Asian Women

Publications
This essay discusses the life and writings of Ellen Lakshmi Goreh (1853-1937), an ethnic Indian who was adopted by British missionaries in infancy, educated in Victorian England as child, and who returned to India as a Christian missionary in adulthood. Examining her poetical works as unusual examples of Indian-English Christian writings during the late nineteenth century, the essay seeks to establish Goreh's reputation as a Victorian-era transracial adoptee author, and, thereby, ex-tend research on the history of transracial adoptee writing (which has to date been confined to the writings of the last fifty years) to the nineteenth century. To this end, Goreh's personal story is traced from her origins; adoption; negotiations with her personal and cultural identities in England; entry into print culture; return to India as a Christian missionary; revisions in the representations of Indian peoples; and conceptualisation of God as the faithful mother in her mature poetry. Her poetic developments are explored from her replication of English ethnocentric im-perialist views in "From India's Coral Strand" (1883), her first volume of poetry pub-lished in England, which depicts Indians as helpless heathens damned to ignorance and hell without the intervention of salvific English missionaries, to her second collection of verse, Poems (1899), published some sixteen years later in Madras which inscribes her radically transformed understandings about Indian subjectivity and corresponding belief in the pre-existing immanence of the Christian God in India's innocents. The role of Goreh's religion as the agent through which she re-engaged with, returned to, and re-assimilated into Indian culture is explored, and it is demonstrated how her identification of a special work for herself among the Anglo-Indian community, a group which reflected her own dual identity, re-sulted in the production of a more sensitive, organic and indigenous form of Indian-Christian writing.
 
This study examines the correlation between the formation of the nation-state and education policy in modern Korea (1876-1910). Modern education in Korea was begun as a part of the efforts for nation building. This study also focuses on the difference of the goals in modern education between King Gojong(高宗) and Kaehwapa (開化派; Enlightenment Party) in the process of modernization reform, and how Gojong and Kaehwapa each understood the concept of nation. Gojong and Kaehwapa thought that modernization was important to deal with internal and external crises, and tried to achieve it by national education. Gojong aimed to train skilled technical manpower by modern education and pursued the goal that anyone could gain expertise through industrial education and work as professional bureaucrat regardless of his status. Kaehwapa was also concerned with the cultivation of modern manpower, but their focus regarding education policy was a little different from Gojong’s. Kaehwapa thought that the most important aspect in the process of establishing a modern state was to limit the power of the monarch and to make people responsible for their own governance by giving them the right to vote. Kaehwapa put an emphasis on nation building and public intellect for the right to vote. However, after the Russo-Japanese War, Japanese imperialists established the Residency-General in Taehan Empire (大韓帝國), and began to launch colonial education. As such, Korean national education, which started to form modern people and nurture talented people for the nation state in Korea, was replaced by education under Japanese colonial rule.
 
The health of mothers and infants, particularly in Malay States during the region's colonization, has not been extensively studied by historians. This study thus aims to analyze the pattern and causes of maternal and infantile mortality rates in Selangor during the colonial era from 1900 to 1940. This period covers the mass arrival of Chinese and Indian immigrants in Selangor. The study examined the three main ethnic populations in Selangor: Malays, Chinese, and Indians. The data used were obtained from an analysis of primary sources, especially from the health records of the Selangor Health Department in the national archives of Malaysia. The study found that the rate of increase in maternal and infantile mortality in Selangor during that period was caused by various factors, including the unplanned system of urbanization that led to population congestion, the lack of basic health facilities, poverty, the lack of knowledge about health care, diets followed during and after pregnancy and, finally, cultural practices inhibiting certain ethnicities from receiving modern treatment from maternity hospitals.
 
Gao highlights the contributions of women who demonstrated the benefits of health and fitness to Chinese audiences, and who represented China at global sporting events. In Chapter 2, the only one that does not focus on the story of an individual, emphasis is placed on the multifarious meanings and uses of nationalism as evidenced in the women’s magazine Linglong (1931-1937). Gao elucidates how the rhetoric of nation-building was employed by women to challenge received notions of femininity, and she underscores the links and tensions between nationalist and feminist discourses, a running theme throughout the book. For example, while the baring of limbs in swimsuits and team uniforms publicized the new fashion for jianmei “robust beauty” that demanded strong bodies for a strong nation (in contrast to an earlier elite ideal of dainty bingtaimei “sickly beauty”), scantily clad and highly visible athletes were also susceptible to charges of being little different from prostitutes, who by the 1930s were increasingly seen as epitomizing national shame. For instance, one wonders how fans responded to the controversies surrounding the masculinization of women, a topic touched on mostly in Chapters 3 and 4. Gao writes that while the rugged prowess of women on sporting fields was championed as outstanding and heroic by some commentators, others condemned masculine women as a threat to manhood and the proper feminine roles of wife and mother. Magazines like Linglong solicited and printed many letters and images by readers, and close scrutiny of these contents might provide a basis for thinking about the interplay between celebrities and fans. How, for example, do these mostly unknown individuals dress and pose in their pictures, in comparison to the celebrities whom Gao concentrates on? As for visual analysis, while Gao acknowledges the importance of images in generating meanings, the numerous figures included throughout the book play a largely supplementary role. Further research in this area might read them as closely as Gao does texts. One image reproduced on page 229 is mistakenly referred to as a film still of Li Lili and the actor Jin Yan (1910-1983), but it is in fact a satirical photomontage in which the heads of these two movie stars of China have been superimposed onto the bodies of Johnny Weissmuller and Maureen O’Sullivan, stars of the Hollywood Tarzan films. Such errors, however, do not detract from the book as a whole, and Gao’s arguments are for the most part persuasive. Sporting Gender is an immensely rich and stimulating study that paves the way for new avenues of inquiry that will undoubtedly benefit from this magnificent work.
 
A nation's memory is a reconstruction of the past. Accordingly, this study explores how South Korean television (TV) dramas Eyes of Dawn (1991) and Snowy Road (2015) helped shape the collective memory of Japanese colonial rule. Both dramas highlighted the experiences of comfort women, Korean women forced to provide sex to Japanese soldiers. This study analyzes the representations, technical factors, and newspaper discourse of the dramas to examine how they influenced collective memories of comfort women. By comparing and contrasting the dramas, this study reveals that while both generated public awareness and controversy, Eyes of Dawn and Snowy Road represented differently oriented colonial memories of comfort women: A patriotic-oriented memory and a humanism-focused memory, respectively. Specifically, in illuminating colonial rule, Eyes of Dawn showed a traditional good and evil dichotomy, while Snowy Road revealed a more complex and diverse context. Given the socio-political contexts of 1991 and 2015, this study suggests that Eyes of Dawn functioned to inform the public about the comfort women, whereas Snowy Road aimed to reflect upon the impact of comfort women in South Korean society. Thus, while acknowledging that collective memory is a construct that can change over time, we contend that the media's role (especially TV drama) is critical in this process. More generally, this study contributes to the study of memory, journalism, history, and popular communication.
 
This paper analyzes family policies in the conservative welfare states and compares them with those in Korea, with specific foci on defamilization and familization policies. The time frame for the analysis is between the 1990s and early 2000s, the period identified as the beginning of an active response toward the new social risk in the conservative welfare states. Through a comparative analysis in family policies betwen conservative welfare states and Korea, several noticeable results were found. First, contrary to general expectation, no similarities among conservative welfare states were noted in the realm of childcare policy. Second, although family policiesin conservative welfare states have ben changing continuously in the last ten years, no qualitative changes were found except in France. Third, Korean childcare policy may seem to share major characteristics with conservative welfare states in rhetoric, but the actual policy differs substantially from those in the conservative states.
 
Since its publication, Sheryl Sandberg’s Lean In has excited much debate and discussion; it has been praised for re-invigorating the feminist revolution and blamed for targeting a small audience of privileged white, partnered women who want to rise in the corporate world of America. (Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique was similarly criticized for its narrow scope.) Lean In arguably does both as it charts Sandberg’s own doubts and misgivings as she entered the corporate world first at Google, then at Facebook, navigating her way through two pregnancies, some gendered revelations such as that pregnant women might need reserved parking, and a succession of high-powered mentors most women would kill for. Sandberg’s message is not new-that women lack the self -confidence and chutzpah of their male counterparts, consistently devalue and undercut themselves, fail to take the high-powered positions they’re offered because they fear they can’t perform. But it’s a message that needs reinforcing and repeating, and Sandberg’s book does just that. The fact that this Ivy-league-educated, wealthy woman with an immense network of resources and contacts may have experienced the same insecurities the rest of us have should resonate for many readers. Sandberg’s Lean In is not the final answer to women’s corporate woes, but it is the continuation of an ongoing dialogue for women who want to be taken seriously in a still largely man’s world.
 
Previous research on infant mortality rate (IMR) and neonatal mortality rate (NMR) in less developed countries (LDCs) has emphasized various socio-economic factors explaining an increase or decrease in IMR and NMR Among those factors, neoliberal restructuring through structural adjustment programs, foreign direct investment, and trade liberalization have an ambiguous effect on IMR and NMR, while transnational network also plays an important role in improving global health conditions. The present paper classifies LDCs into low-income countries and lower-middle-income countries and shows how the socio-economic factors have different effects in these two country-income groups. By conducting a cross-national time-series analysis on IMR and NMR in 63 less developed countries during the periods 1971-2011 (IMR) and 1990-2011 (NMR), this study finds that international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) are effective in promoting IMR and NMR in low-income countries. Both IMF structural adjustment programs and foreign direct investment have harmful effects on IMR and NMR. These findings suggest that women and children's health in LDCs suffers more from neoliberal restructuring than it benefits from the transnational health network comprised of INGOs. In sum, the findings indicate that the variables affecting IMR and NMR work differently in the low-income and lower-middle-income country-groups. © 2014, Research Institute of Asian Women. All rights reserved.
 
This article looks into the realities of Indian middle-class working mothers in contemporary Malaysia, as they negotiate their identity in a rapidly globalizing society. In Malaysia, the national agenda calls for middle-class Malaysian women to enter the workforce and produce healthy families: this is the national image of "successful" working motherhood. However, in most public discussion about this image, Indian middle-class working mothers have remained absent. This is in line with their mutedness in dominant public culture. In this paper, I will explore Indian women's everyday middle-class interactions as they negotiate the gendered spaces of education, work, and the home. Women's lived realities reveal how they struggle to carve out an identity amidst the intersection of gendered and racial politics. By exploring the quotidian journey of Malaysian Indian middle-class working mothers, I challenge national narratives where they have remained silent.
 
This study examines how online advertisements use fear appeals to promote abortion services among Chinese women. Using a quantitative content analysis, we identified various emotional appeals, as well as the four constructs of the extended parallel process model adopted in 159 Chinese online advertising videos promoting abortion services. We found that 83.0% of ads used emotional appeals, while the emotion of fear was addressed most frequently (73.0%); 98.7% of ads included self-efficacy information and response efficacy information, followed by susceptibility messages (81.8%); and severity messages were the least likely to be mentioned (73.6%). Based on these findings, we conclude that Chinese online abortion ads rely most heavily on fear appeals rather than other types of emotional appeals. These fear-related messages oversell the benefits of abortion services and medicalize the experience of unplanned pregnancy, presenting abortion as a solution for Chinese women with unplanned pregnancies. © 2018 by the Research Institute of Asian Women, Sookmyung Women's University. All rights reserved.
 
Contrasting the interesting decisions of two highest tribunals in Germany and the United States, this article suggests that two highest courts have dealt with the issue of abortion by applying a similar yardstick, namely, a balancing test. Both courts might have been under influences derived from each other, alluding that a pregnant woman has the right to abortion qua the right to privacy, which comes within the purview of the constitutional provisions, such as, Basic Law Article 2 (1) and the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The German Federal Constitutional Court's decisions and the United States Supreme Court's decisions are compared in order to find similar constitutional jurisprudence between the two highest tribunals on abortion, rather than the differences. However, the Gonzales v. Carhart case, handed down by the United States Supreme Court in April 18, 2007, which may seriously erode the Roe-Casey line of precedent vis-à-vis a woman's right to abortion, made the dissenting opinion voiced by Justice Ginsburg that the plurality opinion would chip away the core value of Roe v. Wade persuasive. Therefore, I am tempted to claim that the United States Supreme Court should remain with the distinctive traditions established by Roe and Casey, an effort to protect a pregnant woman's right to abortion notwithstanding Gonzales v. Carhart, and the Korean Constitutional Court would be better off if it takes into account the converging rationale and yardstick applied to the abortion cases of the two influential highest courts save Gonzales v. Carhart when deciding the constitutionality of a ban on abortion in Korea.
 
A medical, surgical termination of pregnancy is the only means of avoiding an unplanned and unwanted birth when contraception fails. Access to safe and affordable abortion is therefore essential to satisfy women's rights to health and the exercise of control over life choices. Restrictive law is usually considered as the main cause of abortions performed in illegal and unhygienic clinics, which could be healthor life-threatening. Thus, many feminists argue that women's reproductive health and rights would be promoted by establishing a less restrictive regulatory model of abortion. By examining the Chinese abortion law, this paper aims to analyze whether it is liberal and if so, how it satisfies women's rights to health and reproductive self-determination. While the law looks unrestrictive, in reality it fails to serve this purpose and instead facilitates the state's manipulation of female fertility. Since the regulation of abortion in China is significantly determined by the state's policy-making in relation to population, an in-depth analysis of the connection between regulation and policy is given to indicate how the state imposes the burden of achieving its population goals on women. In addition, to further scrutinize how women's rights to health and reproductive decision-making are violated by the implementation of abortion law in practice, this paper offers a discussion on the Chinese-style practice of family planning. Finally, feasible proposals are made for reformulating the Chinese regulatory model, so it can protect women's health and reproductive rights from the state's coercive involvement and can promote women's access to adequate medical and state support. By providing a normative analysis of the Chinese abortion law, this paper also suggests that a woman-friendly law ought to move beyond a liberal form and to be brought into line with the principle of respect for women's rights to health and to reproductive decision-making.
 
Although pre-college or early study abroad (ESA) in the West used to be characterized primarily as a cosmopolitan aspirational strategy of affluent East Asian families with professional fathers and stay-at-home mothers (Cho, 2004), less-affluent middle-class Korean families have also begun to pursue ESA in the past decade. This study examined the parenting narratives of working mothers from less-affluent middle-class Korean families whose children engaged in ESA in Southeast Asia. We found that working mothers viewed affordable ESA as an opportunity both to facilitate their children's English language learning and to engage in short-term intensive mothering (Hays, 1996), and thereby to realize their own desires to conform to the prevailing ideology of an ideal Korean mother as an education manager (Park & Abelmann, 2004). Their narratives, however, also revealed unequal access to cultural knowledge with regard to navigating institutions related to ESA, and this inequality appeared to reproduce the families' class disadvantages. These findings imply that global education must be inclusive of working Korean (and other Asian) mothers as well as those from less-affluent and less privileged backgrounds. With respect to policy, these findings convey the need for greater access to a high-quality English language education, and a re-examination of the expectation that acquiring fluency in the English language serves as a gatekeeper to cosmopolitan upward mobility.
 
Ecological theory and symbolic interaction theory have anchored the research on Korean immigrant women's experience of marital abuse and post-divorce adjustment. Bronfenbrenner's ecological model is useful in studying Korean immigrants' ex-perience of marital abuse. It posited four sub-systems: society, community, rela-tionship and individual. At the societal level which represents cultural norm, patri-archy, masculine aggression, and acceptance of interpersonal violence are im-portant factors understanding dynamics of marital abuse in Korean immigrant families. At the community level, institutions and social structure, immigration re-lated stressors, low socioeconomic status, lack of formal services, and isolation are associated with marital abuse. At the relationship level, male control in decision making, marital conflict, and obligation to children are factors. At the individual level, gender identity, self-esteem, language barriers, and husband's use of alcohol are factors associated with marital abuse. According to symbolic interactionists, a woman's definition of the situation is a key to understand her actions and responses within the context of an abusive relationship. Based on this approach, researchers analyze women's identity negotia-tion and discourses as inherently active self. Grounded in these theoretical conceptual frameworks, this paper discusses the experience of marital abuse and post-divorce adjustment among Korean immigrant women in the United States and offer suggestions for family policy makers for this population.
 
Abrahams and Jewkes (2005) report that South Africa experiences high levels of violent crimes. In particular, in South Africa in 1999, 8.8 women per 100 000 aged 14 years or older were murdered by a current or ex-husband or boyfriend (Abrahams & Jewkes, 2005). This indicates the seriousness of the problem of women abuse in South Africa, which motivated this study. This study explores the experiences of abused women living in shelters for abused women. The participants in this study were abused by people known and close to them, such as their spouses, boyfriends, step-fathers and uncles. Due to such abuse, they had to seek refuge in shelters for abused women, where they have access to psychological intervention and counseling. This study reports on multiple case studies that were conducted on victims of domestic violence in two shelters in South Africa. Some of the reasons given for being abused were: their refusal to give their abusers money for drugs, refusal to have sex without condoms because the abusers had paid "lobola" or dowry, and the refusal to allow their husbands or partners to have extra-marital affairs. The participants were exposed to verbal, psychological/ emotional, physical, sexual and financial/economic abuse. In the shelters, they were empowered to acquire different skills in order to prepare them for life "after the shelter.".
 
Ecofeminism emerged in the mid-1970s in the West as a result of the dual challenges faced by women active in both the feminist movement and the environmental movement It was introduced to Gina in the late 1980s in the midst of Chinese efforts to reconnect with the international academic world and was quickly embraced by Chinese scholars in the field of literary criticism. Since the 1990s, ecofeminist literary criticism has become an emerging academic field reflecting Chinese intellectuals' concern about environment and gender equality as a result of the country's fast economic development This study examines the emergence of ecofeminist literary criticism in China and analyzes its characteristics and challenges. More importantly, this study seeks to show that as a discourse, ecofeminist literary criticism is a powerful intellectual force in China that serves as a window into China's academic globalization.
 
This study employs the technology acceptance model and expectation confirmation theory to investigate women's intentions to continue using a digital mammography vehicle (DMV) for breast health check-ups. It analyzes the statistical effects of the respondents' confirmation, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and satisfaction on their intentions to continue use. Purposive sampling was employed to collect questionnaire survey data on women who had used a DMV primarily for a breast health check-up. Of 535 distributed questionnaires, 517 valid cases were analyzed for a response rate of 96.64%. Confirmation, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and satisfaction all positively correlated with intent to continue using the DMV. The results of a multiple regression analysis reveal that the combined effects of confirmation, perceived usefulness, and satisfaction explained about 86% of the variation in the respondents' intent to continue using the DMV. These results serve as a vital reference for improving the quality of breast cancer prevention services and strategies in Taiwan and form a basis for related research, development, and programs.
 
Access to credit can have significant effects on standards of living. Credit can allow households to optimally select the timing of their purchases and sustain a certain level of consumption when they are struck by unforeseen setbacks. Some households have been credit constrained and others have not. The difference in credit access may lead to disparities in households' empowerment and perpetuate imbalances in terms of economic wellbeing. While the literature on credit has long suggested that racial and gender disparities exist in the credit market, to date, few studies have analyzed credit constraints with attention to racial minority women. This study uses household-level data from the Survey of Consumer Finances to examine women's access to credit. In particular, access to credit of Asian women and that of other groups in the US are compared. This study provides empirical evidence that Asian women are less likely to be constrained in access to credit, while they are more likely to be discouraged by potential lenders than whites even after accounting for proxies for creditworthiness.
 
Women's roles and positions in the governmental system, as well as in other institutions in the contemporary context, can be seen from their involvement in the political arena and the ability of women to occupy decision-making positions. Women's inability to achieve important positions in public is influenced by many factors, including ideology and government policy, as well as by social changes and modernization. This article aims to focus on the condition of Acehnese women by analyzing their roles and positions in the governmental system as well as in other institutions. The discussion intends to explore the factors that have triggered the marginalization of Acehnese women in public. This article implies that the exclusion of Acehnese women from public spaces is largely caused by internal and external factors, by protracted conflicts as well as the modernization process in the region.
 
Originated in the U.S. context, third wave feminism has traveled in different communities of practices and cultural locations. I am interested in exploring the production, distribution, and reception of third wave feminism in different sites of knowledge production such as academic publishing practices, conferences, and classrooms as it travels across geopolitical borders, and more specifically, between East and West. Therefore, this paper will first interrogate the processes through which "third wave feminism" is formed and disseminated within a cross-cultural framework. Second, the paper will analyze how third wave feminism is brought into friction and dialogue with local experiences so as to enable identifications and disidentifications. In other words, this paper will examine how the meanings, ex-pressions, and implications of "third wave feminism" have intersected and di-verged for women in various global locations. Ultimately this paper will explore the possibilities and limits of third wave feminism as a new form of transnational alliance in a world of increasing cross-border movements and cross-cultural contacts.
 
Each essay focuses on contemporary issues of motherdom and the ways in which that state is communicated by and within daughters. Though somewhat anecdotal in scope, the collection of essays includes discussions of motherly embodiment, motherly desertion, and the at times the indefinable state of “motherhood.” Only rooting itself in a global perspective about halfway through the collection, Mothers and Daughters discusses the progression of culturally dictated mother-daughter relationships within peoples such as Peruvians, contemporary Asians and Central Americas. Although there is an overarching discussion of mother-daughter communication in a global sphere, there exists a significant amount of dialogue of Western motherhood. The exploration of the Western mother serves as a useful bridge into the cross-cultural dialogue of motherhood. In inadvertently layering the communication of the American mother-daughter against the Chinese mother-daughter relationship a dialogue between cultures forms. The evolution of the cross-cultural dialogue offsets any tendencies towards Eurocentricity and instead allows for a fulfilling analysis of the expectations, marginalizations and outcomes of a continuous focus on mother-daughter interaction. The single essay that subsists for “Section IV: Mother-Daughter Connections Around the Thought” seems somewhat an afterthought, a kind of apologia to the at times quasi- subjective work previously presented by means of a seemingly random listing of maternal traditions throughout the globe, ranging from dowry in India to maternal linage in Japan. This essay, “Mothers in Daughters in a Global Village,” is indicative of the range of material within the collection. It is well-researched, innovative, though at times cloyingly personal, but does not create a complete logical correlative with the rest of the collection’s essays. The theme of mother-daughter relationship and communication is present in the essays, but the unpacking of each essay’s information seems tenuously related. Overall, it is the thematic organization of Mothers and Daughters that takes most away from its mother-daughter insight. Perhaps a collection less grounded in and colored by personal accounts of motherdom and nostalgic memories of mother-figures but instead grounded in an objective, systematic discussion of sustained cross-cultural mother-daughter relationships would be more affective.
 
This paper uses Swedish, German, and South Korean cases from the area of quota policy to examine the interactions of main actors involving quota campaigns in the three countries. The aim of this study is to establish under what circumstances the state actors best incorporate women's policy demands and contribute to equal representation of men and women in politics. This study shows that while the three countries have introduced quotas, there are variations in the tracks to equal representation of women and men, in the actors and motivation in quota reform, and in types of quotas. It has demonstrated that the variations are largely related to each country's political systems and to how women are integrated into society. The analysis has also emphasized that women were key actors in the success of each country's quota reform. Both the Swedish and German cases have shown that the high proportion of women in those countries' parliaments heavily depend on the support of women's organizations inside political parties. In contrast to these two countries, South Korea has demonstrated a case in which a strong women's movement outside political parties was the major force in leading the successful quota campaign. The comparative analysis of the three countries in this study contributes to illuminating the global diffusion of quotas, and dynamics of quota policy formation in countries with different political conditions.
 
The Malaysian Shari'ah Courts are integral to the administration of justice for Muslims.1 This can be seen especially in matters pertaining to personal laws as provided under the Malaysian Federal Constitution. However, women in particular, face various problems at the Shari'ah Courts when seeking to secure their rights as provided for under the Islamic Family Law Enactments. Do the provisions in the Enactments cause this situation or is it their implementation? The Shari'ah Courts, on the other hand, have made significant improvements in their administration, and the lingering perceptions of their inefficiency and biases may be simply an overhang from when they were struggling to remake themselves. This article attempts to clarify the situation. The analyses are based on the judgments and orders of selected Shari'ah Courts in order to gain an insight into how Shari'ah judges interpret written provisions and implement the law.
 
This study seeks to examine Palestinian attitudes toward women holding leading administrative positions. A structured questionnaire was used to examine attitudes, and to identify the main impediments to women's promotion and advancement to leading administrative positions. Employees in the Palestinian public sector institutions operating in the West Bank were surveyed. Results indicate that respondents generally show negative attitudes toward women in top administrative positions. Findings also revealed that cultural attitudes posed significant impediments to women's advancement to these positions. Other barriers include gender stereotypes and work-family conflicts. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
 
Adolescence is the most important period of transition in life. It requires proper knowledge of health, diet, and hygiene. Lack of timely information and guidance on these matters may cause complications for individuals in adulthood. In less advanced economies, adolescent girls face challenges in identifying their true health and hygiene status. When these issues are not adequately addressed, the adolescent's self-awareness suffers and health and hygiene-related problems result. Hill regions are no exception to this phenomenon. Consequently, there is a need to understand the barriers that impede adolescents' awareness of health, nutrition, and hygiene-related issues. These barriers can obstruct adolescent girls from achieving a better life style based on awareness of their future health needs. A survey on health, hygiene and nutrition of adolescent girls was conducted in Nainital district of the Kumaun region in the Indian state of Uttaranchal. The survey results indicate that adolescent girls have inadequate knowledge of physiological changes, sex-related matters, dietary intake, and personal hygiene. Low family income and poor parental education-especially their mother's low level of education- leave these adolescents especially vulnerable. Almost 50% of the respondents had difficulty with their regular menstrual cycle. They reported that they were embarrassed to discuss menarche. Their hesitancy is due to a conservative family and social system. Age old myths still prevail and traditional practices continue to be followed. In most of the cases, a woman's first interaction with health professionals was either after marriage or during child birth.
 
This article draws on solicited diary entries detailing the lives and loves of eight young undergraduate women at an elite institution of higher education in South Africa. The research participants are occupants of a privileged place in society with access to education, and a middle-class lifestyle, have control over their reproductive functioning, are not wives, mothers or homemakers, and potentially have access to fulfilling, status-rich and materially rewarding occupations which make independence both of their parental families and of male partners a real possibility. Theirs then, is a world of information, choice and opportunity and if of anyone at all in society we would predict the emergence of a critical gender consciousness, it might be of these women. One way of gauging the extent of the emergence of a critical consciousness among women is to examine the extent to which, in the stories they tell about their intimate relationships, they depart from, or conform to both the content and structure of the traditional romance genre and in particular, to the positioning of themselves in their stories as passive, submissive, dependent subjects while their partners are dominant and active. The present article argues that far from the democratisation of intimacy, the young, seemingly privileged and empowered women in the study remain locked into romantic narratives of love with their concomitant passive construction of femininity. In a social context characterised by putative sexual emancipation, these young women find themselves in the unenviable position of having to play a game of liberated sexual and gender politics while at the same time living a reality of feminine oppression.
 
This paper investigates how women's interests and rights are advocated in the legislatures in both the Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly (Japan) and the Seoul Metropolitan Council (South Korea). A growing body of comparative research on women's substantive representation provides insights into the kinds of policy topics that are often categorized as women's issues, as well as the personal backgrounds of the legislators who represent women's interests. We raise and analyze three key questions: Can only female legislators represent women's interests? How does a legislator's sex/gender interact with other factors such as partisanship in shaping who represents women's interests and how? How do contextual factors such as party systems impact how women's substantive representation occurs? We explore these questions in the context of the Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly and the Seoul Metropolitan Council using an in-depth examination of statements made by local council members in plenary and committee sessions (Tokyo 2009-2015 and Seoul 2009-2014). We found that similar issues are discussed as being relevant to women in the two local councils. However, the issues emphasized and where those issues are discussed vary across our cases. Female members, regardless of their party affiliation, address women's issues more often than their male counterparts in both countries, although female members of progressive parties tend to advocate for women more actively, and parties representing distinct constituencies and ideologies highlight different aspects of women's concerns. Our findings contribute to existing knowledge of women's substantive representation, as well as to research on women and politics in the Asian region.
 
The goal of this study is to examine the antecedents and outcomes of emotional labor from women sales personnel in the clothing industry. Despite the growing number of people working in the service sector, relatively little empirical research has examined the effects and outcomes of emotional labor with an integrated research model. Based on the previous literature, this study designed a research model analyzing structural equation modeling in which women sales personnel were faced with emotional labor. Data from 239 employees revealed that emotional labor was significantly affected by employee affectivity, job autonomy, and customer incivility. This study found that the surface acting affected by employee affectivity and customer incivility was significantly related to turnover intention and burnout Also, the deep acting affected by job autonomy was significantly related to self-efficacy and turnover intention. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings and future directions are discussed.
 
Changes in forgiveness according to group  
Means and standard deviations for assessments among the group conditions
Changes in negative affect  
This article identifies the role of forgiveness in psychological adaptation among victims of dating violence. The roles of intra-and interpersonal forgiveness in predicting changes in negative affect, perceived control, and the intention to remain in the relationship are examined. For this study, 43 women involved in a relationship characterized by dating violence were recruited. Participants were assigned to one of the following groups: intrapersonal forgiveness, interpersonal forgiveness, or waiting-list control. After participants recalled recent victimizing experiences, their initial levels of negative affect and forgiveness were measured. Then, participants listened to the instructions for either the intra-or interpersonal forgiveness condition. Finally, participants completed self-report measures assessing negative affect (PANAS), perceived control (AAQ), forgiveness (VAS), and intent to leave the abusive relationship. The analyses revealed that intra-and interpersonal forgiveness had differential effects on negative affect. Specifically, intrapersonal forgiveness was more effective at reducing negative affect than was interpersonal forgiveness. Additionally, both intra-and interpersonal forgiveness influenced current levels of perceived control; however, neither affected perceptions of past control or the participant's intention to leave the relationship.
 
The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between spousal support and postpartum women’s quality of life. This is a descriptive study carried out between July 1, 2014 and October 31, 2014. Data were collected from the homes of 301 women who were in the postpartum period. A demographic questions form, the Maternal Postpartum Quality of Life Questionnaire (MPQLQ), and the Spouse Support Scale (SSS) were used to collect the data. According to the results, there was a moderate positive relationship between general spousal support and quality of life after birth. The age of the participating women, the educational status of the women and their spouses, the duration of their marriage, the type of delivery, whether the pregnancy was planned/unplanned, acceptance of the baby after learning of the pregnancy, the type of marriage, spouses’ relationships, work hours of the spouse, and time spent at home were important variables for determining spousal support and quality of life. The relationship between general spousal support and postpartum quality of life in this study suggests that support of spouses is important in improving the maternal quality of life in the postpartum period. This study contributes to the importance of postpartum support of spouses and the importance of spousal awareness in this regard. © 2018 by the Research Institute of Asian Women, Sookmyung Women's University.
 
Top-cited authors
Aljosa Puzar
  • University of Ljubljana
Waseem Ul Hameed
  • The Islamia University of Bahawalpur
Ali Waqas
  • COMSATS University Islamabad
Qasim Ali Nisar
  • Superior University