Australasian Journal of Information Systems

Online ISSN: 1326-2238
Publications
The SEPA Process Funnel 
Venn Diagram from KA Session 1 
Example RIVT Query Interface for Requirements Reuse Analysis 
Article
As more organizations attempt to reuse previous development efforts and incorporate legacy systems, typical software development activities have transitioned from unique ground-up coding efforts to the integration of new code, legacy code, and COTS implementations. This transition has brought on a whole new set of development issues, including resolving mismatches between integrated components and tracing legacy and COTS components to requirements. This paper presents the Systems Engineering Process Activities (SEPA) methodology, developed to address these and other issues in current software development practices. SEPA aids the reuse and integration process by focusing on requirements integration and evolution, while maintaining traceability to requirements gathered from domain experts and end users. The SEPA methodology supports the development process by promoting requirements analysis prior to design, separation of domain-based and application-based (i.e. implementation-speci...
 
Tuple identity conflicts
Meta conflicts: relation vs. attribute
Meta conflicts: attributes vs. data values
Article
. A main problem of data integration is the treatment of conflicts caused by different modeling of real-world entities, different data models or simply by different representations of one and the same object. During the integration phase these conflicts have to be identified and resolved as part of the mapping between local and global schemata. Therefore, conflict resolution affects the definition of the integrated view as well as query transformation and evaluation. In this paper we present a SQL extension for defining and querying database federations. This language addresses in particular the resolution of integration conflicts by providing mechanisms for mapping attributes, restructuring relations as well as extended integration operations. Finally, the application of these resolution strategies is briefly explained by presenting a simple conflict resolution method. 1 Introduction Nowadays integrating heterogeneous data sources is a significant challenge to the database...
 
Article
Information is one of the most valuable assets of an organization and when used properly can assist in intelligent decision making that can significantly improve the functioning of an organization. Data Warehousing is a recent technology that allows information to be easily and efficiently accessed for decision making activities. On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) tools are well-suited for complex data analysis, such as multidimensional data analysis, and to assist in decision support activities which access data from a separate repository, called a data warehouse, that selects data from many operational, legacy, and possibly heterogeneous data sources. Data mining tools take the process one step further and actively search the data for patterns and hidden knowledge in data warehouses for decision support. Today, many organizations are building, or are planning to develop a data warehouse for their operational and decision support needs. In this paper, we present an overview of data warehousing, multidimensional databases, OLAP and data mining technology. We also discuss recent developments in data warehouse modelling, view selection and maintenance, indexing schemes, parallel query processing, and data mining issues. A number of technical issues for exploratory research are presented and possible solutions are discussed. 1
 
Article
This paper outlines and analyses the behaviours of small and medium enterprises with respect to the evaluation of electronic commerce investments, and the subsequent realisation of the anticipated benefits from those investments. The responses of executives who participated in the study suggested that on-going involvement in electronic commerce did not come cheaply. Nonetheless, our study suggests that there were generally ad hoc approaches to evaluation of the proposed electronic commerce investments, almost non-existent postimplementation reviews, few measures of success, and generally speaking, there was little evidence of there being proactive management of the realisation of benefits of those investments. Perhaps not surprisingly, the group interviewed seemed somewhat disappointed with the outcomes of their electronic commerce initiatives. The implications of these findings are discussed, particularly for countries where small and medium enterprises contribute a large proportion of total economic activity, and where thus it is vital for small and medium enterprises to successfully engage in electronic commerce if the country is to derive the benefits of the new economy .
 
Article
Since integrated business applications demonstrate weaknesses, intermediate solutions positioned in between packages and custom-made software need to be explored. One suggestion for such an adaptable architecture uses a functionally stable core with peripheral applications. This architecture accounts for software market dynamics and interests of different parties involved. The ideas developed stem from a case study in the German market for small business software. The case describes the problems within this business configuration and presents a technical solution that implements a core application approach.
 
The model of Nonaka and Konno of organisational knowledge creation processes
Primary intranet use modes for facilitating knowledge creation Socialisation (facilitated by intranet interaction)
Article
Many organisations have embraced intranets with the intent of harnessing the technology to support knowledge management initiatives. Despite the promise that intranet technology holds in this regard, many of the early research studies indicate rather disappointing results. In this paper we propose a model that organisations can use to conceptualise and reflect on their intranet applications with a view towards more fruitful results, specifically in terms of knowledge creation. We do so by drawing upon Nonaka's well-known framework of knowledge creation and combining that with a taxonomy of five intranet use modes. For each of Nonaka's four knowledge creating activities we associate and describe the corresponding primary intranet use mode that we argue can foster the knowledge creation process. We illustrate the arguments with findings from our own empirical intranet field studies and other documented intranet-related knowledge management research. We conclude with some implications of the model and we suggest avenues for further research.
 
Article
We present a systematic evaluation of different modeling techniques for the design of Geographic Information Systems as we experienced them through theoretical research and real world applications. A set of exemplary problems for spatial systems on which the suitability of models can be tested is discussed. We analyze the use of a specific database design methodology including the phases of conceptual, logical and physical modeling. By employing, at each phase, representative models of classical and object-oriented approaches we assess their efficiency in spatial data handling. At the conceptual phase, we show how the Entity-Relationship, IFO and OMT models deal with the geographic needs; at the logical phase we argue why the relational model is good to serve as a basis to accommodate these requirements, but not good enough as a stand alone solution. Keywords: Geographic Information Systems, spatial requirements, spatial database modeling, conceptual geographic models, logical geograp...
 
Article
As part of a study to investigate the state of Information Systems research in Australia, a survey of the heads of all IS discipline groups in Australian universities was conducted in mid 2005. The study revealed a wide range of topics researched (with rapid growth in Electronic Commerce and Knowledge Management), a range of foci, a balance between positivist and interpretivist research, survey was the most frequently used research method, and most research was directed at informing IS professionals. A SWOT analysis identified the growing importance of industry relevance and collaboration.
 
Article
In 2007 we published a paper describing the approach the Australian Council of Professors and Heads of Information Systems (ACPHIS) had used in developing a ranked list of information systems journals. In late 2007 more details became available on the DEST requirements relating to journal and conference rankings for the Research Quality Framework (RQF). This prompted a response from the ACPHIS community and a review of the first list. As our original paper was written and published prior to the review and further work has been undertaken on the development of the list, it is therefore appropriate to provide an update of the revised Ranking list and the process undertaken to arrive at the updated list. Although the RQF in its current form has been abandoned, for the community maintaining a Ranking list is still important, and may be used in a revised version of the RQF in the near future. This addendum describes the process undertaken to arrive at the new extended ranking list.
 
Article
Software Process Improvement (SPI) 'best practice' models such as ISO 9000 and the Capability Maturity Model Integrated (CMMI) have been developed to assist software development organisations by harnessing their experience and providing them with support so that they can produce software products on time, within budget and to a high level of quality. However there is increasing evidence that these models are not being adopted by Small to Medium sized Enterprises (SME) and primarily remain the remit of large organisations. This paper presents the results of a Grounded Theory study into why Irish SME software product companies are not using these SPI models. The key inhibiting factor found was the issue of cost. We discuss the findings in relation to cost of process and the factors affecting it, including bureaucracy, documentation, communication, tacit knowledge and organisational creativity and flexibility, and the associated impact on the adoption of SPI best practice models.
 
Article
This study examines the issue of technology acceptance in a multi-campus secondary college in Sydney, Australia. Seventy-five teachers across two campuses were surveyed regarding technology acceptance. Regression analysis was used to compare the explanatory power of the perceived characteristics of innovating model (PCIM), and the technology acceptance model (TAM). Both models explained a substantial amount of variation in technology acceptance. However, our findings indicate that it is preferable to use the PCIM, rather than the TAM, to explain intention to use an information technology innovation. Implications for both future research and practice are discussed.
 
Article
This article examines the issue of the acceptance of technology across two cultures. To do this an extended technology acceptance model was tested in China and the US. Over one hundred participants, across both cultures, were surveyed as to their perceptions regarding technology acceptance. Cultural values were also measured for each group. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the research model. In general, the model explained a more than adequate amount of variance and achieved acceptable levels of significance. Differences across the two cultures were explained utilizing the cultural values of the participants. Implications for both research and practice were provided
 
Article
This paper presents a framework on how Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) can proactively incorporate content relating to their ecological responsibility (or green) activities in their websites. SME studies offer limited guidance on, and conceptualisation of, how organisations can incorporate different types of content into their website designs. This paper addresses this problem by presenting the results of an exploratory, qualitative content analysis of Australian SME websites where emergent themes are interpreted using framing and legitimacy theories. The themes are grouped under three dimensions (location, presentation, and specificity) to form a theoretically-informed framework. The paper outlines how scholars can use the framework to develop models and carry out evaluations regarding how SMEs embed green content, and potentially other specific content types, in their websites. It also summarises how the framework can assist SMEs (or website developers serving them) make informed decisions regarding framing their websites as green, or de-emphasising this content, by paying attention to its location (e.g. homepage, navigation bars) and presentation (e.g. how paragraphs, images, etc are used) within webpages. The legitimacy or credibility of the green content can be enhanced using different types of specificity (e.g. statistics, detail of processes and actions, and third-party substantiation).
 
Article
Heuristic evaluation is a rapid, cheap and effective way for identifying usability problems in single user systems. However, current heuristics do not provide guidance for discovering problems specific to groupware usability. In this paper, we take the Locales Framework and restate it as heuristics appropriate for evaluating groupware. These are: 1) Provide locales; 2) Provide awareness within locales; 3) Allow individual views; 4) Allow people to manage and stay aware of their evolving interactions; and 5) Provide a way to organize and relate locales to one another. To see if these new heuristics are useful in practice, we used them to inspect the interface of Teamwave Workplace, a commercial groupware product. We were successful in identifying the strengths of Teamwave as well as both major and minor interface problems.
 
Research Model
Interaction of Mimetic and Coercive Pressures (product stewardship) 
Article
This article examines how institutional pressures affect the adoption of green IS & IT across organizations. From the natural-resource-based perspective, it examines green IS & IT practices with strategic foci on pollution prevention, product stewardship, and sustainable development. Each category incorporates the separate roles played by IT (as a problem) and IS (as a solution). The partial least square method was employed to analyze the survey replies from 75 organizations. The results show that mimetic and coercive pressures significantly drive green IS & IT adoption. In particular, outcome-based imitation and imposition-based coercion represent major institutional processes. The results also suggest the complementary relationship between mimetic and coercive pressures. Such interaction significantly motivates the green IS & IT adoption focusing on product stewardship. These findings contribute to existing knowledge on the pro-environmental behaviors of organizations, demonstrate the interaction between institutional forces, and further current understanding of green IS & IT adoption The study concludes with a general discussion of eco-goals and their relationship to institutional theory before considering the implications and directions for research and practice.
 
Article
Fundamental to the development of new customer value offerings via web-based commerce is a small firm's ability to strategically acquire and exploit knowledge. The focus of this paper is the empirical testing of a normative web-based commerce adoption model developed from a review of the extant literature related to electronic marketing, the Internet and the diffusion of new innovations. A preliminary test of the model's theoretical contentions lent support to its overall focus, but found that the firm's existing learning capabilities were diminished during the adoption of web-based commerce. Consequently, sub-optimal adoption outcomes were associated with insufficient knowledge development.
 
Customer Service Ttopology (Karimi, Somers & Gupta, 2001:130).
Article
There is currently a thrust in Australia to move to whole of e-government. At the centre of this initiative is the need to ensure high quality customer relationship management (CRM). There is a paucity of research into CRM in the public sector and this research breaks new ground by exploring the level of customer relationship management (CRM) implementation in a large Australian Federal Government agency. Using a quantitative survey approach, data were collected through the distribution of an electronic questionnaire to IT heads of 23 departments in one large Australian Federal Government agency. The main finding of the research is that although a few of the departments have implemented CRM at the highest level, the majority of the departments are still in the lower levels of CRM implementation. Differences in IT management practices and their impact on CRM status are also measured and their impact on CRM implementation is discussed. Finally, recommendations for moving to more advanced stages of CRM implementations are made.
 
Article
One of the most difficult issues in building efficient Information Systems (IS) is the integration of these systems with the organization's other systems. This issue is particularly acute for Decision Support Systems (DSSs). To become more effective and efficient, a DSS must have an open structure to adapt to the dynamic environment. However, current IS, especially DSSs, tend to rely excessively on traditional System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) and this places limitations on current systems' infrastructures. The emergence of multi-agent technology addresses this issue and its applications to IS are becoming highly efficient. In this paper, we introduce a Matrix-Agent connection design, called Agent based Open Connectivity for Decision Support Systems (AOCD), which balances the manageability and flexibility in a system and maximizes system performance.
 
Article
We are pleased to present this AJIS Special issue on Green IT/IS (Sustainable Computing). There are five papers published in this special issue of the AJIS which reflect the diversity of this emerging and important area of research in Information Systems. Environmental sustainability is one of if not the most important challenge facing organisations and society in the 21st century. Information systems and information technology have a major role to play in both reducing its environmental impact and providing the systems and technological innovation to reduce the environmental impact of organisations. Currently there is a lack of rigorous empirical studies which are theory and evidence based to provide a sound basis for understanding IT green best practices and how these can be best adopted in organisations. This special issue of the AJIS contributes this current gap in the knowledge concerning green IS and IT with five empirical research papers which examined five different aspects of green IS and IT.
 
a: Car Hire Net (adapted from [Benwell et. al. 1991]) 
Article
Petri nets, as a modelling formalism, are utilised for the analysis of processes, whether for explicit understanding, database design or business process re-engineering. The formalism, however, can be represented on a virtual continuum from highly graphical to largely algorithmic. The use and understanding of the formalism will, in part, therefore depend on the resultant complexity and power of the representation and, on the graphical or algorithmic preference of the user. This paper develops a metric which will indicate the graphical or algorithmic tendency of hierarchical coloured Petri nets.
 
Quantitative survey: question areas and their relationship to the research questions
Article
This paper compares the perceptions of business and IS managers regarding the issues known to affect the achievement of alignment of IS with the business. Previous work has identified Information Systems (IS) managers' organisational position, IS business partnerships, and IS managers' understanding of business respectively, as being critical to attaining IS alignment. On these issues, the findings of this research are encouraging, and suggest that progress has been made in the past fifteen years. The paper's main contribution is in identifying a new focus for alignment research - the exploration of three, interrelated issues: the extent to which business and IS managers share a vision of the alignment profile of information systems, the extent to which they have a common understanding of the time lags required to achieve such alignment; and the need to educate business managers regarding the strategic potential of IS.
 
Article
The intention of this paper is to instigate ongoing discussion surrounding the connected topics of ICT professionalism and the ICT profession. Part of that discussion needs to include suggestions of 'the way forward' for the development and recognition of an ICT professional body and the way it should govern/support/protect the professionals within.
 
Business Model Example
Threat Catalogue Extract
Vulnerability Catalogue Extract
Article
This paper advocates the use of the Australia/New Zealand Risk Management Standard (SA/SNZ, 1999) in conjunction with of a modified version of Birch and McEvoy's (1992) Structured Risk Analysis for Information Systems (SRA-IS) to identify information systems security risks in SMEs. The use of Internet based commerce by SMEs exposes them to information systems security risks that they are ill equipped to recognise let alone mitigate. Unlike the identification of some business risks, identification of risks associated with information systems requires certain technical expertise. The structure of the existing information system must be understood and modelled before risks can be identified and it is acknowledged that the required technical expertise may not be present in SMEs, thus the involvement of information systems consultants may be necessary. Once the information system has been modelled little information systems expertise is required to complete the analysis, keeping consultant involvement to a minimum and maximising owner/manager involvement.
 
Article
This paper shows how Quality Costs can be a measure of software quality. The relationship between Quality Costs and other software quality metrics is briefly explained, and software development oriented versions of the two principal Quality Cost models are described. Finally the paper discusses the major issues involved in setting up a software Quality Cost programme. The concepts are based on previous research on Quality Costs in manufacturing, coupled with work on software metrics and the work currently being undertaken by the authors in a number of industries.
 
Article
This paper presents one person's interpretation of the history of Information Systems (IS) education in South Australia (SA). The stance used to think about the history was that of seeking the contradictions, underlying tensions, which worked over time to create the present. The paper will argue this stance, suggested to the author, that IS education in SA was influenced significantly by maintaining a "how to" view of teaching IS which failed to distinguish itself from the engineering worldview. It is suggested that a 'trade school' mentality never turned into a critical academic perspective relevant to modern business schools. After explaining the underlying tension stance this paper will use extracts from a long semi-structured interview with two seminal IS educators to support this argument.
 
Article
In a wide range of industries services are increasingly being developed, or evolving, to support groups of organisations. Not all such joint service initiatives though have been successful. The paper aims to highlight potential issues that need to be addressed when investigating the introduction of a joint service by identifying the motivators and constraints. The approach outlined draws upon network externality theory to provide the motivation for a joint service, and resource based and dependency theories to highlight the constraining factors. Three instances of joint services – in the Banking, Telecommunications and Travel sectors – are subsequently examined. It is concluded that as well as providing externality benefits joint service initiatives can also improve the terms of access to a service – in particular through realising economies of scale. Furthermore it would appear that organisations will have to think carefully about the best way to create, structure and manage a joint service initiative – including who to partner with – given their own particular circumstances, as multiple alternative approaches, with potentially differing ramifications, are available.
 
Research model 
Article
Due to the significant increase in IT-related power consumption and the resulting higher CO2 emissions, Green IT has gained considerable attention in industry and society in recent years. Green IT as an engineering paradigm encompasses the multi-faceted, global effort to reduce power consumption and the promotion of environmental sustainability. Due to several similarities between Green IT objectives and the environmental benefits of Grid technology, this article provides empirical evidence from the financial services industry emphasizing that Grid technology is capable of reducing the environmental impact of IT hardware. Furthermore, the article analyzes the extent to which pressure for environmental sustainability as well as different types of institutional forces impact on the intention of enterprises to use Grid technology as a means to reduce energy consumption of IT hardware, which is one of the key Green IT objectives.
 
Level of Government Involvement in Corporate Privacy Management (Milberg et al. 1995) p66
Survey questions (Smith, Milberg & Burke 1996a, p170)
Article
Information privacy has received much public and research interest in recent years. Globally this has arisen from public anxiety following the September 11 attacks and within Australia a progressive tightening of privacy legislation in particular the privacy amendment (private sector) Act of 2000 which became operative in 2001. This paper presents the results of a study into attitudes towards information privacy. Based on an instrument developed and validated by Smith et al (1996a) this study sets out to measure individual concerns regarding organisational use of information along four dimensions: collection, errors, unauthorised secondary use, and improper access. The survey was completed by 67 undergraduate and postgraduate students enrolled in an e-commerce security subject at the University of Queensland. Comparisons are drawn between the results of this study and an identical one carried out at the University of North Alabama. Whilst it is too early to draw conclusions about the impact of these attitudes on the success of e-commerce in general, the results should be of interest to those within universities seeking to expand the use of networking technologies for handling sensitive information such as enrolment and fee processing (Vanscoy & Oakleaf 2003)
 
Article
This paper examines the status of Information Systems (IS) at the University of South Australia (UniSA). On a broad scale this study is part of a larger Case Study regarding the state of the IS Academic Discipline in Australasian Universities but, in view of the face that Information Systems degrees are offered only at one university within the State, the South Australia study, by definition, becomes a study of that university. The paper clarifies the role of IS within UniSA, with particular reference to the degree of professionalism and the impact of local contingencies on IS teaching and research. Data were gathered by means of qualitative surveys with present and former academics of the institution, as well as via statistical information. The results suggest that the State of South Australia’s IS offerings were heavily influenced during the 1990s by the soft systems and critical systems approaches to the discipline, a situation which began to change at the turn of the century; and that the curriculum is depends more heavily on industrial than political factors.
 
Journal and Conference publications by Australians during period
Citations of publications (Google Scholar)
Article
Australian universities and academics will soon see a major change in the way research is reported and funded. It is expected that by 2008, according to the most recent timetable (Bishop 2006), the Research Quality Framework (RQF) will be implemented. The result of the announcement has been an increased activity within universities focusing on the proposed criteria. The proposed RQF will seek to have research assessed according to quality and impact. Part of both quality and impact relates to where research is published. For academics it will be increasingly important to target high quality journals if the research is to be rated as high quality. The question this raises for Information Systems academics is where do we publish for maximum impact? The Information Systems (IS) field is diverse with researchers working in many areas and a publication outlet for one area may not be relevant for another. One area where many Australian IS researchers have focused their research interest is the field of electronic commerce (e-commerce). The research reported in this paper identified the publication outlets that would be regarded as amongst the highest quality for researchers wishing to publish e-commerce research. The authors analysed e-commerce research papers by Australian researchers published in the period 2000 to 2005. The results describe where Australian researchers are publishing in this field. The paper also provides guidance to those working in the e-commerce field on which journals and conferences to target to ensure their work rates highly in terms of the RQF.
 
Article
The study reported in this volume aims to investigate the state of the Information Systems academic discipline in Australia from a historical and current perspective, collecting evidence across a range of dimensions. To maximise the strategic potential of the study, the results need to be capable of integration, so that the relationships within and across the dimensions and geographical units are understood. A meaningful theoretical framework will help relate the results of the different dimensions of the study to characterise the discipline in the region, and assist in empowering the Australian IS research community. This paper reviewed literature on the development of disciplines, before deriving a theoretical framework for the broader study reported in this volume. The framework considered the current and past state of IS in Australian universities from the perspective of the development of a discipline. The components of the framework were derived and validated through a thematic analysis of both the IS and non-IS literature. This paper also presents brief vignettes of the development of two other related disciplines. The framework developed in this paper, which has been partly guided by Whitley’s Theory of Scientific Change, has been used to analyse data collated from the Australian states and the Australian Capital Territory. The degree of variation in Australian IS as an indication of its “professionalisation”, the nature of its body of knowledge and its mechanisms of control, will be used to frame the analysis. Research reported in several of the papers that follow in this volume has drawn upon the theoretical framework presented below.
 
Article
This AJIS Featured Theme comprises 12 research papers that present a portrait of The Information Systems Academic Discipline in Australian Universities. This Australian study is part of a broader study - 'The State of the Information Systems Academic Discipline in Pacific Asia’, the results of which are forthcoming in a similarly titled special issue of Communications of the AIS.
 
presents some summary statistics for the universities in this study. 
gives an overview of the Information Systems groups in the three universities. 
Courses from which IS students are drawn as of 2005 
Article
This paper describes the Information Systems Groups at the Australian Defence Force Academy (ADFA), The Australian National University (ANU), and the University of Canberra (UC). Each group has a distinctive background that reflects its position in Canberra, Australia’s seat of federal government. ADFA is essentially a private university for the Australian Defence Organization; ANU was set up to be a national research institution; and the UC group for many years focused on meeting the training needs for computing professionals for the federal government. Despite these distinguishing characteristics, the subject matter taught and researched in the three groups has a large degree of commonality and each group regards itself as ‘vibrant’ and happy with what it does. A low degree of professionalisation is perceived, however, relative to older disciplines, as there is a disjunct between what is taught as core knowledge and what is taught as research methods, a lack of social prestige, and a lack of acceptance as a discipline with a unique symbol system.
 
Article
This paper, examining Information Systems in New South Wales universities, highlights the significance of New South Wales as the most populous state in Australia. Rather than offering a comprehensive coverage of all Information Systems courses in the state, the paper gives a broad overview of Information Systems in the state’s universities while seeking to highlight the distinctive characteristics of some of the universities, deemed to have particular significance in the state. The view portrayed is of an environment threatening the continuing existence of Information Systems in some of the state’s universities. Again, the state of Information Systems research in the state’s universities is characterised by diversity and limited collaboration.
 
sets out the staff and teaching locations.
Article
This paper examines Information Systems at the University of Tasmania. The study draws upon a theoretical framework reported earlier. In common with studies conducted elsewhere in the region, this investigation utilised data collected on five themes. The study aimed to characterise Information Systems at the University of Tasmania, as well as to investigate the relationship between the impact of local contingencies on a discipline and its degree of professionalism, within the Tasmanian context. Data were collected through a qualitative survey with seven influential academics associated with the discipline at the University, and from statistical sources. The findings suggest that an inverse relationship exists between the impact of local factors and the degree of professionalism in this IS setting. A surprising finding was that the relationship found varied for research and teaching issues.
 
Generic Situation Management Ontology Hierarchy
Article
This paper introduces a novel design artefact, namely a generic situation management ontology based on situation theory. This ontology contributes to the foundation knowledge base of mobile service delivery systems for future research and systems design. It demonstrates the applicability, and feasibility of using situation theory in the design of reactive information systems. The support within the ontology for context based filtering for situation detection also contributes to the efficiency of implementation and operation of situation driven reactive information systems. Highly mobile people (HMPs) require flexible, reactive service delivery due to their regularly changing location and activities and the lack of a wired network connection. A mobile service delivery system should be able to detect relevant events that occur such as change of location, availability of new last-minute specials, sales opportunities and safety issues and then reactively take action in response to these events. This paper describes a generic situation management ontology that was developed in OWL using the ontology development tool, Protégé. The ontology is combined with domain specific classes in the travel domain to create a travel situation management ontology that can be used as the basis for a ubiquitous mobile travel service application. Using a typical independent traveller scenario, the travel situation management ontology is instantiated to demonstrate its effectiveness.
 
and a brief discussion of each case follows. 
and a discussion of these techniques follows. 
Article
The development of business-to-c onsumer web information systems pose special challenges in the requirements analysis phase. It is difficult to capture user requirements given that users are relatively autonomous and anonymous and there are no major incentives for users to become involved in the development of a web information system. The researchers reviewed traditional requirement elicitation techniques, marketing research techniques and web usage analysis techniques. Current practice was assessed and the findings suggest that a balanced approach to user requirements capture will result in more complete and user centred requirements. This approach should lead to more effective business-to-consumer web information systems.
 
Article
The market for enterprise systems (ESs) continues to grow as business becomes increasingly global and competitive. Increasingly, the market focus for ES vendors is on small businesses. The purpose of this study is to provide a unique ES vendor/consultant perspective on (a) the business benefits small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) expect from their ES investment and (b) to examine current practices of ES implementation in SMEs through a conceptual framework that considers the organisational, process and strategic context of the implementation. This study does so with interview data collected from ES vendors, ES consultants and IT research firms, who are the key players in the New Zealand ES industry. A distinctive contribution of this research is the vendor/consultant perspective as the unit of analysis, rather than the SME perspective commonly used in similar research. The vendor/consultant perspective offers a comprehensive viewpoint that extends across numerous SMEs in a variety of industries. Findings from interviews with these professionals indicate that although many ES implementations are several years old now, SMEs have only recently started tracking benefits through analytical processes in expectation to realise business value from their ES investment. The results also identify how ES implementation practices are adapting to be more suitable to the SME sector, an important market for ES vendors given the saturation of the large enterprise market for ES implementation.
 
Article
We are pleased to present this AJIS featured theme on Small Business and Information Systems, which is the result of a merger between AJIS and the Journal of Information Systems and Small Business. The co-editors of both journals felt that the merger would help raise the profile of small business research in Australia (since AJIS is more highly recognised than JISSB) and that it would increase the number of publications in AJIS. It is also a global featured theme, with papers from Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and Ireland.
 
Seven perspectives of business model classification (extended & adapted from Krueger 2006) 
Business model components 
The C+ Business Model Framework for digital collections 
Overview of the research project 
Article
Increasing numbers of heritage collecting organisations such as archives, galleries, libraries and museums are moving towards the provision of digital content and services based on the collections they hold. The collections sector in Australia is characterised by a diverse range of often very small organisations, many of which are struggling with the transition to digital service delivery. One major reason for this struggle is the lack of suitable underlying business models for these organisations as they attempt to achieve a sustainable digital presence. The diverse characteristics of organisations within the collections sector make it difficult, if not impossible, to identify a single business model suitable for all organisations. We argue in this paper that the development of a flexible e-business model framework is a more useful strategy for achieving this goal. This paper presents a preliminary framework based on the literature, utilising the Core + Complement (C+) Business Model Framework for Content Providers initially developed by Krueger et al. (2003) and outlines how the framework will be refined and investigated empirically in future research within the Australian collections sector.
 
Article
The Internet is a dynamic part of the business scene and there have been many examples of success and failures of e-commerce and e-business ventures. A survey was administered asking questions about industries understanding of current e-business (e-government) practices in Australia. The object of the survey was to provide a benchmark of current practice. The results of this survey could have a major impact on academic curricula. The survey was sent to 671 Australian Businesses and was addressed to the Chief Information Officer. Only twenty four usable questionnaires were returned and while it is accepted that this is a limited sample, disturbing trends have appeared with respect to the lack of strategic planning for information technology use particularly in medium sized businesses in Australia. In addition, relationships between key factors associated with the business objectives for their IT infrastructure and the benefits of the organisation’s Extranet, Intranet and Internet initiatives were identified.
 
Factors which were the major driving forces behind the adoption of EC 
Rating of the importance of customer demand as a criteria for the adoption of EC 
, on the other 
Article
In the past, organisations relied on traditional quantitative metrics, such as Return on Investment (ROI) to make decisions when investing in technology. With the advent of electronic commerce (EC), organisations have had to re- think their investment and acquisition decisions due to the strategic nature of electronic commerce. Where ROI measures have failed, they have been replaced with a plethora of organisational driving forces. This paper focuses on the driving forces behind EC adoption by small and medium enterprises (SME's) and aims to determine the impact of organisational factors such as size and type of business on EC acquisition criteria. The results of a research study carried out in Sweden are presented and suggest that there exist high levels of significance between the size of the business and customer demand, reduced costs, developing new markets and improvement to marketing as driving forces, and the type of business and customer demand, pressure from competition, increased sales and improvement of relationship with business partners as driving forces for EC adoption.
 
Proposed research model of partnership quality in an IT outsourcing relationship
Distribution of the respondent organisations by industry sector 
Organisation size in terms of number of employees 
that organisations in general are still selective about the extent and what IT functions are outsourced which is a similar finding to the studies by Hajiyev (2004) and Lum (2004).
Article
This paper reports on an empirical study of the multidimensionality of partnership quality in IT outsourcing arrangements and the relationships between these dimensions of partnership quality. A two-phase national survey was conducted to collect empirical data to confirm the dimensions of partnership quality in an IT outsourcing arrangement from the client organisation perspective and to identify the significant relationships between these dimensions using a second generation multivariate analysis technique-partial least squares (PLS). The findings from results of the data analyses show that inter-organisational trust, shared business understanding and to a lesser extent, functional and dysfunctional conflict between the client organisation and the outsourcing vendor in an IT outsourcing relationship are the key determinants of partnership quality. The key outcome variable for high partnership quality between the client organisation and the outsourcing vendor in an IT outsourcing relationship is mutual beneficial sharing of risks and benefits. Commitment in an IT outsourcing relationship is confirmed as a multidimensional construct of behaviour commitment and temporal/continuance commitment and was found to be influenced by the other dimensions of partnership quality. The key findings of this study provide support for the notion that Trust and shared business understanding are key drivers in the IT outsourcing partnership style relationship ensuring that the sharing of risks and benefits are realised and conflict is minimised leading to a high quality and ultimately successful partnership between the client organisation and the outsourcing vendor. Furthermore our findings indicate that behavioural commitment to the contractual obligations of an IT outsourcing relationship sustains an ongoing temporal commitment to the partnership between the client organisation and the outsourcing vendor.
 
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A Selection of Papers from the Carbon-Centric Computing National Research Summit held at the University of Wollongong, November 24, 2008
 
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Recent advances in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and the advent of the Internet have facilitated the emergence and growth of collaborative strategies amongst small e-Businesses (Matlay & Westhead, 2005). In addition, during the last decade or so, team-led entrepreneurship has been identified as a highly profitable alternative to single founder entrepreneurship. Recent research suggests that growth oriented, small e-Businesses operating in international e-Markets are more likely to be founded and managed by teams of e-Entrepreneurs (Matlay & Westhead, 2007). In increasingly globalised and hyper-competitive markets, "virtual teams" of e-Entrepreneurs search, discover and exploit new entrepreneurial opportunities. This type of entrepreneurial team consists of geographically dispersed entrepreneurs who are led by common entrepreneurial interests and interact electronically in order to promote interdependent strategies and fulfil entrepreneurial goals. In this article, an illustrative longitudinal case study of a pan-European virtual team of 24 e-Entrepreneur members is used to evaluate emergent collaborative and competitive strategies in small e-Businesses that are lead and managed by members. Collaborative and competitive strategies of e-Businesses are identified and related outcomes are analysed. Future research opportunities are suggested and pertinent policy recommendations are offered.
 
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Information and communication technologies (ICT) are ubiquitous but governance in the industry is piecemeal at best. Government regulations and various standards apply to parts of the industry, and professional bodies, the Australian Computer Society (ACS) for example, have some influence on individuals, on professional education and on policies.
 
Distribution of firm size
Industry classification
Stage of EDI adoption
Article
User Information Satisfaction (UIS) remains one of the most important constructs in Information Systems research. This paper investigates the application of the UIS instrument across a number of key variables including respondent characteristics. Several findings emerge from a survey of 379 IS and non-IS managers: First, the UIS factors are stable and generalizable. Second, the level of satisfaction varies quite substantially when compared to prior UIS reports, although the IS product satisfaction dominates. Third, IS managers, not surprisingly, evaluate their systems significantly higher than non-IS managers, indicating the importance of stakeholders in evaluating Information Systems success. Finally, respondents evaluate their internal systems differently than their inter-organizational systems, indicating that in the IS evaluation process system type must be considered as a moderating variable.
 
Value chain of the IT department (Source: Erek et al. 2009)  
The connection between Green IT, value chain, benefits and objectives  
Turnover and employees of the responding companies
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The article examines the contribution of Green IT activities to the objectives of IT departments by analysing empirical data from 116 companies using exploratory factor analysis. The outcomes indicate that Green IT contributes to the objectives of efficient internal operations, reputational management, and market competitiveness. In particular, reputational management plays a major role for Green IT engagement. These findings provide CIOs, IT managers, and environmental officers with new insights and enable a more systematic application of Green IT measures.
 
Regression results for the Internet diffusion model (Region based)
Conference Paper
Despite the increasing importance of the Internet, there is little work that addresses the degree to which the models and theories of Internet diffusion in developed countries can be applied to Internet diffusion in developing countries. This paper presents the first attempt to address this question through modeling Internet diffusion via a set of variables from social, technical, and environmental determinants. A set of regression analyses and a radar graph are used to analyze the hypotheses. The findings suggest that the factors affecting the Internet diffusion in developed countries do not provide a good fit for modeling Internet diffusion in developing countries. Alternative approaches to modeling Internet diffusion in developing countries are suggested.
 
Article
In recent years both the number and the size of organisational databases have increased rapidly. However, although available processing power has also grown, the increase in stored data has not necessarily led to a corresponding increase in useful information and knowledge. This has led to a growing interest in the development of tools capable of harnessing the increased processing power available to better utilise the potential of stored data. The terms "Knowledge Discovery in Databases" and "Data Mining" have been adopted for a field of research dealing with the automatic discovery of knowledge implicit within databases. Data mining is useful in situations where the volume of data is either too large or too complicated for manual processing or, to a lesser extent, where human experts are unavailable to provide knowledge. The success already attained by a wide range of data mining applications has continued to prompt further investigation into alternative data mining techniques and the extension of data mining to new domains. This paper surveys, from the standpoint of the database systems community, current issues in data mining research by examining the architectural and process models adopted by knowledge discovery systems, the different types of discovered knowledge, the way knowledge discovery systems operate on different data types, various techniques for knowledge discovery and the ways in which discovered knowledge is used.
 
Top-cited authors
Donald V Kerr
  • University of the Sunshine Coast
Jenine Beekhuyzen
  • Griffith University
Sean B. Maynard
  • University of Melbourne
Ranko Cosic
  • University of Melbourne
Karyn Crawford
  • University of Texas at Arlington