Reunification with the People's Republic of China in 1997 draws attention to the identity of Hong Kong people along with their representation and perception of in- and outgroups. We gathered current data on in- and outgroup representations, self-categorizations, and the willingness to assimilate in this dynamic sociocultural environment. A new experimental method was developed to measure the structure and feature dimensions of in- and outgroup representation in 25 university students and 25 employees. Results showed that the structure of mental representations had changed after reunification. Interestingly, significant feature dimension of intergroup perception, such as modernity and Confucian values, proved to be consistent with earlier research. In the present study, it became obvious that such feature dimensions played an important role in discriminating between in- and outgroups.
Heine, Kitayama and Hamamura (2007) attributed the Sedikides, Gaertner and Vevea (2005) findings to the exclusion of six papers. We report a meta-analysis that includes those six papers. The Heine et al. conclusions are faulty, because of a misspecified meta-analysis that failed to consider two moderators central to the theory. First, some of their effect sizes originated from studies that did not empirically validate comparison dimensions. Inclusion of this moderator evidences pancultural self-enhancement: Westerners enhance more strongly on individualistic dimensions, Easterners on collectivistic dimensions. Second, some of their effect sizes were irrelevant to whether enhancement is correlated with dimension importance. Inclusion of this moderator evidences pancultural self-enhancement: Both Westerners and Easterners enhance on personally important dimensions. The Sedikides et al. conclusions are valid: Tactical self-enhancement is pancultural.
In a Journal of Personality and Social Psychology article, Sedikides, Gaertner and Vevea (2005) presented two meta-analyses that included eight papers to investigate the question of whether people from Eastern cultures self-enhance more for traits that they view to be important compared to those that they view as unimportant. The results supported their hypothesis: Self-enhancement appears to be pancultural. However, this conclusion is severely compromised by six relevant papers that are not included in their meta-analyses. Importantly, all of these six studies contradicted their hypothesis. When complete meta-analyses are conducted which include all of the relevant papers, a very different pattern of results emerges. Eastern and Western cultures do not differ from each other in the pattern of their self-enhancement of independent and interdependent traits. Furthermore, whereas Westerners self-enhanced significantly more for traits that they viewed to be especially important, East Asians did not. Contrary to the Sedikides et al. (2005) suggestion, the existing evidence suggests substantial cross-cultural variation in self-enhancement, with Westerners being far more self-enhancing than Easterners. Reasons for the conflicting pattern of findings across methods and meta-analyses are discussed.
What types of studies test the question of pancultural self-enhancement? Sedikides, Gaertner, and Vevea (2007) have identified inclusion criteria that largely limit the question to studies of the better-than-average effect (i.e. 27 out of 29 effects that they include as ‘validated’ and ‘relevant’). In contrast, other effects which they labelled as ‘unvalidated’ or ‘irrelevant’ used methods other than the better-than-average effect (i.e. 24 out of 24 effects). Because Sedikides et al. are drawing conclusions about pancultural self-enhancement and not the pancultural better-than-average effect, these excluded studies are relevant to the hypothesis under question. Ignoring the findings from other methods is highly problematic, in particular because these other methods yield results that conflict with those from the better-than-average effect. An analysis of effects from all studies reveals no support for pancultural self-enhancement.
The Beijing Olympic Games, one of the most significant social events for contemporary China, is a milestone for China's efforts for globalization. ‘One World, One Dream’, the motto of the Beijing Olympic Games, is an embodiment of the encounter between Chinese culture and Western civilization, and a symbol of integration between China and the rest of the world. This Special Section seeks to address the psychosocial ramifications of the Beijing Olympic Games and, thereby, to shed light on China's domestic situation and its international relations from a social psychological perspective. Moving beyond the psychology of athletic excellence, the four papers included use a wide range of methods, ranging from longitudinal tracking to priming, to examining self-construal and volunteering, to representations of China's past and future, competition towards foreigners, and perceived intercultural differences. Consistently found across the papers, patriotism was associated with ingroup cohesion, whereas nationalism was associated with competition and differentiation towards outgroups. This Special Section thereby pays tribute to the social psychological significance of the Beijing Olympic Games to China and the world.
Based on the stereotype content model, we examined Mainland and Hong Kong Chinese' historical representations and future imaginations of China during the 2008 Beijing Olympics. Among Mainland Chinese, China's unprecedented economic growth and the resulted value competition led to the expectation of a more competent China in the future (vs now; a ‘better tomorrow effect’) and a perception of a warmer and more moral China in the past (vs now; the ‘good old days effect’). As the Olympics proceeded, the perceived compatibility of competence and warmth/morality increased and the good old days effect diminished. Hong Kong Chinese, who also witnessed China's growth but did not directly experience the cultural implications of globalization in Mainland China, displayed the better tomorrow effect only.
The present study was designed to compare the psychological well-being of mothers of children with mental retardation in the USA and Korea. The Double ABCX model of stress proposed by McCubbin and Patterson (1983) was evaluated for the two national groups. Thirty-eight American and 40 Korean mothers participated in the home-visit interview. The path models in the present study partially supported the ABCX model, but different path models for the two national groups provided important explanations for the well-being of mothers from the two nations. The cause of stress for the American mothers was specific to the individual variables. For Korean mothers, cultural values that carry social influence were more strongly associated with their attitudes towards the child and their experience of stress.
The authors conducted two studies to examine the relationship between attributional style, locus of control, and academic achievement. Using the scales developed by the first author (Park, 1995), the first study compared the attributional style and locus of control of honor students (those who received scholarship) with those who were on academic probation. The results indicated that compared to students on academic probation, honor students were more likely to score higher on internal locus of control and lower on external locus of control. They were more likely to attribute their success to effort and the influence of other people. For failure, the honor students were less likely to attribute their failure to a lack of ability and lack of support from significant others. The second study examined the relationship between the locus of control and academic achievement among three samples: Korean, Korean-Chinese, and Chinese university students. A 40-item locus of control questionnaire and background information section containing sex and self-reported academic grade were administered. The results showed that the Korean sample had the highest internal locus of control score and the lowest external locus of control score. The Korean-Chinese sample, in contrast, scored highest on external locus of control. These results are consistent with past research investigating the cultural influence upon the individual’s locus of control. Furthermore, as found in the first study, a significant relationship was found between locus of control and academic grade. For the Korean sample, students with higher academic grades scored higher on internality and lower on externality. For the Chinese sample, students with higher academic grades scored higher on internality. There were no significant differences for the Korean-Chinese sample. Interpretations and implications of cross-cultural and within-sample findings are discussed.
In two cross-national studies, we investigated the existence of a perpetrator–victim account estimation bias and how this bias can be reduced or eliminated when estimating the perpetrator's use of a mixed account; that is, an account in which the perpetrator not only apologizes but also explains mitigating and justifiable circumstances. Japanese and American participants took either the perspective of the perpetrator or the victim and estimated the likelihood of the perpetrator's use of each account. The results supported our hypothesis in both national samples. The implications of the bias and the role of the mixed account in reducing it are discussed.
In order to examine the effects of different types of accounts in terms of the victims’ reactions, we presented 193 American and 186 Japanese participants with scenarios in which an actor unintentionally harmed someone and then gave one of five different accounts. We asked the participants to estimate how the victim would react (emotional alleviation, impression improvement, or forgiveness) to these accounts. The participants rated that the victims would make more positive reactions to the mitigative accounts (apology or excuse) but more negative reactions to the assertive accounts (the denial). Although the reactions to accounts became generally more negative when the harm was severe, the mitigative accounts were more likely to be accepted by the victim than the assertive ones. As compared with the Japanese, the Americans rated the victim as more increasing their impression improvement reactions to one type of justification but more decreasing it to the denial. However, these results did not match the cultural preference of accounts, thereby casting doubt over the validity of cultural efficacy theory.
Korean society highly values personal appearance. Given the established links between perfectionism and eating disorders in Western countries, the present project investigated such links and the extent to which these were moderated by the acculturation patterns of the participants. Korean immigrants to New Zealand (N = 123) completed measures of perfectionism, ethnic identity, eating disorders, and social desirability. Positive and negative perfectionism were associated with eating-disorder symptoms. For males, but not females, negative perfectionism was more strongly associated with increased body satisfaction only among those who identified strongly as Korean.
The present study examined the framing effect of two modes of idolatry among a sample of 1095 secondary school students in Hong Kong and Shenzhen. Two experimental conditions were set up: in the glamour frame condition, subjects were exposed to frames that enhanced perfection and mystification of idols' personal or ideological characteristics; in the achievement frame condition, subjects were exposed to frames that enhanced emulation and identification of idols' pro-social behaviours or desirable dispositional traits. The experiment selected a prominent pop music and movie star well known in Chinese societies, Andy Lau, as the target idol. Subjects showed a consistently and significantly greater desire to glorify, idealize, identify with, emulate, and attach to Andy Lau in the achievement frame condition than in the glamour frame condition. The finding suggests that an achievement frame can heighten young people's adoration of an idol by emphasizing the idol's achievement processes. This suggestion is favourable to the possibility of transforming an idol into a role model for young people to learn to pursue career success.
The present study focuses on the relational dynamics between individual and group attributions and examines cultural variations of people's perceptions of self-enhancing and group-enhancing attributions. Middle school students in Japan, Korea and the USA (Hawaii) were asked to read a vignette and to evaluate the stimulus person who makes an internal or external attribution for his personal or team's success. The results revealed that: (i) the self-effacing attributor was perceived as likable by the participants from all three cultures, but as less self-confident by Asian-Americans; and (ii) although Japanese and Koreans share similar cultural backgrounds, they had different preferences for the group-enhancing or group-effacing attributions. The different systems of self-enhancement across cultures are discussed.
A scan of citation impact suggests that Asian social psychologists have made significant contributions in three areas: indigenous research, culture and social behaviour, and in several topics in social psychology. An analysis of the most cited articles published in Asian Journal of Social Psychology (AJSP) in 1998–2002 in March 2005 reveals that most papers are concerned with culture, with a focus on either popular topics in the West or indigenous concepts. Asian social psychology seems to be closely associated with cultural issues, but it still lacks unique theoretical contributions, and the number of internationally visible scholars is limited and is mostly confined to East Asia. However, Asian cultures provide a fertile ground for identifying new constructs. Many Asian universities are now under pressure to internationalize, which will motivate more academics to participate in Asian conferences and publish in AJSP. To develop Asian social psychology, effort should be focused on nurturing the next generation of Asian social psychologists, who not only need an international perspective, but also ambition and creativity.
Based on our early research, we predicted that the Chinese may be more optimistic and less pessimistic than North Americans in response to negative life events. A survey was conducted to investigate optimism cross culturally in the context of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreaks in Canada and China. Chinese students in Beijing and European Canadians in Toronto answered questions about their perceptions of SARS. No significant cultural difference was found on dispositional optimism, as measured by the Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R). Unrealistic optimism was measured in the context of SARS. Both groups demonstrated unrealistic optimism (i.e. reporting that the self was less likely than an average person to get infected with SARS). Such optimistic bias was stronger among Chinese than among Canadians. Compared to the actual infection rates in Beijing and Toronto, both Chinese and Canadian participants overestimated their own chances of getting infected, indicating that they were being pessimistic. Indeed, Chinese were less pessimistic than Canadians. In addition, even though the Chinese reported more inconvenience brought by SARS than did Canadians, they also reported more positive changes brought by SARS, reflecting the Chinese dialectical views of events. Implications for research on optimism in context are discussed.
Differences in emotional- and identity-relatedness with parents were explored across two cultural groups (863 university students from the USA and Turkey, representing individualist and collectivist societies, respectively) in Study 1, and across two socioeconomic status (SES) groups (353 high school students from the upper and lower SES in Turkey) in Study 2. In both studies, within-cultural differences in emotional- and identity-relatedness with parents were also explored in terms of: (i) self-directed and other-directed value orientations; and (ii) self-types, as suggested by the Balanced Integration-Differentiation Model. Results indicated cultural groups to be quite similar in emotional-relatedness, but to differ in relatedness of identities, with Turks reporting more related identities. Similarly, in Turkey, SES seemed to have more impact on identities than on emotional closeness, the lower SES adolescents reporting more relatedness with parents than upper SES adolescents. Thus, relatedness of identities appeared to be more important than emotional relatedness in differentiating between cultural and SES contexts. Results involving different self-types and value orientations pointed to both cross-cultural similarities and within-cultural diversity in the two domains of relatedness. Theoretical implications of cross- and within-culture differences in emotional- and identity-relatedness with parents are discussed.
Previous research has suggested that implicit self-esteem might be universally positive. In the present study implicit self-esteem, as measured by the implicit association test (IAT), was found to be positive in both Japanese and Canadian participants. However, contrary to prior research, Japanese participants were found to have significantly lower implicit self-esteem than Canadians. Japanese participants also had lower scores on an exploratory measure of collective implicit self-esteem. In general, the results of the present study point to the complexities in the study of implicit self-esteem across cultures. Inconsistencies between the present and previous research might reflect divergent methodologies used in the IAT. The applicability of the IAT in a cross-cultural setting is discussed.
Previous research has shown that collectivists prefer external whereas individualists prefer internal attributions. To test the findings’ generality across social situations, we compared the two attributions in situations where either an individual was acting on a group (Individual-acting) or the reverse (Group-acting). As predicted, collectivists’ (Beijing and Hong Kong Chinese) greater preference for externality, and individualists’ (Wellington Europeans) greater preference for internality, occurred in individual- but not group-acting situations. Collectivists’ (mainly Hong Kong) memory of events was better in group- than in individual-acting situations according to prediction, but the predicted reversal was not found among individualists. The collectivist/individualist categorizations of the samples were supported by measures of self-construal. Indigenous Chinese concepts of ‘unity‘ (tong tian ren) and ‘combination‘ (he nei wai) were discussed to throw light on attribution processes that are not readily accessible through the concepts of collectivism and individualism.
In 2004, many prominent newscasters ran as candidates in the Korean general election and won. The present study examines whether young voters' identification with newscasters was significantly associated with Korean voting behaviour as well as with other forms of political participation. Analysis of 270 respondents showed that identification with newscasters contributed significantly to young Koreans' intentions to vote for newscasters and to their active involvement in other forms of campaign participation, beyond the effects of age, gender, and level of political interest. Additionally, news media exposure, perception of newscaster behaviours, emotional involvement, surveillance motivation and entertainment motivation were all positively related to voters' identification with newscasters.
Several studies have demonstrated that similarity between friendship partners is higher in the West than in East Asian countries. We hypothesized that these differences could be explained by relational mobility, or the number of opportunities to form new relationships in a given society. Through two studies, we confirmed that whereas the preference for similarity did not differ, similarity between friendship partners was higher in the USA than in Japan. Furthermore, a measure of relational mobility mediated the cultural difference in similarity, supporting our hypothesis. The effectiveness of considering socio-ecological factors when interpreting cultural differences in behaviour is discussed.
In two studies conducted in Hong Kong during and immediately after the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), participants displayed several social cognitive biases when they estimated the prevalence of and inferred the motives underlying SARS preventive behaviors. First, participants who practiced preventive behaviors (practicers) consistently estimated that more people practiced such behaviors than did non-practicers (false consensus bias). Second, for some preventive behaviors, participants believed that their own behaviors were more motivated by prosocial concerns (relative to self-interest) than were other practicers (pluralistic ignorance). Finally, non-practicers underestimated the importance of prosocial concerns underlying some preventive behaviors (actor-observer bias). We discussed the relevance of these social cognitive biases to health education and to Hong Kong people's psychological reactions to SARS.
Based on the theoretical framework of coping flexibility, the present study examined the coping flexibility of university students in response to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-related and daily life stressful events. The Coping Flexibility Questionnaire was used to investigate 93 university students’ coping responses toward 10 SARS-related stressful events and 10 daily life stressful events that generally occur among university students. Results showed that the patterns of coping flexibility were different for the two types of stressful events. The flexible and the active-inflexible patterns were most commonly found in coping with daily life stressful events. By contrast, the passive-inconsistent pattern was dominant when coping with daily life stressful events. Moreover, participants showed lower discriminating ability to situation controllability, and displayed poorer strategy-situation fit to cope with SARS-related events than with daily life stressful events. The theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed.
The present study examines the psychological impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) by exploring the coping strategies and health behaviors enacted in response to the SARS epidemic. Hierarchical linear regression indicated that the use of wishful thinking in response to the threat of SARS was related to both avoiding public places and avoiding people perceived to be possible carriers of the SARS virus, but was not associated with the use of more adaptive health behaviors, such as using disinfectants and hand washing. Conversely, those who reported engaging in empathic responding in response to the threat of SARS were both less likely to report avoiding people perceived as being at a high risk for SARS and more likely to report engaging in effective health behaviors. Support seeking was not a significant predictor of the health behaviors examined in the present study. Results are discussed in terms of coping with health threats and health promotion.
The present study investigates the congruency of defensive pessimism in the Asian context and its role in coping with the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) crisis in Singapore. Data collected from 174 Singaporeans supported the hypothesized relationships among Chinese values, defensive pessimism, SARS-related fears, compliance to preventive health-related behaviors and negative outcomes. Path analysis revealed that individuals’ endorsement of Chinese value clusters − prudence, industry, and civic harmony − positively predicted their levels of defensive pessimism. The results also indicated that defensive pessimism had a direct positive effect on SARS-related fears and, SARS-related fears, in turn, were directly related to direct preventive health-related behaviors but not related to indirect preventive behaviors. In addition to the indirect effect of Chinese values on direct preventive health-related behaviors, Chinese values had a direct positive effect on both direct and indirect preventive health-related behaviors. Consistent with our contention that defensive pessimism has the potential for leading to particular negative outcomes, defensive pessimism was found to influence negative outcomes but this relationship was partially mediated by SARS-related fears.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was first reported in China, and spread to 29 regions, affecting over 8000 people worldwide. For the general public, the psychological impact of SARS may have been greater than the physical health danger of the disease. The present paper proposes the influence of psychological factors on people's cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses during the SARS outbreak. The various papers in this special issue of the Journal reveal how people have reacted during the SARS outbreak: People's general coping styles may be related to their health behavior during the outbreak. Cultural differences were evident in the perception of SARS, and individuals’ perceptual styles may have influenced their ability to cope with the outbreak. The way in which individuals coped with SARS-related stressful events was different from their usual practices of managing daily stress. Individual differences in the adoption of preventive measures were related to the distinct susceptibility to several social-cognitive biases.
The Special Issue highlights the importance of psychology in the research agenda on severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The five articles examined relevant theories on social cognition and coping in the ecological context of the SARS outbreak. They provide preliminary tests to current psychological principles of coping and health psychology in a real crisis. The limitations of the studies are recognized. Other areas of psychological research on SARS are suggested. It is proposed that the biopsychosocial model of behavioral medicine could be expanded as a paradigm in public health to study and prepare for future emerging epidemics.
A comparison was made between Iranian participants living in Iran, Iranian immigrants to Canada, and Canadian-born participants on the Social Axioms Scale (SAS), including a sixth dimension, Harmony. The Iranian immigrants to Canada endorsed views that were intermediate between the other two groups. In the data from Iran, the relationships between social axioms on the one hand and measures of active coping and adjustment on the other were examined. Belief in Reward for Application predicted Active Coping; acknowledgment of Social Complexity predicted Life-Satisfaction; and endorsement of belief in Harmony predicted Mastery. Those whose beliefs on Harmony and Social Complexity were closer to their country mean were higher on Mastery and Self-Esteem, but those whose beliefs on Fate Control were closer to the country mean showed lower Life-Satisfaction.
The present paper examined the validity of the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). As criteria of validity three levels of adjustment were used. The study took place among a sample of expatriates (N = 102) during their assignment in Taiwan. The MPQ has scales for cultural empathy, open-mindedness, social initiative, emotional stability and flexibility. The MPQ scales appeared to be predictive of expatriates’ personal, professional and social adjustment. In all three domains, emotional stability appeared most consistently as a predictor of adjustment. Social initiative was an additional strong predictor of psychological well-being, as was cultural empathy of satisfaction with life and of the amount of social support in the host country. Flexibility was a predictor of job satisfaction and social support. The study also examined the effects of marital status on adjustment. Married expatriates showed higher levels of adjustment than expatriates who were single or separated.
In the current four-wave, longitudinal study, adolescent stress, internalizing problems, and the reciprocal influences of these variables were examined. Data were obtained from the Korea Youth Panel Study, which included 3188 (1594 male and 1594 female) middle- and high-school students who enrolled in the study from 2004 to 2007. The mean participant age was 14.79 years in 2004. By using a cross-lagged, autoregressive model, it was shown that stress levels and internalizing problems had reciprocal influences on one another over time (all four time points). At each of the time points, the effect sizes of stress on internalizing problems were significantly greater than those of internalizing problems on stress.
A test of 300 young students on individual modernity in China was carried out. The results indicated that there was a significant difference in individual modernity between the students from town and those from the countryside, as well as between males and females. There were also differences in individual modernity between each two of the levels of education. The students from town were more modern than those from the countryside. The males were more traditional than the females. With the rising educational level, the students’ traditionality will decrease and modernity will increase.
Previous research has shown a widespread bias among Hong Kong adolescents against Chinese Mainlanders. Based on social identity and social cognitive theories, we examined the effects of identity frame switching (situational induction of social category inclusiveness) and time pressure (environmental constraints on social information processing) on Hong Kong adolescents’ attitudes toward Chinese Mainlanders. Results indicated that Hong Kong adolescents had acquired a habitual tendency to make social comparisons within an exclusive regional framework of reference. This habitual tendency might lead to negative judgment biases toward Chinese Mainlanders, particularly when the adolescents made social judgments under time pressure. In addition, switching to an inclusive national frame of reference for social comparison attenuated negative intergroup attitudes. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.
Some support for expressed concern over the negative consequences of computer game play was obtained by Colwell and Payne (2000) in a questionnaire survey of UK adolescents. A second study was carried out in Tokyo, Japan, to test for generality of findings. There was strong evidence of similarity in relation to play patterns, but in contrast to the UK sample, number of good friends and self-esteem did not relate to game play. A principal components analysis of a scale to measure needs met by game play resulted in the same two previously obtained factors; ‘companionship’ and ‘prefer to friends’. However, in contrast to the UK sample, ‘companionship’ did not relate to play. A positive relation between the ‘prefer to friends’ factor and play was obtained for both boys and girls (boys only in the UK), thus providing support for the ‘electronic friendship’ hypothesis. There was evidence of a positive relation between play and aggression, but a preference for aggressive games was associated with lower aggression scores, and this raises questions for the ‘causal hypothesis’.
The present research explored Taiwanese adolescent students' interpersonal relationships and examined whether teachers' evaluations of these students' health and academic performances varied with the students' interpersonal relationship patterns. Data (n = 2310) were based on a panel study conducted by the Taiwan Youth Project in 2001 (eighth grade) and 2002 (ninth grade). Latent class models and hierarchical linear models were used to analyse the data. Adolescent students' interpersonal relationships were categorized as Multiple Contacts, Parents- and Peers-Close, Peers-Close, and Few Contacts. The research results showed that not only adolescents' self-reports of self-esteem and depressed mood but also teachers' evaluations of adolescents' health and academic performances varied with adolescents' interpersonal relationship patterns. An influence of teachers' character and work environment on their evaluations of students was found. Teachers who had more years of teaching and higher job satisfaction rated their students as having better health, and teachers who felt greater respect from their students reported that their students had better academic performance. The connection between adolescents' psychological well-being and the roles of parents, peers and teachers is also discussed.
The present study examined the perceived characteristics associated with the different stages of adulthood in developing societies. Respondents from three societies, Bahrain, Brazil and Indonesia, identified those characteristics that are typical of the early, middle and late adulthood stages in their respective societies. Although developing nations, these societies differed in their levels of modernization or on the UN human development index score and respondents identified characteristics that were both common and different. On the whole, the characteristics identified reflected the influence of a cross–cultural environment (which included the global, developed and developing dimensions) on the perception of aging and adult development in developing societies.
Forty undergraduate Rutgers-Newark students (21 women and 19 men) of Portuguese descent, aged 18 to 28, participated in a study on identity com-mitment and attitudes toward interethnic dating. High commitment to a Portuguese identity was associated with a collectivist orientation and with having a social network densely populated with Portuguese people. High personal concern with the ethnicity of one’s dating partner was positively correlated with commitment to a Portuguese identity, and with having a social network densely populated with Portuguese people. High importance placed on parents’ opinions about the ethnicity of dating and marriage partners was associated with a collectivist orientation. For women but not men, commitment was associated with high concern with one’s partner’s ethnicity. Results are discussed in terms of gender and the development of commitment to an ethnic identity.
In the sociological tradition, status characteristics and patterns of interpersonal relations within a social network are considered important in explaining organizational behaviour (e.g. influence, cooperation). In the social identity tradition, perceptions of shared psychological group membership and group prototypicality are considered important in explaining many of the same organizational behaviours. The present paper explores core variables within each of these perspectives as predictors of advice seeking among supervisors in a manufacturing facility. Dyadic measures of group assignment are found to better predict advice seeking than measures taken at the individual level. Identification with work groups predicted advice seeking from those perceived to be in the same group, and also from structural equivalents. Implications for theory and further research are discussed.
The study tested Weisz, Rothbaum, and Blackburn's (1984) hypothesis that “primary” control is emphasized in the United States and “secondary” control is emphasized in Japan. Aerobics participants in Japan and the United States completed surveys about their reasons for choosing classes, their attributions for mistakes in class, their behavioral responses to a difficult class, and what others in the class typically do. Some responses indicated that both groups use some secondary control. But Americans were more likely to report that they choose classes based on convenience and that they change moves in the class that are too difficult, a pattern that suggests primary control. Japanese were more likely to report that they choose classes based on their ability level, work harder when moves are too difficult, and attribute mistakes to a lack of fit between their own ability and the level of the class, a pattern that suggests more secondary control.
The present study investigated factors that protect people low in trait self-esteem (Low-SEs), who may be less skilled at constructing information in self-enhancing manners, from threats after interpersonal upward comparison with in-group members. We hypothesized that even Low-SEs can maintain their state self-esteem under intergroup upward comparison. Furthermore, this study explored the possibility that individuals used identity-shift, a strategy to maintain their personal identity, even in an intergroup upward comparison condition. The results of a quasi-experiment supported these hypotheses. We further explored the possibility that individuals might use a twofold strategy to protect/enhance their self-esteem based on an interplay of personal and social identity.
A study conducted in a Taiwanese financial services company revealed that affect- and role-based loyalty are two distinct types of loyalty to supervisors. The ethical behaviour of supervisors, perceived supervisor support, interpersonal justice, and respect for hierarchy predicted affect-based loyalty, whereas only interpersonal justice and respect for hierarchy predicted role-based loyalty to the supervisor. Affect-based loyalty had a more positive correlation with supervisory satisfaction than did role-based loyalty, and role-based loyalty had a more positive correlation with extra-role performance and attendance than did affect-based loyalty.
The structure of momentary affect among Cantonese-speaking Chinese was explored by developing questionnaire scales in four response formats. Scales can be scored for dimensions defined by Feldman Barrett and Russell; Thayer; Larsen and Diener; and Watson and Tellegen. In a study of recalled affect (N = 487), the newly translated scales were found to support all but Watson and Tellegen's structural model originating from English. Results cross-validated well in a second sample (N = 402). Affect dimensions were interrelated as found with English-speaking Canadians and they could be integrated into a two-dimensional bipolar space.
Although people from East Asian countries consistently report lower self-esteem than do those from Western countries, the origins of this difference are unclear. We conducted two studies to illuminate this issue. Study 1 found that Chinese participants appraised themselves less positively than American participants on a cognitive measure of self-evaluations, but cultural differences were absent on a measure of affective self-regard. Moreover, cultural differences in global self-esteem were eliminated once cognitive self-evaluations were statistically controlled. Study 2 found that cultural differences in modesty underlie cultural differences in cognitive self-evaluations. These findings suggest that Chinese feel as positively toward themselves as Americans do, but are less inclined to evaluate themselves in an excessively positive manner.
Building on the research in positive psychology, the current study examines the impact of employee savouring on building perceived job performance and tested the extent to which an individual positive affectivity moderated the relationship of savouring and job performance. Using survey responses from 357 salespeople in six Taiwanese insurance companies, the results of hierarchical regression analyses show that savouring is positively related to perceived job performance. In addition, the relationship between savouring and perceived job performance was moderated by employees' positive affectivity. The implications of these results and the limitations of the research are discussed.
In many countries, individuals are living longer and the population is ageing. The advent of ageing societies will lead to various social changes, reconstruct beliefs about ageing, and affect the life-style of individuals. One of the challenges of ageing societies for social psychology is the undertaking of research that is more gerontologically sensitive. The paper reviews studies on attitudes and stereotypes towards older adults, as well as intergenerational conflict and communication. In doing so it highlights the roles of social communicative, intergroup and power processes, and concludes with the call for a life-span approach to theoretical development.
This article presents the basic tenets of social cognitive theory. It is founded on a causal model of triadic reciprocal causation in which personal factors in the form of cognitive, affective and biological events, behavioral patterns, and environmental events all operate as interacting determinants that influence one another bidirectionally. Within this theory, human agency is embedded in a self theory encompassing self-organizing, proactive, self-reflective and self-regulative mechanisms. Human agency can be exercised through direct personal agency; through proxy agency relying on the efforts of intermediaries; and by collective agency operating through shared beliefs of efficacy, pooled understandings, group aspirations and incentive systems, and collective action. Personal agency operates within a broad network of sociostructural influences. In these agentic transactions, people are producers as well as products of social systems. Growing transnational imbeddedness and interdependence of societies are creating new social realities in which global forces increasingly interact with national ones to shape the nature of cultural life.
Two laboratory experiments demonstrated that Japanese participants did not conform to the majority unless negative social implications of not conforming were clear. When their behaviour had no implications for others, they rather exhibited preference for uniqueness. Results of Study 2 further demonstrated that participants' conformity to the majority was particularly prevalent among those who were chronically concerned with how other people would perceive them. Participants in these studies were shown to be cultural game players who changed their behaviour in response to anticipated responses of others based on culturally shared beliefs.
Three moderators of agreement in person perception, behavioral consistency, observability and social desirability, were studied. The major hypothesis is that the moderators can be estimated using the standing of targets on traits; that is, that as targets vary on a given trait, they vary on how they are seen as on the moderators. Using Korean (N = 135) and US (N = 81) samples, we tested this approach for 80 traits. Analyses revealed that moderators varied by the combination of trait and target standing in different ways for the two samples. In judgment of behavioral consistency over target standings, linear and curvilinear trends were stronger for the US sample than for the Korean sample. For observability, judgments were similar, although curvilinear trends were larger for the Korean sample. Furthermore, being extremely positive was perceived as less desirable for the Korean judges. These findings were discussed in terms of cultural differences. Moreover, a new approach to the study of moderators was proposed.
This study reports the construction of an attitude scale called a “Shah attitude scale.” This scale overcomes the problems of scale construction and attitude measurement in test-alien cultures peculiar to Western scales. The major problems with the use of these scales are the non-correspondence of the samples used in scale construction and attitude measurement, difficulty of their use with the illiterate and rural samples, unfamiliarity of their verbal character and the response modality. Our scale is simple to construct and can be easily used with every section of society. Its conceptualization and development is based upon the agreed upon bipolar definition of attitude and the ideas derived from well-known attitude scales. The scale is based upon trait adjectives and can be used easily in cross-cultural attitudinal studies.
The no, moderate, and large differences between shares of outcome allocated to the high and low performers are interpreted as the respective rules of equality, ordinal equity, and proportional equity. The ability to employ the proportional rule is also believed to develop around the age of 13 years. The authors hypothesized that: (i) the rule of outcome allocation is subtraction; and (ii) age differences in outcome allocation are mediated by age differences in perceived inputs. In an experiment on Chinese aged 8–20 years, measures of perceived inputs were taken after or before outcome allocation. Results from the input-allocation order supported the hypotheses. Obviously, age effects in outcome allocations by Asians can sometimes be mediated by age differences in the ability to perceive the inputs accurately.
Management of terror of death and its subsequent reactions has been held to be universal. However, with only a few exceptions empirical efforts have so far been focused on people from North American and European countries. Would Eastern philosophical traditions render differential management of the terror of death? The present research aimed at testing the generality of terror management in Hong Kong Chinese samples. Across four studies, we found robust and consistent mortality salience effects, which attest to the generality of terror management. As in previous studies, compared to control participants, mortality salient participants displayed a stronger ingroup bias in person evaluation (Studies 1, 3). Additionally, we found a robust mortality salience effect on intergroup bias in resource allocation (Studies 2A, 2B, 3), which has not been examined in previous terror management research.
Western theorists have generally construed reward allocation as mainly a rational action by the notion that allocation decision-making is based solely on people’s justice concern. We argued that reward allocation, as a social act taking place in a specific social-situational context, is influenced both by some social interactive factors such as the relationship and social interactions between the participants, and by the pervasive social norms governing people’s conduct in a particular society. This study aimed at examining the influence of two such factors, guanxi (equivalent to relationship) and renqing (equivalent to human affect), on Chinese allocation decision-making under a distributive situation. We hypothesized that Chinese allocators would base their decision not only on their judgment of the participants’ contributions but also on their guanxi with the participant. Specifically, we predicted that the emphasis on guanxi and renqing would be manifested in the Chinese allocator’s employment of the reasonableness norm dictating that both reason (li) and affect (qing) are considered in making allocation decisions. To test this hypothesis, we adopted the scenario approach and asked subjects to hypothetically allocate a reward to one of six guanxi partners. The 228 participants were divided into six groups; in each group they were instructed to do the allocation based on one of the five norms respectively: fairness (he li), renqing, equity (gong zheng), “ought to,” reasonableness (heqinghe li), and to indicate what they “would” allocate. The findings confirmed that the reasonableness norm was the one which subjects adopted in reward allocation. The results were discussed in the context of Chinese culture.