Austrian History Yearbook

Published by Cambridge University Press (CUP)
Online ISSN: 1558-5255
Print ISSN: 0067-2378
Publications
Much has been written concerning the impact of World War I on the development of eugenic thinking, especially in Germany, Britain, France, Italy, and the Scandinavian countries. This has led historians to examine not only specific eugenic movements, but also the international nexus of institutional collaboration, personal affinities, and transfer of ideas. If before 1914, eugenicists from various countries were united in their quest to improve society by biological means—a form of internationalism culminating in the First International Congress on Eugenics organized in 1912 in London—during World War I, many of them engaged in national politics, devising eugenic methodologies to serve the ideological imperatives of their own countries rather than the proclaimed universalism of the prewar years.
 
In October 1915, in the middle of World War I, the chief of staff of the Royal and Imperial Army, Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf, consulted the authorities on a private matter. While “the fatherland was fighting a bloody battle for its very existence, and the army and people were turning to their generals full of alarm,” the general was contemplating marriage. However, Austrian marriage laws stood in the way of his plans. Virginia (Gina) Agujari, Conrad's “chosen one,” had since 1896 been in a Catholic marriage with the industrialist Hans von Reininghaus.
 
For a Long time, scholars of witch-hunting presented Enlightenment political reforms as a kind of ”cure” for the “craze” of witchcraft, but despite these efforts, relatively little attention was truly paid to the end of witch-hunting. Without were formulated, historians attributed changes in state policy to an emerging skepticism and rationalism within the judicial and political elites of Europe.1 At times, scholars focus upon specific, local trials in which a loss of confidence emerged among those hearing witchcraft cases, but somewhat more frequently, they examine specific regions in which, they claim, scientific values and attitudes fostered skepticism among the elites formulating policies on the crime of witchcraft.2 Although there is an undeniable validity to both approaches, their conclusions are not without controversy. Several scholars have pointed out that judicial skepticism toward the crime of witchcraft emerged even before widespread intellectual change, and they have noted that the centralization of judicial administrations led to a decrease in the number and intensity of trials well in advance of enlightened thinking.
 
Historians have conventionally presented the beginnings of Pest Jewry as a function of legal developments. According to this approach, Jews were denied entry until 1783, when Joseph Us Patent allowed Jews to settle freely in Pest and other royal free cities. “Only in 1783,” wrote historian Nathaniel Katzburg, “did the situation [for Jews] improve when Emperor Joseph II nullified the discriminatory laws directed against Hungarian Jewry, and the gates of the ‘free’ cities, including Pest, opened to Jewish settlement.” This privilege was sharply curtailed by Law 38 of 1791. This law, enacted by the National Diet following the nullification of Joseph II's Patent, barred royal free cities from evicting Jews wholesale, but allowed these cities to evict all Jews who had not obtained legal residence by 1 January 1790. As scholar Vera Bácskai pointed out: “After the death of the emperor, the Pest council wanted to expel [the Jews] and only a special order by the palatine made possible Law 38 of 1790, according to which Jews who had settled before 1790 could not be expelled from the city.” Law 38, the argument concludes, defined the parameters of Jewish settlement in Pest and other royal free cities until 1840, when the National Assembly enacted Law 29, allowing native-born and naturalized Hungarian Jews to settle freely in Pest and other royal free cities.
 
Linguists have long been aware that the ubiquitous distinction between "languages" and "dialects" has more to do with political and social forces, typically nationalism, than with objective linguistic distance. This article, an exercise in the history of (linguistic) science, examines political and social factors operating on other levels of linguistic classification than the "language-dialect" dichotomy. Nationalism and linguistic thought are mutually interactive throughout a linguistic classification system: political and social history not only affects a list of "languages," but also a list of "dialects."
 
Rauscher Walter . Die Fragile Groβmacht. Die Donaumonarchie und die europäische Staatenwelt 1866–1914. 2 vols. Vienna: Peter Lang, 2014. Pp. 1,012. - Volume 48 - Alan Sked
 
RumplerHelmut, and UrbanitschPeter, eds. Die Habsburgermonarchie 1848–1918. Band VII, Verfassung und Parlamentarismus. 1. Teilband, Verfassungsrecht, Verfasssungswirklichkeit, zentrale Repräsentationskörperschaften; 2. Teilband, Die regionalen Repräsentativkorperschaften. Vienna: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2000. 1. Teilband: Pp. 1,310, maps, tables; 2. Teilband: Pp. 1,385, tables. - Volume 33 - James Shedel
 
Arnold Suppan. 1000 Jahre Nachbarschaft. “Tschechen” und “Österreicher” in historischer Perspektive. Eine Synthese. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2017. Pp. 323. - Volume 50 - Kateřina Vnoučková
 
Paul Robert Magocsi. With Their Backs to the Mountains: A History of Carpathian Rus’ and Carpatho-Rusyns. Budapest: Central European University Press, 2015. Pp. 511, 102 illus., 34 maps. - Volume 49 - Ernest Gyidel
 
Miroslav Šedivý. Metternich, the Great Powers and the Eastern Question. Pilsen, Czech Republic: University of West Bohemia, 2013. Pp. 1033, graphs. - Volume 46 - Robert D. Billinger
 
KarstensSimon. Lehrer—Schriftsteller—Staatsreformer. Die Karriere des Joseph von Sonnenfels (1733–1817). Veröffentlichungen der Kommission für Neuere Geschichte Österreichs 106. Vienna/Cologne/Weimar: Böhlau, 2011. Pp. 508. - Volume 45 - Martin Scheutz
 
HeindlWaltraud. Josephinische Mandarine: Bürokratie und Beamte in Österreich, vol. 2, 1848–1914. (= Studien zu Politik und Verwaltung, Bd. 107), Vienna: Böhlau, 2013. - Volume 47 - Tamara Scheer
 
Taylor Jeffrey . In Search of the Budapest Secession: The Artist Proletariat and Modernism's Rise in the Hungarian Art Market, 1800–1914. St. Helena, CA: Helena History Press, 2014. Pp. 260 + 107 b/w illus. - Volume 48 - Matthew Rampley
 
Niels Brandt. Gute Ritter, böse Heiden. Das Türkenbild auf den Kreuzzügen (1095–1291). Vienna: Böhlau Verlag, 2016. Pp. 408. - Volume 49 - Laura Lisy-Wagner
 
Filip Bláha. Frauenkörper im Fokus: Wahrnehmung zwischen Straße und Turnplatz in Prag und Dresden vor dem Ersten Weltkrieg. Vol. 11: Welt–Körper–Sprache: Perspektiven kultureller Wahrnehmungs- und Darstellungsformen. Frankfurt: Peter Lang Verlag, 2013. Pp. 282, illus. - Volume 46 - Claire Nolte
 
Danielle Spera, and Werner Hanak-Lettner, eds. Displaced in Österreich/Displaced in Austria. Jüdische Flüchtlinge seit 1945/Jewish Refugees since 1945. Wiener Jahrbuch für Jüdische Geschichte, Kultur und Museumswesen 11. Vienna: Studien Verlag, 2017. Pp. 176. - Volume 50 - Emily R. Gioielli
 
KamusellaTomasz. The Politics of Language and Nationalism in Modern Central Europe. Foreword by BurkePeter. Basingstoke/New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2009. Pp. 1140. - Volume 43 - Jan Surman
 
Gertrude Enderle-Burcel, and Ilse Reiter-Zatloukal, eds.Antisemitismus in Österreich 1933‒1938. Vienna: Böhlau, 2018. Pp. 1168. - Volume 51 - Bruce F. Pauley
 
SilbersteinGerard E., The Troubled Alliance: German-Austrian Relations 1914 to 1917. Lexington, Ky.: University of Kentucky Press, 1970. Pp. xiii, 366. $12.50. - Volume 8 - Fritz Fellner
 
Kropiunigg Rafael . Eine österreichische Affäre. Der Fall Borodajkewycz. Vienna: Czernin Verlag, 2015. Pp. 120. - Volume 48 - Oliver Rathkolb
 
Manfried Rauchensteiner. Der Erste Weltkrieg und das Ende der Habsburgermonarchie 1914–1918. Vienna: Böhlau, 2013. Pp.1222, illus., maps. - Volume 46 - Mark Cornwall
 
Len Scales. The Shaping of German Identity: Authority and Crisis, 1245–1414. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012. Pp. 619, maps. - Volume 46 - David S. Bachrach
 
Timothy Snyder. On Tyranny: Twenty Lessons from the Twentieth Century. New York: Tim Duggan Books, 2017. Pp. 128. - Volume 49 - Bruce F. Pauley
 
McEwenBritta. Sexual Knowledge: Feeling, Fact and Social Reform in Vienna, 1900–1934. Austrian and Habsburg Studies 13. New York: Berghahn Books, 2012. Pp. 232. - Volume 44 - Susan Ingram
 
Katherine Arens. Vienna's Dreams of Europe: Culture and Identity Beyond the Nation-State. New Directions in German Studies 13. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015. Pp. 328. - Volume 50 - Axel Körner
 
BerendNora, PrzemysławUrbańczyk, and PrzemysławWiszewski: Central Europe in the High Middle Ages: Bohemia, Hungary and Poland, c. 900–c. 1300. Cambridge Medieval Textbooks. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013. Pp. 536. - Volume 47 - Gábor Klaniczay
 
This article addresses the onset of a decades-long conflict between the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire King Ludwig IV of Bavaria and the papacy. When Ludwig intervened on behalf of antipapal factions in northern Italy in 1323, Pope John XXII issued an ultimatum demanding that Ludwig immediately cease to exercise the royal power and title on the pretext that he had never received papal approval of his royal election. Failure to comply meant that the king would fall under sentence of excommunication. Ludwig responded with nearly identical appeals issued in Nuremberg and Frankfurt. Against previous arguments that these appeals were either legal documents operating within the confines of Roman Canon law or artifacts of protomodern realpolitik, this article argues that the “Nuremberg” and “Frankfurt Appellations” emerged from the king's preoccupation with his honor. His Appellations utilized the language and form of Roman Canon law to defame his opponent while he sought to ennoble and justify his actions with a rhetoric mirroring that in supposed repositories of imperial customary law such as the Sachsen - and Schwabenspiegel . In arguing that German custom superseded the jurisdiction of papal law in his Appellations, Ludwig elevated a discourse concerning royal elections to the highest levels of imperial politics where it would remain and find inclusion, in intent if not precise formulation, in the famed Golden Bull of 1356.
 
Ernst Langthaler. Schlachtfelder. Alltägliches Wirtschaften in der nationalsozialistischen Agrargesellschaft 1938–1945. Vienna: Böhlau Verlag, 2016. Pp. 940, 138 illus, 12 fig. - Volume 49 - Roman Sandgruber
 
Serbs in Croatia and Slavonia 1908–14: The Contested Construction, Employment, and Reception of an Ethnic Category - Volume 49 - Filip Tomić
 
KlingensteinGrete, Staatsverwaltung und kirchliche Autorität im 18. Jahrhundert. Das Problem der Zensur in der theresianischen Reform. In Österreich Archiv. Vienna: Verlag für Geschichte und Politik, 1970. Pp. 235. 140 sch. - Volume 8 - Paul P. Bernard
 
Max Siller, ed. Hans Vintler: Die Blumen der Tugend (1411). Symposium nach 600 Jahren, Schlern-Schriften, Band 362. Innsbruck: Universitätsverlag Wagner, 2015. Pp. 428. - Volume 50 - Dennis Wegener
 
Luke Gartlan. A Career of Japan: Baron Raimund von Stillfried and Early Yokohama Photography. Leiden: Brill, 2016. Pp. 376, 144 color illus., 21 b/w. - Volume 49 - Hyoungee Kong, Christopher Reed
 
LengyelEmil, And All Her Paths Were Peace: The Life of Bertha von Suttner. New York: Thomas Nelson, Inc., 1975. Pp. 144. - Volume 14 - Fritz Fellner
 
Laura Lisy-Wagner. Islam, Christianity and the Making of Czech Identity, 1453–1683. Farnham: Ashgate, 2013. Pp. 214, illus. - Volume 46 - Noel Malcolm
 
James D. Tracy Balkan Wars: Habsburg Croatia, Ottoman Bosnia, and Venetian Dalmatia, 1499–1617. London: Rowman & Littlefield, 2016. Pp. 457. - Volume 50 - Balazs Szelenyi
 
Franz Adlgasser, Jana Malínská, Helmut Rumpler, and Luboš Velek, eds. Hohes Haus! 150 Jahre moderner Parlamentarismus in Österreich, Böhmen, der Tschechoslowakei und der Republik Tschechien im mitteleuropäischen Kontext. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2015. Pp. 436. - Volume 50 - Philip J. Howe
 
Top-cited authors
Oliver Rathkolb
  • University of Vienna
Gary Cohen
  • University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Pieter Judson
  • European University Institute
Keely Stauter-Halsted
  • University of Illinois at Chicago
Daniel E. Miller
  • University of West Florida