Astronomische Nachrichten

Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag
Online ISSN: 1521-3994
Print ISSN: 0004-6337
We present a summary of an identification program of the more than 2000 X-ray sources detected during the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (Voges et al. 1999) at high galactic latitude, |b| > 30 degr, with countrate above 0.2 s-1. This program, termed the ROSAT Bright Survey RBS, is to more than 99.5% complete. A sub-sample of 931 sources with countrate above 0.2 s-1 in the hard spectral band between 0.5 and 2.0 keV is to 100% identified. The total survey area comprises 20391 sq.deg at a flux limit of 2.4 \times 10^{-12} erg/cmsq/s in the 0.5 -- 2.0 keV band. About 1500 sources of the complete sample could be identified by correlating the RBS with SIMBAD and the NED. The remaining 500 sources were identified by low-resolution optical spectroscopy and CCD imaging utilizing telescopes at La Silla, Calar Alto, Zelenchukskaya and Mauna Kea. Apart from completely untouched sources, catalogued clusters and galaxies without published redshift as well as catalogued galaxies with unusual high X-ray luminosity were included in the spectroscopic identification program. Details of the observations with an on-line presentation of the finding charts and the optical spectra will be published separately. Here we summarize our identifications in a table which contains optical and X-ray information for each source. As a result we present the most massive complete sample of X-ray selected AGNs with a total of 669 members and a well populated X-ray selected sample of 302 clusters of galaxies with redshifts up to 0.70. Three fields studied by us remain without optical counterpart (RBS0378, RBS1223, RBS1556). While the first is a possible X-ray transient, the two latter are isolated neutron star candidates (Motch et al. 1999, Schwope et al. 1999). Comment: Also available at
Preliminary results on KUV 02464+3239, a pulsating DA white dwarf are presented. Located near the red edge of the DAV instability strip, KUV 02464+3239 shows large amplitude and long period pulsation modes. Up to now only one mode was known from a 50-minute-long light curve. Our more extended observations allowed the identification of three additional frequencies. The presence of previously known harmonics were confirmed and weak subharmonics are also noticeable at some parts of the light curve. This suggests the dominance of nonlinear pulsation effects from time to time. Comment: 3 pages, 3 eps figures; has been accepted for publication in Astronomische Nachrichten (Vol. 8, 2007), proceedings of the British-Hungarian-French N+N+N Workshop for Young Researchers
We report optical time-resolved photometry of the CRTS transient CSS091109:035759+102943. Pronounced orbital variability with a 114 min period, large X-ray variability and the IR to X-ray spectral energy distribution suggest a classification as a magnetic cataclysmic binary, a likely AM Herculis star or polar.
Observational data in the BVRI bands of the variable BL Lacertae Object S5 0716+714 is discussed from the point of view of its Power Spectral Distribution (PSD). Analysis of the noise properties exhibited by the source. Assessment of the validity of a turbulent model. We fitted a model of the type $P(f) = \beta f^{-\alpha} + \gamma$ to the data for two null hypothesis and calculated the Bayesian p parameter for the fits. Different theoretical models are discussed and applied to these data and a special focus is placed on the MagnetoRotational Instability (MRI). The $P(f) = \beta f^{-\alpha}$ fit provides slopes with values ranging from 0.376 to 2.237, with medium values for each band of $\bar{\alpha}_B = 1.756$, $\bar{\alpha}_V = 1.704$, $\bar{\alpha}_R = 1.780$ and $\bar{\alpha}_I = 1.272$ respectively. An interval for the calculated effective $\alpha_{SS}$ parameter is obtained to be $[0.18,1.72]\cdot 10^{-2}$, corresponding to the order of magnitude previously inferred through both observational and numerical investigations. Structure function analysis, fractal dimension analysis and DFT analysis (all performed in other studies) plus our own analysis establish that the source is turbulent in a nontrivial way, i.e. there is "intrinsic" noise superimposed on the deterministic behavior of the source. We propose that embedding a weakly stochastic magnetic field component in the MRI (MagnetoRotational Instability) framework and taking into account stochastic reconnection of magnetic field lines might explain microvariability in AGN objects.
The high redshift GPS quasar PKS 0858-279 exhibits the following properties which make the source unusual. Our RATAN-600 monitoring of 1-22 GHz spectrum has detected broad-band radio variability with high amplitude and relatively short time scale. In the same time, the milliarcsecond scale structure observed in a snapshot VLBA survey turned out to be very resolved which is not expected from the fast flux density variations. We performed 1.4-22 GHz VLBA observations of this quasar in 2005-2007. It has revealed a core-jet morphology. A high Doppler factor delta is suggested for the jet, its nature is discussed in this report on the basis of the multi-frequency VLBA and RATAN data collected. Synchrotron self-absorption was confirmed to be dominating at low frequencies, the magnetic field strength of the dominating jet feature is estimated of an order of 0.1*delta mG.
Radio surveys at frequencies of about 1 GHz allow to map the synchrotron emission in a frequency range where (except for very low Galactic latitudes or towards localized regions) it dominates over the other radio components. New all sky total intensity and polarization data at 1.4 GHz have been recently collected. We focus on the Galactic radio emission correlation properties described in terms of angular power spectrum (APS). We present for the first time the APS, in both total intensity and polarization modes, for some representative Galactic cuts and suitable APS power law parametrizations. Comment: Comments: 2 pages, 2 figures; in Astronomische Nachrichten, Vol.327, Issue 5/6, p.491 (2006); Proceedings of International Conference "The Origin and Evolution of Cosmic Magnetism", 29 August - 2 September 2005, CNR Area della Ricerca, Bologna, Italy, eds. R. Beck, G. Brunetti, L. Feretti, and B. Gaensler
During the last ten years, observations of long-duration gamma-ray bursts brought to the conclusion that at least a fraction of them is associated with bright supernovae of type Ib/c. In this talk, after a short review on the previously observed GRB-SN connection cases, we present the recent case of GRB 100316/SN 2010bh. In particular, during the observational campaign of SN 2010bh, a pivotal role was played by VLT/X-shooter, sampling with unique high quality data the spectral energy distribution of the early evolution phases from the UV to the K band.
The spectral shape of the synchrotron X-ray emission from SN 1006 reveals the fundamental role played by radiative losses in shaping the high-energy tail of the electron spectrum. We analyze data from the XMM-Newton SN 1006 Large Program and confirm that in both nonthermal limbs the loss-limited model correctly describes the observed spectra. We study the physical origin of the observed variations of the synchrotron cutoff energy across the shell. We investigate the role played by the shock velocity and by the electron gyrofactor. We found that the cutoff energy of the syncrotron X-ray emission reaches its maximum value in regions where the shock has experienced its highest average speed. This result is consistent with the loss-limited framework. We also find that the electron acceleration in both nonthermal limbs of SN 1006 proceeds close to the Bohm diffusion limit, the gyrofactor being in the range 1.5-4. We finally investigate possible explanations for the low values of cutoff energy measured in thermal limbs.
We present here new spectroscopic observations of Mrk 1040 and LEDA 212995 (Mrk 1040 companion) obtained with the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT). The intensity ratios and widths for the narrow emission lines found in LEDA 212995 are typical of H II regions. The red-shift (0.0169$\pm$0.00015) of the object derived from these emission lines is very close to the red-shift of Mrk 1040 (z=0.01665). The weak narrow and broad absorption lines were detected in the H$\alpha$ wavelength band of LEDA 212995 spectra. These absorptions indicate that the companion might be at least partly obscured by Mrk 1040. Using this and previous observations we discuss the possible physical relationship between these two galaxies. Comment: Astronomische Nachrichten, accepted
We present an analysis of Young Stellar Object (YSO) candidates towards the LDN 1188 molecular cloud. The YSO candidates were selected from the WISE all-sky catalogue, based on a statistical method. We found 601 candidates in the region, and classified them as Class I, Flat and Class II YSOs. Groups were identified and described with the Minimal Spanning Tree (MST) method. Previously identified molecular cores show evidence of ongoing star formation at different stages throughout the cloud complex.
(Context) When a galaxy acquires material from the outside, it is likely that the resulting angular momentum of the accreted material is decoupled from that of the pre-existing galaxy. The presence of stars counter-rotating with respect to other stars and/or gas represents an extreme case of decoupling. (Aims) NGC5719, an almost edge-on Sab galaxy with a prominent skewed dust lane, shows a spectacular on-going interaction with its face-on Sbc companion NGC5713. Observations of such interacting systems provide insight into the processes at work in assembling and reshaping galaxies. (Methods) Studies were made of the distribution and kinematics of neutral hydrogen in the NGC5719/13 galaxy pair and the ionised gas and stellar kinematics along the major axis of NGC5719. (Results) Two HI tidal bridges that loop around NGC5719 and connect to NGC5713, and two HI tidal tails departing westward from NGC5713 were detected. There is a correspondence between the HI condensations and the location of clumps of young stars within and outside the disc of NGC5719. The low-mass satellite PGC135857 at the tip of the northern tail was detected in HI, and is likely a by-product of the interaction. The neutral and ionised hydrogen in the disc of NGC5719 are counter-rotating with respect to the main stellar disc. The counter-rotating stellar disc contains about 20% of the stars in the system, and has the same radial extension as the main stellar disc. This is the first interacting system in which a counter-rotating stellar disc has been detected. (Conclusions) The data support a scenario where HI from the large reservoir available in the galaxy's surroundings was accreted by NGC5719 onto a retrograde orbit and subsequently fuelled the in-situ formation of the counter-rotating stellar disc. Comment: 13 pages, 8 figures, accepted for publication in A&A. For high resolution version please go to
Feynman diagrams for the dark matter annihilation into two photons mediated by virtual W bosons.
Coupling constant gE as a function of mE, demanding the cross section to produce the Fermi-LAT gamma-ray line, assuming Nc = 1 and qE = 1.
There is evidence for a spectral line at $E_\gamma\approx 130$ GeV in the Fermi-LAT data that can be explained as dark mater particles annihilating into photons. We review a well known dark matter model that consists in a singlet Dirac fermion and a singlet scalar. The scalar implements spontaneous symmetry breaking in the dark sector, and is responsible for the communication between dark matter and Standard Model particles through a coupling to the Higgs. These interactions are supressed by the mixing between the scalar and the Higgs. Therefore, the singlet fermionic dark matter is naturally a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) and can explain the observed relic density. We show that this model cannot produce the signal identified in the Fermi-LAT data. Thus, we propose a modification in the model by introducing a new scalar multiplet that carries electric charge and couples to the singlet scalar. It enhances the annihilation into two photons and succeeds in producing the observed signal. We also discuss the resulting increase of the branching ratio of the $h\rightarrow\gamma\gamma$ process, which is consistent with measurements from the CMS experiments.
We present a systematic analysis of the X-ray spectra of NGC 1313 X-1 and NGC 1313 X-2, using six years of XMM-Newton observations (17 observations). We fitted the continuum with a Comptonization model plus a multicolor blackbody disc, that describes the effects of an accretion disc plus an optically thick corona. We checked the consistency of this spectral model on the basis of the variability patterns of its spectral parameters. We found that the two sources show different spectral states. We tentatively interpret the observed behaviour of NGC 1313 X-1 within the framework of super-Eddington accretion and that of NGC 1313 X-2 within the framework of near Eddington accretion. We also attempted to determine the chemical abundances in the local environment of NGC 1313 X-1 and X-2, analyzing the RGS spectra of the longest observation available (122 ksec). The results appear to indicate solar metallicity for the local environment of NGC 1313 X-1 and sub-solar metallicity for NGC 1313 X-2. Comment: 5 pages, 6 figures. Accepted for publication in the Astronomische Nachrichten (Astronomical Notes), to appear in the proceedings of the conference "Ultra-Luminous X-ray sources and Middle Weight Black Holes" (Madrid, May 24-26, 2010)
The amount of data available for NGC 1313 X-2 make it a cornerstone for the study of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). We modelled the optical and X-ray data of this ULX with a binary evolution code that takes into account X-ray irradiation. We restricted the candidate binary system to be either a 50-100 Msun black hole (BH) accreting from a 12-15 Msun main sequence star or a 20 Msun BH with a 12-15 Msun giant donor. If the orbital period of the system is ~6 days, a 20 Msun BH model becomes unlikely and we are left with the only possibility that the compact accretor in NGC1313 X-2 is a massive BH of 50-100 Msun. We briefly discuss these results within the framework of an alternative scenario for the formation of ULXs, in which a portion of them may contain BHs of >~30-40 Msun formed from very massive stars in a low metallicity environment. Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures. Accepted for publication in the Astronomische Nachrichten (Astronomical Notes), to appear in the proceedings of the conference "Ultra-Luminous X-ray sources and Middle Weight Black Holes" (Madrid, May 24-26, 2010)
List of detected emission lines.
Parameter space explored by the CLOUDY mod- els.
Recent models of the formation of ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) predict that they preferentially form in low-metallicity environments. We look at the metallicity of the nebula surrounding NGC 1313 X-2, one of the best-studied ULXs. Simple estimates, based on the extrapolation of the metallicity gradient within NGC 1313, or on empirical calibrations (relating metallicity to strong oxygen lines) suggest a quite low metal content (Z ~ 0.1 Zsun). But such estimates do not account for the remarkably strong X-ray flux irradiating the nebula. Then, we build photoionization models of the nebula using CLOUDY; using such models, the constraints on the metallicity weaken substantially, as we find 0.15 Zsun <= Z <= 0.5 Zsun.
We analyzed the longest phase-connected photometric dataset available for NGC 1313 X-2, looking for the ~6 day modulation reported by Liu et al. (2009). The folded B band light curve shows a 6 days periodicity with a significance slightly larger than 3 sigma. The low statistical significance of this modulation, along with the lack of detection in the V band, make its identification uncertain.
This paper presents the preliminary results of a multicolour photometric study of the young open cluster Stock 14 and adjacent fields. The reddening, distance and age of the cluster were determined from colour-colour and colour-magnitude diagrams by means of isochrone fitting. Fourier analysis of the acquired time-series data was performed, which resulted in the discovery of new pulsating variable stars and candidates for such objects.
We present further considerations regarding the strong 14C variation in AD 774/5. For its cause, either a solar super-flare or a short Gamma-Ray Burst were suggested. We show that all kinds of stellar or neutron star flares would be too weak for the observed energy input at Earth in AD 774/5. Even though Maehara et al. (2012) present two super-flares with 10e35 erg of presumably solar-type stars, we would like to caution: These two stars are poorly studied and may well be close binaries, and/or having a M-type dwarf companion, and/or may be much younger and/or much more magnetic than the Sun - in any such case, they might not be true solar analog stars. From the frequency of large stellar flares averaged over all stellar activity phases (maybe obtained only during grand activity maxima), one can derive (a limit of) the probability for a large solar flare at a random time of normal activity: We find the probability for one flare within 3000 years to be possibly as low as 0.3 to 0.008 considering the full 1 sigma error range. Given the energy estimate in Miyake et al. (2012) for the AD 774/5 event, it would need to be \sim 2000 stronger than the Carrington event as solar super-flare. If the AD 774/5 event as solar flare would be beamed (to an angle of only 24 deg), 100 times lower energy would be needed. A new AD 774/5 energy estimate by Usoskin et al. (2013) with a different carbon cycle model, yielding 4 or 6 time lower 14C production, predicts 4-6 times less energy. If both reductions are applied, the AD 774/5 event would need to be only 4 times stronger than the Carrington event in 1859 (if both had similar spectra). However, neither 14C nor 10Be peaks were found around AD 1859. Hence ...
2XMM J154305.5–522709 spectrum. The lower panel shows the residuals between the spectrum and the best fit model. Horizontal lines mark the 10 % ratio differences.  
PN image around 4U 1538−52. The open circles identify regions for source (middle green circle), background (bottom green circle), dust scattered halo (red annulus around central source), and 2XMM J154305.5−522709 (left magenta circle).
X-ray transitions identified from the atomic databases used in this work.
Left panel: Background spectrum. Vertical lines show the 2.01-2.28 keV energy interval around the absorption feature. Right panel: Dust scattered halo spectrum.
Out-of-eclipse spectrum. The lower panel shows the residuals between the spectrum and the best fit model. Horizontal lines mark the 10 % ratio differences. Soft power-law component is changed by a neutron star magnetic atmosphere model.  
High resolution X-ray spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the nature of the matter surrounding the neutron star in X-ray binaries and its interaction between the stellar wind and the compact object. In particular, absorption features in their spectra could reveal the presence of atmospheres of the neutron star or their magnetic field strength. Here we present an investigation of the absorption feature at 2.1 keV in the X-ray spectrum of the high mass X-ray binary 4U 1538-52 based on our previous analysis of the XMM-Newton data. We study various possible origins and discuss the different physical scenarios in order to explain this feature. A likely interpretation is that the feature is associated with atomic transitions in an O/Ne neutron star atmosphere or of hydrogen and helium like Fe or Si ions formed in the stellar wind of the donor.
This paper corrects and completes a previous study of the shape of the extinction curve in the visible and the value of Rv. A continuous visible/infrared extinction law proportional to 1/{\lambda}^p with p close to 1 ({\pm}0.4) is indistinguishable from a perfectly linear law (p = 1) in the visible within observational precision, but the shape of the curve in the infrared can be substantially modified. Values of p slightly larger than 1 would account for the increase of extinction (compared to the p = 1 law) reported for {\lambda} > 1{\mu}m and deeply affect the value of Rv. In the absence of gray extinction Rv must be 4.04 if p = 1. It becomes 3.14 for p = 1.25, 3.00 for p = 1.30, and 2.76 for p = 1.40. Values of p near 1.3 are also attributed to extinction by atmospheric aerosols, which indicates that both phenomena may be governed by similar particle size distributions. A power extinction law may harmonize visible and infrared data into a single, continuous, and universal, interstellar extinction law.
We report new radial velocity measurements for 30 candidate runaway stars. We revise their age estimates and compute their past trajectories in the Galaxy in order to determine their birthplaces. We find that seven of the stars could be younger than ~100 Myr, and for five of them we identify multiple young clusters and associations in which they may have formed. For the youngest star in the sample, HIP 9470, we suggest a possible ejection scenario in a supernova event, and also that it may be associated with the young pulsar PSR J0152-1637. Our spectroscopic observations reveal seven of the stars in the sample of 30 to be previously unknown spectroscopic binaries. Orbital solutions for four of them are reported here as well.
The variability survey in the young open cluster IC 1805 is a part of the ongoing program of searching for early-type variable stars in open clusters of the northern sky conducted in Wroclaw (see Jerzykiewicz et al. 2011 and references therein). We are particularly interested in pulsating stars such as beta Cephei and SPB. These stars are very promising targets for asteroseismology. In particular, open clusters rich in these variables can be used for so called ensemble asteroseismology (Saesen et al. 2010).
Most of our knowledge about the Sun's activity cycle arises from sunspot observations over the last centuries since telescopes have been used for astronomy. The German astronomer Gustav Sp\"orer observed almost daily the Sun from 1861 until the beginning of 1894 and assembled a 33-year collection of sunspot data covering a total of 445 solar rotation periods. These sunspot drawings were carefully placed on an equidistant grid of heliographic longitude and latitude for each rotation period, which were then copied to copper plates for a lithographic reproduction of the drawings in astronomical journals. In this article, we describe in detail the process of capturing these data as digital images, correcting for various effects of the aging print materials, and preparing the data for contemporary scientific analysis based on advanced image processing techniques. With the processed data we create a butterfly diagram aggregating sunspot areas, and we present methods to measure the size of sunspots (umbra and penumbra) and to determine tilt angles of active regions. A probability density function of the sunspot area is computed, which conforms to contemporary data after rescaling.
We determine abundances from the absorption spectrum of the magnetic Herbig Ae star HD 190073 (V1295 Aql). The observations are primarily from HARPS spectra obtained at a single epoch. We accept arguments that the presence of numerous emission lines does not vitiate a classical abundance analysis, though it likely reduces the achievable accuracy. Most abundances are closely solar, but several elements show departures of a factor of two to three, as an earlier study has also shown. We present quantitative measurements of more than 60 emission lines, peak intensities, equivalent widths, and FWHM's. The latter range from over 200 km/s (H-alpha, He D3) down to 10--20 km/s (forbidden lines). Metallic emission lines have intermediate widths. We eschew modeling, and content ourselves with a presentation of the observations a successful model must explain. Low-excitation features such as the Na I D-lines and [O I] appear with He I D3, suggesting proximate regions with widely differing Te and Ne as found in the solar chromosphere. The [O I] and [Ca II] lines show sharp, violet-shifted features. Additionally, [Fe II] lines appear to be weakly present in emission.
ROTSE-IIId observations of the Be/X-ray transient system KS 1947+300 obtained between September 2004 and December 2005 make it possible to study the correlation between optical and X-ray activity. The optical outburst of 0.1 mag was accompanied by an increase in X-ray flux in 2004 observations. Strong correlation between the optical and X-ray light curves suggests that neutron star directly accretes from the outflowing material of Be star. The nearly zero time lag between X-ray and optical light curves suggests a heating of the disk of Be star by X-rays. No optical brightening and X-ray enhancement was seen in 2005 observations. There is no indication of the orbital modulation in the optical light curve. Comment: to be publsihed on AN
We present the results of the blazar 3C 345 monitoring in Johnson-Cousins BVRI bands for the period 1996 - 2006. We have collected 29 V and 43 R data points for this period; the BI light curves contain a few measurements only. The accuracy of our photometry is not better than 0.03 mag in the VR bands. The total amplitude of the variability obtained from our data is 2.06 mag in the V band and 2.25 mag in the R one. 3C 345 showed periods of flaring activity during 1998/99 and 2001: a maximum of the blazar brightness was detected in 2001 February - 15.345 mag in the V band and 14.944 mag in the R one. We confirm that during brighter stages 3C 345 becomes redder; for higher fluxes the colour index seems to be less dependent on the magnitude. The intra-night monitoring of 3C 345 in three consecutive nights in 2001 August revealed no significant intra-night variability; 3C 345 did not show evident flux changes over timescales of weeks around the period of the intra-night monitoring. This result supports the existing facts that intra-night variability is correlated with rapid flux changes rather than with specific flux levels.
We present four new light curves of transiting exoplanets WASP-1b and HAT-P-20b, observed within the TASTE (The Asiago Search for Transit timing variations of Exoplanets) project. We re-analyzed light curves from the literature in a homogeneous way, calculating a refined ephemeris and orbital-physical parameters for both objects. WASP-1b does not show any significant Transit Timing Variation signal at the 120 s-level. As for HAT-P-20b, we detected a deviation from our re-estimated linear ephemeris that could be ascribed to the presence of a perturber or, more probably, to a previously unnoticed high level of stellar activity. The rotational period of HAT-P-20 A we obtained from archival data (P_rot ~ 14.5 days), combined with its optical variability and strong emission of CaII H&K lines, is consistent with a young stellar age (< 1 Gyr) and support the hypothesis that stellar activity may be responsible of the measured deviations of the transit times.
Numerical integrations of 99 orbits centered on that of comet P/Scotti (P/2000 Y3), and of the nominal orbit, were made 4000 days backwards in time, and 7300 days into the future. The integrations show that this comet has been transferred in its present orbit as recently as 1998. The future orbital evolution indicates a stable period for almost 150 years, when another close encounter with Jupiter may lead to further drastic changes of the present orbit.
This article summarizes the processes of high-energy emission in young stellar objects. Stars of spectral type A and B are called Herbig Ae/Be (HAeBe) stars in this stage, all later spectral types are termed classical T Tauri stars (CTTS). Both types are studied by high-resolution X-ray and UV spectroscopy and modeling. Three mechanisms contribute to the high-energy emission from CTTS: 1) CTTS have active coronae similar to main-sequence stars, 2) the accreted material passes through an accretion shock at the stellar surface, which heats it to a few MK, and 3) some CTTS drive powerful outflows. Shocks within these jets can heat the plasma to X-ray emitting temperatures. Coronae are already well characterized in the literature; for the latter two scenarios models are shown. The magnetic field suppresses motion perpendicular to the field lines in the accretion shock, thus justifying a 1D geometry. The radiative loss is calculated as optically thin emission. A mixture of shocked and coronal gas is fitted to X-ray observations of accreting CTTS. Specifically, the model explains the peculiar line-ratios in the He-like triplets of Ne IX and O VII. All stars require only small mass accretion rates to power the X-ray emission. In contrast, the HAeBe HD 163296 has line ratios similar to coronal sources, indicating that neither a high density nor a strong UV-field is present in the region of the X-ray emission. This could be caused by a shock in its jet. Similar emission is found in the deeply absorbed CTTS DG Tau. Shock velocities between 400 and 500 km/s are required to explain the observed spectrum.
We present the analysis of the multicolour CCD observations in the 2010 season of the Blazhko RRc star TV Boo. TV Boo shows a complex Blazhko modulation dominated by two independent modulations with P_{fm1}=9.74 d and P_{fm2}=21.43 d long periods. Both modulation components appear in the frequency spectra as multiplet structures around the harmonics of the pulsation. The positive value of the asymmetry parameter (Q=+0.51) of the primary modulation suggests that it is similar in its character to the Blazhko effect of most of the modulated RRab stars. Interestingly, the secondary, lower-amplitude modulation exhibits a negative asymmetry parameter (Q=-0.22), which is an unusually low value when compared to the Blazhko-modulated RRab stars. Apart from the two modulation frequencies, the spectra also show an additional frequency f' and its linear combinations with the pulsation and the primary modulation f_{1}+f' and f_{1}-f'-f_{m1}. We conclude that the additional frequency most probably belongs to a non-radial mode.
Hot subdwarfs are considered to be the compact helium cores of red giants, which lost almost their entire hydrogen envelope. What causes this enormous mass loss is still unclear. Binary interactions are invoked and a significant fraction of the hot subdwarf population is indeed found in close binaries. In a large project we search for the close binary sdBs with the most and the least massive companions. Significantly enhancing the known sample of close binary sdBs we performed the first comprehensive study of this population. Triggered by the discovery of two sdB binaries with close brown dwarf companions in the course of this project, we were able to show that the interaction of stars with substellar companions is an important channel to form sdB stars. Finally, we discovered a unique and very compact binary system consisting of an sdB and a massive white dwarf, which qualifies as progenitor candidate for a supernova type Ia. In addition to that, we could connect those explosions to the class of hypervelocity hot subdwarf stars, which we consider as the surviving companions of such events. Being the stripped cores of red giants, hot subdwarfs turned out to be important markers of peculiar events in stellar evolution ranging all the way from star-planet interactions to the progenitors of stellar explosions used to measure the expansion of our Universe.
The historical development of ground based astronomical telescopes leads us to expect that space-based astronomical telescopes will need to be operational for many decades. The exchange of scientific instruments in space will be a prerequisite for the long lasting scientific success of such missions. Operationally, the possibility to repair or replace key spacecraft components in space will be mandatory. We argue that these requirements can be fulfilled with robotic missions and see the development of the required engineering as the main challenge. Ground based operations, scientifically and technically, will require a low operational budget of the running costs. These can be achieved through enhanced autonomy of the spacecraft and mission independent concepts for the support of the software. This concept can be applied to areas where the mirror capabilities do not constrain the lifetime of the mission.
Variability is a signature property of cool young stars, particularly for those surrounded by disks. Traditional single-band time series display complex features associated with accretion, disk structure, and accompanying stellar activity, but these processes are challenging to model. To make progress in connecting observed time domain properties with the underlying physics of young stars and their disks, we have embarked on an unprecedented multiwavelength monitoring campaign: the Coordinated Synoptic Investigation of NGC 2264 ("CSI 2264"). Beginning in December 2011, CSI 2264 has acquired 30 continuous days of mid-infrared time series from Spitzer, simultaneous optical monitoring from CoRoT and MOST, X-ray observations with Chandra, as well as complementary data from a number of ground-based telescopes. The extraordinary photometric precision, cadence, and time baseline of these observations enable detailed correlation of variability properties at different wavelengths, corresponding to locations from the stellar surface to the inner AU of the disk. We present the early results of the program, and discuss the need for further modeling efforts into young stars and their disks.
Existing photometry for NGC 2264 tied to the Johnson and Morgan (1953) UBV system is reexamined and, in the case of the original observations by Walker (1956), reanalyzed in order to generate a homogeneous data set for cluster stars. Color terms and a Balmer discontinuity effect in Walker's observations were detected and corrected, and the homogenized data were used in a new assessment of the cluster reddening, distance, and age. Average values of E(B-V)=0.075+-0.003 s.e. and Vo-Mv=9.45+-0.03 s.e. (d=777+-12 pc) are obtained, in conjunction with an inferred cluster age of ~5.5x10^6 yr from pre-main-sequence members and the location of the evolved, luminous, O7 V((f)) dwarf S Mon relative to the ZAMS. The cluster main sequence also contains gaps that may have a dynamical origin. The dust responsible for the initial reddening towards NGC 2264 is no more than 465 pc distant, and there are numerous, reddened and unreddened, late-type stars along the line of sight that are difficult to separate from cluster members by standard techniques, except for a small subset of stars on the far side of the cluster embedded in its gas and dust and background B-type ZAMS members of Mon OB2. A compilation of likely NGC 2264 members is presented. Only 3 of the 4 stars recently examined by asteroseismology appear to be likely cluster members. NGC 2264 is also noted to be a double cluster, which has not been mentioned previously in the literature.
We present results for X-ray point sources in the Sc galaxy NGC 2276, obtained by analyzing Chandra data. The galaxy is known to be very active in many wavelengths, possibly due to gravitational interaction with the central elliptical of the group, NGC 2300. However, previous XMM-Newton observations resulted in the detection of only one bright ULX and extended hot gas emission. We present here the X-ray population in NGC 2276 which comprises 17 sources. We found that 6 of them are new ULX sources in this spiral galaxy resolved for the first time by Chandra. We constructed the Luminosity Function that can be interpreted as mainly due of High Mass X-ray binaries, and estimate the Star Formation rate (SFR) to be SFR ~ 5-10 M_sun/yr.
We present bispectrum speckle interferometry of the massive protostellar object IRAS 23151+5912 in the near-infrared K' band. The reconstructed image shows the diffuse nebulosity north-east of two point-like sources in unprecedented detail. The comparison of our near-infrared image with mm continuum and CO molecular line maps shows that the brighter of the two point sources lies near the center of the mm peak, indicating that it is a high-mass protostar. The nebulosity coincides with the blue-shifted molecular outflow component. The most prominent feature in the nebulosity is a bow-shock-like arc. We assume that this feature is associated with a precessing jet which has created an inward-pointed cone in the swept-up material. We present numerical jet simulations that reproduce this and several other features observed in our speckle image of the nebulosity. Our data also reveal a linear structure connecting the central point source to the extended diffuse nebulosity. This feature may represent the innermost part of a jet that drives the strong molecular outflow (PA ~80 degr) from IRAS 23151+5912. With the aid of radiative transfer calculations, we demonstrate that, in general, the observed inner structures of the circumstellar material surrounding high-mass stars are strongly influenced by the orientation and symmetry of the bipolar cavity. Comment: accepted by Astronomy & Astrophysics; preprints with high-resolution images can be obtained from
About a dozen field RR Lyrae stars have been observed with the 24-inch Heyde-Zeiss telescope of the Konkoly Observatory at Sv\'abhegy, Budapest, since its refurbishment in 2003. Most of the observing time is allocated for the investigation of the Blazhko modulation, a phenomenon that still does not have a satisfactory explanation. The obtained multicolour CCD observations are unique in extent. The accuracy of the measurements makes it possible to detect low amplitude modulation of the light curve as well. The discovery of Blazhko stars with low modulation amplitudes warns that the incidence rate of the Blazhko modulation is, in fact, much larger than it was previously expected. This makes the efforts exploring the cause of the modulation even more important. A summary of our measurements and results achieved during the last 3 years is presented. Comment: Accepted for publication in Astronomische Nachrichten (Astronomical Notes). 4 pages, 3 figs
Radio halos require the coexistence of extra-planar cosmic rays and magnetic fields. Because cosmic rays are injected and accelerated by processes related to star formation in the disk, they have to be transported from the disk into the halo. A vertical large-scale magnetic field can significantly enhance this transport. We observed NGC 253 using radio continuum polarimetry with the Effelsberg and VLA telescopes. The radio halo of NGC 253 has a dumbbell shape with the smallest vertical extension near the center. With an estimate for the electron lifetime, we measured the cosmic-ray bulk speed as 300+/-30 km/s which is constant over the extent of the disk. This shows the presence of a "disk wind" in NGC 253. We propose that the large-scale magnetic field is the superposition of a disk (r,phi) and a halo (r,z) component. The disk field is an inward-pointing spiral with even parity. The conical (even) halo field appears in projection as an X-shaped structure, as observed in other edge-on galaxies. Interaction by compression in the walls of the superbubbles may explain the observed alignment between the halo field and the lobes of hot Halpha- and soft X-ray emitting gas. The disk wind is a good candidate for the transport of small-scale helical fields, required for efficient dynamo action, and as a source for the neutral hydrogen observed in the halo. Comment: 6 pages, 9 figures, to be published in Astronomische Nachrichten (proceedings of Symposium 6 of the JENAM 2008, Vienna)
We present the XMM-Newton X-ray analysis of RXJ1720.1+2638 and Abell267, a non-fossil and a fossil system, respectively. The whole spectrum of both objects can be explained by thermal emission. The luminosities found for RXJ1720.1+2638 and Abell267 in the 2-10 keV band are 6.20^{+0.04}_{-0.02}\times10^{44} and 3.90^{+0.10}_{-0.11}\times10^{44} cgs, respectively. The radial profiles show a cool core nature for the non-fossil system RXJ1720.1+2638, while Abell267 shows a constant behaviour of temperature with radius. Metallicity profiles have also been produced, but no evidence of any gradient was detected due to the large uncertainties in the determination of this parameter. Finally, density and mass profiles were also produced allowing to derive M_500 for RXJ1720.1+2638 and Abell267. The masses obtained are high, in the range of (5-7)10^{14}\,M_{\odot}. The X-ray properties obtained for both systems are not always in good agreement with what is expected: cool cores are expected for fossil systems, as Abell267, considering them as and relaxed systems. However, the decrement of the temperature in Abell267 could start at lower radii. Also the presence of a recent merger in Abell267, already suggested in the literature, could have increased the central temperature. The non-fossil system RXJ1720.1+2638 actually exhibits a cool core profile, but also evidence of a recent merger has been reported.
We present results from a recent broad-band monitoring in optics of the Seyfert 1 type galaxy Mrk 279. We build and analyse the BVRI light curve covering a period of seven years (1995 - 2002). We also show some evidence for the existence of two different states in brightness and suggest, based on a modelling of the optical continuum, that these states may result from transition between a thin disk and an ADAF accretion modes. We assume that the short-term variability is due to a reprocessing of a variable X-ray emission from an inner ADAF part of the flow, while the long-term one may be a result from a change of the transition radius. Our tests show a good match with the observations for a reasonable set of accretion parameters, rather close to the ones, expected for Mrk 279.
We have observed EY Draconis with the 24`` telescope of Konkoly Observatory in Budapest for 64 nights. In the first obse rving season the star produced a stable light curve for more than 60 rotation periods, however, the light curves observe d in the next season and the spot modelling show clear evidence of the evolution of the spotted stellar surface. The chan ges of the maximum brightness level suggests the existence of a longer period of about 300 days, which seems to be confir med by the ROTSE archival data.
We present more than 1000-day long photometry of EY Draconis in BV(RI)C passbands. The changes in the light curve are caused by the spottedness of the rotating surface. Modelling of the spotted surface shows that there are two large active regions present on the star on the opposite hemispheres. The evolution of the surface patterns suggests a flip-flop phenomenon. Using Fourier analysis, we detect a rotation period of P_rot=0.45875d, and an activity cycle with P~350d, similar to the 11-year long cycle of the Sun. This cycle with its year-long period is the shortest one ever detected on active stars. Two bright flares are also detected and analysed.
We combined the ISOCAM Parallel Mode Survey at 6.7 micron (LW2 filter) with the Two Micron All Sky Survey in order to obtain a powerful tool to search for AGN independent of dust extinction. Using moderate colour criteria H-K>0.5 and K-LW2>2.7 we have selected a sample of 77 AGN candidates in an effective area of about 10 square degrees. By means of optical spectroscopy we find 24 (30%) type-1 QSOs at redshifts 0.1<z<2.3; nine of them have z>0.8. About one third of the ISO-2MASS QSOs show so red optical colours, that they are missed in optical and UV AGN surveys like SDSS, 2DF, or HES. With a surface density of about 2 deg^(-2) down to R<18 mag the ISO-2MASS QSOs outnumber the 1.35 deg^(-2) of the SDSS quasar survey by 50%; we find a combined optical-IR QSO surface density of 2.7 deg^(-2). Since only two of the ISO-2MASS QSOs have also J-K>2, the inclusion of the ISO mid-infrared photometry significantly extends the capabilities of the pure 2MASS red AGN survey. We suggest that the newly found red AGN resemble young members of the quasar population, and that quasars spend much of their lifetime in a dust enshrouded phase. Comment: 5 pages, 5 figures, accepted for publication as A&A Letter
We present a procedure which separates field dwarfs and field giants by their 2MASS and V apparent magnitudes. The procedure is based on the spectroscopically selected standards, hence it is confident. We applied this procedure to stars in two fields, SA 54 and SA 82, and we estimated a full set of Galactic model parameters for giants including their total local space density. Our results are in agreement with the ones appeared recently in the literature. Comment: 10 pages, 4 figures and 5 tables, accepted for publication in AN
Over thirteen times more gamma-ray pulsars have now been studied with the Large Area Telescope on NASA's Fermi satellite than the ten seen with the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory in the nineteen-nineties. The large sample is diverse, allowing better understanding both of the pulsars themselves and of their roles in various cosmic processes. Here we explore the prospects for even more gamma-ray pulsars as Fermi enters the 2nd half of its nominal ten-year mission. New pulsars will naturally tend to be fainter than the first ones discovered. Some of them will have unusual characteristics compared to the current population, which may help discriminate between models. We illustrate a vision of the future with a sample of six pulsars discovered after the 2nd Fermi Pulsar Catalog was written.
Observed two-colour diagram of NGC 3077 superposed on the BCF94 model with Z = 0.02 (solid line). For scans north (right panel) and south (left panel) of the major axis. The points are coded as follows: • µ ≤ 21.0 m and + 21.0 m < µ ≤ 24.0 m , symbols along the "population line" indicate the age of the population as : triangle (4 Myr), filled triangle (10 Myr), square (100 Myr), filled square (1 Gyr) and asterisk (10 Gyr). The thick solid line is the reddening vector at age 30 Myr.
Characteristics of the CCD camera
Journal of the CCD observations
Fit parameters of luminosity profiles
Integrated luminosity
We present surface photometry of the irregular galaxy NGC 3077 using two data sets: photographic plates and CCD images. Isophotal contours, luminosity and colour distributions as well as position angle and ellipticity curves show that NGC 3077 is similar to an elliptical galaxy in the outer regions with a disturbed blue centre. The outer isophotes 22-25 mag/arcsec^2 are approximately centred on the dynamical centre, the inner ones are disturbed by the dominant contribution of a reddened young population. Comment: 9 pages, 10 ps. figs., use an_art.cls to appear in Astron. Nachr
Classical novae (CNe) have recently been reported to represent the major class of supersoft X-ray sources (SSSs) in the central area of our neighbouring galaxy M 31. This paper presents a review of results from recent X-ray observations of M 31 with XMM-Newton and Chandra. We carried out a dedicated optical and X-ray monitoring program of CNe and SSSs in the central area of M 31. We discovered the first SSSs in M 31 globular clusters (GCs) and their connection to the very first discovered CN in a M 31 GC. This result may have an impact on the CN rate in GCs. Furthermore, in our optical and X-ray monitoring data we discovered the CN M31N 2007-11a, which shows a very short SSS phase of 29 - 52 days. Short SSS states (durations < 100 days) of CNe indicate massive white dwarfs (WDs) that are candidate progenitors of supernovae type Ia. In the case of M31N 2007-11a, the optical and X-ray light curves suggest a binary containing a WD with M_WD > 1.0 M_sun. Finally, we present the discovery of the SSS counterpart of the CN M31N 2006-04a. The X-ray light curve of M31N 2006-04a shows short-time variability, which might indicate an orbital period of about 2 hours. Comment: 4 pages, 1 figure; Proc. of workshop "Supersoft X-ray Sources - New Developments", ESAC, May 2009; accepted for publication in Astronomische Nachrichten
The first supersoft source (SSS) identification with an optical nova in M 31 was based on ROSAT observations. Twenty additional X-ray counterparts (mostly identified as SSS by their hardness ratios) were detected using archival ROSAT, XMM-Newton and Chandra observations obtained before July 2002. Based on these results optical novae seem to constitute the major class of SSS in M 31. An analysis of archival Chandra HRC-I and ACIS-I observations obtained from July 2004 to February 2005 demonstrated that M 31 nova SSS states lasted from months to about 10 years. Several novae showed short X-ray outbursts starting within 50 d after the optical outburst and lasting only two to three months. The fraction of novae detected in soft X-rays within a year after the optical outburst was more than 30%. Ongoing optical nova monitoring programs, optical spectral follow-up and an up-to-date nova catalogue are essential for the X-ray work. Re-analysis of archival nova data to improve positions and find additional nova candidates are urgently needed for secure recurrent nova identifications. Dedicated XMM-Newton/Chandra monitoring programs for X-ray emission from optical novae covering the center area of M 31 continue to provide interesting new results (e.g. coherent 1105s pulsations in the SSS counterpart of nova M31N 2007-12b). The SSS light curves of novae allow us - together with optical information - to estimate the mass of the white dwarf, of the ejecta and the burned mass in the outburst. Observations of the central area of M 31 allow us - in contrast to observations in the Galaxy - to monitor many novae simultaneously and proved to be prone to find many interesting SSS and nova types. Comment: 6 pages, 4 figures, accepted for publication in Aston.Nachr
XMM-Newton EPIC observations reveal the population of X-ray sources of the bright Local Group spiral galaxy M 31, a low-star-formation-rate galaxy like the Milky Way, down to a 0.2-4.5 keV luminosity of 4.4E34 erg/s. With the help of X-ray hardness ratios and optical and radio information different source classes can be distinguished. The survey detected 856 sources in an area of 1.24 square degrees. Sources within M 31 are 44 supernova remnants (SNR) and candidates, 18 super-soft sources (SSS), 16 X-ray binaries (XRBs) and candidates, as well as 37 globular cluster sources (GlC) and candidates, i.e. most likely low mass XRBs within the GlC. 567 hard sources may either be XRBs or Crab-like SNRs in M 31 or background AGN. 22 sources are new SNR candidates in M 31 based on X-ray selection criteria. Time variability information can be used to improve the source classification. Two GlC sources show type I X-ray bursts as known from Galactic neutron star low mass XRBs. Many of the M 31 SSS detected with XMM-Newton, Chandra and ROSAT, could be identified with optical novae. Soft X-ray light curves can be determined in M 31 center observations for several novae at a time opening a new area of nova research.
We present results from a 150 ksec Suzaku observation of the Seyfert 1.5 NGC 3516 in October 2005. The source was in a relatively highly absorbed state. Our best-fit model is consistent with the presence of a low-ionization absorber which has a column density near 5 * 10^{22} cm^{-2} and covers most of the X-ray continuum source (covering fraction 96-100%). A high-ionization absorbing component, which yields a narrow absorption feature consistent with Fe K XXVI, is confirmed. A relativistically broadened Fe K alpha line is required in all fits, even after the complex absorption is taken into account; an additional partial-covering component is an inadequate substitute for the continuum curvature associated with the broad Fe line. A narrow Fe K alpha emission line has a velocity width consistent with the Broad Line Region. The low-ionization absorber may be responsible for producing the narrow Fe K alpha line, though a contribution from additional material out of the line of sight is possible. We include in our model soft band emission lines from He- and H-like ions of N, O, Ne and Mg, consistent with photo-ionization, though a small contribution from collisionally-ionized emission is possible.
Top-cited authors
Guenther Ruediger
  • Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam
Robert Lupton
  • Princeton University
Wolfgang Schmidt
  • Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik
Caitlin Denker
  • University of Central Lancashire
Alexander S. Szalay
  • Johns Hopkins University