Background: Thiazole nucleus–containing compounds have an antitumor efficiency against various types of cancer. Purpose: The present study was designed to determine the cytotoxic effect of newly synthesized thiazole derivative (TD1) on human cancer cell lines, in addition to evaluate its antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in mice. Materials and Methods: TD1 was synthesized and investigated for its cytotoxic effect on HCT116 (colon cancer), HepG2 (liver cancer), PC3 (prostate cancer) and MCF7 (breast cancer). The effect of TD1 on cell viability, tumor volume, and percent of increase in life span (% ILS) in Ehrlich–bearing mice was studied. Hematological parameters, liver and kidney function tests were evaluated. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione levels were determined in liver and kidney tissues. The expression of P53 in EAC was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: TD1 demonstrated an inhibitory effect on both cancer cell lines in vitro and Ehrlich ascites cells in vivo. TD1 increased in life span of Ehrlich–bearing mice compared to control. Cell cycle and flow cytometric analysis revealed that TD1 directed Ehrlich cells toward apoptosis by increasing of P53 expression. Conclusion: It was concluded that TD1 have a potent antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice beside a cytotoxic effect on MCF-7, PC3, HepG2 and HCT-116.
Background: COVID-19 is associated with a weak immune system in the human body. Vitamin D plays a role in the body’s immune system and is known to enhance the function of immune cells. In this case, vitamin D inhibits some of the inflammation that can make COVID-19 more severe. The is study aims to determine the serum levels of vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus in COVID-19 patients. Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted during the period from January 2021 to July 2021. 50 COVID-19 patients as a case study and 50 healthy individuals as a control group were included in this study. Blood samples were collected from the study group and measured for vitamin D using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Calcium and phosphate were measured by the Cobas 6000 fully automated analyzer (Roche, Germany). Results: The study result showed that in COVID-19 patients, vitamin D (27 ± 5 ng/mL), p-value = 0.000, and calcium (10.2 ± 4 mg/dL), p-value = 0.000, in comparison with control. There was a correlation between vitamin D (r = -.771; p =.000) and calcium (r = -.752; p =.000) and the severity of disease. Conclusions: According to our research, vitamin D deficiency may increase the risk of developing COVID-19 and the risk of developing severe illnesses.
Hoslundia opposita Vahl is a multi-purpose medicinal plant used traditionally to treat gonorrhea, cystitis, cough, fever, snake bites, convulsion in many parts of Africa. The objectives of this research are to evaluate the phytochemical profile, antioxidant activity of the leaves of Hoslundia opposita Vahl and to dock its phytochemical components with uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain F11(ID:3NRP) and NFeoB from Escherichia coli BL21(ID:5FH9). Harborne’s method was used for the identification of the class of phytochemicals while GC-MS was used to identify the type of phytochemicals. Folin-Ciocalteau method was used to determine the total phenolic content while aluminum colorimetric assay was used to estimate the total flavonoid content. 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. The molecular docking simulation method was used to investigate the interactions of the phytochemicals with the Escherichia coli receptors. In the phytochemical studies, flavonoids, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides and saponins were identified to be present in the methanolic leaf extract while steroids, alkaloids and anthraquinones were absent. The GC-MS analysis of the methanolic extract revealed presence of 17 compounds out of which 14 were identified. The compounds with appreciable quantity in the leaf extract were 1, 2, 3-benzetriol (38.11%), n-hexadacanoic acid (13.52%) and catechol (9.98%). Assessment of the antioxidant activity using DPPH gave a scavenging activity of 79.86% at 500ug/ml compared with ascorbic acid having a scavenging activity of 90.85% at the same concentration. Evaluation of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents at 500 ug/ml gave the values of 262.54 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract and 6.24 mg quercetin equivalent/g extract respectively compared with gallic acid and quercetin with maximum concentrations of 385.12 and 12.46 respectively. This shows that the extract has significant antioxidant activity and can be explored as a valuable source of natural antioxidants. GC-MS analysis of the methanolic extract of Hoslundia opposita showed the presence of trans-3-(trifluoromethyl)cinnamic acid, octadecyl ester which was active against Escherichia coli. Docking results with 3NRP and 5FH9 showed binding affinities of -6.1, -6.6, 7.2and -7.0,7.4, 8.5 kJ/mol with the commercial drugs : ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and tetracycline respectively while that of trans 3-(trifluoromethyl)cinnamic acid, octadecyl ester identified in the leaves were 5.6 and 5.9 kJ/mol.
Background and Objectives: Living organisms are exposed to oxidant agents constantly from both endogenous and exogenous sources. One of such oxidant agent is Bisphenol A (BPA) and its exposure is capable to modify biomolecules and induce damages. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a contaminant with increasing exposure. It exerts toxic effects on cells. This study investigates the possibility of BPA exposure on Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) perturbations at prevailing low exposure doses in female albino Wistar rats, following exposure for the period of three (3) month. Materials and Methods: Total 12 groups were formed; out of which 11 experimental groups, each containing 10non-pregnant female rats were administered; 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and 1 mg of BPA/kgbw/day. To the 12th control group was given water. Blood was collected from animals at the end of every week of the study and serum sample specimens analyzed by routine diagnostic procedures for oxidized LDL such as malondialdehyde modified- LDL (MDA-LDL), oxidized phospholipids LDL (OX-PL LDL), N (epsilon) (carboxymethyl) lysine-modified-LDL (CML LDL) and 4-hydroxynonenal-LDL (HNE-LDL) using Autochemical Analyzer. Results: Significantly increased concentrations of serum oxidized LDL such as MDA-LDL, OX-PL LDL, CML LDL and HNE-LDL were observed at all concentrations of BPA exposure. Conclusion: Bisphenol A alters oxidized LDL such as MDA-LDL, OX-PL LDL, CML LDL and HNE-LDL balance and causes disturbance of internal oxidative statues.
Objective: The study investigated the possibility of using blood groups as predictive indices for diseases associated with lipid metabolism. Methods: Lipid profiles were examined in 100 apparently healthy male (40) and female (60) subjects of different ABO blood groups aged between 18-30 years from Imo State University. Of these, 20 were blood group A, 30 were B blood type, 4 were AB blood type, and 46 were blood group O. Lipid profile parameters were determined according to enzymatic assay using a commercial kit from Randox Laboratories, United Kingdom and calculation using Friedewald’s equation. Monoclonal ABO blood grouping reagent by CLAS Technology, United Kingdom was used to determine the blood group. Results: Total Cholesterol (140.62 ± 21.66 mg/dl) and High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) (96.20 ± 40.32 mg/dl) were highest in blood group B. Blood group A had the highest level of Triglyceride (80.84 ± 18.60 mg/dl) and Very Low-Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) (15.21 ± 6.24 mg/dl). Blood group O showed TC level of 130.60 ±34.76 mg/dl with the highest level of LDL (70.74 ± 20.15 mg/dl) and the lowest level of HDL (51.68 ± 20.50 mg/dl) compared to non- O blood types (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The study revealed that blood group O might have a higher propensity for dyslipidemia, suggesting an increased risk for disease associated with lipid metabolism.
Background: The increasing emergence of resistance to conventional antimicrobial drugs and the complicity of their usage is a serious challenge in Nigeria. In our previous report, it was demonstrated that methanol leaves extracts of Acacia nilotica, Ziziphus jujube Linn and Lawsonia inermis exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas flourecense, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus. Methodology: In this study, agar well diffusion method was employed to assess the antifungal potency of these plant extracts and were tested against Aspergillus flavus, Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans. Results: Exclusive of L. inermis extract against T. rubrum at 100 mg/ml (zone of inhibition 34.33±1.89 mm). 100 mg/mL of all the extracts investigated have significantly lower (P<0.05) antifungal activity when compared to standard antifungal drug (Nystatin, 100 mg/ml). The activity of L. inermis against A. flavus was comparatively similar (P>0.05) to the control drug, but significantly higher (P<0.05) against both T. rubrum and C. albicans at 150 mg/ml. Conversely, the antifungal activity of A. nilotica extract against T. rubrum and C. albicans significantly surpass (P<0.05) that of the control drug, while Z. jujube Linn extract activity against C. albicans was comparatively similar (P>0.05) to it, but significantly higher (P<0.05) against T. rubrum. A dose dependent antifungal activity of the plants was observed, and L. inermis extract was the most potent antifungal agent with an MIC and MCF values of 5 mg/ml. Conclusion: This study reveals that L. inermis leaves extract could be used as a sources of potential antifungal agents.
Obesity is associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndromes such as type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Obesity occurs as a result of an imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure leading to excessive accumulation of adipose tissue. NAFLD is the most common liver condition and related to the resistance of insulin. Insulin resistance is associated with an increased influx of lipid into the liver promoting accumulation of hepatic triglyceride. This study aims to develop an experimental model of hepatic steatosis with lipid over-accumulation. HepG2 cells were cultured for 24 hours in free fatty acid media (1:2 palmitic acid and oleic acid respectively). Intracellular lipid content and lipotoxicity were determined by oil red O staining followed by colorimetric detection. This experiment was accomplished by defining the experimental conditions of lipid exposure that leads to significant intracellular fat accumulation in the absence of lipotoxicity with 1 mM of free fatty acid media. As a result, oleic and palmitic acids could be over-accumulated in HepG2 cells. 1 mM free fatty acid media did not affect the cell integrity and did not cause lipotoxicity of the cells.
Aims: Persea americana (P. americana) dubbed ‘green gold’ is a highly sought after fruit today, with insatiable export market. Different parts of avocadoes have been consumed both for nutritional and health benefits across regions of the world. Therefore, this study investigates the bioactive composition of P. americana seed ethyl acetate fraction and acute toxicological effects. Place and duration of study: Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria; between May 2019 and October, 2019. Methodology: Quantitative phytochemical composition was assessed using gas chromatography fitted with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and acute toxicity determined using standard method. Results: Result of quantitative phytochemical composition of P. americana seed fraction shows a rich presence of phytochemicals such as epicatechin, kaempferol, proanthocyanin, rutin, resveratrol, ribalinidine, naringin, spartein, quinine, flavan-3-ol, anthocyanin, lunamarin, sapogenin, flavonones, flavones. The quantitative phytochemical composition of P. americana seed shows that among other phytochemicals, the seed is relatively rich in anthocyanin, quinine, epicatechin, tannin and proanthocyanin with concentrations of 69.39 ± 8.33 µg/g, 22.16 ±1.77 µg/g, 21.88 ± 2.53 µg/g, 19.86 ± 1.19 µg/g and 10.98 ± 0.55 µg/g respectively. The acute toxicity studies on the seed reveal that the ethyl acetate fraction of P. americana seed did not elicit any lethal signs of morbidity and mortality at doses up to 5000mg/Kgb.wt. and are therefore considered generally safe. Conclusion: P. americana seed ethyl acetate fraction contains essential phytochemicals with useful phyto-medicinal and nutraceutical benefits. The implications of these findings are further discussed.
Natural products are the good source of natural antioxidants. Nāgarādi panchakaya is a well-known poly-herbal formula prescribed specially for upper respiratory tract diseases by Sri Lankan Ayurveda medical practitioners. The name implies that it contains five herbal ingredients including Inguru (Zingiber officinale), Devadāra (Cedrus deodara), Kottammalli (Coriandrum sativum), Ela batu (Solanum indicum) and Katuwelbatu (Solanum xanthocarpum). This research study was aimed to determine the antioxidant activity of Nāgarādi panchakaya, extracted with different solvents (ethanol, ethyl acetate, n-hexane and water). Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay method and the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay. In vitro antioxidant free radicals scavenging capacities of different concentrations of ethanol, ethyl acetate, n-hexane and water extracts, of Nāgarādi panchakaya were evaluated. The percentage of inhibition and IC50 were calculated. IC50 (μg/mL) of water, ethanol, ethyl acetate, n-hexane and Ascorbic Acid were found to be 179.89±1.25 µg /mL, 248.09±1.74 µg /mL, 169.43± 0.98µg /mL, 189.56±2.23 µg /mL, and 01.18±0.98 µg /mL respectively in DPPH radical scavenging assay. In FRAP assay the reducing power for the different extracts varied in following order: water > ethanol > ethyl acetate > n-hexane. The total Phenolic content of water, ethanol, ethyl acetate and n-hexane extracts were 1.73±0.51 mg GAE/g, 2.59±0.67 mg GAE/g, 3.67±0.81 mg GAE/g and 1.57±0.09 mg GAE/g respectively. The results can be concluded that Ethanol & water extracts exhibit high antioxidant activity possibly due to the presence of high phenolic content than the other extracts.
The underlying cause of a number of neurological disorders is oxidative stress. Given the dearth of medications now available to treat such disorders and their accompanying detrimental impacts, an urgent need exists for the global identification of brand-new antioxidants and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. This study evaluated the comparative impacts of the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase activities of n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of S. mombin leaves. The dried leaf samples of the plant were triturated. Following maceration of the powdered plant materials in each of the three extraction solvents (methanol, n-hexane, and ethyl acetate), the resulting solutions were separately subjected to lyophilization. The in-vitro antioxidant analysis was determined by employing the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) assays. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory abilities of the various extracts were also evaluated using a standard protocol. The methanol extract showed the greatest DPPH scavenging (75.91%) and AChE inhibitory (40.17%) properties in the DPPH and AChE inhibitory assays, respectively. The DPPH and lipid peroxidation assays also demonstrated that all extracts had dose-dependent antioxidant properties. In addition, evaluations of each extract's ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation revealed that, at initial concentrations of 0.05 mg/L and 0.1 mg/L, the methanol extract displayed stronger LPO inhibitory effects (5.90%, 6.15%) than the n-hexane (4.00%, 5.4%) and ethyl acetate (3.26%, 3.99%) extracts. Nonetheless, the n-hexane extract showed a greater LPO inhibitory effect (10.00%, 10.34%) at higher dosages of 0.2 mg/L and 0.5 mg/L respectively. The results of this study have shown that methanol is the best solvent for exploiting the pharmacological benefits of S. mombin leaves thereby reasserting the numerous applications of the plant in traditional medicine. It has also paved the way for the development of novel therapeutic alternatives for a range of neurodegenerative disorders and other health concerns.
Aim: To determine the organ distribution and characterization of acetylcholinesterase in the adult African variegated grasshoppers – Zonocerus variegatus and Zonocerus elegans. (Zonocerus Sp. Linn) Place and Duration of the Study: The insect model: African variegated grasshoppers are gotten from the Open green fields at the Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria, and research was carried out between March and June, 2016 in the Enzymology laboratory, Biochemistry department, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. Methodology: Twenty (20) adults variegated grasshoppers were taken from the Open field in the University community, and taken to the Biology department for Identification. After identification, the specimen was weighed, freeze, dissected into fractions (Head, Thorax and Abdomen) and then homogenized to get the crude protein extract. The crude enzyme extract is further purified using the Ion-exchange chromatography with column bed packed with DEAE – Sephadex A50. The protein content of the purified AChE was determined using the Lowry method while the Acetylcholinesterase activity was determined by the Ellman’s assay procedures. The characterization of AChE was tested by modifying agent such as N-Bromo Succinamide (NBS) which confirms the presence of key aromatic proteins involve in catalysis at the active site of the enzyme. Results: The protein concentration according to their fractions: Head (35.7%), Thorax (29.2%), and Abdomen (35.1%). The AChE activity according to their fractions: Head (38.6%), Thorax (23.7%), and Abdomen (37.7%). The specific activity which relates the AChE activity to protein content is given: Head (28.8%), Thorax (40.4%), and Abdomen (30.8%). From the Organ distribution and AChE activity, it was observed that the Head Fractions has the Highest protein content, and Enzyme activity. Comparatively, there are slight differences in the Enzyme activity of the Head and Abdominal fractions which represents the two peaks in the AChE chart. As well, the thorax has the highest specific activity. The modification by the chemical agent NBS shows a drastic decrease (about 50%) in Enzyme activity and characterize enzyme active site with aromatic proteins especially tryptophan residues. Conclusion: Research findings shows the dominance of AChE protein in the Head region, hence high enzyme activity (useful for nervous coordination) as well as presence of tryptophan residues at the enzyme active site. The importance of research is useful in enzymology, neuroscience and public health.
Achillea species have been widely used as herbal medicine for a time. Achillea millefolium L. has one of the broadest applications in herbal medicine because of its antioxidant activity. As congeneric subspecies of the A. millefolium L., the A. alpina L. and A. wilsoniana L. also have many medical properties. This paper explored the essential oils of these two plants by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the differences in their antioxidant activity. The result showed that the major components of essential oil from A. wilsoniana L. were (+)-2-bornanone (8.51%), (-)-β-bisabolene (6.7%), chamazulene (6.4), neointermedeol (6.12%). And the major components of essential oil from A. alpina L. were chamazulene (6.53%), (1S)-(1)-beta-pinene (5.19%), nerolidol (3.6%), and esquisabinen (2.7%). The results indicated that A. alpina L. had the highest composition of chamazulene compared with the other two. Due to the variety of compounds in the two essential oils, their antioxidant activities were different on DPPH and ABTS assays. The antioxidant activity of A. wilsoniana L. was better than A. alpina L. but lower than the A. millefolium L.
Aim: This study evaluated the nephroprotective effect of methanol extract of Hymenocardia acida leaves in rat model of gentamicin induced renal damage. Materials and Methods: Twenty- four (24) Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 150- 200g were divided into 4 groups of 6 animals each; Group I served as the control and received normal saline, Group II- IV received gentamicin (40 mg/kg, i.p), Groups III and IV also received 200 and 400 mg/kg body wt., p.o methanol extract of Hymenocardia acida leaves respectively for 15 days. Body weight measurement, serum urea, creatinine, electrolytes analyses and histopathological examination of kidney were carried out. Results: Gentamicin treatment caused nephrotoxicity as evidenced by marked elevation in Serum urea, creatinine, decreased sodium and chloride ions, elevated serum level of potassium ion and pathological signs such as congestion, focal areas of inflammation, tubular necrosis, and glomerular atrophy. Administration of the extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/ body wt significantly (p< 0.05) decreased Creatinine and urea levels, significantly (p< 0.05) increased sodium and chloride ion and significantly (p< 0.05) decreased potassium ion level when compared to the gentamicin- alone- treated group. Histopathological analysis also revealed a gradual reversal of the pathological features caused by gentamicin toxicity. Conclusion: It was concluded that the extract possesses nephroprotective potential.
In this work, comparative study of physicochemical properties and fatty acids of dried arils (DA) oil and those roasted (RA), of Blighia sapida from Côte d’Ivoire have been done using usual methods. The results showed that the crude fat obtained were 59.08± 0.02 g/100 g for dried arils (DA) and 60.51 ± 0.12 g/100 g for roasted arils (RA) respectively. Physicochemical properties of these oils were equal approximately, except level of saponification (241.19 mg KOH/g (DA) against 216.8 mg KOH/g (RA)); acid value (7 mg KOH/g (DA) and 6.28 mg KOH/g (RA)) and ester acid 234.19 mg KOH/g (DA) against 210.65 mg KOH/g (RA) where variances analysis showed that there was significant difference (p<0.05). On the other hand, refractive index, pH, moisture value, relative density and Free fatty acid were respectively; 1.465 (DA) and 1.475 (RA); 5.625 (DA) and 5.8 (RA); 1.757 (DA) and 1.9 (RA); 0.093 (DA) and 0.103 (RA), 3.52 mg KOH/g (DA) and 3.03 mg KOH/g (RA). The color of both oils was yellow. Fatty acid profile of these arils oils revealed that values of DA and RA were equal approximately (variances analysis showed that there was no significant difference (p<0.05)). These arils oils contained high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, 64.10 % (DA) and 65.17 % (RA), especially linolenic acid 20.02 mg/100 g (DA) and 22.18 mg/100 g (RA); linoleic acid 15.37 mg/100 g (DA) and 16.83 mg/100 g (RA) and Oleic acid 12.76 mg/100 g (DA) and 13.21 mg/100 g(RA). The saturated fatty Acids, accounted for 35.90% (DA) and 34.83% (RA) were constituted by palmitic acid with 18.02 mg/100 g (DA) and 18.11(RA) which were higher values. The values of stearic acid were 7.1 mg/100 g (DA) and 7.9 mg/100 g (RA) and 1.85 mg/100 g (AD) and 1.9 mg/100 g (RA) mg/100 g for myristic acid respectively. These results showed that the arils oils of Blighia sapida fruit from Côte d’Ivoire have highly nutritive fat content because rich in essentials fatty acids. These oils may be suitable for soap making and edible (margarine). The oils extracts exhibited good physicochemical properties and could be useful as edible oils and for industrial applications.
The present study investigates the mineral, fatty acid and amino acids composition of E. radiata, V. contectus and L. flammea. All samples analyzed in this study were obtained from Yenagoa in Bayelsa state of Nigeria. Mineral composition was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS), fatty acids were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) while amino acids composition was determined by gas chromatography (GC). Eight (8) nutritionally essential minerals were detected in all samples analyzed in this study; the concentration of minerals in order of increasing concentration was Cu>Mn>Mg>Na>Ca>Zn>K>Fe, Cu>Mn>Na>Mg>Ca>Zn>K>Fe and Cu>Mn>Mg>Ca>Na>Zn>Fe>K for E. radiata, V. contectus and L. flammea respectively. Lauric acid, myristic acid, Palmitic acid, Margaric acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, Linoleic acid, arachidic acid and arachidonic acid were detected in varying amounts in all samples. Palmitic acid concentration in E. radiata was the most abundant in all samples while oleic acid concentration in L. flammea was the least. A total of eighteen (18) amino acids were detected in all samples analyzed in this study: glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, serine, tryptophan, threonine, Methionine, phenylalanine, histidine, proline, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, tyrosine, arginine, lysine and Cysteine. In E. radiata, leucine had the highest concentration (21.287mg/100g) while proline was the least (2.854mg/100g); glutamic acid and methionine were the highest and least (19.389mg/100g and 2.996mg/100g respectively) in V. Contectus samples and Histidine and tryptophan were the highest and least respectively (11.639mg/100g and 1.415mg/100g). Aspartate, lysine and histidine were not detected in both samples. From the findings of this study, the samples analyzed in this study are good sources of fatty acids, amino acids and nutritionally essential minerals hence their consumption is encouraged.
Background: Anemia is a condition in which there is a reduced number of red blood cells or haemoglobin and iron concentration in the body thereby leading to a decreased capacity of the blood to carry oxygen to the body tissues. Objectives: The study was designed to investigate the effect of a combination of ethanol extract of Ficus capensis and Cnidoscolus aconitifolius in phenylhydrazine-induced anemic rats. Methods: The animals were divided into five groups of five rats each. Group A served as normal control, Group B as anemic control, group C as standard drug control, groups D and E were treated with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of combined ethanol leaf extract of F. capensis and C. aconitifolius respectively. Phenylhydrazine was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.w. for two days to induce anemia in rats. The administration of the extract lasted for 14 days after which the animals were sacrificed and blood obtained through cardiac puncture for kidney and liver biomarkers analyses. Results: Aspartate aminotransferase, Alanine aminotransferase, Alkaline phosphatase, Total bilirubin, Direct bilirubin and Kidney function parameters assayed in the anemic untreated group showed significant increases (p<0.05) compared to the normal rats which may be attributed to toxicity induced by phenylhydrazine. The groups treated with the ethanol extract at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight revealed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the liver function parameters compared to the anemic untreated group. The creatinine and urea levels of the anemic untreated group increased more than the that of the test groups although the increase was not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study suggests that combined ethanol leaf extract of F. capensis and C. aconitifolius is safe and can be effective in the treatment and management of anemia.
Aim: Herbs are plants or parts of plants used for their therapeutic, aromatic or savoury values. This work studied the potential sub-chronic toxic effects of Goko and BetaB, two herbal remedies used in treating human diseases and sold in Orumba Local Government Area of Anambra state, Nigeria. Design: Experimental adult Wister female albino rats were divided into five groups (A, B, C, D and E) of five animals per group. The first and second groups received 0.1 ml/kg body weight and 0.2 ml/kg body weight of Goko while the third and fourth groups received 0.1 ml/kg body weight and 0.2 ml/kg body weight of BetaB orally. The control group was given standard feed and clean drinking water only. Administration lasted for 14 days after which the animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and blood samples collected for biochemical assay. Results: The results of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and concentration of serum total bilirubin and albumin showed varying significant (P < 0.05) differences when compared with the control. Conclusion: Result obtained from this study seems to suggest that Goko and BetaB may not be safe for use sub-chronically at high doses.
The rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has become a global health concern, necessitating the search for novel sources of antibiotics. Actinomycetes, a group of microorganisms, have been known for their ability to produce bioactive compounds with antimicrobial properties. This study aimed to isolate, identify, and characterize antibiotic-producing Actinomycetes from River Tana and Lake Elementaita. Samples were collected from the study sites, and Actinomycetes were isolated using serial dilution and spread plate techniques. The isolates were characterized based on their morphological and biochemical properties. Furthermore, their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella typhi was evaluated using the agar well diffusion method. The zones of inhibition were measured (mm), and analysis was done to compare the activity of the isolates using Kruskal Wallis test and medians compared using Wilcoxon with Bonferroni correction at alpha = 0.05 in SAS version 9.4. Analysis of DNA sequences was done using the BLAST program and a phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA X version 11. Biochemical tests revealed positive results for catalase, indole, oxidase, and citrate utilization, while coagulase and methyl red tests were negative. In terms of antibacterial activity, 54.5% of the isolates showed activity against E. coli, 45.5% against S. aureus, and 45.5% against S. typhi. Isolate LEL2201 had significant (p < 0.05) higher zone of inhibition against S. aureus (inhibition zone of 25.0mm), while isolate RT2201 exhibited the highest activity against E. coli and S. typhi (inhibition zone of 8.5 mm and 8.6 mm, respectively). Molecular characterization through 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified the isolates as belonging to the Actinobacterium order. Phylogenetic analysis revealed their similarity to known Actinomycetes species including Actinomycetales bacterium, Streptomyces intermedius and Streptomyces flavomacrosporus from various countries. The findings of this study demonstrate the presence of antibiotic-producing Actinomycetes in River Tana and Lake Elementaita. Thus, further investigations are warranted to identify and characterize the specific antibacterial compounds produced by these isolates.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are associated with an increase in cardiovascular events despite its uses in the therapeutic agent for the management of long- and short-term pain. Over the last years, evidence has accumulated showing that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative stress is no longer considered as a simple imbalance between the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but as a dysfunction of enzymes involved in ROS production. This study investigated the effect of diclofenac on the activity of oxidative stress enzymes as well as formation of lipid peroxidation. Male rats weighing about 100-120 g were divided into four groups: group one (control, feed+water) group two, group three and group four treated with different mg/kg/day of drugs (50 mg/kg/day, 100 mg/kg/day and 150 mg/kg/day) feed and water respectively for 7 days. Analysis on the effect of diclofenac on the activities of stress enzymes such as nicotine adenosine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogenase oxidase (NADPHoxidase), xanthine oxidase(XOD), catalase(CAT), superoxide dismutase(SOD) and Glutathione Peroxidase as well as evaluation of lipid peroxidation by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) in the heart homogenate were carried out and the result showed a significant increase in each parameter given rise to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) if not moderated by the antioxidant defense can lead to cardiac impairment as a result of oxidative stress damage or injury. The result obtained implies that diclofenac (NSAIDs) affects the redox status of vascular tissues (heart tissues).
Andrographis paniculata, commonly known as Nelabevu, Bhunimba, Chirayetah, Kalmegh, or Creat, is a plant with extensive traditional use in Asian medicines. Its historical application, particularly in conditions related to blood irregularities, has driven contemporary scientific investigations into its therapeutic potential. This review summarizes the diverse aspects of Andrographis paniculata's traditional uses and modern applications, covering its effectiveness in respiratory infections, hepatoprotection, cardiovascular effects, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities, hypoglycemic effects, and reproductive influences. The plant's active constituents, such as andrographolide, flavonoids, and diterpenoids, contribute to its pharmacological actions. However, critical evaluation and further research are essential to confirm its clinical benefits and mechanisms of action. The extensive range of its effects and the multiple active compounds highlight the plant's significance in modern herbal medicine and warrant continued exploration.
Malaria constitutes one of the biggest health problems in tropical Africa due to the resistance of human malaria parasites to anti-malarial compounds. Research focused on plants used in traditional medicine to treat malaria is still a viable alternative for the creation of novel anti-malarial drugs. This study evaluated extracts from three medicinal plants, Trema orientalis, Cnestis ferruginea and Dialium dinklagei, used in traditional medicine in Côte d’Ivoire, for in vitro antiplasmodial activities. SYBR GREEN fluorescence method was used to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory activity of the extracts, chloroquine, artesunate and quinine against Plasmodium falciparum field isolates and two laboratory strains of Plasmodium falciparum: the chloroquine sensitive 3D7 and the chloroquine resistant Dd2. In comparison to plant extracts, chloroquine, quinine, and artesunate were chosen as reference antimalarials. In addition, the haemolytic activity of extracts showing good antiplasmodial activity was evaluated. The IC50 and the corresponding correlation coefficients were determined graphically, using In vitro Analysis and Reporting Tool (IVART) software of WWARN (Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network). Results showed that no plant was active with the hexanolic extract. Trema orientalis had moderate activity with the methanolic extract with activities ranging from 14.46µg/mL to 28.32µg/mL. Cnestis ferruginea was active with the decoction extracts with activities ranging from 11.78µg/mL to 13.94µg/mL. Dialium dinklagei was active with both methanolic and aqueous extracts ranging from 12.80µg/mL to 21.67µg/mL. There was less than 1% hemolysis at the concentration of 200 µg/mL of plant extracts. These results validate the reported traditional use of Trema orientalis, Cnestis ferruginea and Dialium dinklagei for malaria treatment in Côte d’Ivoire.
Background: Biomphalaria glabrata is an intermediate host for the larvae of Schistosoma mansoni, which is distributed widely in the tropics. B. glabrata control is important to minimize the spread of schistosomiasis and natural compounds have been sought for use against this disease. The Artemia salina bench-top bioassay has been used to investigate the ecotoxicity of many natural compounds, and its results also correlate well with the in vitro cytotoxicity of natural compounds to tumor cells. Aims: To evaluate deleterious effects of the Opuntia ficus-indica lectin (OfiL) on B. glabrata, A. salina and human cancer cell lines. Methods: OfiL was isolated following a previously established protocol. The effects of OfiL on B. glabrata were investigated by determining survival of adults as well as development and hatching of embryos. The concentration required to kill 50% (LC50) of A. salina nauplii was determined. The cytotoxicity was determined using the human cell lines Hep-2 (human larynx epidermoid carcinoma), NCI-H292 (human lung mucoepidermoid carcinoma) and K562 (chronic myelocytic leukemia). Results: The development of most embryos (92.5–97.5%) treated with 1, 10 and 100 µg/mL of OfiL was found to be delayed, and dead (2.2–3.3%) and malformed (0.3–5.2%) embryos were also observed. OfiL did not kill B. glabrata adults, but a high percentage (30–45%) of the embryos generated by snails incubated with the lectin exhibited malformations. OfiL exhibited toxicity against A. salina (LC50: 61.02 µg/mL) but did not display cytotoxicity against the tumor cell lines evaluated. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study showed that OfiL can be a tool for schistosomiasis control that acts by impairing the viability of B. glabrata eggs and the fecundity of adult snails.
Mining activities are usually associated with environmental pollution and the infiltration of toxic heavy metals into waterways which could be absorbed by plants or used by inhabitants. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of mining activities on some biochemical parameters of Opanda-Ugya inhabitants, Toto Local government of Nigeria. Four hundred and fifty (450) people were interviewed using questionnaires. Eighty (80) of them were carefully grouped into four: Group 1(20 Control), Group 2 (20 inhabitants), Group 3 (20 indirect miners) Group 4 (20 direct miners). The Survey discovered some symptoms that could be associated with heavy metal toxicity among the inhabitants. Biochemical assay of blood samples revealed no significant (P ˃0.05) increase in Serum ALT, AST and Total bilirubin in groups 2, 3 and 4 when compared to control, but a decrease in TP. Serum creatinine levels increased significantly in group 3 when compared to the control. Both creatinine and urea levels elevated significantly in group 2 and group 4 when compared with the control. The result of Oxidative stress markers has indicated a significant increase in the levels of MDA with a concomitant decrease in the levels of GSH in groups 2, 3 and 4 compared to the control. The AChE activity in groups 2, 3 and 4 significantly increased when compared to the control. The levels of CRP increased significantly in groups 3 and 4 when compared to the control. We conclude that the neurological and other disorders observed in some participants could be attributed to chronic inflammation and oxidative stress induced by heavy metal toxicity, thus something should be done by the necessary authority to curtail the long-time effect of Mining activities in this community.
Background: Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis, muscular dystrophy, aging and other associated diseases. Vitex doniana is used in Adamawa, northern Nigeria to treat oxidative stress associated diseases. However, the antioxidative effects of the plant have not been scientifically examined in oxidative stress experimental animal models. The aim of this study is to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of aqueous and ethanol stem bark extracts of Vitex doniana in oxidative stress model of rats. Methods: The study used 35 adult albino rats weighing 175 ± 25 g, of which 30 were induced with oxidative stress by intraperitoneal injection of doxorubicin (10 mg/kg) for three consecutive days. Animals were treated by oral administration of silymarin (100 mg/kg) and Vitex doniana aqueous or ethanol extract (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days before they were sacrificed on the 15th day and blood was analyzed for biochemical indices of oxidative stress. Results: The results of the phytochemistry showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, phenols, saponins, terpenoids, glycosides: and total flavonoids (52.70 ± 1.60 mg/ml and 75.40 ± 0.80 mg/ml), total phenols (21.45 ± 1.54 mg/ml and 26.50 ± 1.22 mg/ml) for aqueous and ethanol stem bark extracts respectively. The extracts scavenged DPPH radical, reduced Fe3+ and inhibited lipid peroxidation. Doxorubicin significantly (p<0.05) lowered the levels of SOD, CAT, GR and TAS and significantly (p<0.05) but, increased the level of LPO. Oral treatment with Vitex doniana extracts significantly (p<0.05) increased the activities of CAT, GR, SOD and TAS while LPO was significantly (p<0.05) lowered. Vitex doniana stem bark extracts significantly (p<0.05) improved the biochemical derangements observed in the induced untreated animals in comparable manner to that of Silymarin. Conclusion: The present study provides the scientific rationale for the use of Vitex doniana stem bark in traditional medicine and has a viable antioxidative capacity both in vitro and in vivo.
Lead (Pb) is one of the environmental pollutants. There has been a serious concern in the recent past regarding natural source for protection or curing from lead. The aim of the present study is evaluation and comparing of mulberry leaves and fruits extracts in protection from lead toxicity on the brain and testes of rats, as well as determination of their chemical activity and anticancer effect on hepatocarcinoma (HEPG2) and colon cancer cell line (HTC). Leaves extract showed higher results than fruits extract in total phenols, total flavonoids and antioxidant activities in both radical scavenging activity (DPPH) and ferric reducing power tests (FRAP). Leaves and fruits extracts exerts almost have the same killing effect on (HEPG2). Leaves extract has slight better killing power on (HTC) than fruits extract. In the experiment on rats; leaves showed more efficiency in a time dependent manner in ameliorating the harmful effect of lead on blood parameter like white and red blood cells, hemoglobin, cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. Both leaves and fruits extracts have protective effect from injury induced by lead on tissues of rat testes, however, they showed little protective effect on brain tissue. In conclusion, mulberry leaves and fruits have considerable active compounds and antioxidant properties which are useful as anticancer agents. Moreover they showed protective effect against lead toxicity which induced anemia, metabolic disorder and tissue injury.