Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry

Published by Sciencedomain International
Online ISSN: 2582-0516
Publications
Photomicrographs of liver section of mice injected with normal saline only showed: -(a) Euchromatic nuclei and (b) Central vein radiating coats of hepatocytes (40x)
The effect of test compound (TD1) on hematological parameters
The effect of TD1 on serum biochemical parameters
Background: Thiazole nucleus–containing compounds have an antitumor efficiency against various types of cancer. Purpose: The present study was designed to determine the cytotoxic effect of newly synthesized thiazole derivative (TD1) on human cancer cell lines, in addition to evaluate its antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in mice. Materials and Methods: TD1 was synthesized and investigated for its cytotoxic effect on HCT116 (colon cancer), HepG2 (liver cancer), PC3 (prostate cancer) and MCF7 (breast cancer). The effect of TD1 on cell viability, tumor volume, and percent of increase in life span (% ILS) in Ehrlich–bearing mice was studied. Hematological parameters, liver and kidney function tests were evaluated. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione levels were determined in liver and kidney tissues. The expression of P53 in EAC was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: TD1 demonstrated an inhibitory effect on both cancer cell lines in vitro and Ehrlich ascites cells in vivo. TD1 increased in life span of Ehrlich–bearing mice compared to control. Cell cycle and flow cytometric analysis revealed that TD1 directed Ehrlich cells toward apoptosis by increasing of P53 expression. Conclusion: It was concluded that TD1 have a potent antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice beside a cytotoxic effect on MCF-7, PC3, HepG2 and HCT-116.
 
Background: COVID-19 is associated with a weak immune system in the human body. Vitamin D plays a role in the body’s immune system and is known to enhance the function of immune cells. In this case, vitamin D inhibits some of the inflammation that can make COVID-19 more severe. The is study aims to determine the serum levels of vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus in COVID-19 patients. Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted during the period from January 2021 to July 2021. 50 COVID-19 patients as a case study and 50 healthy individuals as a control group were included in this study. Blood samples were collected from the study group and measured for vitamin D using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Calcium and phosphate were measured by the Cobas 6000 fully automated analyzer (Roche, Germany). Results: The study result showed that in COVID-19 patients, vitamin D (27 ± 5 ng/mL), p-value = 0.000, and calcium (10.2 ± 4 mg/dL), p-value = 0.000, in comparison with control. There was a correlation between vitamin D (r = -.771; p =.000) and calcium (r = -.752; p =.000) and the severity of disease. Conclusions: According to our research, vitamin D deficiency may increase the risk of developing COVID-19 and the risk of developing severe illnesses.
 
Hoslundia opposita Vahl is a multi-purpose medicinal plant used traditionally to treat gonorrhea, cystitis, cough, fever, snake bites, convulsion in many parts of Africa. The objectives of this research are to evaluate the phytochemical profile, antioxidant activity of the leaves of Hoslundia opposita Vahl and to dock its phytochemical components with uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain F11(ID:3NRP) and NFeoB from Escherichia coli BL21(ID:5FH9). Harborne’s method was used for the identification of the class of phytochemicals while GC-MS was used to identify the type of phytochemicals. Folin-Ciocalteau method was used to determine the total phenolic content while aluminum colorimetric assay was used to estimate the total flavonoid content. 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. The molecular docking simulation method was used to investigate the interactions of the phytochemicals with the Escherichia coli receptors. In the phytochemical studies, flavonoids, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides and saponins were identified to be present in the methanolic leaf extract while steroids, alkaloids and anthraquinones were absent. The GC-MS analysis of the methanolic extract revealed presence of 17 compounds out of which 14 were identified. The compounds with appreciable quantity in the leaf extract were 1, 2, 3-benzetriol (38.11%), n-hexadacanoic acid (13.52%) and catechol (9.98%). Assessment of the antioxidant activity using DPPH gave a scavenging activity of 79.86% at 500ug/ml compared with ascorbic acid having a scavenging activity of 90.85% at the same concentration. Evaluation of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents at 500 ug/ml gave the values of 262.54 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract and 6.24 mg quercetin equivalent/g extract respectively compared with gallic acid and quercetin with maximum concentrations of 385.12 and 12.46 respectively. This shows that the extract has significant antioxidant activity and can be explored as a valuable source of natural antioxidants. GC-MS analysis of the methanolic extract of Hoslundia opposita showed the presence of trans-3-(trifluoromethyl)cinnamic acid, octadecyl ester which was active against Escherichia coli. Docking results with 3NRP and 5FH9 showed binding affinities of -6.1, -6.6, 7.2and -7.0,7.4, 8.5 kJ/mol with the commercial drugs : ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and tetracycline respectively while that of trans 3-(trifluoromethyl)cinnamic acid, octadecyl ester identified in the leaves were 5.6 and 5.9 kJ/mol.
 
a. Chart of concentration against weeks (durations) for OXPL-LDL level
Background and Objectives: Living organisms are exposed to oxidant agents constantly from both endogenous and exogenous sources. One of such oxidant agent is Bisphenol A (BPA) and its exposure is capable to modify biomolecules and induce damages. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a contaminant with increasing exposure. It exerts toxic effects on cells. This study investigates the possibility of BPA exposure on Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) perturbations at prevailing low exposure doses in female albino Wistar rats, following exposure for the period of three (3) month. Materials and Methods: Total 12 groups were formed; out of which 11 experimental groups, each containing 10non-pregnant female rats were administered; 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and 1 mg of BPA/kgbw/day. To the 12th control group was given water. Blood was collected from animals at the end of every week of the study and serum sample specimens analyzed by routine diagnostic procedures for oxidized LDL such as malondialdehyde modified- LDL (MDA-LDL), oxidized phospholipids LDL (OX-PL LDL), N (epsilon) (carboxymethyl) lysine-modified-LDL (CML LDL) and 4-hydroxynonenal-LDL (HNE-LDL) using Autochemical Analyzer. Results: Significantly increased concentrations of serum oxidized LDL such as MDA-LDL, OX-PL LDL, CML LDL and HNE-LDL were observed at all concentrations of BPA exposure. Conclusion: Bisphenol A alters oxidized LDL such as MDA-LDL, OX-PL LDL, CML LDL and HNE-LDL balance and causes disturbance of internal oxidative statues.
 
Objective: The study investigated the possibility of using blood groups as predictive indices for diseases associated with lipid metabolism. Methods: Lipid profiles were examined in 100 apparently healthy male (40) and female (60) subjects of different ABO blood groups aged between 18-30 years from Imo State University. Of these, 20 were blood group A, 30 were B blood type, 4 were AB blood type, and 46 were blood group O. Lipid profile parameters were determined according to enzymatic assay using a commercial kit from Randox Laboratories, United Kingdom and calculation using Friedewald’s equation. Monoclonal ABO blood grouping reagent by CLAS Technology, United Kingdom was used to determine the blood group. Results: Total Cholesterol (140.62 ± 21.66 mg/dl) and High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) (96.20 ± 40.32 mg/dl) were highest in blood group B. Blood group A had the highest level of Triglyceride (80.84 ± 18.60 mg/dl) and Very Low-Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) (15.21 ± 6.24 mg/dl). Blood group O showed TC level of 130.60 ±34.76 mg/dl with the highest level of LDL (70.74 ± 20.15 mg/dl) and the lowest level of HDL (51.68 ± 20.50 mg/dl) compared to non- O blood types (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The study revealed that blood group O might have a higher propensity for dyslipidemia, suggesting an increased risk for disease associated with lipid metabolism.
 
Antifungal activities of A. nilotica, L. inermis and Z. jujube Linn methanol leaf extracts
Background: The increasing emergence of resistance to conventional antimicrobial drugs and the complicity of their usage is a serious challenge in Nigeria. In our previous report, it was demonstrated that methanol leaves extracts of Acacia nilotica, Ziziphus jujube Linn and Lawsonia inermis exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas flourecense, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus. Methodology: In this study, agar well diffusion method was employed to assess the antifungal potency of these plant extracts and were tested against Aspergillus flavus, Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans. Results: Exclusive of L. inermis extract against T. rubrum at 100 mg/ml (zone of inhibition 34.33±1.89 mm). 100 mg/mL of all the extracts investigated have significantly lower (P<0.05) antifungal activity when compared to standard antifungal drug (Nystatin, 100 mg/ml). The activity of L. inermis against A. flavus was comparatively similar (P>0.05) to the control drug, but significantly higher (P<0.05) against both T. rubrum and C. albicans at 150 mg/ml. Conversely, the antifungal activity of A. nilotica extract against T. rubrum and C. albicans significantly surpass (P<0.05) that of the control drug, while Z. jujube Linn extract activity against C. albicans was comparatively similar (P>0.05) to it, but significantly higher (P<0.05) against T. rubrum. A dose dependent antifungal activity of the plants was observed, and L. inermis extract was the most potent antifungal agent with an MIC and MCF values of 5 mg/ml. Conclusion: This study reveals that L. inermis leaves extract could be used as a sources of potential antifungal agents.
 
Obesity is associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndromes such as type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Obesity occurs as a result of an imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure leading to excessive accumulation of adipose tissue. NAFLD is the most common liver condition and related to the resistance of insulin. Insulin resistance is associated with an increased influx of lipid into the liver promoting accumulation of hepatic triglyceride. This study aims to develop an experimental model of hepatic steatosis with lipid over-accumulation. HepG2 cells were cultured for 24 hours in free fatty acid media (1:2 palmitic acid and oleic acid respectively). Intracellular lipid content and lipotoxicity were determined by oil red O staining followed by colorimetric detection. This experiment was accomplished by defining the experimental conditions of lipid exposure that leads to significant intracellular fat accumulation in the absence of lipotoxicity with 1 mM of free fatty acid media. As a result, oleic and palmitic acids could be over-accumulated in HepG2 cells. 1 mM free fatty acid media did not affect the cell integrity and did not cause lipotoxicity of the cells.
 
Quantitative phytochemical content of P. americana seed ethyl acetate fraction
Acute toxicity studies of Persea americana seed ethyl acetate fraction
Aims: Persea americana (P. americana) dubbed ‘green gold’ is a highly sought after fruit today, with insatiable export market. Different parts of avocadoes have been consumed both for nutritional and health benefits across regions of the world. Therefore, this study investigates the bioactive composition of P. americana seed ethyl acetate fraction and acute toxicological effects. Place and duration of study: Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria; between May 2019 and October, 2019. Methodology: Quantitative phytochemical composition was assessed using gas chromatography fitted with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and acute toxicity determined using standard method. Results: Result of quantitative phytochemical composition of P. americana seed fraction shows a rich presence of phytochemicals such as epicatechin, kaempferol, proanthocyanin, rutin, resveratrol, ribalinidine, naringin, spartein, quinine, flavan-3-ol, anthocyanin, lunamarin, sapogenin, flavonones, flavones. The quantitative phytochemical composition of P. americana seed shows that among other phytochemicals, the seed is relatively rich in anthocyanin, quinine, epicatechin, tannin and proanthocyanin with concentrations of 69.39 ± 8.33 µg/g, 22.16 ±1.77 µg/g, 21.88 ± 2.53 µg/g, 19.86 ± 1.19 µg/g and 10.98 ± 0.55 µg/g respectively. The acute toxicity studies on the seed reveal that the ethyl acetate fraction of P. americana seed did not elicit any lethal signs of morbidity and mortality at doses up to 5000mg/Kgb.wt. and are therefore considered generally safe. Conclusion: P. americana seed ethyl acetate fraction contains essential phytochemicals with useful phyto-medicinal and nutraceutical benefits. The implications of these findings are further discussed.
 
Acetylcholine reaction in the synapse (source https://ib.bioninja.com.au)
Table showing the acetylcholinesterase protein concentration and the activity of various organs of adult Zonocerus variegates
Aim: To determine the organ distribution and characterization of acetylcholinesterase in the adult African variegated grasshoppers – Zonocerus variegatus and Zonocerus elegans. (Zonocerus Sp. Linn) Place and Duration of the Study: The insect model: African variegated grasshoppers are gotten from the Open green fields at the Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria, and research was carried out between March and June, 2016 in the Enzymology laboratory, Biochemistry department, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. Methodology: Twenty (20) adults variegated grasshoppers were taken from the Open field in the University community, and taken to the Biology department for Identification. After identification, the specimen was weighed, freeze, dissected into fractions (Head, Thorax and Abdomen) and then homogenized to get the crude protein extract. The crude enzyme extract is further purified using the Ion-exchange chromatography with column bed packed with DEAE – Sephadex A50. The protein content of the purified AChE was determined using the Lowry method while the Acetylcholinesterase activity was determined by the Ellman’s assay procedures. The characterization of AChE was tested by modifying agent such as N-Bromo Succinamide (NBS) which confirms the presence of key aromatic proteins involve in catalysis at the active site of the enzyme. Results: The protein concentration according to their fractions: Head (35.7%), Thorax (29.2%), and Abdomen (35.1%). The AChE activity according to their fractions: Head (38.6%), Thorax (23.7%), and Abdomen (37.7%). The specific activity which relates the AChE activity to protein content is given: Head (28.8%), Thorax (40.4%), and Abdomen (30.8%). From the Organ distribution and AChE activity, it was observed that the Head Fractions has the Highest protein content, and Enzyme activity. Comparatively, there are slight differences in the Enzyme activity of the Head and Abdominal fractions which represents the two peaks in the AChE chart. As well, the thorax has the highest specific activity. The modification by the chemical agent NBS shows a drastic decrease (about 50%) in Enzyme activity and characterize enzyme active site with aromatic proteins especially tryptophan residues. Conclusion: Research findings shows the dominance of AChE protein in the Head region, hence high enzyme activity (useful for nervous coordination) as well as presence of tryptophan residues at the enzyme active site. The importance of research is useful in enzymology, neuroscience and public health.
 
Achillea species have been widely used as herbal medicine for a time. Achillea millefolium L. has one of the broadest applications in herbal medicine because of its antioxidant activity. As congeneric subspecies of the A. millefolium L., the A. alpina L. and A. wilsoniana L. also have many medical properties. This paper explored the essential oils of these two plants by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the differences in their antioxidant activity. The result showed that the major components of essential oil from A. wilsoniana L. were (+)-2-bornanone (8.51%), (-)-β-bisabolene (6.7%), chamazulene (6.4), neointermedeol (6.12%). And the major components of essential oil from A. alpina L. were chamazulene (6.53%), (1S)-(1)-beta-pinene (5.19%), nerolidol (3.6%), and esquisabinen (2.7%). The results indicated that A. alpina L. had the highest composition of chamazulene compared with the other two. Due to the variety of compounds in the two essential oils, their antioxidant activities were different on DPPH and ABTS assays. The antioxidant activity of A. wilsoniana L. was better than A. alpina L. but lower than the A. millefolium L.
 
Aim: This study evaluated the nephroprotective effect of methanol extract of Hymenocardia acida leaves in rat model of gentamicin induced renal damage. Materials and Methods: Twenty- four (24) Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 150- 200g were divided into 4 groups of 6 animals each; Group I served as the control and received normal saline, Group II- IV received gentamicin (40 mg/kg, i.p), Groups III and IV also received 200 and 400 mg/kg body wt., p.o methanol extract of Hymenocardia acida leaves respectively for 15 days. Body weight measurement, serum urea, creatinine, electrolytes analyses and histopathological examination of kidney were carried out. Results: Gentamicin treatment caused nephrotoxicity as evidenced by marked elevation in Serum urea, creatinine, decreased sodium and chloride ions, elevated serum level of potassium ion and pathological signs such as congestion, focal areas of inflammation, tubular necrosis, and glomerular atrophy. Administration of the extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/ body wt significantly (p< 0.05) decreased Creatinine and urea levels, significantly (p< 0.05) increased sodium and chloride ion and significantly (p< 0.05) decreased potassium ion level when compared to the gentamicin- alone- treated group. Histopathological analysis also revealed a gradual reversal of the pathological features caused by gentamicin toxicity. Conclusion: It was concluded that the extract possesses nephroprotective potential.
 
Limicolaria flammea (Land snail)
Mineral composition of samples (mg/Kg)
Essential amino acids composition of samples
The present study investigates the mineral, fatty acid and amino acids composition of E. radiata, V. contectus and L. flammea. All samples analyzed in this study were obtained from Yenagoa in Bayelsa state of Nigeria. Mineral composition was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS), fatty acids were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) while amino acids composition was determined by gas chromatography (GC). Eight (8) nutritionally essential minerals were detected in all samples analyzed in this study; the concentration of minerals in order of increasing concentration was Cu>Mn>Mg>Na>Ca>Zn>K>Fe, Cu>Mn>Na>Mg>Ca>Zn>K>Fe and Cu>Mn>Mg>Ca>Na>Zn>Fe>K for E. radiata, V. contectus and L. flammea respectively. Lauric acid, myristic acid, Palmitic acid, Margaric acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, Linoleic acid, arachidic acid and arachidonic acid were detected in varying amounts in all samples. Palmitic acid concentration in E. radiata was the most abundant in all samples while oleic acid concentration in L. flammea was the least. A total of eighteen (18) amino acids were detected in all samples analyzed in this study: glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, serine, tryptophan, threonine, Methionine, phenylalanine, histidine, proline, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, tyrosine, arginine, lysine and Cysteine. In E. radiata, leucine had the highest concentration (21.287mg/100g) while proline was the least (2.854mg/100g); glutamic acid and methionine were the highest and least (19.389mg/100g and 2.996mg/100g respectively) in V. Contectus samples and Histidine and tryptophan were the highest and least respectively (11.639mg/100g and 1.415mg/100g). Aspartate, lysine and histidine were not detected in both samples. From the findings of this study, the samples analyzed in this study are good sources of fatty acids, amino acids and nutritionally essential minerals hence their consumption is encouraged.
 
In this work, comparative study of physicochemical properties and fatty acids of dried arils (DA) oil and those roasted (RA), of Blighia sapida from Côte d’Ivoire have been done using usual methods. The results showed that the crude fat obtained were 59.08± 0.02 g/100 g for dried arils (DA) and 60.51 ± 0.12 g/100 g for roasted arils (RA) respectively. Physicochemical properties of these oils were equal approximately, except level of saponification (241.19 mg KOH/g (DA) against 216.8 mg KOH/g (RA)); acid value (7 mg KOH/g (DA) and 6.28 mg KOH/g (RA)) and ester acid 234.19 mg KOH/g (DA) against 210.65 mg KOH/g (RA) where variances analysis showed that there was significant difference (p<0.05). On the other hand, refractive index, pH, moisture value, relative density and Free fatty acid were respectively; 1.465 (DA) and 1.475 (RA); 5.625 (DA) and 5.8 (RA); 1.757 (DA) and 1.9 (RA); 0.093 (DA) and 0.103 (RA), 3.52 mg KOH/g (DA) and 3.03 mg KOH/g (RA). The color of both oils was yellow. Fatty acid profile of these arils oils revealed that values of DA and RA were equal approximately (variances analysis showed that there was no significant difference (p<0.05)). These arils oils contained high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, 64.10 % (DA) and 65.17 % (RA), especially linolenic acid 20.02 mg/100 g (DA) and 22.18 mg/100 g (RA); linoleic acid 15.37 mg/100 g (DA) and 16.83 mg/100 g (RA) and Oleic acid 12.76 mg/100 g (DA) and 13.21 mg/100 g(RA). The saturated fatty Acids, accounted for 35.90% (DA) and 34.83% (RA) were constituted by palmitic acid with 18.02 mg/100 g (DA) and 18.11(RA) which were higher values. The values of stearic acid were 7.1 mg/100 g (DA) and 7.9 mg/100 g (RA) and 1.85 mg/100 g (AD) and 1.9 mg/100 g (RA) mg/100 g for myristic acid respectively. These results showed that the arils oils of Blighia sapida fruit from Côte d’Ivoire have highly nutritive fat content because rich in essentials fatty acids. These oils may be suitable for soap making and edible (margarine). The oils extracts exhibited good physicochemical properties and could be useful as edible oils and for industrial applications.
 
Background: Anemia is a condition in which there is a reduced number of red blood cells or haemoglobin and iron concentration in the body thereby leading to a decreased capacity of the blood to carry oxygen to the body tissues. Objectives: The study was designed to investigate the effect of a combination of ethanol extract of Ficus capensis and Cnidoscolus aconitifolius in phenylhydrazine-induced anemic rats. Methods: The animals were divided into five groups of five rats each. Group A served as normal control, Group B as anemic control, group C as standard drug control, groups D and E were treated with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of combined ethanol leaf extract of F. capensis and C. aconitifolius respectively. Phenylhydrazine was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.w. for two days to induce anemia in rats. The administration of the extract lasted for 14 days after which the animals were sacrificed and blood obtained through cardiac puncture for kidney and liver biomarkers analyses. Results: Aspartate aminotransferase, Alanine aminotransferase, Alkaline phosphatase, Total bilirubin, Direct bilirubin and Kidney function parameters assayed in the anemic untreated group showed significant increases (p<0.05) compared to the normal rats which may be attributed to toxicity induced by phenylhydrazine. The groups treated with the ethanol extract at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight revealed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the liver function parameters compared to the anemic untreated group. The creatinine and urea levels of the anemic untreated group increased more than the that of the test groups although the increase was not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study suggests that combined ethanol leaf extract of F. capensis and C. aconitifolius is safe and can be effective in the treatment and management of anemia.
 
Aim: Herbs are plants or parts of plants used for their therapeutic, aromatic or savoury values. This work studied the potential sub-chronic toxic effects of Goko and BetaB, two herbal remedies used in treating human diseases and sold in Orumba Local Government Area of Anambra state, Nigeria. Design: Experimental adult Wister female albino rats were divided into five groups (A, B, C, D and E) of five animals per group. The first and second groups received 0.1 ml/kg body weight and 0.2 ml/kg body weight of Goko while the third and fourth groups received 0.1 ml/kg body weight and 0.2 ml/kg body weight of BetaB orally. The control group was given standard feed and clean drinking water only. Administration lasted for 14 days after which the animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and blood samples collected for biochemical assay. Results: The results of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and concentration of serum total bilirubin and albumin showed varying significant (P < 0.05) differences when compared with the control. Conclusion: Result obtained from this study seems to suggest that Goko and BetaB may not be safe for use sub-chronically at high doses.
 
Lactic acid bacteria produce lactic acid as the major end product during sugar fermentation. This study was carried out to isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from pupuru; a staple cassava food. The result of the bacterial count indicated that the count ranges from 3.1 × 104 CFU/g to 8.7 × 104 CFU/g. Base on the Gram reaction, microscopic morphology and biochemical characteristics, the isolated LAB were identified as Pediococcus halophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus fermentum. Analysis of the percentage of occurrence of the lactic acid bacteria indicated that Lactobacillus casei (50.0%) was the most dominant LAB, P. halophilus, Lactobacillus brevis, L. fermentum were least occurring (16.7%). The amylase enzyme index showed that P. halophilus had no enzyme index while L. casei and L. fermentum had enzyme index of 4.00 mm while L. brevis had an enzyme index of 3.00 mm. Of the LAB isolated, only L. casei (0.064 µg/mL) had invertase activity. L. fermentum (0.099 µg/mL) and L. casei (0.08 µg/mL) showed considerable effect in the production of amylase. The result of this study indicated that Lactobacillus brevis, L. casei, and L. fermentum will be a viable addition in the amylase production industries while L. casei could be investigated further for enhancement in enzyme production.
 
Water-soluble vitamin contents of Physalis peruviana L. fruit [15]
Quantitative phytochemical analysis of Physalis peruviana fruit [47]
Antioxidant activity of Physalis peruviana fruit (DPPH method) [15,49]
Biological effects of Physalis peruviana L. calyx and their derivatives, as reported in the literature [54]
Amino acid composition of Physalis peruviana L. byproducts [54,57,61].
In this review, it was emphasized that natural and organic foods have a rich structure in terms of antimicrobial, antioxidant, and vitamin content. Physalis peruviana L., products contain minerals, amino acids, withanolides, flavonoids, and essential fatty acids, thus representing good sources of these compounds. These compounds have protective, regulatory, and nutritional roles in metabolism. Physalis peruviana L. is a wild fruit that has been widely used for centuries, mainly in folk medicine. The fruit and juice of Physalis peruviana L., contain high amounts of vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K1, and many other mineral substances. In addition, the ingredients in Physalis peruviana L., have antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic effects. The available evidence has demonstrated the nutritional value of different products of Physalis peruviana L., suggesting them to be potential candidates for use in the cosmetic industry, in the preparation of functional foods, and phytomedicine for the prevention.
 
Background: Biomphalaria glabrata is an intermediate host for the larvae of Schistosoma mansoni, which is distributed widely in the tropics. B. glabrata control is important to minimize the spread of schistosomiasis and natural compounds have been sought for use against this disease. The Artemia salina bench-top bioassay has been used to investigate the ecotoxicity of many natural compounds, and its results also correlate well with the in vitro cytotoxicity of natural compounds to tumor cells. Aims: To evaluate deleterious effects of the Opuntia ficus-indica lectin (OfiL) on B. glabrata, A. salina and human cancer cell lines. Methods: OfiL was isolated following a previously established protocol. The effects of OfiL on B. glabrata were investigated by determining survival of adults as well as development and hatching of embryos. The concentration required to kill 50% (LC50) of A. salina nauplii was determined. The cytotoxicity was determined using the human cell lines Hep-2 (human larynx epidermoid carcinoma), NCI-H292 (human lung mucoepidermoid carcinoma) and K562 (chronic myelocytic leukemia). Results: The development of most embryos (92.5–97.5%) treated with 1, 10 and 100 µg/mL of OfiL was found to be delayed, and dead (2.2–3.3%) and malformed (0.3–5.2%) embryos were also observed. OfiL did not kill B. glabrata adults, but a high percentage (30–45%) of the embryos generated by snails incubated with the lectin exhibited malformations. OfiL exhibited toxicity against A. salina (LC50: 61.02 µg/mL) but did not display cytotoxicity against the tumor cell lines evaluated. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study showed that OfiL can be a tool for schistosomiasis control that acts by impairing the viability of B. glabrata eggs and the fecundity of adult snails.
 
Diagram showing leaves extracts by decoction
Malaria constitutes one of the biggest health problems in tropical Africa due to the resistance of human malaria parasites to anti-malarial compounds. Research focused on plants used in traditional medicine to treat malaria is still a viable alternative for the creation of novel anti-malarial drugs. This study evaluated extracts from three medicinal plants, Trema orientalis, Cnestis ferruginea and Dialium dinklagei, used in traditional medicine in Côte d’Ivoire, for in vitro antiplasmodial activities. SYBR GREEN fluorescence method was used to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory activity of the extracts, chloroquine, artesunate and quinine against Plasmodium falciparum field isolates and two laboratory strains of Plasmodium falciparum: the chloroquine sensitive 3D7 and the chloroquine resistant Dd2. In comparison to plant extracts, chloroquine, quinine, and artesunate were chosen as reference antimalarials. In addition, the haemolytic activity of extracts showing good antiplasmodial activity was evaluated. The IC50 and the corresponding correlation coefficients were determined graphically, using In vitro Analysis and Reporting Tool (IVART) software of WWARN (Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network). Results showed that no plant was active with the hexanolic extract. Trema orientalis had moderate activity with the methanolic extract with activities ranging from 14.46µg/mL to 28.32µg/mL. Cnestis ferruginea was active with the decoction extracts with activities ranging from 11.78µg/mL to 13.94µg/mL. Dialium dinklagei was active with both methanolic and aqueous extracts ranging from 12.80µg/mL to 21.67µg/mL. There was less than 1% hemolysis at the concentration of 200 µg/mL of plant extracts. These results validate the reported traditional use of Trema orientalis, Cnestis ferruginea and Dialium dinklagei for malaria treatment in Côte d’Ivoire.
 
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are associated with an increase in cardiovascular events despite its uses in the therapeutic agent for the management of long- and short-term pain. Over the last years, evidence has accumulated showing that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative stress is no longer considered as a simple imbalance between the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but as a dysfunction of enzymes involved in ROS production. This study investigated the effect of diclofenac on the activity of oxidative stress enzymes as well as formation of lipid peroxidation. Male rats weighing about 100-120 g were divided into four groups: group one (control, feed+water) group two, group three and group four treated with different mg/kg/day of drugs (50 mg/kg/day, 100 mg/kg/day and 150 mg/kg/day) feed and water respectively for 7 days. Analysis on the effect of diclofenac on the activities of stress enzymes such as nicotine adenosine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogenase oxidase (NADPHoxidase), xanthine oxidase(XOD), catalase(CAT), superoxide dismutase(SOD) and Glutathione Peroxidase as well as evaluation of lipid peroxidation by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) in the heart homogenate were carried out and the result showed a significant increase in each parameter given rise to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) if not moderated by the antioxidant defense can lead to cardiac impairment as a result of oxidative stress damage or injury. The result obtained implies that diclofenac (NSAIDs) affects the redox status of vascular tissues (heart tissues).
 
Phytochemical composition of aqueous and ethanol stem bark extracts of Vitex doniana
Ferric reducing antioxidant power (frap) and (ic 50 ) of aqueous and ethanol stem bark extracts of Vitex doniana
Effects of aqueous and ethanol stem bark extracts of Vitex doniana on enzymic and
Background: Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis, muscular dystrophy, aging and other associated diseases. Vitex doniana is used in Adamawa, northern Nigeria to treat oxidative stress associated diseases. However, the antioxidative effects of the plant have not been scientifically examined in oxidative stress experimental animal models. The aim of this study is to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of aqueous and ethanol stem bark extracts of Vitex doniana in oxidative stress model of rats. Methods: The study used 35 adult albino rats weighing 175 ± 25 g, of which 30 were induced with oxidative stress by intraperitoneal injection of doxorubicin (10 mg/kg) for three consecutive days. Animals were treated by oral administration of silymarin (100 mg/kg) and Vitex doniana aqueous or ethanol extract (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days before they were sacrificed on the 15th day and blood was analyzed for biochemical indices of oxidative stress. Results: The results of the phytochemistry showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, phenols, saponins, terpenoids, glycosides: and total flavonoids (52.70 ± 1.60 mg/ml and 75.40 ± 0.80 mg/ml), total phenols (21.45 ± 1.54 mg/ml and 26.50 ± 1.22 mg/ml) for aqueous and ethanol stem bark extracts respectively. The extracts scavenged DPPH radical, reduced Fe3+ and inhibited lipid peroxidation. Doxorubicin significantly (p<0.05) lowered the levels of SOD, CAT, GR and TAS and significantly (p<0.05) but, increased the level of LPO. Oral treatment with Vitex doniana extracts significantly (p<0.05) increased the activities of CAT, GR, SOD and TAS while LPO was significantly (p<0.05) lowered. Vitex doniana stem bark extracts significantly (p<0.05) improved the biochemical derangements observed in the induced untreated animals in comparable manner to that of Silymarin. Conclusion: The present study provides the scientific rationale for the use of Vitex doniana stem bark in traditional medicine and has a viable antioxidative capacity both in vitro and in vivo.
 
Maize and sorghum are staple foods in many African countries. Along with rice, they constitute the bulk of the cereals consumed by the populations of northern Côte d'Ivoire. These cereals are used either directly or indirectly in malted and/or fermented form in the preparation of several traditional foods and the production of alcoholic beverages such as dolo a local beverage. This study aims at the physicochemical characterization and the determination of the effect of temperature on the amylase activities of germinated cereal grains of corn and sorghum collected on the market of the city of Korhogo. To do this, the analysis of cereals germinated over 6 days revealed that amylase activities are optimal on the second day of germination with a diastatic power of 110.29 ± 1.8 IU / g of protein and 114.17 ± 2, 4 IU/g of protein respectively for sorghum and maize. The optimal temperatures are mesophilic and are between 40 and 50°C. Beyond these temperatures, amylase activities are denatured until they reach 20% relative activity after exposure to 65°C. During germinationsand at an acid pH, the levels of reducing sugars, polyphenols and tannins increased with the duration of germination. The results of this study revealed that certain physicochemical characteristics and the effect of temperature condition the obtaining of a malt likely to influence the quality of a traditional beer. The germination time set at 2 days makes it possible to obtain fermentable sugars during malting for the preparation of alcoholic beverages according to the production conditions of traditional vendors. For sugars, they increase from 0.39±0.035 mg/100g DM (Dry Matter) before germination to 0.86± 0.003 mg/100g DM on the 6th day of germination for sorghum. As for maize, these levels increase from 0.11± 0.014 mg/100g DM to 0.43± 0.02 mg/100g DM. The diastatic power is optimal on the 2nd day, 110.29 ± 1.8 IU/g of protein for sorghum and 114.17 ± 2.4 IU/g of protein for maize.
 
Lead (Pb) is one of the environmental pollutants. There has been a serious concern in the recent past regarding natural source for protection or curing from lead. The aim of the present study is evaluation and comparing of mulberry leaves and fruits extracts in protection from lead toxicity on the brain and testes of rats, as well as determination of their chemical activity and anticancer effect on hepatocarcinoma (HEPG2) and colon cancer cell line (HTC). Leaves extract showed higher results than fruits extract in total phenols, total flavonoids and antioxidant activities in both radical scavenging activity (DPPH) and ferric reducing power tests (FRAP). Leaves and fruits extracts exerts almost have the same killing effect on (HEPG2). Leaves extract has slight better killing power on (HTC) than fruits extract. In the experiment on rats; leaves showed more efficiency in a time dependent manner in ameliorating the harmful effect of lead on blood parameter like white and red blood cells, hemoglobin, cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. Both leaves and fruits extracts have protective effect from injury induced by lead on tissues of rat testes, however, they showed little protective effect on brain tissue. In conclusion, mulberry leaves and fruits have considerable active compounds and antioxidant properties which are useful as anticancer agents. Moreover they showed protective effect against lead toxicity which induced anemia, metabolic disorder and tissue injury.
 
Effects of daily administration of aqueous extract of stem
Background: The use of herbal medicines for treating ailments is rampant in recent years, and the toxicity implications of various plant preparations are sparingly reported. We investigated the potential effect of daily administration of aqueous extract of stem-bark of cashew tree on the liver and kidney status of rats. Methods: Rats were divided into 4 groups as follows: control rats received 1 mL of distilled water, G1 received 100 mg/kg, G2 received 200 mg/kg, while G3 received 400 mg/kg body weight of the extract for 28 consecutive days. The tissue homogenate supernatants were analysed for liver enzymes-alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and kidney function indices- urea and creatinine. Results: In comparison to control, total protein increased significantly (P< 0.05) at 400 mg/kg extract, whereas albumin level significantly decreased (P<0.05) in rats treated with extract. .Activities of AST, ALP and GGT increased markedly (P< 0.05) at 400 mg/kg, whereas a significant decrease was observed in bilirubin level when compared with the control. Levels of urea and creatinine in kidney tissue were significantly higher in extract-treated rats compared to control. Conclusion: The findings suggest that the extract dose at 400 mg/kg may cause alterations with toxic implications in the liver and kidney of rats.
 
Leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (LAM-1), CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1) and CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1) are adhesion molecules and constitute important steps in the liver inflammation due to chronic hepatitis C. We measured soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (LAM-1), (LFA-1) and (Mac-1) as well as cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in the serum of 120 patients with fibrosis. A study was carried out to analyze levels of LAM-1, LFA-1 and Mac-1in fibrotic patients, and find whether increasing with cholesterol and triglycerides. 120 serum samples from fibrotic patients were classified according to levels of Cholesterol and Triglycerides concentration into four groups. Positive LAM-1 samples were found in 90% of patients in first group, 83% in the second group, 73% in the third group and 46% in the fourth group. These levels were significantly higher than their levels in control group (p<0.0001) indicating extremely significant. Level of LAM-1in group (1) was extremely significant compared to group (4) (356 ± 70.5 vs. 209± 5 p < 0.0001 ES). High LFA-1level was found in 76% in first group, 73% in the second group, 70% in the third group, and 40% in the fourth group. The levels of MAC-1 in first group were significantly greater than their levels in control group (p<0.0001), and +ve MAC-1 samples were found in 66% in first group, 53% in the second group, 46% in third group, and 36% in fourth group. AST and ALT were significantly higher in first group, compared to healthy group (95.68 ± 33.32 vs. 31.77 ± 8.11, p < 0.001) for AST and (78.6 ± 29.86 vs. 28.55 ± 7.15 p < 0.001) for ALT indicating very significant relationship, while no significant was detected between the fourth group and healthy individuals (33.56±8.16 vs. 28.55 ± 7.15 p = 0.05 NS). Our study showed a significant increase in levels of LAM-1 and LFA-1 rather than MAC-1 in fibrosis compared to healthy individuals. The results showed the ability to circulate LAM-1 and LFA-1 to predict fibrosis disease and evaluated the relationship between circulating adhesion molecules and fibrotic patients.
 
Aim: Kunun-zaki (KZ) is a highly refreshing local beverage that is commonly consumed both in urban and rural areas. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of KZ on lipid profile and other markers of cardio-vascular risks in Wistar rats. Methods: Fourteen adult male Wistar rats (mean weight of 150 g) used for the study were randomly divided into 2 groups (Groups A & B) of 7 rats each. The experimental rats in Group A and B were administered daily with 5 mL of distilled water and kunun zaki respectively for a period of 2 weeks. All experimental animals were allowed access to standard feed and water ad libitum. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein- cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C), and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) using standard biochemical methods. The body mass index (BMI), atherogenic index, and adiposity index were also determined. Liver, kidney and heart were harvested and weighed to determine organ weights. The results were statistically analyzed using Student’s 't’test and by Pearson’s correlation coefficient. All values were presented as mean ± standard error of mean. P< 0.05 was considered significant. Results: While TC, LDL-C, HDL-C concentrations were not significantly different, both TG and VLDL-C concentrations in KZ administered rats were significantly higher compared with control. BMI, antherogenic index and adiposity were not significantly different also when both groups were compared. Conclusion: the results of the study indicate that kunun-zaki does cause modulatory elevation in lipid profile.
 
Introduction: Food is a basic requirement for the survival of living organisms, and is also necessary for growth, development, replacement and repairs of worn-out tissues, as well as energy production for various body functions, among others. Aim: Current study investigated the histo-architectural and biochemical changes in the liver due to prolonged consumption of instant noodles by Wistar rats. Methods: Fifty (50) adult Wistar rats of an average weight of 200 g were procured for the study. Following two weeks of acclimatization, the animals were randomly assigned into five (5) groups (A, B, C, D and E) of ten (10) rats each. Group A received cooked instant noodle (Type A) only; whereas, group B rats were fed with cooked instant noodles with its spice. Group C received cooked instant noodles (type B) only. Group D received cooked instant noodles type B with its spice while group E were fed with grower marsh (control). After thirty (30) days of administration of test substances, rats were sacrifice by cervical dislocation and liver tissue obtained for histological technique and bioassay of selected antioxidant enzyme levels [Catalase, Malonyldialdehyde (MDA), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide Dismutase (SOD)]. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 21) to evaluate the result obtained. Histological section of liver of the treated animals showed cellular degenerative changes, hypertrophy, hepatic steatosis and mild fibrosis which were sparsely distributed as compared to the control group. Results: Biochemical assay of oxidative stress markers revealed that MDA levels were significantly (p < 0.05) increased in all treated liver groups as compared with the parallel control animals. Concomitantly, the levels of SOD levels were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in the treated liver groups as compared with the control. Conclusion: Thus, long consumption of instant noodles exert toxic effects by promoting oxidative stress in the liver tissue of adult Wistar rats. Recommendation: Further study aimed at corroborating these findings should be carried out.
 
Effect of extract of OG and finasteride body weight, prostate gland weight and protein content
Background: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a histological disease characterised by an increased number of epithelial cells and stromal cells within the prostate gland. We investigated the effect of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum on BPH induced animal model. Methods: BPH was induced in male rats weighing 250-350 g through exogenous administration of testosterone and estradiol. A total of 30 rats were divided into five groups. One group was used as a control, and the other groups received subcutaneous injections of the two hormones. Groups 1 to 2 were treated orally with different doses of extract and group 3 received finasteride, group 4 was left untreated, and group 5 served as normal control. After forty-five days of treatment with the extract, the animals were sacrificed blood collected through cardiac puncture for biochemical analysis. The prostate glands were harvested and processed for paraffin embedding and stained with H and E. Results: Treatment with the extract and finasteride resulted in significant (P < 0.05) decrease in prostate-specific antigen (PSA), estradiol and prolactin and testosterone when compared to BPH control. Also, there was a significant increase in the protein content of the prostate gland when compared to BPH control. Prostate weight was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in treated groups compared to BPH control. This was supported by the histological examination of the prostate gland. Conclusion: Therefore, Ocimum gratissimum was effective in reducing PSA, prolactin, testosterone, estradiol and prostate weight induced BPH in a rat model, and may be useful for the clinical treatment of patients with BPH.
 
Mean value ± standard deviation (g/L) of lipid parameters of the 40 subjects during three months of daily consumption of one seed of Garcinia kola, Parakou, 2019
Background: Many studies have reported the lipid-lowering effect of the Garcinia kola seed in experimental animals. Objective: Assessing the effect of daily intake of Garcinia kola seed on serum lipids in adult subjects. Methods: This research work was an intervention study based on a quasi-experimental approach carried out over a three-month period i.e. from May 1 to July 30, 2019. The study sample consisted of 40 adult subjects (18 men and 22 women) who gave their written informed consent to participate to in the study. After receiving required information, each subject underwent a baseline lipid test consisting of total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides. Then, each subject consumed every day one Garcinia kola seed during 90 days. Every 30 days, a lipid test was performed. TC, HDL-C and triglycerides were determined using end-point colometric enzyme assay. LDL-C was estimated using the formula of Friedewald. Student’s t test helped compare the mean values of lipid parameters at the beginning and at the end of the experiment at the threshold of 5%. Results: At the beginning and at the end of the experiment, the mean values in g/L of TC (1.68±0.35 vs 1.60±0.31), HDL-C (0.53±0.13 vs 0.51±0.14), LDL-C (0.97±0.36 vs 0.94±0.34) and triglycerides (0.91±0.50 vs 0.72±0.33) were not significantly different (p > 0.05). However, we noted a downward trend in those values over time during the experiment. Conclusion: The daily consumption of Garcinia kola seed improves serum lipid profile. The use of that seed is a potential alternative to the conventional treatment of dyslipidemia.
 
Variation of the percentage inhibition of DPPH according to the different extracts tested Ethanolic extract of the fruit and peduncle (EAF and EEF) : C1 = 0.13 mg/ml; C2 = 0.2 mg/ml; C3 = 0. mg/ml; C4 = 0.45 mg/ml; C5 = 1 mg/ml. Vitamin C (Vit C) : C1 = 0.013 mg/ml; C2 = 0.02 mg/ml; C3 = 0.03 mg/ml; C4 = 0.045 mg/ml; C5 = 0.067 mg/ml
Background: The use of plants for healing dates back to very remote times. Nowadays with the accession of new diseases plants are increasingly used for the formulation of new drugs able to overcome the many diseases (cancer, atherosclerosis) often caused by the disorder of the system prooxidant/antioxidant. Aim/Objective: On the strength of this observation, the research of an antioxidant plant is essential, hence the aim of this study, which is to determine the antioxidant activity of the stalk and the fruit of Solanum aethiopicum L. Methods: The fruits and stalk were washed, cut into fine slats, then dried in the incubator for three days and finally crushed into powder. An extraction by decoction with ethanol (stalks and fruits) and water (fruit) was subsequently carried out to obtain three extracts (ethanol and water). Antioxidant activity was evaluated through the FRAP method, and the trapping of radical DPPH. Results: For the FRAP method, at the highest concentration (1 mg/ml) the aqueous extract of the fruit (74.84±2.97%) has a higher reducing power compared to those of the ethanolic extracts of the fruit (70.15 ± 5.72%) and the stalk (49.85 ± 2.11%). These reducing powers, although significant, remain lower than those of tannic acid (89.95±0.007%). And finally, for the DPPH method, the aqueous extract of the fruit is more effective in reducing free radical DPPH with a IC50= 162±33 µg/ml, follow up by ethanol extract from the stalk (IC50= 360± 90 µg/ml) and finally ethanol extract from the fruit (IC50= 362.5± 23.5 µg/ml). These results confirm the in vitro antioxidant activity of the studied parts of Solanum aethiopicum. Conclusion: Prospective studies could focus on acute and subacute toxicities and the determination of the molecules responsible for the activity.
 
Background: Plant seeds are rich in nutrients and antinutrients which interfere with bioavailability of minerals. Objective: This research was aimed at evaluating the proximate, anti-nutrients and minerals compositions and estimation of relative mineral bioavailability of Aframomum danielli seed (Ataiko). Methods: Proximate composition was assessed by AOAC methods, minerals by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and anti-nutrients by titrimetric methods. Results: Proximate compositions in percentage revealed carbohydrate with (51.95±0.15), crude fibre (16.00±0.10) and fat (2.35±0.15) was least. Caloric value (kcal 100 g) was 286.55±2.75 Phytate (1.98±0.03%) was higher than oxalate (0.06±0.00%). Major mineral percentage included phosphorus (7401.43 ± 318.24) and sulphur (1926.58 ± 21.49), minor minerals were in trace amounts. Molar ratios of phytate: Fe, Zn and Ca and oxalate:Ca were above their critical values. Conclusion: A. daneilli seed is rich in nutrients, has high caloric value. High intake could lead to micronutrient malnutrition.
 
Chemical groups in essential oils of (mean ± standard deviation, n=3)
Chemical groups in essential oils of Aframomum danelli seed (Ataiko) (mean ± standard deviation, n=3)
Background: Differentiation in oil quality and the volatile component of essential oils (EOs) is associated with climatic conditions, the geographical location of collection sites and other ecological and genetic factors defining its chemotypes. Objective: Hence this study was aimed at characterizing volatile constituents of Aframomum danielli seed collected in Choba, Port Harcourt in Rivers State, South-South region of Nigeria. Methods: Essential oils (EOs) were analyzed using gas chromatography–flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Results: A total of forty-two EO (99.96%) constituents were identified, monoterpenes were 32 (99.93%) and sesquiterpenes: 10 (0.03%) No oxygenated sesquiterpenes were detected. Oxygenated monoterpene was higher consisting of 18 EO compounds; 66.94% while monoterpene hydrocarbons comprised of 14 EO compounds; 32.99%. Chemical constituents in the EO include: 1,8- cineole (50.95%), β-pinene (11.79%) –terpineol (9.15%), γ –terpinene (7.45%), Sabinene (6.03%), - pinene (3.41%), α –terpinenly acetate (3.38%), terpinene-4-of(2.44%) and α-thujene (2.11%). Conclusion: Aframomum danielli from this geographical location could serve as a rich source of 1,8- cineole.
 
Concentration of potentially toxic elements in soil before farming
Concentration of potentially toxic elements in soil after farming
This study investigated the concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb) in African Giant Land Snail (AGLS) treated with different soil samples dumpsite (A), mining site (B) and control soil (C) (a reserve area where no activities) use in farming AGLS and also to ascertain if they are within permissible limits and its ecological risk assessment on the consumption. Soil samples; at site A, B and C was collected at 0-30 cm depth with the aid of soil auger and were used for AGLS farming, to ascertain whether the potentially toxic elements (PTEs) concentration were within the permissible limits and their ecological risk assessment on AGLS consumption. A total of 54 juvenile snails of similar weights was used for the study. The experiment lasted for six month (182 days), during which the snails were subjected to similar dietary reign and equal quantity of feed. Snail’s morphological characteristics such as Weight, length and diameter of its shell were measured after farming. The soil samples were analysed for PTEs before and after farming, and snail were also analyzed for PTEs after farming for six month using atomic absorptions spectrophotometer (AAS). The ecological health risk from the consumption of these snails was assessed using standard methods and formulas. The result of different soil before and after farming shows a significant different (P<0.05) between the activities sites (dump and mining) and the control site. The concentration of PTEs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, and Pb) in snails treated with dump site soil were 3.05, 3.89, 3.60, 2.89, 3.98, and 2.55 mg/kg, and snails treated with mining site soil recorded 2.73, 2.74, 3.91, 4.96, 2.88 and 4.82 mg/kg. The values were greater than the maximum permissible limit of 0.5, 2.0, 0.3, 0.04, 0.1 and 0.1 mg/kg respectively recommended by FAO/WHO compared to the control. The study concludes that snail bioaccumulate toxic elements from the soil used in rearing them which is deleterious to humans when consumed. Also the DIM, HQ, HI on the consumption of snail reared with dumpsite, mining site soils are nearly free of risks, but continuous consumption can lead to bioaccumulation in the food chain.
 
Effect of african locust bean on sex hormones of potassium bromate-induced male rats
Background: African locust bean is used for medicinal purposes in African countries for the treatment of various diseases. However, no study has reported its ameliorative effect on sex hormones perturbations. This study, therefore, sought to investigate its preventive effect against potassium bromate-induced perturbation of sex hormones. Methodology: African locust bean was extracted with soxhlet extractor with ethanol as the solvent. Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were acclimatized under laboratory conditions and were randomly grouped into A, B, C and D. Group A was given distilled water orally. Animals in groups B, C and D were administered 100 mg/kg body weight of potassium bromate, but groups C and D were also treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of African locust bean respectively. Both potassium bromate and African locust bean were freshly prepared on daily basis and administered to rats by oral gavage. After 28 days of treatment, the animals were sacrificed under mild diethyl ether anaesthetization 24 hours after cessation of last treatment and blood was collected through cardiac puncture. Results: Analyses showed that KBrO3 significantly reduced the levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone but elevated the levels of prolactin and estradiol when compared with those in the control group. However, groups treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of African locust bean in conjunction with KBrO3 resisted these perturbations. Conclusion: In this study potassium bromate increased the levels of estradiol which has been known to inhibit sex hormones. This effect of estradiol on sex hormones; LH, FSH and testosterone is further evidenced by the results of this study. The potential benefit of the African locust bean in the amelioration of perturbation of sex hormones is brought to the fore by the findings of this research.
 
Hyperglycaemia, a characteristic feature of diabetics mellitus leads to decreased antioxidant defense and hence the development of oxidative stress, which is involved in the aetiology of development of diabetic complications. This work was therefore aimed at evaluating the anti diabetic and antioxidative potential of the plant. These evidences suggest that good glycemic control and/or use of antioxidants may play an important role in the prevention of complications associated with diabetes. Diabetes was induced with single Intra peritoneal injection of alloxan (160 mg/kg b.w) dissolved in freshly prepared citrate buffer (pH 4.5). Oral administration of Kingelia africana (500 mg/kg b.wt) of methanol leaves and fruits extracts resulted in significant (p>0.05) decrease in the blood glucose level, MDA, glycosylated haemoglobin, lipid profiles and liver maker enzymes with corresponding increase in SOD activity, catalase activity, glutathione activity, serum protein concentration, and Vit.C concentration. In conclusion, K. africana possessed antioxidative properties evidenced by decrease blood glucose level and its effect on some oxidative parameters of diabetic rats.
 
Heterocyclic compounds have a large spectrum of biological activities including antitumor activity. The present study describes the cytotoxic effect of newly synthesized thiazole derivative (TD2) that can prove effective antitumor activity on both in vivo and in vitro studies. Objective: the essential objective of this research is to prove the cytotoxic effect of newly synthesized thiazole derivative (TD2) up on EAC bearing mice and many kinds of human cell lines. Materials and Methods: Antitumor activity of TD2 was examined on EAC in Swiss albino Mice at dose of 2.5 mg/kg. TD2 was injected for 10 following days after transplantation of tumor. After one day of last dose and 18 hours of fasting, 7 Mice were sacrificed and the remaining was kept to evaluate ILS %. Antitumor activity of TD2 was assessed by inspecting tumor volume, tumor weight, viable cell count and nonviable cell count, hematological, biochemical and antioxidant parameters of mice. Results: TD2 demonstrated an inhibitory effect on both cancer cell lines in vitro and Ehrlich ascites cells in vivo.TD2 increased in life span of Ehrlich–bearing mice compared to control. Cell cycle and flow cytometric analysis revealed that TD2 directed Ehrlich cells toward apoptosis by increasing of P53 expression. Conclusion: It was concluded that TD2 have a potent antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice beside a cytotoxic effect on MCF-7, PC3, HepG2 and HCT-116.
 
Aims: The present study aimed to elucidate the protective role of L-Arginine on lead – induced suppression of the pathway of heme synthesis and the toxicity of lead on testis. Methodology: The current study included two experiments; the first was carried out on two groups to follow up the changes that could occur in iron status and reproductive system of male rats because of the lead exposure. The second experiment, three comparisons were made between three groups of rats with lead treatment only and other three groups rats with lead treatment followed by additional of daily injection of L-Arginine intraperitoneal about 500 mg L-Arginine / kg.b.wt. / day for 10, 20 and 30 days after the end of lead treatment. Results: Lead significantly abolished heme synthesis presented by decrease in Hb, Fe and ceruloplasmin (Cp) and elevation in total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and serum ferritin. Furthermore, testosterone (total and free) significantly decreased after rats treated with 1% lead acetate while, estradiol (E2) and acid phosphatase (total and prostatic) were elevated. The concentration of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphat (DHEA-S) did not change after lead treatment. Conclusion: Daily treatment with 500 mg L-Arginine/kg body weight prevented the suppressive effects of lead on hematological parameters and testicular functions. The mechanism of L-Arginine action on lead induced changes was attributed to protection of antioxidant capacity in cells in addition to the ability of L-Arginine to scavenge free radicals and acts as cell membrane stabilizer.
 
Neurodegeneration include disease of the central nervous system (CNS) such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). The sign of this disease include destruction of dopaminergic neuronal cells. Main causes of this disease are unknown, but several studies reported polygenic causes. These include free radicals, malfunction of mitochondria, protein oxidation and DNA denaturation. Several reports implicated the involvement of oxygen species and stresses cause by over accumulation of reactive oxygen species in the contribution to the cascade that resulted in diminishing of dopamine cells destruction in this disease. Generally, natural defensive substances such as bio-cartelized (proteineous and non proteineous) from natural or synthetic sources played a unique role in protecting the susceptible neuronal cells from the adverse effects of the reactive oxygen species. In most cases antioxidant enzyme production by the body system diminished with advance age. Hence, treatment with antioxidant potential agent or administration of antioxidant substance with the common drugs used in the treatment of PD may yield positive result in protecting neurons from degenerative changes caused by reactive oxygen species. Recent studies on the therapeutic and prophylactic effect of some agents on experimental induced PD summarized in this review paper.
 
This study aims to study the in-vivo anticancer effect of the synthesized copper complexes of 2,3-dihydroxy benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3a,b), followed by evaluating their antioxidant activity. Materials and methods: A total number of 80 adult female swiss albino mice weighing 20-25 gm were divided into 8 groups (10 mice /each group). The acute toxicity was estimated by intraperitoneal injection of the compounds (3a, b). Results: We found that, 5 mg /kg and 10 mg /kg were considered to be the most effective dose of compounds 3a & 3b, respectively. The mean volume of EAC in the positive control group was found to be 4.2 ±0.5 (mL), this value was significantly decreased by 100%, (p<0.001) for 3a & 3b treated groups, respectively.
 
Background: Coumarin derivatives have attracted intense interest in recent years, because they have anti-tumor, antioxidant activities, and induce apoptosis. Aims and Objective: Our study aims to evaluate the antitumor and anti-oxidant activities of new Coumarin derivatives: N-(P-chlorophenyl)-7-hydroxycoumarin-3-yl carboxamide and Ethyl 7-hydroxycoumarin-3-yl ester against in vivo tumor model. Methodology: the toxicity for the synthesized compounds was determined. The anticancer and anti-oxidant activities were studied by evaluation the viability of tumor cells, life span prolongation, and estimation of antioxidants. Results: Our compounds exhibited significant anti-oxidant activity towards Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells by reduction the MDA and NO concentration (p<0.001) compared to the positive control group. Whereas significantly increase in the G. peroxidase activity (p<0.001) in treated groups compared to the positive control group. Anticancer agent kills tumors by induction of apoptosis that showing significantly increases in Caspase-3 and Bax activity compared to positive control group. Discussion: The compound N-(P-chlorophenyl)-7-hydroxycoumarin-3-yl carboxamide is better than Ethyl 7-hydroxycoumarin-3-yl ester compound because of the nature of the halogen atom (a chlorine or a bromine atom) in the ‘meta’ position of the phenyl ring relative to the ester oxygen atom of 2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran- 3-carboxylate led to a better anti-tumor effect than that observed in the absence of any substituent.
 
This study aims to synthesis of copper complexes of 2,3-dihydroxy benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3a,b), followed by evaluating their in vitro anticancer properties. The prepared compounds have been also evaluated for their ability to induce apoptosis. A total number of 80 adult female Swiss albino mice weighing 20-25 gm were divided randomly into 8 groups (10 mice /each group). The in vitro cytotoxic activities of compounds (3a, 3b) were evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of synthesized compound 3a were found to be 50 μg/mL against MCF-7, HepG2 and PC3 cell lines; also, Minimum inhibitory concentrations of synthesized compound 3b were found to be 50 μg/mL in all cell lines. The apoptotic effect of compounds 3a and 3b were evaluated by measurement Caspase-3 activity and Bcl-2 concentration. The mean values of Caspase-3 activity in positive control were found to be 2.6151 (ng/mL). On the other hand, the mean values of Bcl-2 in positive control were found to be 3.7 (ng/mL). The compounds (3a & 3b) exhibited a significant anticancer activity towards MCF-7, HEPG2 and PC3 cancer cell lines.
 
Background: Coumarin and thiazole derivatives have been used traditionally for many centuries. Because they have anti-tumor, antioxidant activities, and induced apoptosis. Aim: The present study aims to investigate the in vivo antitumor, and antioxidant activities of potassium salt of 5-(4 -chlorophenyl)-2-[(7-hydroxy coumarin-3-ylethylidene) acetyl hydrazine]-1,3 thiazole (5a) and 5-(4 -chlorophenyl)-2-[(8-hydroxy coumarin-3-ylethylidene) acetyl hydrazine]-1,3 thiazole (5b). Materials and Methods: Toxicity has been determined for the synthesized compound. Anti-cancer and anti-oxidant activities were studied through the evaluation of tumor cell viability, lifespan prolongation and antioxidant estimation. Results: Doses of up to 500 mg/kg showed good protection in 5a and 5b compounds. Results of in vivo anti-tumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells for the compounds studied showed a significant reduction in the volume and number of ascites. And increased in life span. In therapeutic and preventive groups, compounds 5a and 5b have anti-oxidant properties by a significant decrease in malondialdehyde and significant increased catalase and GSH. Also, compounds 5a and 5b induced apoptosis by increase Caspase-3 and BCL-2 associated protein (BAX), Compared to the group of positive controls. Conclusion: It was concluded that compounds 5a and 5b have a potent antitumor and antioxidant activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice.
 
Level of some liver function enzymes in P. falciparum patients and control subjects
Objective: This study is to determine the changes in liver function enzymes in P. falciparum-infected patients in Ajeromi ifelodun area of Lagos, Nigeria by examining changes in some liver enzymes: Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) obtained from newly diagnosed cases of malarial infection yet to be treated. Study Design: Seventy (70) human subjects comprising of 50 P. falciparum malarial infected and 20 non-infected (control) subjects between 10-60 years were selected for this study. Malaria positive subjects were divided into three groups based on the number of parasite per μl. Those that had parasitaemia below 10,000 parasites per μl were considered a mild infection, those that had parasitaemia above 10,000 parasites per μl were considered severe infections and those with parasitaemia below 1,000 parasites per μl were considered a low infection. RDT test and microscopy was carried out to ascertain the presence of P.falciparum. They were grouped based on age group, sex and level of parasitaemia. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected for the determination of P. falciparum, level of parasitaemia and liver function enzymes Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP). P. falciparum was determined by Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) and microscopy. Results: There was a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the mean level of serum Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT) and a significant decrease in the mean level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the P. falciparum-infected patients compared to the control subjects. AST level was found to be significantly higher (P<0.001) among age group (51- above) in the P. falciparum patients and significantly lower among age group (10-20) in the control subjects when compared to other age groups. ALT level was significantly higher (P < 0.001) among age group (51- above) in the P. falciparum patients and significantly lower among age group (41-50) in the control subjects when compared to other age groups. ALP level was significantly higher (P < 0.001) among age group (41-50) in the P. falciparum patients and significantly lower among age group (10-20) in the control subjects when compared to other age groups. AST and ALT were found to be significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the high parasitaemia group when compared to the low and moderate parasitaemia group and they were also significantly higher in the moderate parasitaemia group than in the low parasitaemia group.ALP was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the moderate parasitaemia group when compared to the low and high parasitaemia group and they were only marginally lower in the high than in the low parasitaemia group. Conclusion: There was an elevated level of liver function enzymes in the P. falciparum patients than in the control subjects. This study shows that high parasitaemic patients are at greater risk of hepatic damage than the low parasitaemic group, hence early diagnosis and treatment of malaria are highly encouraged.
 
β-amylase (E.C.3.2.1.2) is a starch hydrolyzing enzyme fondly used in foods, pharmaceuticals, and brewing industries to convert starch into maltose. The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical, kinetic, and thermodynamic properties, as well as the potential industrial use of β-amylase from Dioscorea alata L. Studying the enzyme stability with Arrhenius methods, showed that the enzyme was stable at a temperature range of 20–500C, and had good pH stability by retaining over 50 % of its initial activity over a wide range of pH from 4 – 8 and kinetic stability by increasing the half-life of the enzyme. The activation energy (Ea) for catalysis by water yam β-amylase at 250C was 6.45kcal/mol. The activation energy (Ea), half-life, free energy change (ΔG‡), enthalpy change (ΔH‡), and entropy change (ΔS‡) for inactivation at optimum temperature (400C) and pH 5 were 13.92 kcal/mol, 41.25 min, 20.89 kcal/mol, 13.30 kcal/mol and -24.25 cal/mol/K respectively. Km and Vmax values were reduced from 2.25 to 2.13mg/ml and 2.95 to 1.48 µmol/min/ml respectively. The optimum pH shifted from 5 to 6, while the Optimum temperature increased from 40 to 500C after immobilization. Enzyme retained up to 67 % activity after 5 cycles. The enzyme would be of importance in manufacturing companies based on the kinetics and application features reported in this study since it is a cheap and readily available source.
 
Comparative study on effect of Chrysophyllum albidum medicinal plant from crude oil polluted and non-crude oil polluted areas on selected biochemical parameters in rats was evaluated. Leaves of C. albidium were collected from a botanical garden (non-crude oil polluted site) and Okrika (crude oil polluted site), and studied. The leaves passed for heavy metals analyses and heavy metals such as mercury (0.38 ±0.07 mg/100 g), lead (3.06±0.40 mg/100 g), cadmium (0.09±0.00 mg/100 g), copper (1.00±0.18 mg/100 g), chromium (0.23±0.01 mg/100 g), and cobalt (4.90±1.22 mg/100 g) were observed in leaves of C. albidum from crude oil polluted area. Rats placed on compounded feed of C. albidium leaves from crude oil polluted area revealed marked degeneration in haematological indices, liver enzymes, urea and creatinine of the kidney. These observed degeneration could be linked to toxicity of the heavy metals found in the leaves of C. albidum from crude oil polluted area since leaves of C. albidum are known to have medicinal potency that could protect the integrity of internal organs and tissues. There is need to properly inform those who rely on medicinal plants from crude oil polluted areas of the possible dangers such may pose in the body. This study has evaluated the comparative effect of C. albidum medicinal plant from crude oil polluted and non-crude oil polluted areas on selected biochemical parameters in rats.
 
Aim: This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of methanol extract of Napoleonae imperialis leaves against methotrexate renal damage in albino rats. Methodology: Thirty (30) male albino rats of mean weight 130 g were used for this study. The animals for the study were grouped into five (5) of six (6) rats each. Group A (normal control) received feed and water only and Group B (positive control) was induced with methotrexate without treatment. Test groups (C and D) were orally given 250 mg and 500 mg/kg b.wt of leaves extract, and group E was orally given the extract only (500 mg/kg b.wt) respectively for 14 days. All the rats used in this study were initially subjected to renal damage using 0.5 ml/kg of methotrexate except the normal control group. The rats were sacrificed after 14 days and the blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis, Results: From the result obtained, there was a significant (p< 0.05) decrease in the groups that received 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg b.wt of the plant extract in (Urea, Creatinine and Na+), and a significant increase (p< 0.05) in K+ and Cl-. Also there was a significant (p< 0.05) decrease in (Urea, Creatinine, and Na+) in comparison with the control groups and the group that received the extract only (500 mg/kg b.wt), and a significant increase (p< 0.05) in (K+ and Na+). Conclusion: The study indicates that the methanol extract of Napoleonae imperialis leaves may have exerted renal functioning effects in albino rats, and may also be used pharmacologically in the management of organ toxicity.
 
The effects of Kerosene, gasoline, and liquefied petroleum gas and biomass fuel exposure on biomarkers of kidney and liver were investigated in male wistar rats. Fifty adult male wistar rats were randomly assigned to five groups of ten animals each. Rats in group A served as control (exposed to fresh air). Group B, C, D and E were exposed to inhalation of kerosene, gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas and biomass fuel (wood smoke) respectively. All the exposures were done using whole body exposure chambers 70 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm measurement for six weeks, 6 days per week. Five millilitres of blood sample were collected and serum extracted at the end of six weeks. The serum concentration of urea, creatinine, uric acid and activities AST, ALT, γGT were determined using Cobas reagent kits manufactured by Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Sandhofer Strasse 116, D-68305 Mannheim, Germany. Values were analysed statistically using SPSS version 23.0. The result shows significant increase in the serum levels of urea, creatinine and uric acid of test groups relative to control (p<0.05), though the effect appear to be more pronounced with exposure to kerosene, gasoline and biomass fuel. The exposure also led to significant increase in activities of AST, ALT and γGT (p<0.05). These results suggest that repeated exposure to kerosene, gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas and biomass fumes may elicit hepatic and renal toxicity, thereby impairing the normal liver and kidney function.
 
The protective effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Ipomoea biloba in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiotoxicity and the antioxidant activity involved in this protection were investigated in rats. Myocardial infraction was produced in rats with 20 mg/kg b.wt of ISO administered subcutaneously twice at an interval of 24 h. Effect of EEIB oral treatment for 28 days at two doses (100 mg and 200 mg/kg body weight) was evaluated against ISO – induced cardiac necrosis. Level of enzymatic (SOD, CAT, GPx and GST), non-enzymatic (GSH, Vitamin C and E) and of membrane bound ATPases (Na+K+ATPase, Mg2+ATPase and Ca2+ATPase) were assayed in heart homogenate. Significant myocardial infarction, depletion of endogenous antioxidants enzymatic and non-enzymatic were observed in ISO-treated animals when compared with the normal animals. Rats induced with ISO, showed a significant (P<0.05), decrease in the activities of GSH, Vitamin C and Eon comparison with normal rats. EEIB elicited a significant cardioprotective activity by elevated the levels of GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx and GR. A significant decrease in the activity of Na+/K+ ATPase and a corresponding increase in the activities of Ca2+ ATPase and Mg2+ ATPase were observed in isoproterenol induced rats when compared to normal control rats. Pretreatment with EEIB was able to efficiently prevent the increase in activity of Mg2+ ATPase and maintain the activities of Na+ /K+ ATPase and Ca2+ ATPase at near normality. There is no significant difference between the control and plant alone treated rats. The aim of this investigation is to evaluate the antioxidant effects on the main cardioprotective activity of ethanolic leaf extract Ipomoea biloba.
 
Aim: This study was aimed at investigating the effect of methanol extract of Napoleonae imperialis leaves against methotrexate renal histology in albino rats. Methodology: Thirty (30) male albino rats of mean weight 130 g were used for this study. The animals for the study were grouped into five (5) of six (6) rats each. Group A received feed and water only and Group B was induced with methotrexate without treatment. Groups (C and D) were orally given 250 mg and 500 mg/kg b.wt of leaves extract, and group E was orally given the extract only (500 mg/kg b.wt) respectively for 28 days. All the rats used in this study were initially subjected to renal damage using 0.5 ml/kg of methotrexate except the normal control group. The rats were sacrificed after 28 days, and the kidney were carefully dissected from the abdominal region. They were fixed in normal saline for 72 hours and sliced into a thickness of 2.1mm samples of and processed for histopathological examination. Results: The photomicrographs result showed that in group A, (normal control group) evenly distributed glomeruli of smaller size, with normal mesangial cellularity. In group B, (positive control group) there is a significant pathology and mild interstitial inflammation. In groups (C and D) (tests group that received 250 and 500 mg/kg b.wt of the extract) there is no significant pathology, in group E, there is no significant pathology. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the leaves extract may have exerted nephroprotective effects in albino rats, and may also be used pharmacologically in the management of organ toxicity.
 
Histological kidney examination. A. Histology of male control Kidney. G=Glomerulus (normal), visceral layer (v), b=bowman's capsular space (normal), parietal layer (PA) with juxtaglomerular apparatus (JA), P&D=proximal and distal convoluted tubule (normal) inference: kidney slide appears normal. B. 30 Days. Normal glomerulus, bowman's capsule and space. Hypercellularity (arrows) of the mesengial area. proximal and distal convoluted tubules appear normal. Inference: normal histology of kidney with hypercellularity of mesengial cells. C. 60 Days. G =Glomerulus (Normal), B= Bowman's space (normal) with compressed area (arrow). P=Proximal convoluted tubule with hyaline cast within the lumen. D =Distal convoluted tubule (normal). Inference: Normal Histology of Kidney with Hyaline Cast in Proximal Tubule. D. 90 Days. Distorted glomerular arrangement (arrow) which is vacuolated, B = Bowman's capsule appears normal, P=Podocyte. Inference: Possible glomerulonephritis. E. Control (90 days), G =Glomerulus appear normal with mild vacuolation (V) and normal bowman's (B) space. Mesengial area appears hypercellularised (arrow), P and D=Proximal & distal convoluted tubule (normal) with pockets of endothelial cells. H&E stain. X400
Aim: To study the effect of chronic exposure of tartarzine at ADI doses on some biochemical parameters of male albino rats. Study Design: The design involved chronic study. In the study, the experiment was divided into phase 1, 2, and 3 which lasted for 30, 60 and 90 days respectively. In each phase, 40 rats were used and were divided into treatment and control groups. The treated groups were given 7.5 mg/kg of tartrazine orally on daily basis over the stipulated periods while the control groups were not treated with tartrazine. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria within a period of 12 months (December 2017 – December 2018). Methodology: At the end of the chronic study, 5mls of whole blood specimens was collected by means of cardiac puncture into Lithium Heparin bottles and fluoride oxalate bottles (for glucose only). The collected specimens were spun, plasma collected and analyzed for glucose, Lipase, AST, ALT, ALP, total protein, albumin and globulin. Renal, hepatic, and pancreatic tissues collected were fixed in 10% formol saline and later examined histologically using H&E stain. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism version 5.03 (San Diego, California, USA). Results: In the chronic treatment, glucose indicated significant increases after 30, 60, and 90 days of chronic treatment at ADI doses. Urea, AST, and ALT showed significantly higher values after 60 of treatment while creatinine, ALP, total protein, albumin and globulin indicated significantly higher values after 90 days of treatment. However, lipase did not show any significant difference after 30, 60, and 90 days of treatment. Histologically, hepatic distortions such as fatty degeneration, vacuolation, pcynosis, and compression of central vein were seen in the liver section. In the renal section, hyaline cast in proximal tubules, hypercellularity of messengial cells, and inflammation of the glomerulus were observed in the treated rats while the histology of the pancreas indicated mild vacuolation of the islet region. However, the pancreatic ducts and acinar cells were not distorted. Conclusion: The administration of tartrazine over a period of 30 days at ADI dose did not indicate hepatocellullar and renal derangements as well histological distortions in liver, pancreas and kidneys. However, after 60 and 90 days, mild hepatocellular, pancreatic, and renal derangements were seen.
 
Top-cited authors
Augustine Ikhueoya Airaodion
  • Federal University of Technology Owerri
Edith Oloseuan Airaodion
  • Ladoke Akintola University of Technology
Emmanuel O Ogbuagu
  • Abia State University
Ikechukwu Udema
  • UDE INTERNATIONAL CONCEPTS LIMITED(862217) AGBOR DELTA STATE NIGERIA
Ezekiel E. Ben
  • University of Uyo