A sample of 81 students between the ages of 18 and 22 years in a tertiary bridging program at a regional university completed a questionnaire examining how demographics, social context, academic engagement and the ability to cope with the curriculum complexity influenced academic success in high school and adversely affected their preparedness for tertiary study. The demographics of the study participants, including socio-economic status, private/public school attendance and first in family to attend university were such that the study participants could not be considered to be members of a disadvantaged group. The study supports the hypothesis that a number of the study participants are casualties of their schooling and their poor long term academic performance at high school occurred due to poor student-teacher relationships with associated poor academic engagement. The implications for educational pedagogy for educators in tertiary bridging programs are discussed.
Although a great deal of attention has been given to the nature of teaching and the qualities a good teacher ought to possess, there has been little emphasis on the specific characteristics and competencies that teacher educators should have. This paper discusses whether setting explicit standards for teacher educators would help or hinder efforts to improve the quality of teaching about teaching, touching on the viewpoints of student teachers versus professional organizations regarding standards of quality and exploring the implied and explicit standards of academic institutions for language teacher educators in the U.S. and Australia, in comparison with the less-defined standards currently present in the Turkish educational system.
professional learning beyond what is taught in lectures or gleaned through the practicum. The Webfolio project trialled alternative platforms and approaches to teaching and learning. It was developed as an online learning environment that incorporated both real people and virtual web resources. Through web-based case studies, early childhood and primary preservice teachers explored topics of professional significance to their growth as teachers. Each case study included a range of media, such as: work samples; audiotaped conversations; links to other websites; telephone and in-person professional opinions from practicing teachers, principals, social workers and welfare agents; and online discussion with other participants, including student teachers, teachers and university lecturers. The approach taken was an inquiry one, which focuses on case study as an entry point; challenging participants to think substantively as they research and explore topics of professional significance to solve the problems presented in the case studies. Case studies were based on authentic classroom situations; ones which student teachers may never encounter during their practicums, therefore requiring them to
The aim of this study is to examine the relationships between chemistry laboratory anxiety, chemistry attitudes, and self-efficacy. Participants were 395 university students. Participants completed the Chemistry Laboratory Anxiety Scale, the Chemistry Attitudes Scale, and the Self-efficacy Scale. Results showed that chemistry laboratory anxiety was correlated negatively to chemistry attitudes and to self-efficacy. On the other hand, chemistry attitudes were found to be positively associated with self-efficacy. The path model showed that self-efficacy predicted chemistry laboratory anxiety in a negative way. Also, self-efficacy has a direct and positive effect on chemistry attitudes which in turn affects chemistry laboratory.
People can improve themselves cognitively, professionally, academically, and in terms of their quality of life by continuous learning. Teachers, who are charged with bringing up new members of society, have to be aware of the importance of developing the ability to learn. This study examined how their knowledge of learning theories affected the attitudes of teacher candidates toward learning. For this purpose, students were given a scale of attitudes toward learning, as a pre-test and a post-test after introduction to the subject of learning theories. Data obtained from 150 participants were processed in SPSS 15.0; paired samples t-tests, independents samples t-tests and correlation tests were conducted. The results suggested that individuals with better understandings of the learning process are better at perceiving the nature of learning, more open to learning, have higher expectations about what they will get from learning and exhibit less anxiety in relation to learning.
There has been a growing recognition in the international education community over the last decade of the need to begin the development of teacher-researchers in preservice courses. This paper explores the perceptions of professional empowerment of beginning teachers and their development as active teacher-researchers, drawing on data from surveys conducted in Western Australia of the 1999 and 2000 preservice teacher cohort. Consistent with issues emerging from current literature, the survey data confirmed the over-riding survival mindset of beginning teachers. However, responses also provided evidence of a research mindset open to opportunities later in their teaching career and the professional confidence and skills to become members of a school community of inquiry. A process model is proposed for development of teacher-researchers through preservice course experiences
The main purpose of this study was to investigate science, social studies, and classroom teachers’ reading and writing practices, and to investigate their beliefs about content area reading and writing. One hundred and forty-three teachers filled out the survey developed to learn their content area reading and writing practices and beliefs. In the second part of the study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 teachers. The study results showed that teachers did not employ specific reading and writing strategies. They used question-asking strategy before, during, and after reading. This study concluded that there is a need for content area reading and writing courses for pre-service and in-service teachers.
This study inquires into the practicum experiences of 10 second career pre-service teachers who were enrolled in two accelerated graduate teacher education programs at a well established university in Ontario Canada. The objective was to understand the actuality of the teaching experience for teacher candidates with previous careers. The data collection drew on a semi-structured interview format and spanned nearly a six month period. The results suggest that second careerists draw heavily on their experiences from first careers and these experiences continue to shape their interpretations, attitudes and beliefs about teaching during and after the practicum. The conclusions recommend that the traditional performance based model of the practicum be replaced with a more self-directed constructivist practicum model.
Musgrave, P.W. (1992). From Humanity to Utility: Melbourne University and Public Examinations 1856-1964. Hawthorn: ACER. 340 pages.Batten, M, Marland, P. & Khamis, M. (1993). Knowing How to Teach Well: Teachers Reflect on Their Classroom Practice. Hawthorn: ACER Research Monograph, 84 pages.Griffin, P. (1991). Monitoring School Achievements. Geelong, Victoria: Deakin University Press. 76 pages.Izard, J. (1991). Assessment of Learning in the Classroom. Geelong, Victoria: Deakin University Press. 62 pages.Ormell, C. (1991). Behavioural Objectives in the Classroom. Geelong, Victoria: Deakin University Press. 73 pages.Owens, A. (1991). Assessment in Specific Circumstances. Geelong, Victoria: Deakin University Press. 46 pages.Withers, G. (1991). From Marks to Profiles and Records of Achievement. Geelong, Victoria: Deakin University Press. 74 pages.Brady, L. (1992). Curriculum Development (4th ed.). Sydney: Prentice-Hall, 308 pages.
As Australian education departments and teacher education institutions become aware of international trends, they are keen to implement quickly pedagogical and curriculum changes that are being promoted as best practice for schools of the twenty-first century. One such recent change has been the inclusivity movement. There remain, however, many unresolved issues for teachers that fall outside these new paradigm shifts but still require urgent attention.
This research used qualitative methods to gather the perceptions of regular classroom teachers and students with and without mild disabilities (MD) about an inclusive program implemented in three separate classrooms and designed to enhance both the academic and social engagement of a small number of students with MD. Teachers acknowledged that these strategies resulted in improvements in their classroom approach and in positive outcomes for students. Two of the three teachers considered that the strategies resulted in limited academic gains, but provided opportunities for students with MD to enhance their social experience. All students were positive about certain changes to their classroom, particularly in working with their peers, but did not see the classroom teachers’ instructional methodologies as being different, despite a series of changes to the classroom pedagogy. Teacher and student discussions about the strategies implemented are presented and the implications for practice, teacher education and future research are discussed.
The need to make trainee teachers more prepared to coach collaborative learning effectively is increasing, as collaborative learning is becoming more important. One complication in this training process is that it is hard for the teacher trainer to hear and understand the students’ utterances and those of the coaching trainee teacher. Besides, it is essential that the teacher trainer does not intervene with the students directly. This constraint is a strong plea for facilitating the direct whispered suggestions by an earpiece to the trainee teacher. In this study, first of all an instrument for measuring the quality of the teacher behaviour during collaborative learning was developed. Subsequently, it was concluded that the quality of the pedagogical action and the reaction time of the trainee teacher in the synchronous condition (direct interventions via an earpiece) progressed better than in the traditional asynchronous variant (coaching form with a discussion at the end of the lesson). The final request for validation is: to what extent reflects the video recognition task reflects the teacher performance in a full real life setting?
Professional practica are an essential part of teacher education and other professional education programs, but university staff often express concern that prac. experiences are fundamentally conservative, emphasising preparation for the status quo rather than for what might be. In recent years other forms of workplace-based university learning have been devised, where staff have sought to build units of study around a core of reflective practice, action research and professional development. This paper describes one such initiative, a final semester internship for fourth year education students which enabled them to design and negotiate their own professional development plans in any one of a wide variety of educational settings. These included educational publishers, seniors programs, mining companies, environmental education projects, grief counselling, performing arts and community literacy programs, among others. The Internship was conceived as a collaborative action research project, so the experiences of all participants including our own have been used as part of the ongoing process of shaping and improving the Internship as an opportunity for self-directed personal-professional development.
This research tests the effectiveness of taking learning style variables from the Kolb learning model in designing strategic planning seminars. We observe in our research that the participants in the seminar – school principals – positively judge the effectiveness of the seminar. The research also tests the seminar’s effectiveness in terms of the appropriateness of the schools’ strategic plans. The research finds that the plans are largely successful. The findings indicate that the effectiveness of in-service training seminars increases when the learning styles of the participants are taken into account when planning the seminars.
Previous studies indicate that many preservice science teachers lack facility with those formal reasoning patterns that are critical for learning science. The purpose of this project was to develop, implement and evaluate a curriculum package directed at improving preservice secondary science teachers' scientific thinking. A matched treatment-control, quasi-experimental design revealed significant gains achieved through use of the curriculum materials.
The Minister for Employment, Education and Training, the Hon. Kim Beazley (1993, p. 11) announced the provision of $20 million over the following three years to support the development of key competencies and the "development of a prototype training and development package for teachers/trainers." This announcement highlights the significance currently accorded to competency based standards for teaching and teacher education. The identification of teacher competencies and the specification of competency based standards for entry (and promotion?) in the profession has the potential to restructure the workplace in schools by specifying what is done and who controls it. Together with the more general vocational competency developments, it could influence what is taught, how it is taught and how it is assessed. Because of this significance, it was decided to devote a special issue of the Australian Journal of Teacher Education to this topic.
Student-teacher distress has the potential to impact on the individuals who are to become teachers, the profession and the education system. This review examines what is known of psychological distress among university students, teachers and student-teachers, the demands associated with their practical experiences and the known impact of psychological distress. A brief overview of contemporary stress management approaches is also presented. The reviewer contends that the potential problem for prospective teachers requires a holistic approach, beginning through understanding contemporary strategies available to individual university students, and preventative stress management programs provided within tertiary education, which may be made available to future student-teachers.
The study investigated the impact of professional development (PD) in Indigenous teaching on teachers' psychological and behavioural aspects, and Indigenous students' learning engagement. Adopting a multiple-indicator-multiple-indicator-cause model, frequency of PD was found to have positive paths to teachers' self-concept in Indigenous teaching and all the teaching strategies, but had a non-significant path to students' learning, suggesting the more frequently teachers are involved in PD in Indigenous teaching, the higher self-concept they had in teaching Indigenous children and the more frequently they adopted Indigenous teaching strategies. The availability of Aboriginal Education Officers (AEOs), however, had a significant and negative path on learning engagement. That is, Indigenous students' were perceived to be less engaged in learning with AEOs present in the school. An interaction effect was also found between PD and AEOs, indicating that the effectiveness of AEOs in Indigenous students' learning may depend on whether teachers actively attend PD programs.
Research into language teachers' self-efficacy (LTSE) beliefs, a domain-specific branch of research into teachers' selfefficacy (TSE) beliefs in general education, has emerged in the past 16 years. To date, though, this emergent domain-specific research field has not been described in depth, with most accounts of it summarised very briefly, even in published research that provides empirical data relating to the specific topic of LTSE beliefs. Guided by a synthetic research ethic, this literature review aims to explore the gap. It highlights the characteristics of this LTSE beliefs research field, discussing the methodology employed by various studies that have elicited LTSE beliefs, indicating their areas of focus and evaluating what can be learned from them. Finally, it raises implications for teacher education and highlights potential research directions for quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods designs, offering suggestions that may benefit (teacher-educator) researchers.
Throughout the time of my teaching career, the tide has exposed changes in the nature of music, students and music education. This paper discusses teaching and learning in contemporary music at seven critical stages of 21st century music education: i) diverse types of undergraduate learners ii) teaching traditional classical repertoire and skills to contemporary music students iii) transitioning undergraduates through pre-service teaching into the workforce iv) supervisory pedagogy for creative work higher degree research models v) upskilling established teachers in musical practice and pedagogy vi) professional development for adult community musicians vii) disseminating learning back into music and teacher education. Constant elements in this landscape are musicianship, practice, creativity, employment, aesthetic expression and personal fulfilment. Shifting sands include characteristics of learners, pedagogy, delivery, technology, industry trends, and learning through consecutive career stages. The final scenario addresses challenges for musicians and teachers to maintain their creative practice through self-directed lifelong learning.
What kinds of teachers are needed for 21st century learners? While there is recognition that curriculum content, classroom practices and learning environments must alter, there is less attention focussed on the teachers' dispositions for negotiating uncertainty. In this paper, the authors turn their attention to the importance of teachers' lives and mindsets to meet current, emerging and future challenges. Using a narrative inquiry approach, they elicit and examine three of these essential qualities: adventure, resilience and creative problem-solving. These characteristics emerge from interviewing a small group of beginning and experienced teachers who were questioning normative practices and exploring possibilities with more responsive ways to teach.
This paper presents a review of the literature pertaining to the teacher actions that influence Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander student learning outcomes. This review investigates two foci: the identification of teacher actions influencing learning outcomes for Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander students and the methodological approach to how the influence of teacher behaviours on student learning has been determined. The literature review identifies that published literature in the effective teaching area is predominantly in the 'good ideas' category; that is assertions are made by authors with no research-based evidence for supporting such claims, especially through quantitative research which seeks to test the influence of specific facets of quality teaching, especially those facets identified by Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander students as the qualities of effective teachers. Where there is evidence supporting best practices, the evidence is primarily qualitative in nature. The review affirms the need for empirical evidence to "tease out facets of quality teaching that are salient to Aboriginal students; elucidate their perspectives of teacher quality; and test the influence of specific facets of quality teaching on academic outcomes and the consequences of the findings for developing interventions for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students.
This research inquiry explores teacher educator knowledge, understandings and beliefs informing their teaching in a web-based Australian teacher education program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. Through the use of a phenomenologically aligned interview process, the study investigates instructors' consideration of practice for teaching in an on-line environment. Using the TPACK framework (Mishra & Koehler, 2006) as a lens for analysis, what emerges from the data is how lecturers' knowledge and beliefs about students influences the roles they adopt as educators, and how this influences, in turn, what and how technology is used to support student learning. The study ends by critiquing and re-conceptualizing TPACK and providing insights that program developers and teacher educators need to consider in the conceptualization and enrichment of web-based learning, especially those which engage with minority students, such as Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander learners.
This paper reports findings from a systematic literature review conducted to identify effective behaviour management strategies which create a positive learning environment for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. The search criteria employed resulted in 103 documents which were analysed in response to this focus. Results identified eight themes underpinning strategies for effective behaviour management. Despite the suggested actions, the review highlights that little empirical research has been conducted to validate effective classroom behaviour management strategies; strategies which may also be used to inform teacher education. Considering the high representation of Indigenous students in statistics related to behaviour infringements and other negative school outcomes, this review affirms the urgent need for research to investigate and establish empirically what constitutes effective behaviour management for Indigenous students.
This article reports on action research conducted at a primary school in rural New South Wales, Australia. The research responded to an expressed school aspiration to foster greater understanding of local Aboriginal culture, historical perspectives and knowledge systems within the school. An exploratory model was developed using a mixed methods approach to investigate non- Aboriginal teacher perceptions and self-efficacy with teaching Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander content specified in the Australian Curriculum. A Bush Tucker Garden was established as a 'Pathway of Knowledge' acting as a vehicle for collaboration between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal stakeholders. Through their participation in this project the teachers were brought together with local Gumbaynggirr Elders, creating a space for the sharing of social capital. Teacher cultural knowledge and understanding was strengthened, enriching the student's learning experience. The findings are of relevance to primary school teachers, curriculum stakeholders and education providers in the broader field of Aboriginal education.
This paper summarizes the findings from the first phase of a three-part project which, overall, investigates what Aboriginal¹ students perceive as the qualities and actions of effective teachers and subsequently seeks to determine the impact of the enactment of these identified qualities on educational outcomes. This first phase of the research was centered on gathering accounts of quality teachers and teaching practice from students, parents and their teachers from phenomenologically aligned interviews. Similar and contrasting themes among these three groups are presented, with the intention of exposing potential mismatch in perception of the construct of 'quality' teaching. Finally, we present implications of this research in light of the more recent development of professional standards for Australian teachers that seek to define and evaluate high quality teaching.
Djarlgarra Koolunger (Canning River kids) is a culturally centred outdoor learning project referred to as 'On Country Learning' or OCL. The project explores Aboriginal connectedness to the spiritual, social, cultural, environmental and geographic dimensions of particular outdoor spaces. This allows Indigenous and non- Indigenous students and their educators to connect at what Nakata (2007) terms the 'cultural interface'. OCL offers opportunities to transform the ways in which schools engage with Aboriginal perspectives whilst facilitating deep learning through what we describe as culturally responsive pedagogies. This paper stories the journey of Aboriginal students and their teachers, engaging in learning that is situated on Country. We examine the involvement of children when learning on Country and provide analysis using the Leuven Involvement Scales (1994). The analysis compares this group of children in a classroom context and an on Country context over a period of six months and provides preliminary evidence of the efficacy of this approach.
This study presents the outcomes of the first phase of a three phase research initiative which begins by identifying through the voices of Aboriginal1 students and community members the teaching practices that influence Aboriginal student engagement and learning. The study occurs within the Diocese of Townsville Catholic Education schools in North Queensland, primarily in the Mount Isa area. Through open-ended interviews, Aboriginal students and community members express their views of the characteristics of effective teachers and effective teaching. Considering that the national education discourse in Australia is monopolised by discussion on teaching and teacher quality, we problematize this discourse based upon what members of the local Aboriginal community assert as characteristics of effective teachers and their practice. Further phases of this research initiative, which investigate the effect of adjusted practice based upon community members' assertions, are also presented.
Over the past decade Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander studies and perspectives have been mandated across the Australian national curriculum and all teachers are now required to demonstrate strategies for teaching Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students and have a broad knowledge of Aboriginal histories, cultures and languages. This paper describes a project focused on enabling Aboriginal Education Workers (AEWs) to play a critical role in transforming these initiatives into real and sustainable change through authentic, technology-based pedagogy. Indigenous research methodologies and design-based research (DBR) were used to investigate the potential educational roles for AEWs enabled by e-learning and new technologies. The project, called Skilling Up: Improving educational opportunities for AEWs through technology based pedagogy was funded by the Office of Learning and Teaching. This paper reports on the findings of the study conducted in Western Australia, including pre-study survey results, together with a description of a unit of study to provide opportunities for AEWs to use technologies in their work, and to create authentic digital stories for use in teacher education. The development of design principles for the design of such environments is also discussed.
Arising from the author's experiences as a high school teacher, and now teacher educator and education researcher, this article is motivated by concerns to do with 'good' schooling practices in connection with Indigenous education in Australia. More specifically, the paper critically considers the enduring and worrying influences of 'Aboriginal learning style theory', alongside considering the possibilities of culturally responsive approaches. While interest in culturally responsive schooling is growing, the argument put forward here is that concomitant with these efforts, more attention needs to be invested into teasing out how and why this approach differs from learning styles in significant ways, such as by focusing on the sociopolitical consciousness of students in schooling. Thus, a deeper engagement with the cultural politics of education itself may make a useful contribution to the changes needed if education practices are to genuinely move beyond attempting to 'fix' the Indigenous 'problem'.
The components of effective classroom management are well established; yet concerns regarding student disengagement and the underuse of evidence-based behaviour support practices in Australian schools remain. This paper reports the findings from a systematic literature review conducted to identify what is currently known about teacher implementation of evidence-based classroom management practices. The analysis indicates that teachers underuse many evidence-based practices but may over-report frequency of use. Australian research on teacher implementation of evidence-based practices for classroom management is lacking, and the impact of Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support (SWPBS) implementation on teacher practice is unknown, despite the adoption of SWPBS in many Australian jurisdictions.
Improving student academic performance in seniorsecondary education increases student opportunities for employment, training and further education. The aim of this research was to identify students', completing the Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) Physical Education, perceptions of teacher-related factors that influence subject specific academic performance. Unit 3 and 4 VCE Physical Education students (n = 23) from three government secondary schools and one independent secondary school in Victoria, Australia completed poster annotations identifying their perception of the 'perfect' VCE Physical Education teacher. The de-identified data from the posters were transcribed verbatim, coded and analysed using NVivo software to explore student perceptions of teacherrelated factors that influence academic performance. Emergent themes from the poster annotations suggested that student's perceptions of the 'perfect' VCE Physical Education teacher included the teacher-related factors of knowledge (of subject matter), verbal ability, caring, enthusiasm and teacher accessibility.
This research explored teacher perceptions of how they influence academic performance of Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) Physical Education students. VCE Physical Education teachers (n = 37) from 31 secondary schools in Victoria, Australia participated in a qualitative study using focus groups with a semistructured interview schedule. Recorded focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim, coded and analysed (NVivo 11). A socialecological model was used to categorise emergent themes. At the individual level teachers perceived content knowledge, expectations, passion and enthusiasm, pedagogical content knowledge and use of reflective practices to inform teaching as key factors influencing student academic performance. Social level influences identified were positive student-teacher relationships and student access to the teacher outside of class time. The emergent themes highlight the teacher perceptions of the key factors of effective teaching in this context. Professional learning opportunities to improve effectiveness of pre-service and in-service teachers of senior-secondary physical education are discussed.
This paper studies the difference between the pedagogical thought units of ELT practitioners with English-relevant degrees and those with non-relevant degrees. An entire teaching session of eight EFL teachers' performance was video recorded and their pedagogical thoughts were identified by using stimulated recall technique. The findings revealed that, in general, teachers with English-related degrees significantly reported more pedagogical thoughts than their colleagues with unrelated degrees. With respect to the categories of pedagogical thoughts, although the same families were reported by participants in both groups, there were slight differences in their rankings and significant differences in their frequency.
This research aimed to explore student perceptions of
teacher-related factors that may influence academic achievement in
the context of Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) Physical
Education. This qualitative study involved 23 VCE Physical Education
students from three government and one independent secondary
school in Victoria, Australia. Focus groups utilising a semi-structured
interview schedule explored student perceptions of teacher-related
factors on academic achievement. The importance of teachers having
a good ‘attitude’, a broad repertoire of teaching strategies, making
real-world connections, developing positive student-teacher
relationships and facilitating access to themselves outside of
scheduled class time were perceived by students as important
The paper discusses the results of a research study to determine what characteristics outstanding university lecturers have in common. Academic staff and graduate students at an Australian university were invited to participate in a survey questionnaire followed by voluntary interviews. Lecturers who had been identified as outstanding were also interviewed. The five characteristics were expertise, holistic approach to learning, engaging the student, open door policy and ambitious altruists. This study found that outstanding lecturers were unconventional in their work practices and valued student learning often at the sacrifice of their own career paths. Outstanding university lecturers are ambitious altruists who are working in an increasingly bureaucratized system.
Nebulous combinations of face-to-face and online learning are increasingly common across Australian higher education contexts. This paper reports on part of a redesign project of an undergraduate education subject at a regional university. The aim of the redesign was to enhance e-learning and blended learning environments. An approach that maps the evaluation research activities to the design and development cycle of e-learning tools and learning tasks was adopted (Phillips et al., 2012). The research took a participatory format involving ongoing reflective exchange with pre-service teachers with the aim of transforming practice. The article presents the context of e-learning, blended learning and drivers of curriculum renewal in teacher education at a regional institution and discusses the phases of the redesign project which adopted an action research approach. Finally the paper discusses the implications of the redesign for informing future practice and in approaching elearning and blended learning curriculum design.
Within an era of seemingly ever-increasing school accountability to both Federal and State jurisdictions in Australia, the impact of such requirements has received little attention in the literature. This research project was designed specifically to investigate the impact of compliance requirements on school leaders' workloads. The literature reviewed finds that detraction from the key role of leading teaching and learning due to spending so much time on compliance requirements leads to disenchantment with the role of the principal and is a leading contributor to why so few aspirants are pursuing a career as a principal. Eleven semi-structured interview questions were developed and analysis of the data revealed three broad themes: the use of resources required to meet compliance; the perceived value of the request for compliance; and, the impact of compliance on the independent nature of the school, educational leadership and personal cost. The findings not only have implications for current school leaders, but also undergraduate and postgraduate course structures, particularly in educational leadership units, as the nature of the demands revealed in this study should be considered within course content.
This study investigated the effects of the GLAMA (Girls! Lead! Achieve! Mentor! Activate!) and BLAST (Boys! Lead! Activate! Succeed Together!) controlled 8-week peer-led stealth intervention on school connectedness and physical activity self-efficacy(PASE). The GLAMA and BLAST sessions were conducted during curriculum time in an Australian state secondary school by 49 Year 10 student leaders and 206 Year 7 students. Year 7 school connectedness decreased in both the control and intervention schools (p < .001). Baseline social self-efficacy was the largest single predictor of change in Year 7 school connectedness (p < .001). PASE increased in both schools over the 8-weeks (p=.054), with the intervention school improving more. School connectedness may require greater time to elicit positive changes and integrated curriculum approaches that include ongoing peer mentoring are warranted. As school connectedness is a protective factor for many public health outcomes, a stealth approach requires further investigation particularly exploring the role of process motivators.
The general chemistry laboratory is an appropriate place for learning chemistry well. It is also effective for stimulating higher-order thinking skills, including reflective thinking, a skill that is crucial for science teaching as well as learning. This study aims to examine the effects of feedback-supported reflective journal-keeping activities on first-year pre-service science teachers' achievement. The pre-service science teachers were observed for eight weeks by collecting their journals. At the beginning and end of this process, an achievement test was administered. At the end of the study, the participants were also interviewed. It was found that feedback-supported reflective journalkeeping activities improved the first-year pre-service science teachers' achievement scores, and the majority of the participants believed that the activities had positive effects on their meta-cognition and learning.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of three graphic organizers for teaching vocabulary and the development of the emotions-related to achievement. The study focused on the effects of different types of graphic organizers on word-learning and various emotions in social studies. This study was designed as a quasi-experimental design by utilizing a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. The experimental group was instructed on vocabulary by using the Concept definition map, a Word-questioning strategy and a Circle thinking map for word-learning, while the control group was taught to use the C(2)QU [(Context (2)-Questioning-Using)] as a process of learning new vocabulary from context. The participants of this study were fourthgrade students from a state school in Bayburt, Turkey. The results indicated that the graphic organizers group was more successful than the comparison group in terms of improving general word recognition knowledge and meaningful leaps in acquisition of target word meanings. In addition, it was found that using different types of graphic organizers developed positive achievement emotions (i.e., enjoyment, hope and pride) more than contextual learning process in social studies.
In the present study, the comprehension levels of special relativity theory in prospective teachers who take the Introduction to Modern Physics lesson in the faculty of education science teaching department and the effect of writing for learning on their achievement is researched. In the research, a control group pre-test post-test quasi-experimental research model was used. Research data were obtained by using open-ended questions prepared by the researcher. The lesson was conducted in the beginning by using the verbal-written explanation method. Then each student in the experimental group wrote a summary which clearly explains the special relativity theory for a high school student within the framework of the writing for learning activity. By contrast, the control group students solved the problems related to the subject in the course book. A total of 73 students (51 female and 22 male) studying at the second grade in the 2011-2012 academic year participated in the study. The research findings showed that the comprehension levels of special relativity theory in prospective teachers were low; the result obtained by the qualitative and quantitative comparison of the post-test results of the experimental and control groups and their achievement percentage in the exam were in favor of the experimental group. Furthermore, 87.2% of the students who wrote down their opinions about the activity of writing for learning understood the special relativity theory; and the activity of writing for learning was effective in learning the special relativity theory.
Teacher-mediated classroom assessment might have significant impacts on learners' academic achievements and teachers' development. The current study investigated teachers' assessment literacy and its impact on their current assessment practices and learners' writing outcomes. The study sought to gain an understanding of the extent to which teachers' assessment literacy affects their practices and their learners' outcomes. To conduct the study and gather the required data, the researchers employed teachers' assessment literacy inventory, semi-structured interview, non-participatory observation, and Writing Competence Rating Scale (WCRS). Ten male EFL instructors and 75 male sophomores from Iranian EFL contexts were selected from four language schools in Iran. The results of the study indicated that teachers' assessment literacy has a statistically significant impact on learners' writing achievements and teachers' assessment awareness leads teaching environments into effective and motivated assessment design. These findings suggest language educators considering teachers' assessment awareness in their teacher education programs.
The numeracy capabilities of pre-service teachers are a recent focus in the Australian educational system. In this article, we discuss findings from an analysis of data from the Literacy and Numeracy Test for Initial Teacher Education Students (LANTITE), which is administered by the Australian Council for Educational Research. In our analysis, we considered numeracy test data from 20 students from one Australian university: those who achieved the 10 highest and the 10 lowest overall numeracy scores in 2016 at this university on their first attempt of the test. We found that these groups clearly have particular characteristics that were linked to their success or failure on the numeracy test. We discuss programs and resources that the university has made available for students in preparation for the LANTITE and provide additional suggestions to support such students going forward.
Teachers are responsible for meeting the needs of increasingly diverse learners. Given their position as catalysts for educational change, teachers' positive attitudes towards inclusive education must be considered prerequisite to its success in Australian classrooms. This study investigated the extent to which pre-service training affects pre-service primary teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education. A survey was designed to examine such attitudes among primary pre-service teachers at all year levels of their Bachelor of Education (Primary). To reflect the increasingly broad definition of inclusion established in the literature, participants' attitudes towards gifted and talented students, those learning English as a second language or dialect and those with disabilities were considered. Using a sample of 56 primary pre-service teachers from three metropolitan universities in Australia, this study examined the nature of these attitudes according to child, teacher and environment related variables across the training years. Results showed that primary pre-service teachers' attitudes towards inclusion were generally positive and strengthened across the training years, though they varied according to demographic characteristics, constructs and areas of inclusion. The findings of this study have implications for teacher educators, teacher education institutions and future research.