect of DMF on cognitive learning ability. The effect of DMF on Nissl bodies in the brain tissue was evaluated by Nissl staining. The mRNA and protein levels of BDNF in brain tissue were detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. The degrees of p-AKT/AKT and p-CREB/CREB in brain tissue were detected by Western blot. Results After DMF treatment, the body weight of hypothyroid rats recovered, and the levels of T3 and T4 in the serum were ameliorated. DMF also reduced the escape latency and distance traveled, and increased the swim speed. The number of Nissl bodies and expression of BDNF, p-AKT/AKT, and p-CREB/CREB in the brain tissue were increased after DMF treatment. Conclusion DMF improved the cognitive dysfunction of hypothyroid rats by increasing the level of BDNF in the brain tissue of hypothyroid rats.
 
A Score plots of partial least squares (PLS-DA) scatter plots (green = control, blue = diabetes, yellow = diabetes + low-risk CVD, and red = diabetes + high-risk CVD) and B variable importance in projection (VIP) generated from PLS-DA. Metabolites with a VIP score ≥ 1 were considered as discriminating metabolites (1 = Controls, 2 = Diabetes without CVD, 3 = Diabetes + High-risk CVD, 4 = Diabetes + Low-risk CVD)
Correlation matrix showing the results of Pearson correlation analysis. Pearson correlation coefficient values and directions are marked with different colors; positive correlation (from white to red on the color scale); negative correlation (from white to blue) (see color-bar next to the matrix)
Article
Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) and its cardiovascular disease (CVD) complication are among the most frequent causes of death worldwide. However, the metabolites linking up diabetes and CVD are less understood. In this study, we aimed to evaluate serum acylcarnitines and amino acids in postmenopausal women suffering from diabetes with different severity of CVD and compared them with healthy controls. Methods Through a cross-sectional study, samples were collected from postmenopausal women without diabetes and CVD as controls ( n = 20), patients with diabetes and without CVD ( n = 16), diabetes with low risk of CVD ( n = 11), and diabetes with a high risk of CVD ( n = 21) referred for CT angiography for any reason. Metabolites were detected by a targeted approach using LC–MS/MS and metabolic -alterations were assessed by applying multivariate statistical analysis. The diagnostic ability of discovered metabolites based on multivariate statistical analysis was evaluated by ROC curve analysis. Results The study included women aged from 50–80 years with 5–30 years of menopause. The relative concentration of C14:1, C14:2, C16:1, C18:1, and C18:2OH acylcarnitines decreased and C18 acylcarnitine and serine increased in diabetic patients compared to control. Besides, C16:1 and C18:2OH acylcarnitines increased in high-risk CVD diabetic patients compared to no CVD risk diabetic patients. Conclusion Dysregulation of serum acylcarnitines and amino acids profile correlated with different CAC score ranges in diabetic postmenopausal women. (Ethic approval No: IR.TUMS.EMRI.REC.1399.062).
 
Representative images during the clinical course. A: CT image at the diagnosis of sole PCC. B: ¹²³I-MIBG scintigraphy image at the diagnosis of sole PCC. C: ¹²³I-MIBG scintigraphy image at the recurrence of PCC 7 years after surgery. D: SRS image at the diagnosis of recurrent PCC with simultaneous ACTH production. E–G: CT images at the terminal stage. Arrow in G indicates right adrenal subcortical bleeding. Double arrow in G indicates the maximum tumor diameter. MIBG, metaiodobenzylguanidine; SRS, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy
Clinical course of the patient. The clinical course of medical treatments, ACTH (closed circle), cortisol (open square), and potassium (closed triangle) in this case are indicated
The off-to-on effects of metyrapone treatment on ACTH, cortisol, AD, NAD, DA, U-MT, and U-NMT. The numerical values of biomarkers were extracted upon three independent PCC crises including the first development of Cushing symptoms. The values of metyrapone-off and metyrapone-on were compared using paired t-test. AD, adrenaline; NAD, noradrenaline; DA, dopamine; U-MT, urinary metanephrine; U-NMT, urinary normetanephrine
Representative autopsy samples and immunohistochemical investigations. A: Gross section of the primary PCC tumor. The arrow indicates deeply compressed spleen. B: Gross section of the liver. Arrowheads indicate metastatic lesions. C–R: HE staining and immunostaining with the corresponding antibodies indicated in the Fig. TH, tyrosine hydroxylase; DBH; dopamine-β-hydroxylase; CgA, chromogranin A; SDHB, succinate dehydrogenase B; SSTR, somatostatin receptor
Immunohistochemical investigations of samples obtained during surgery 11 years previously. A–H: HE staining and immunostaining with the corresponding antibodies indicated in the figure
Article
Background Ectopic ACTH-dependent Cushing syndrome is rarely caused by pheochromocytoma (PCC). Glucocorticoid-regulated positive feedback loops in ACTH and catecholamines were proposed in some similar cases. Case presentation We present here an 80-year-old man who had previously undergone surgery for a left adrenal PCC and newly developed severe hypertension, hypokalemia, and typical Cushingoid manifestations. Investigations revealed hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, and extremely high catecholamines and their metabolites, ACTH and cortisol. Imaging modalities showed a recurrent large left adrenal mass positively visualized with ¹²³ I-metaiodobenzylguanidine as well as somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. Surgical interventions were not indicated; thus, metyrapone, phentolamine, and doxazocin were initiated, which successfully controlled his symptoms and biochemical conditions. With the evidence that metyrapone administration decreased ACTH and catecholamine levels, the existence of positive feedback loops was speculated. During the terminal stages of the disease, additional metyrosine treatment successfully stabilized his physiological and biochemical conditions. Upon the patient’s death, pathological autopsy was performed. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the tumor appeared to be co-positive with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) as well as ACTH in most tumor cells in both PCC and liver metastasis. Most cells were clearly positive for somatostatin receptor 2 staining in the membrane compartment. The dense immunostaining of ACTH, TH, dopamine-β-hydroxylase and the large tumor size with positive feedback loops may be correlated with high levels of ACTH and catecholamines in the circulation. Conclusions We experienced a case of severe ectopic ACTH producing the largest reported recurrent malignant left PCC with liver metastases that presented positive feedback loops in the ACTH/cortisol and catecholamine/cortisol axes. Clinicians should be aware of the paradoxical response of ACTH on metyrapone treatment and possible steroid-induced catecholamine crisis.
 
A T1-weighed pituitary MRI performed around two years before the onset. B T1-weighed pituitary MRI performed around two weeks after the replacement with hydrocortisone. C, D T1-weighed Gadolinium-enhanced pituitary MRI performed one month after the onset
Pituitary provocation test one month after the onset. A, B, C, and D represent the results after CRH (100 μg, i.v.), TRH (200 μg, i.v.), GnRH (100 μg, i.v.), and GHRP-2 (100 μg, i.v.) load, respectively
Article
Background: The global COVID-19 pandemic requires urgent development of new vaccines. Endocrinological adverse effects following the new mRNA vaccine against COVID-19 have been reported in several cases. Specific to the involvement of pituitary function; however, only a single case with hypophysis has been reported. This is the first case of isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency (IAD) following mRNA vaccination against COVID-19. Case presentation: A healthy 31-year-old man received the BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine. The first injection was uneventful. One day after the second injection, he noticed general fatigue and fever. In the following several days, he additionally developed headaches, nausea, and diarrhea. Four days after the vaccine injection, he visited a hospital with worsening of these symptoms. Physical examination revealed slight disorientation but no other deficits. Laboratory tests revealed hyponatremia, hypoglycemia, and extremely low plasma ACTH and serum cortisol levels (ACTH < 1.5 pg/ml, cortisol 1.6 μg/dl). He was diagnosed with adrenal crisis and was emergently treated with hydrocortisone. The symptoms responded well and he recovered within a few days. Magnetic resonance images after the replacement with hydrocortisone revealed an atrophic pituitary gland. The patient was referred to our tertiary hospital for further endocrinological examination. Pituitary endocrine load tests revealed isolated adrenocortical response deficiency. After other clinical assessments, he was diagnosed as having isolated ACTH deficiency. After initiation of hydrocortisone replacement, there has been no recurrence of symptoms related to adrenocortical insufficiency nor involvement of other pituitary functions. Conclusion: This is the first reported case of IAD potentially associated with COVID-19 immunization. Recent reports have emphasized the importance of adjuvants in the mRNA vaccine that induce the endocrinological adverse effects through disturbance of the autoimmune system, but details are still unclear. Given the broad and rapid spread of vaccinations against COVID-19, it is clinically important to consider that there could be cases with a rare but emergent adrenal crisis even among those who present common symptoms of adverse effects following inactive SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination.
 
Patient progress flow chart
iDENTify patient participant T2D/pre-diabetes screening protocol
Demographic characteristics of patient participants
Article
Background As part of an evaluation of an oral healthcare practice-based model that identifies patients with prediabetes or type-2 diabetes, this study reports on the proportion of patients identified with clinically confirmed type-2 diabetes (T2D)/prediabetes and barriers of implementation of the model. Methodology Urban and rural oral healthcare practices were invited to participate. Participating practices invited eligible patients to participate in the screening program using the Australian Type-2 Diabetes Risk Assessment Tool (AUSDRISK). Participants were categorised as low, intermediate, or high-risk for prediabetes/T2D. Patients in the intermediate or high-risk category were referred to their General Medical Practitioner (GP) for further investigation. Results Fifty-one oral healthcare practices and 76 Oral Health Professionals (OHP) participated (60 Dentists, 8 Dental Hygienists, 8 Oral Health Therapists). 797 patients were screened; 102 were low-risk; 331 intermediate-risk; and 364 high-risk for T2D. Of the 695 participants in the intermediate or high-risk groups, 386 (55.5%) were referred to their GP for T2D assessment. Of them, 96 (25.0%) results were returned to OHPs. Of the returned results, six were (6.3%) diagnosed with pre-T2D. Conclusion Patients found to have undiagnosed T2D/prediabetes (6.3%) were within the expected range reported in the literature. Findings indicate that identifying individuals at an elevated risk of having or developing T2D is effective, feasible and could be incorporated into oral healthcare settings. However, this integration may require additional OHPs training and education to ensure that patients at elevated risk of T2D are referred for further assessment.
 
Article
Thyroid nodule is a common health problem in endocrinology. Thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cytology performed by palpation guided FNAB (PGFNAB) and ultrasound-guided FNAB (USGFNAB) are the preferred examinations for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer and part of the integration of the current thyroid nodule assessment. Although studies have shown USGFNAB to be more accurate than PGFNAB, inconsistencies from several studies and clinical guidelines still exist. The purpose of this study is to compare the diagnostic accuracy of Palpation versus Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy in diagnosing malignancy of thyroid nodules. The systematic review and meta-analysis were prepared based on the PRISMA standards. Literature searches were carried out on three online databases (Pubmed/MEDLINE, Embase, and Proquest) and grey literatures. Data extraction was carried out manually from various studies that met the eligibility, followed by analysis to obtain pooled data on sensitivity, specificity, Diagnostic Odds Ratio (DOR) and Area Under Curve (AUC), and the comparison of the two methods. Total of 2517 articles were obtained, with 11 studies were included in this systematic review. The total sample was 2382, including 1128 subjects using PGFNAB and 1254 subjects using USGFNAB. The risk of bias was assessed using QUADAS-2 with mild-moderate results. The results of sensitivity, specificity, AUC and DOR in diagnosing thyroid nodules using PGFNAB were 76% (95% CI, 49–89%), 77% (95% CI, 56–95%), 0.827 and 11.6 (95% CI, 6–21) respectively. The results of sensitivity, specificity, AUC and DOR in diagnosing thyroid nodules using USGFNAB were 90% (95% CI, 81–95%), 80% (95% CI, 66–89%), 0.92 and 40 (95% CI, 23–69), respectively the results of the comparison test between PGFNAB and USGFNAB; Tsens USGFNAB of 0.99 ( p = 0.023), AUC difference test of 0.093 ( p = 0.000023). The diagnostic accuracy of USGFNAB is higher than PGFNAB in diagnosing malignancy of thyroid nodules. If it is accessible, the author recommends using USGFNAB as a diagnostic tool for thyroid nodules.
 
Article
Background Vitamin D deficiency and the vitamin D pathway have previously been associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The majority of vitamin D is transported through the blood bound to the vitamin D binding protein (VDBP). Two polymorphisms in the VDBP gene (rs4588 and rs7041) result in different VDBP variants and have been associated with T1D, however the results are not consistent. The association of VDBP levels and its polymorphisms with T1D have not been investigated in the black South African population. Therefore, this study aimed to determine whether rs4588, rs7041 or serum VDBP levels were associated with T1D in this population. Methods Participants with type 1 diabetes and controls were recruited from the greater Johannesburg area, South Africa. Participants were genotyped for rs4588 and rs7041 using PCR-RFLP and serum VDBP levels were determined by ELISA. Results There was no difference in VDBP allelic or genotypic frequencies between participants with T1D and controls (rs4588 C allele frequency 0.92 vs. 0.94; p = 0.390 and rs7041 T allele frequency 0.95 vs. 0.95; p = 0.890). In univariate analysis, the rs4588 CC genotype was associated with increased serum VDBP levels, however, this association was lost with multivariate analysis. The VDBP genotypes were not associated with any other study variables. In logistic regression analysis, higher VBDP levels were associated with T1D (OR: (95% CI): 6.58 (1.45–29.9); p = 0.015), and within a linear regression analysis, T1D disease status was found to be associated with 0.044 mg/ml higher VDBP levels ( p = 0.028). Conclusions These data suggest that serum VDBP levels are positively associated with the presence of T1D in the African population. Whether VDBP lies in the causal pathway or its elevation is an effect of T1D is uncertain and requires further investigation.
 
Flowchart indicating study subjects
Differences in biochemical characteristics between the < 95th percentile and ≥ 95th percentile groups for A 2 h glucose, B HOMA-IR and WBISI, and C free testosterone levels
ROC curve of HbA1c predicting abnormal OGTT
Article
Background Adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study is to evaluate dysglycemia and biochemical differences based on BMI status and assess the prognostic ability of elevated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in predicting an abnormal 2 hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Methods Retrospective cohort of female patients aged 11-18 years who underwent 75-g OGTT and were evaluated for PCOS at an urban tertiary care hospital between January 2002 to December 2017. Results In 106 adolescents with PCOS who had OGTT results available, IGT was markedly pronounced in the ≥95th percentile BMI group (17 out of 72; 23.6%) compared with <95th percentile BMI group (4 out of 34; 11.7%). One patient with obesity met the criteria for type 2 diabetes. Patients with obesity had significantly higher homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and lower whole body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) ( p < 0.001) compared to patients without obesity. Free testosterone levels were also higher in patients with obesity ( p < 0.03) and were significantly associated with HOMA-IR when controlling for body mass index (BMI). HbA1c did not demonstrate a strong ability to predict abnormal OGTT on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis [Area under the curve (AUC) = 0.572, 95% CI: 0.428, 0.939]). Conclusions In a study to assess glucose abnormalities in adolescents with PCOS, IGT was found to be markedly increased in patients with obesity, with abnormal glucose metabolism identified in over one-fifth of the patients. HbA1c alone may be a poor test to assess IGT and we recommend that adolescents diagnosed with PCOS and obesity undergo formal oral glucose tolerance testing.
 
Building a HFD model in female rats. A Body weights. B Serum levels of CHO, TG, and LDL-c. Values were mean ± SEM, n = 10; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, and ***p < 0.001
HFD induced changes in serum lipidome. A Classification of the serum lipid by the biological process. B The OPLS-DA score plot derived from the LC-MS of serum obtained from the HFD (blue) and control (grey) groups. C Heatmap presentation of differential lipid metabolites. The relative values were presented by color differences, with columns representing samples and rows representing lipids. D-G The content in four main kinds of differential lipids (PC, MePC, ChE, and TG) were statistically analyzed (n = 6)
HFD triggered the development of HT-like autoimmunity. A Representative thyroid images under ultrasound scanning (n = 5). Red arrows: thyroid gland. B Representative thyroid sections stained with H&E (n = 10; Magnification ×400). Red arrows: infiltrated monocytes. C Representative thyroid sections stained with Masson’s trichrome (n = 5; Magnification ×400). Red arrows: thyroid fibrosis. D Representative immunofluorescence staining images showing TUNEL-labeled (green) apoptotic cells counterstained with DAPI (blue) in thyroids (n = 5; Magnification×400). Red arrows: apoptotic cells. E Serum levels of thyroiditis-related parameters, including TPOAb, TgAb, T3, T4 and TSH (n = 10). F Quantitation of the degree of monocyte infiltration in thyroids using H&E. Values were mean ± SEM; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, and ***p < 0.001; ns, no statistical significance
HFD disturbed the PD-1 signaling in thyroid and serum. A, B Representative images of PD-1 and PD-L1 staining in the thyroid (5 rats per group). Each right-hand panel (× 400) depicts a magnified image of the boxed area of the corresponding image in the left panel (× 100). C Relative mRNA expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 in the thyroid (n = 5). D Serum expression of sPD-1 and sPD-L1 (n = 10). Values were mean ± SEM; *p < 0.05, and ***p < 0.001; ns, no statistical significance
HFD increased lymphocyte infiltration in the thyroid. A Representative images of CD45 (mainly lymphocytic lineage), CD4 (CD4⁺ T cell), CD8 (CD8⁺ T cell) and CD19 (B cells) staining of thyroid sections. Each right panel (magnification ×2000) depicted a magnified image of the boxed area (red) of the corresponding image in the middle panel (magnification ×400). B Quantification of the data displayed in (A) revealed an increased infiltration of thyroid parenchyma by the CD45⁺ cells, CD4⁺ T cells, CD8⁺ T cells and B cells. Cells have been randomly counted in five nonoverlapping fields (magnification ×400) of tissue sections from 5 rats per group. Values were mean ± SEM; **p < 0.01
Article
Background While contributions of dyslipidemia to autoimmune diseases have been described, its impact on thyroid autoimmunity (TA) is less clear. Programmed cell death 1(PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) immune checkpoint is crucial in preventing autoimmune attack while its blockade exacerbates TA. We thus unveiled the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) on TA, focusing on the contribution of PD-1/PD-L1. Methods Female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly fed with a regular diet or HFD (60% calories from fat) for 24 weeks. Then, thyroid ultrasonography was performed and samples were collected for lipid and thyroid-related parameter measure. Results HFD rats exhibited hyperlipemia and abnormal biosynthesis of the unsaturated fatty acid in serum detected by lipidomics. These rats displayed a relatively lower echogenicity and increased inflammatory infiltration in thyroid accompanied by rising serum thyroid autoantibody levels and hypothyroidism, mimicking human Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. These alterations were concurrent with decreased mRNA and immunostaining of intrathyroidal PD-1 and also serum PD-1 levels but not the PD-L1 expression, suggesting a role of a PD-1 pathway. Meanwhile, the infiltration of B and T cell, a key cellular event inhibited by the PD-1 signals, was enhanced in the thyroid of HFD rats, along with thyroid fibrosis and apoptosis. Conclusions Our data suggest that HFD triggers TA through a mechanism possibly involving downregulation of PD-1-related immunosuppression, providing a novel insight into the link between dyslipidemia and autoimmune toxicities.
 
Identification of studies
(continued)
Characteristics of included studies
Characteristics of PROMs
Article
Context: Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) are useful tools in paediatric endocrinology to gauge health status in children, especially since they are often unable to clearly communicate it themselves. We aimed to systematically search and appraise all available PROMs relevant to paediatric endocrinology and provide a curated resource for health professionals to utilise. Evidence acquisition: We identified PROMs in paediatric endocrinology by systematically searching the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, World Health Organisation International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature on May 20, 2022. Additional studies were located through hand searching and content area expert contributions. We assessed the quality of each PROM using the COSMIN risk of bias checklist. Evidence synthesis: We identified 5003 papers in the initial search. After applying exclusion criteria we included seven PROMs in the review. Six PROMs were specific to Type I Diabetes and one to Hypothyroidism. We gave all studies an overall COSMIN score of 'inadequate' due to poorly detailed PROM development. Conclusion: The scope and quality of PROMs in paediatric endocrinology is limited. Further research and development of PROM tools are required in paediatric endocrinology to allow for improved patient care.
 
Dispersion of men and women participating in the study by Body Mass Index (BMI) classes. There is a significant difference between women and men in terms of BMI, where the distribution of men is significantly higher than women is in the category of * = normal and ** = overweight groups and in contrast to the distribution of women is more than men is in the group of ## = obese people
Concentration curve for BMI among total samples (A), males (B) and females (C) based on the wealth index
Decomposition to determine factors lie behind socioeconomic inequality in ArNCD cohort study
Article
Introduction The aim of the present study was to explore and determine the association between BMI and socio-economic factors in Iran. Methods Adults aged 35 to 70 ( n = 20,460) were included from Ardabil Non-Communicable Disease (ArNCD) cohort study. BMI was calculated as kg/m ² . Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to determine the socio-economic quintiles. Multivariate linear regression was performed to analyze the association of BMI as dependent variable with explanatory variables, Additionally, decomposition analyzing conducted to identify factors that explained wealth-related inequality in obesity. Results The prevalence of overweight and obese people was 83.7% (41.4% overweight and 42.5% obese) wherein the highest frequency of obese people belonged to the age group of 45 to 49 years old (19.9%) and to the illiterate people (33.1%). The results of multivariate linear regression model showed that age, being female, marriage, lower education level, having chronic disease, alcohol use, and higher socioeconomic level positively associated with obesity. The results of the decomposition model showed that the most important variables affecting socioeconomic inequality in higher BMI level were socioeconomic status (75.8%), being women (5.6%), education level (− 4.1%), and having chronic disease (2.4%). Conclusion BMI showed significant association with socio-economic status, where richest people had significantly higher BMI than poorest group. Considering the direct role of high BMI in non-communicable diseases, new policies are needed to be developed and implemented by means of diet intervention and increased physical activity to control the BMI in the population of Iran.
 
Distribution of LADA patients by age group
Complications of LADA to Type 2 diabetics’ patients
Article
Background The Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA) is a slowly progressive Type 1 diabetes subgroup with onset during middle age. Studies report that about 10% of adults initially diagnosed with clinical Type 2 diabetes (T2D) have LADA. Inappropriate diagnosis and mismanagement of the LADA can increase the risk of diabetic complications, which affect the quality of life and is the cause of increased mortality. In low-income countries setting, data regarding the magnitude of LADA is limited. We carried out this study to estimate the burden of misdiagnosed LADA among T2D patients in selected health facilities in Dar es Salaam and to bring awareness to the use of Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD) autoantibody in screening for LADA. Methodology We enrolled 186 phenotypically T2D patients in this cross-sectional study, through a standardized data collection tool we obtained participants’ demographic and clinical information. For testing GAD levels, we used a double-antibody Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The Fisher’s Exact and student t-tests were used to test the significance of the statistical associations of the glycaemic control and diabetes complications between T2D and LADA. Results Out of 186 patients, 156 gave conclusive GAD Ab ELISA reading with LADA accounting for 5.1% (95% CI: 2.5 - 10.0). The mean age of subjects was 54.3 years (Range: 33-85 years). The parameters such as mean age, family history of diabetes mellitus status, Fasting Blood Glucose, clinical characteristics, and complications did not show significant statistical differences between patients with LADA and Type 2 diabetes. However, all LADA- Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) comorbid patients had retinopathy, which was statistically insignificant in 20 (87%) T2D-HIV comorbid patients (p = 0.669). Neither neuropathy, nephropathy, nor Diabetic Mellitus (D.M.) foot syndrome was observed among LADA-HIV comorbid patients. Nevertheless, 22 (95.7%), 3 (13%), and 2 (8.7%) of T2D-HIV comorbidity had neuropathy, nephropathy, or D.M. foot syndrome, respectively. Conclusions The study established a LADA prevalence of 5.1% among T2D patients and has shown the role of GAD autoantibody in the screening for LADA. The study calls for a well- designed larger longitudinal study to generate strong evidence on the association of risk factors and complications associated with the LADA. This will develop robust evidence on the association of risk factors and complications associated with the LADA and T2D.
 
Article
Background Tumor-related osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by severe hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia. The diagnosis of TIO can be very difficult because of its nonspecific nature of clinical manifestations. Here we reported a case of young TIO patient with “painful knee joint with difficulty in moving” to improve the clinical diagnosis and treatment levels. Case presentation The patient’s clinical features were consistent with TIO. A tumor was successfully located in left tibial by ⁶⁸Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT, and then was surgically resected. Upon pathologic assessment, the tumor was diagnosed as phosphaturia stromal tumor (PMT) with positive Vim staining. After the surgery, serum phosphate level rapidly recovered and symptoms significantly improved. Conclusion TIO should be considered in patients with chronically hypophosphorus osteomalacia in the setting of no family history. Early removal of the responsible tumors is clinically essential for the treatment, and imaging examination is of great significance for tumor localization.
 
The identification of TSH threshold values in ROC curve. ROC curve used to determine the TSH threshold values in T2DM patients with HT. The threshold value is 4 mIU/L in TSH concentration, sensitivity was 72.7%, specificity was 94.6%
Article
Aims The purpose of this study is to elucidate the correlation between thyroid hormone, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), vitamin D and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT), and to seek the independent predictors affecting disease development. Methods The study included 44 T2DM with HT, 94 T2DM, and 112 healthy subjects. We investigated some laboratory factors like thyroid hormone and compared the levels. Independent predictors determination by logistic univariate regression analysis were analyzed. The diagnostic value of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and threshold concentration were determined by ROC curve. Results In T2DM with HT group, levels of PTH, HbA1c were lower and levels of TSH were significantly higher, when compared with T2DM group. But there was no significant difference in vitamin D between these two groups. In both logistic univariate regression analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis, TSH, HbA1c were independent predictors for T2DM with HT. Based on the ROC curve, the best cut-off value of the TSH was 4 mIU/L (sensitivity 72.7%, specificity 94.6%, AUC = 0.832) for predicting T2DM with HT in T2DM patients. Conclusions TSH has increased risk for T2DM evolving into T2DM complicated with HT, so it is important to monitor the concentrations of TSH in patients with T2DM. Although vitamin D was not the independent predictor in T2DM with HT development, effect of vitamin D deficiency on the progress of diabetes and its complications should be taken into consideration.
 
Article
Background To investigate the value of quantitative computed tomography (QCT) measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) in middle-aged and elderly men with abnormal blood glucose. Methods Total 138 men aged above 50 years old with routine physical examination were involved in the study. All participants were evaluated with serological index, BMD by QCT and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Statistical analysis was conducted by χ ² test and regression model. Results All individuals were divided into normal blood glucose (NBG) group and abnormal blood glucose (ABG) group. Compared with NBG group, BMD detected by QCT was obviously lower in ABG group ( P < 0.05). More cases with low bone mass or osteoporosis were detected by QCT measurement than DXA (χ ² = 56.618, P = 0.000), which were consistent in both NBG and ABG groups (χ ² was 33.564 and 23.250, P = 0.000). No significant difference of detection rates was found in both subgroups neither by QCT nor DXA measurement (χ ² = 4.204, P = 0.122). Regression analysis revealed that ABG was negatively associated with BMD assessed by QCT (β = -0.217, P < 0.05), which did not show statistical difference after adjusting for age. Conclusion In middle-aged and elderly male patients with NBG or ABG, QCT manifests higher detection rates of low bone mass and osteoporosis than DXA. ABG is negatively correlated with BMD measured by QCT, which is affected by age.
 
The participants selecting flow chart
The association between Android fat mass and BMD. A. Total femur; (B). Femoral neck; (C). Total spine
The association between Gynoid fat mass and BMD. A. Total femur; (B). Femoral neck; (C). Total spine
The association between Android to Gynoid ratio and BMD. A. Total femur; (B). Femoral neck; (C). Total spine
Article
Objective To investigate the association between different body fat distribution and different sites of BMD in male and female populations. Methods Use the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets to select participants. The weighted linear regression model investigated the difference in body fat and Bone Mineral Density (BMD) in different gender. Multivariate adjusted smoothing curve-fitting and multiple linear regression models were used to explore whether an association existed between body fat distribution and BMD. Last, a subgroup analysis was performed according to age and gender group. Results Overall, 2881 participants were included in this study. Compared to males, female participants had lower BMD (P < 0.05) and higher Gynoid fat mass (P < 0.00001), while there was no difference between Android fat mass (P = 0.91). Android fat mass was positively associated with Total femur BMD (Males, β = 0.044, 95% CI = 0.037, 0.051, P < 0.00001; Females, β = 0.044, 95% CI = 0.039, 0.049, P < 0.00001), Femoral neck BMD (Males, β = 0.034, 95% CI = 0.027, 0.041, P < 0.00001; Females, β = 0.032, 95% CI = 0.027, 0.037, P < 0.00001), and Total spine BMD (Males, β = 0.036, 95% CI = 0.029, 0.044, P < 0.00001; Females, β = 0.025, 95% CI = 0.019, 0.031, P < 0.00001). The Gynoid fat mass, subgroup analysis of age and ethnicity reached similar results. Conclusion Body fat in different regions was positively associated with BMD in different sites, and this association persisted in subgroup analyses across age and race in different gender.
 
The correlation analysis of 25OHD and albuminuria; Spearman correlation between 25OHD serum level and UACR in the study population (n = 200) shows a significant reverse relation between them (r = − 0.257; p-value< 0.001)
ROC curve for determining the optimal 25OHD (vitamin D) cut-off point in predicting macroalbuminuria
Article
Background Diabetic nephropathy occurs in about one-third of diabetic patients. This health problem is characterized by increased urinary albumin excretion, leading to decreased glomerular filtration rate and renal failure. In this regard, previous investigations have revealed the possibility of a relationship between vitamin D deficiency and diabetic nephropathy. The present study assessed the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods This study was conducted with 200 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus from December 2019 to January 2021. The patients’ 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) serum level and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) were measured concurrently. Afterward, the subjects were divided into three groups based on their albuminuria level. Finally, 25OHD serum level and other clinical characteristics were compared among these albuminuria groups, and the relation between albuminuria level and 25OHD was analyzed. Results The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in macroalbuminuric patients (UACR≥300 mg/g) was 61.8%, and in microalbuminuric (30 ≤ UACR< 300 mg/g) and normoalbuminuric groups (UACR< 30 mg/g) was 33.3% and 24%, respectively. Further analysis revealed a significant negative relationship between 25OHD and albuminuria(r = − 0.257, p-value< 0.001). According to ROC curve analysis, a 25OHD level ≤ 21 ng/ml was considered an optimal cut-off point value for having macroalbuminuria in diabetic patients. Conclusions The current study evaluates the relation between vitamin D deficiency and the prevalence of albuminuria in the setting of diabetes. Overall, the prevalence of macroalbuminuria increased when the 25OHD serum level was less than 20 ng/ml.
 
Comparison of VDBP levels between proliferative retinopathy, non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and no retinopathy in diabetic patients
Article
Aims This study aimed to investigate the association between circulating levels of vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and its genotypes and diabetic retinopathy risk. Methods This case–control study recruited 154 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus; 62 with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and 92 without DR and diabetic nephropathy (DN). Circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and VDBP levels were measured in the patients. The genotype and phenotype of VDBP were evaluated based on two common VDBP variations; rs7041 and rs4588. Results Serum levels of VDBP were significantly lower in patients with DR than in patients without DR and/or DN (Ln-VDBP (μg/ml): 6.14 ± 0.92 vs. 6.73 ± 1.45, p = 0.001) even after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, disease duration, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), HbA1C, insulin therapy profile, and serum levels of 25(OH)D. The distribution of VDBP phenotypes and genotypes in the two studied groups were nearly the same, and the distribution was similar to that of the general population. Conclusions In this study, we found the association between lower circulating levels of VDBP and risk of DR. However, the precise mechanism linking these two remains unknown. Further and more in-depth research is needed to find out the underlying causes of the relationship.
 
Article
Background: Nondiabetic kidney disease (NDKD), which is prevalent among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), is considerably different from diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in terms of the pathological features, treatment strategy and prognosis. Although renal biopsy is the current gold-standard diagnostic method, it cannot be routinely performed due to a range of risks. The aim of this study was to explore the predictors for differentiating NDKD from DKD to meet the urgent medical needs of patients who cannot afford kidney biopsy. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted by reviewing the medical records of patients with type 2 DM who underwent percutaneous renal biopsy at the Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University between January 2017 and May 2021. The demographic data, clinical data, blood test results, and pathological examination results of the patients were obtained from their medical records. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to evaluate the predictive factors for NDKD. Results: A total of 244 patients were analyzed. The median age at biopsy was 55 (46, 62) years. Patients diagnosed with true DKD, those diagnosed with NDKD and those diagnosed with NDKD superimposed DKD represented 48.36% (118/244), 45.9% (112/244) and 5.74% (14/244), respectively, of the patient population. Immunoglobulin A nephropathy was the most common type of lesion in those with NDKD (59, 52.68%) and NDKD superimposed DKD (10, 71.43%). Independent predictive indicators for diagnosing NDKD included a DM duration of less than 5 years (odds ratio [OR] = 4.476; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.257-8.877; P < 0.001), an absence of diabetic retinopathy (OR = 4.174; 95% CI: 2.049-8.502; P < 0.001), a high RBC count (OR = 1.901; 95% CI: 1.251-2.889; P = 0.003), and a negative of urinary glucose excretion test result (OR = 2.985; 95% CI: 1.474-6.044; P = 0.002).. Conclusions: A DM duration less than 5 years, an absence of retinopathy, a high RBC count and an absence of urinary glucose excretion were independent indicators for the diagnosis of NDKD, suggesting that patients with NDKD may require a different treatment regimen than those with DKD.
 
Interaction between FADS2 rs174583 and dietary ORAC on serum concentration of cholesterol (A), LDL-C (B) and HDL-C (C) among men. Interaction between FADS2 rs174583 and dietary ORAC on serum insulin level (D)
Interaction between FADS2 rs174583 and dietary ORAC on QUICKI (E) and HOMA-IR among women (F). Interaction between FADS2 rs174583 and dietary TRAP on serum LDL-C level among women (G) and all P-values of interactions were adjusted for age, WC, physical activity and socio-economic status. Interaction between FADS2 rs174583 and dietary FRAP on serum concentration of HDL-C among women in crude model (H). The bars indicate mean. Error bars: SE of means
Article
Objective: Polymorphisms of the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster have been associated with obesity and its-related consequences. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether the adherence to dietary non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC), reflecting the antioxidant potential of the whole diet, modifies the association of FADS2 rs174583 polymorphism with cardio-metabolic risk factors in obese adults. Methods: The present study included 347 healthy obese adults (aged 20-50 years). Dietary NEAC was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire with 147 items and estimated through total radical-trapping antioxidant parameters (TRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) with the use of published databases. FADS2 rs174583 polymorphism was characterized using PCR-RFLP. ANCOVA multivariate interaction model was used to analyze gene-diet interactions. Results: after adjustment for the confounding variables (age, physical activity, SES and WC), this study showed significant interactions between rs174583 polymorphism and adherence to dietary ORAC on the serum cholesterol (P Interaction = 0.029), LDL-C (P Interaction = 0.025) and HDL-C levels (P Interaction = 0.049) among the male group; minor allele carriers who had the highest adherence to the NEAC (ORAC) showed a better metabolic profile (lower TG and LDL-C and higher HDL-C) (P < 0.05). Among women, the dietary ORAC-rs174583 interactions were statistically significant for the serum insulin concentration (P Interaction = 0.020), QUICKI (P Interaction = 0.023) and HOMA-IR (P Interaction = 0.017); the highest QUICKI and the lowest HOMA-IR and serum insulin levels were observed in the CC homozygote carriers with the moderate compliance with the dietary ORAC (P < 0.05). In addition, the dietary TRAP modified the association between FADS2 variant and change in LDL-C levels (P Interaction = 0.037); the homozygous wild-type (CC) women who placed in the top tertile of TRAP had significantly the lowest LDL-C levels than those in the second tertile (P < 0.05). Conclusion: These data indicate that the FADS2 rs174583 polymorphism interacts with the dietary NEAC to influence cardio-metabolic risk factors in obese subjects. Replication in prospective cohort studies among other populations is required to confirm the results of our study.
 
Numbers of participants in the three categories of BMD in the EH group and the control group
Numbers of EH subjects with OP across different antihypertensive drugs. The EH subjects were divided into 7 groups based on the type of antihypertensive medication used. The difference in the numbers of subjects with OP across the 7 groups was statistically significant (χ² = 36.722, p < 0.001)
Article
Background The present study investigated the prevalence of osteoporosis (OP) among patients with essential hypertension (EH) in the Changchun community and analysed the correlation between EH and OP. Methods The study included 425 subjects with EH and 425 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Bone mineral density (BMD) and serum creatinine (CR) levels were measured, and the subjects' current EH and OP statuses were surveyed to analyse the correlation between EH and OP. Results The EH group exhibited lower BMD and a higher rate of having OP than the control group, and this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). A significant sex difference in the BMD T-score was observed among the subjects (male: − 1.19 ± 1.55, female: − 1.70 ± 1.34). In both the EH group and the control group, the rate of having OP in females was greater than that in males. However, the OP prevalence among subjects with EH varied significantly by age, body weight, fracture history, nocturnal urination frequency, depression and anxiety status, duration of hypertension, and antihypertensive medication use (p < 0.05). Two-way analysis of variance suggested an effect of the interaction between different EH statuses and bone mass conditions on the serum CR values (F = 3.584, p = 0.028, bias η² = 0.008). Conclusions The prevalence of OP and low BMD were significantly higher among subjects with EH than among healthy controls. Additionally, the findings indicate that age, weight, fracture history, nocturnal urination frequency, depression and anxiety, duration of hypertension and antihypertensive drug use may be correlated to having OP in EH subjects, requiring further studies. Moreover, serum CR levels in subjects with different bone mass profiles were strongly influenced by the presence or absence of EH, and the serum CR levels differed significantly with the interaction of these two factors.
 
Empower-DSD consortium (
source: https://d-maps.com/carte.php?num_car=4692&lang=de). Central data management. University hospitals with DSD study centres
Modules of ModuS education programme for DSD diagnoses, according to Ernst et al. [27]. generic modules. diagnosis-specific modules
Working groups for diagnosis-specific modules
Article
Background Differences in sexual development (DSD) are rare diseases, which affect the chromosomal, anatomical or gonadal sex differentiation. Although patient education is recommended as essential in a holistic care approach, standardised programmes are still lacking. The present protocol describes the aims, study design and methods of the Empower-DSD project, which developed an age-adapted multidisciplinary education programme to improve the diagnosis-specific knowledge, skills and empowerment of patients and their parents. Methods The new patient education programme was developed for children, adolescents and young adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome or XX-/or XY-DSD and their parents. The quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods include standardised questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and participatory observation. The main outcomes (assessed three and six months after the end of the programme) are health-related quality of life, disease burden, coping, and diagnosis-specific knowledge. The qualitative evaluation examines individual expectations and perceptions of the programme. The results of the quantitative and qualitative evaluation will be triangulated. Discussion The study Empower-DSD was designed to reduce knowledge gaps regarding the feasibility, acceptance and effects of standardised patient education programmes for children and youth with DSD and their parents. A modular structured patient education programme with four generic and three diagnosis-specific modules based on the ModuS concept previously established for other chronic diseases was developed. The topics, learning objectives and recommended teaching methods are summarised in the structured curricula, one for each diagnosis and age group. At five study centres, 56 trainers were qualified for the implementation of the training programmes. A total of 336 subjects have been already enrolled in the study. The recruitment will go on until August 2022, the last follow-up survey is scheduled for February 2023. The results will help improve multidisciplinary and integrated care for children and youth with DSD and their families.
 
Changes in plasma calcium, inorganic phosphate and intact parathyroid hormone in the current case. Square, plasma calcium; triangle, inorganic phosphate (Pi); circle, intact PTH (PTHi)
A family tree of the patient and the results of genetic testing in the patient and her family. A Squares, circles, and arrows indicate males, females, and proband, respectively. Family members, including I-1, II-1, II-3, had a history of hypercalcemia. d. Diseased. M and N, CASR wild type and p. Pro55Leu mutation alleles, respectively. Roman numerals on the left of the pedigrees indicate generation number, and the numbers below the symbols indicate the subject's number within each pedigree. The arrow shows the proband. B Sequence analysis of this family. M and N, CASR wild type and p. Pro55Leu mutation alleles, respectively. The arrow shows this mutation site (c.164). The half-filled symbols indicate the individuals with FHH
Article
Background Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is a rare autosomal dominant disease, which requires differential diagnosis from relatively common primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) in order to avoid unnecessary surgery. Case presentation A 16-year-old female had been followed by the department of psychosomatic medicine at our institution. Throughout the follow-up period, her plasma calcium levels were high, plasma Pi levels were relatively low, and plasma intact PTH was relatively high. She was referred to our department to determine the cause of her hypercalcemia. Her 24 h urinary calcium excretion was as low as 100 mg/day, and calcium creatinine clearance ratio was below 0.01. Moreover, she had a family history of hypercalcemia (proband, her brother, and her father). The genetic testing for her family revealed that she, her brother, and her father were definitively diagnosed with FHH type 1 due to the heterozygous calcium-sensing receptor mutation (NM_00388:4:c.164C > T:p.Pro55Leu). Conclusion We experienced a 16-year-old female with FHH, in whom genetic testing identified the heterozygous calcium-sensing receptor mutation (NM_00388:4:c.164C > T:p.Pro55Leu) as pathogenic, permitting a definitive diagnosis of FHH type 1. The genetic testing for calcium sensing receptor is beneficial to distinguish asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism from FHH.
 
Patients’ overall perception and satisfaction about their quality of life and health (Question no 1 and 2 of WHOQOL-BREF scale) [SD: Standard Deviation]
Jitter boxplot showing the quality of life domain scores of participants. [Mean ± standard deviation is shown on the left side of each boxplot. The median domain score with interquartile range (IQR) is as follows: physical domain score: 44 (21 – 44); psychological domain score: 50 (38 – 56); social relationship domain score: 44 (25 – 50); environmental domain: 44 (38 – 50)]
Article
Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is rising at a rapid rate worldwide. As a chronic, incurable metabolic disease, diabetes affects a person’s life in all ways. Studies thus far have focused on the impact of diabetes on the physical and mental health of persons affected by the quality of life (QoL). This study aimed to explore the whole range of QoL deficits using the World Health Organization Quality of Life brief version (WHOQOL-BREF) in type-2 diabetic patients. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out among individuals aged at or above 15 years with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Patients with prior mental health illness and unwillingness to give consent were excluded. A pretested structured questionnaire including the 26-item WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was used for face-to-face interviews. Appropriate ethical measures were ensured. All statistical analyses were carried out using the statistical software STATA (Version 16.1). Graphs were created using R (Version 4.0.0). Results A total of 500 T2 DM patients with a mean age of 55.8 ± 13.2 years (± SD) and a female proportion of 50.8% were included. Overall, 22.2% of participants rated their QoL as poor, and 25% were dissatisfied with their health (as assessed by questions 1 and 2 of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire). More than half (54% and 51.2%, respectively) had an average evaluation of their QoL and health. The QoL scores were below average, with mean scores (± SD) for the physical health, psychological, social relationship, and environmental domains of 37.2 ± 20.5, 44.2 ± 21.0, 39.6 ± 23.2, and 41.6 ± 19.5, respectively. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the patient’s level of education and monthly family income were significant positive modifiers and that complications (nephropathy, retinopathy, and peripheral artery disease) were significant negative determinants of the QoL score in different domains. Conclusion This study found the overall quality of life among T2DM patients below average. Health authorities and clinicians should take these findings into account and incorporate necessary measures to ameliorate negative modifiers of the quality of life of sufferers.
 
Kaplan–Meier event-free survival curve. Kaplan–Meier event-free survival curve. Kaplan–Meier analysis of incident diabetes based on HDL-C quartiles (log-rank, P < 0.0001)
The non-linear relationship between HDL-C and incident diabetes. A non-linear relationship between them was detected after adjusting for gender, age, ethanol consumption, smoking, regular exerciser, SBP, DBP, BMI, WC, TC, TG, HbA1c, FPG
The results of univariate analysis
Article
Background and objective High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) may be directly involved in glucose metabolism by enhancing insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. This current study aimed to explore the association between HDL-C and the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Japanese population. Methods This retrospective cohort study was based on a publicly available DRYAD dataset. We enrolled 15,388 Japanese participants who received medical examinations from 2004 to 2015 at Murakami Memorial Hospital. Our study selected HDL-C at baseline and incident DM during follow-up as the target independent variable and the dependent variable, respectively. Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to investigate the association between HDL-C and DM, generalized additive models to identify non-linear relationships. Results After adjusting for the demographic and clinical covariates, the result showed low HDL-C levels were associated with increased risk for diabetes (HR = 0.54, 95%CI (0.35, 0.82)). The results remained robust in a series of sensitive analysis. A non-linear relationship was detected between HDL-C and incident DM with an inflection point of HDL-C at 1.72 mmol/L (Log-likelihood ratio test P = 0.005). Subgroup analysis showed that a stronger association could be found in ex-smokers and current-smokers. The same trend was also seen in the community with hypertension ( P for interaction = 0.010, HR = 1.324). Conclusion This study demonstrates a negative and non-linear relationship between HDL-C and diabetes in the Japanese population. There is a threshold effect between HDL-C and diabetes. When HDL-C is lower than 1.72 mmol/L, the decreased HDL-C levels were associated with an increased risk for diabetes.
 
Prevalence (as %) of body size phenotypes using different definitions. NCEP = National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III. MHNW = metabolically healthy normal weight; MHoW = metabolically healthy overweight; MHO = metabolically healthy obese; MUHNW = metabolically unhealthy normal weight; MUHoW = metabolically unhealthy overweight; MUHO = metabolically unhealthy obese
Odds ratio for having a Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance >2.5 in metabolically healthy and unhealthy according to different definitions. Error bars refer to the standard error
Article
Introduction Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are known to be associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A metabolically unhealthy phenotype is frequently used as a surrogate marker for insulin resistance. The aims of the current study were to compare the prevalence of the body size phenotypes using different definitions of metabolic health and to investigate which one of them is most strongly associated with insulin resistance in men and women. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in a middle-aged cohort of Maltese Caucasian non-institutionalized population. Metabolic health was defined using the various currently used definitions. Results There were significant differences in the prevalence of body size phenotypes according to the different definitions. We also found significant sex differences in the predictive value of the various definitions of the metabolically unhealthy phenotype to predict insulin resistance. The strongest association was for the definition of having >2 NCEP-ATPIII criteria to characterize the metabolic unhealthy phenotype in women (odds ratio of 19.7). On the other hand, the Aguilar-Salinas et al. definition had the strongest association in men (odds ratio of 18.7). Conclusions We found large differences in the prevalence of the various body size phenotypes when using different definitions, highlighting the need for having standard criteria. Our data also suggest the need for sex-specific definitions of metabolic health.
 
Top-cited authors
Bruce HR Wolffenbuttel
  • University of Groningen
Melanie M. van der Klauw
  • University of Groningen
Sandra Nicole Slagter
  • University of Groningen
Melanie Waldenberger
  • Helmholtz Zentrum München Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt (GmbH)