Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry

Published by Sciencedomain International
Online ISSN: 2581-7418
Publications
Aims: Assessment of conflict between humans and sclater’s guenon in relation to plant species utilization was carried out to determine the conflict between humans and monkey, and identify the plant species parts utilized by the monkeys in area. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Lagwa community forest, Aboh-Mbaise Local Government Area, Imo State, between December 2019 and November 2021. Study Design: The Point transect and visual observation methods were used to collect data on population and food availability. Methodology: The research was conducted during the dry and wet seasons. Questionnaire were used to collect information on conflict between humans and guenons, while visual observation and faecal examination were used to identify plant species and part utilized. Results: Habitat loss, raiding of farms, destruction of roof tops, and food scarcity were the causes of conflicts between monkeys and humans, while awareness creation and establishment of wildlife sanctuary were ways of reducing conflicts between monkeys and humans. Twenty six plant species were utilized by the monkeys for cover. Pear (21%), oil palm (16%), and mango (13%) were the most utilized during the dry season, while Pterocarpus erinaceous (15%), Dacryodes edulis and Treculia africana (11%) were utilized mostly during the wet season. The monkeys consumed more seeds (63%), less fruits (25%), and leaves (13%) during the wet season, and fruits (71%), leaves and seeds (14%) during the dry season. Conclusion: The findings of this research is a guide to understanding the conflict that exist between humans and the sclater’s guenon, as well as communicate the type of plants and parts consumed by the animals. Awareness creation on the need to regenerate the remaining fragmented habitat and establishment of a rehabilitation centre for the animals can be a conflict reduction measure, and can provide alternative food sources for the animals.
 
Aims: We assessed the population abundance, density and habitat preference of sclater’s guenon (Cercopithecus sclateri) in Aboh-Mbaise communal forest to inform conservation efforts for the species now and in the future. Study Design: We used the point count sampling method to estimate population size. Place and duration of study: The study was carried out in Lagwa communal forest, Aboh-Mbaise Local Government Area, Imo State, between December 2019 and November 2021. Methodology: We laid-out eight 2.5-km transects in a land area of 28,500km2. We enumerated and measured trees using the point-centered quarter method. Results: Results of this study indicated that they were 738 individual monkeys, 392 in dry and 346 in the wet seasons. The population density was 0.04 ± 0.01 individuals/km2, with troop sizes of 4.09±0.83 and 3.68 ± 0.75 for dry and wet seasons, respectively. The monkeys were sighted mostly in secondary forest, sacred groves, and economic trees. Most of the trees were within the diameter-at-breast-height class of 21cm-30 cm. A total of (304) plant species were used by the monkeys for cover in both seasons; these included Dacryodes edulis, Elaeis guinensis, Magnifera indica, Treculia africana and Pterocarpus erinaceous. Conclusion: The findings of this research is a prelude to understanding the population dynamics and habitat structure of the sclater’s guenon in the study area. Massive sensitization of the locals, regeneration of the remaining fragmented habitat and establishment of a wildlife sanctuary are needed to allow conservation of the species and its habitat.
 
Spatial modelling of land use change is a technique for understanding changes in terms of the location and amount. In this study, logistic regression and Geomod approaches were used for modelling forest change in Gorgan area in Northern Iran in the time period of 1988-2007. To do this, at first, remotely sensed imagery data of the years 1988, 1998 and 2007 were used to produce land use maps. Land use maps accuracy assessments were achieved using Error matrix method and then the maps were used to implement change detection process in two time periods of 1988-1998 and 1998-2007. Results indicated a reduction in forest areas during the mentioned time period. Next, the independent variables were extracted in order to land use change modeling. The Results of the models implementation showed the ability of both models for forest change modeling in this region. Also, the models were used to predict the future condition of forest area in the years 2016 and 2025. The results revealed that the forest area would be associated with a reduction in the future. Comparison of the results of the models using kappa indices showed the successful implementation of both models for forest change modelling in this region. The results of this research reveal the need for appropriate applications of the proper plans to control land use change in order to preserve the environment and ecological balance of the area. Therefore, careful planning can reduce the land use change and its impacts in the future in this region.
 
In order to test the agronomic performance of the newly developed clones, a Large-Scale Clone Trial (LSCT) comprising Hevea brasiliensis clones GT 1, IRCA 202, IRCA 331, IRCA 707, PB 280 and PB 310 was established in southwestern Côte d'Ivoire. They were planted in completely randomized blocks with six clone treatments and four replications of 112 trees per clone. The measured parameters included isodiametric growth of the trunk, rubber yield, trees stand, latex physiological parameters and sensitivity to tapping panel dryness (TPD). Collected data was analyzed using Statistica 7.0 statistical software. After ten years of downward tapping and four years of upward tapping, clone IRCA 331 showed significantly higher rubber productivity than all other clones. Its productivity gain, relative to the reference control GT 1, was 63% in downward tapping and 80% in upward tapping. Despite its high level of productivity, the annual rate of isodiametric growth of clone IRCA 331 tree trunks (2.56 cm/year) remained statistically equivalent to that of clone GT 1 (2.62 cm/year) at latex harvesting stage. In addition, the physiological profile of clone IRCA 331 was good and similar to that of the control. Clones IRCA 331, GT1 and PB 280 got the lowest sensitivity to TPD. However, only clones GT1 and IRCA 331 maintained a good stand of tappable trees throughout the experimental period. This experiment highlighted the agronomic performance of the clone IRCA331 and allowed to put it in class 1. Clone IRCA 331 can therefore be used as a clone of first choice to improve national productivity.
 
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different rates of liquid Trichoderma harsianum on the growth enhancement of tissue-cultured Abaca seedlings. There are six treatments replicated four (4) times with 5 samples per replication. The following were the treatment: T0-control, T1- 50 ml of L.T, T2- 40 ml of L.T, T3-30 ml of L.T, T4- 20 ml of L.T, and T5-10ml of L.T/liter of water. Based on the results, it did not successfully reject the null hypothesis on plant height, pseudostem girth, leaf count per plant, leaf area per plant, and the number of primary roots of Abaca seedlings treated with liquid Trichoderma harsianum. While the two parameters successfully rejected the null hypothesis, there is highly significant that developed greater lengths for their shoot and root lengths treated with liquid Trichoderma harsianum. When compared to the control, the use of Liquid Trichoderma harsianum can significantly increase abaca growth. Treatment 3 of Abaca seedlings with 30 ml of liquid Trichoderma harsianum was the most effective of the five treatments with this substance. The correlation between treatments and parameters is also favorable.
 
Net primary production (NPP) is an important index for understanding carbon cycling in forest ecosystems. In this study, aboveground NPP at Acacia mangium plantation was estimated basing on allometry for aboveground biomass increment (ΔM) and litter trap technique for litterfall (Lf). The experiment was conducted in two plots of 300 m2 each (15 × 20 m), established at a 21-month old plantation. Data were collected five times of 3-month intervals in a total duration of 357 days. The results indicated that Lf and ΔM were seasonal-dependent. Litterfall was highest (4.06 g m-1 day-1) during Sep-Jan (late rainy season, early winter) and lowest (1.10 g m-1 day-1) during Mar-Jun (early rainy season, early summer). While, ΔM was highest (13.51 g m-1 day-1) during Jun-Sep (rainy season, summer) and lowest (3.10 g m-1 day-1) during Jan-Mar (dry season, winter). Total Lf in a duration of 357 days was 9.69 tons ha-1 and ΔM was 27.71 tons ha-1, leading to total aboveground NPP of the present study plantation of 37.40 tons ha-1. It is concluded that aboveground NPP of acacia plantation was much higher than other forests of different types and ages around the world. Such difference indicates the importance of acacia plantation in soil nutrient cycling through litterfall decomposition and carbon sequestration through aboveground biomass increment.
 
Comparison between mature tree species and the seedlings number in Transect
Mnarani ruin forest tree species, their families and economic importance
The tropical regions have a rich diversity of tree species which provide the basis for a number of different forms and scales of economic activity. This study therefore was conducted with an aim of enhancing the knowledge of tree species diversity (seedlings and mature trees), and their relationship at the site. The experiment was laid out in three transects and quadrants in the forest: for mature trees the transects measured 100 m by 20 m, whereas for the seedlings quadrants measured 5 m by 5 m. That is along the ocean (T1), along human settlement (T2) and along the forest path (T3). Data was collected by counting mature trees species and seedlings. Data was analysed using R software 3.4.4 and results showed that a total of 22 tree species were recorded in the forest. In T1, the highest (22) species richness was recorded with 4 tree species restricted to the site (Bourellia nemoralis, Flueggia virosa, Turraea wakefieldii and Eryithrinia abyssinica). Combretum schumanii was most abundant in mature trees (89) followed by Lecaniodiscus fraxinifolius (36), Ochna thomasiana (21) and Adansonia digitata (14). All the above abundant species except Adanosnia digitata (2) were also abundant in seedlings with (189), (11) and (21) seedlings respectively. In T2, 9 tree species were recorded. Azadirachta indica was the most dominant in both mature trees (40) and seedlings (261) while Sterculia appendiculata recorded the lowest (1) and (0) respectively. T3 was rich with three exotic tree species namely Delonyx regia, Azadirachta digitata and Lannea schweinfurthii. Lecaniodiscus fraxinifolius was the most common with (35) followed by Combretum schumanii (11). While the seedlings were (23) and (67) respectively. In conclusion, it was evident that anthropogenic factors reduced species richness and the corag rag forest had more indeginous tree species and good seed recruitment.
 
Economic tree species and their conservation trend in the study area
Threats to tree species distribution and conservation in study area
This study was carried out with the aim to assess the effect of socio-economic activities on tree species and conservation trend Ecological zones of Taraba State, Nigeria. Stratified and simple random sampling designs were used to distribute 270 copies of structured questionnaire to the people. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results showed that 64% of respondents were not participating in conservation of tree species due to poor infrastructural facilities and poverty in the study area. The majority of the people were involved in various forms of deforestation (farming 46%, fuel wood gathering 22% and settlement 9%). These practices had greatly affected tree species diversity and abundance in the study area; thereby increasing environmental problems such as flooding and soil erosion (16%). Most of the economic tree species (19) were decreasing in availability with Rauvolfia mitoria and Sterculia setigera endangered. The people were willing to support trees conservation. Thus, there is the need for further research to update the current list of conserved species on national red list species data bases. Also, Government stakeholders should provide more awareness on environmental education and alternative domestic energy in order to minimize indiscriminate felling of trees and over exploitation to prevent extinction of these economic tree species in the study area.
 
This study assessed diversity and regeneration of some Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) species in Bagale Hills Forest Reserve Girei Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Parameters evaluated included; species diversity of NTFPs in the study area and regeneration potentials of NTFPs in the study area. A sampling design consisting of an approximately 250m baseline and 5 transects of 20m was used. Thus, all NTFPs individuals, from seedlings to adult individuals, of each species were recorded and their DBH measured. The distance between consecutive transects was 50m. Diversity indices and Importance Value Index (IVI) of the species were determined using relevant formulae. One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to compare results of Shannon Weiners Diversity Indices amongst transects and amongst tree, sapling and seedling species. The results of tree, saplings and seedling species in study site revealed 12, 9 and 10 species respectively. The individual trees, saplings and seedlings species were 41, 39 and 53 belonging to 7 families in the study site respectively. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) indicated that there was no significant difference in Shannon Weiners Diversity Indices among tree, sapling and seedling species in the forests (p ≥ 0.05). Results show species of NTFPs tree which included; Annona senegalensis, Adansonia digitata, Bombax Costatum, Detarrium microcarpum, Haematostaphis barteri, Hexalobus monopetalus, Parkia biglobosa, Tamarindus indica, Ximenia americana, Vitellaria paradoxa, Ziziphus Mauritania and Ziziphus spina-christi. The families with the highest number included Annonaceae, Fabaceae and Rhamnaceae which had 2 species each. Vitellaria paradoxa, Annona senegalensis and Tamarindus indica were the most abundant in Transects I-III, while Parkia biglobosa, and was the most abundant in Transects IV-V. Vitellaria paradoxa, Annona senegalensis, Tamarindus indica and Parkia biglobosa are further shown to have the highest Importance Value Index in all Transects. Results further showed saplings species as they occurred in all the Transects with Vitellaria paradoxa, Annona senegalensis and Detarrium microcarpum as the most abundant saplings species and highest Importance Value Index. Results showed seedling species of NTFPs encountered in all transects in which Hexalobus monopetalus, Ziziphus Mauritania and Detarrium microcarpum occurred as the most abundant seedling species. Shannon-Weiner (H´) Diversity Indices were; H´ = 1.16223, H´ = 0.86756, H´ = 1.62602, H´ = 1.05492 and H´ = 1.32966 in the respective transects. Shannon-Weiner (H´) Diversity Indices of all NTFPs trees, saplings and seedlings were; trees H´ = 2.39016, saplings H´ = 1.70359 and seedlings H´ = 1.86854 respectively.
 
Map of Girei LGA of Adamawa State showing the Study Area
Microbial populations of soil in the study area
Descriptive statistics of selected physical properties of soil in the study area
Descriptive statistics of selected chemical properties of soil in the study area
This study evaluated the relationship between selected physicochemical properties and microbial populations of the soil of Bagale Forest Reserve, Girei Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Five plots of 20 x 20 m were laid. Soil samples were collected from five different positions at two soil depths of 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm. The soil samples were isolated in the laboratory for microbial populations and determination of physical and chemical properties. The results obtained revealed that fungal population (7.65 x 105 cfu/ml) was the highest at the soil depth of 0-15 cm, representing 39% of the total microbial populations in the sampled soil of the study area. The results further revealed that the population (6.84 x 105 cfu/ml) of the bacteria had a positive effect on soils of the study area in terms of nitrogen fixation by Rhizobacterial spp. Chemical properties of the soil samples revealed that the available phosphorus exhibited the highest percentage (61.7%) at 0-15 cm soil depth. Analyses of soil physical properties recorded the highest percentage (49.0%) of sand at 0-15 cm soil depth. A similar percentage (50.0%) of sand was exhibited at the depth of 15-30 cm. These percentages accounted for the high porosity (29.0%) of the soil observed at the two soil levels in the study area and could be improved through the application of lime fertilizers. Application of appropriate fertilizers like NPK to improve the soil condition of the study area is highly recommended.
 
This research assessed the macro-faunal diversity in soil of date palm plantation of Modibbo Adama University, Yola, Adamawa State. Parameters evaluated included; assemblage and diversity of soil macro invertebrates based on growth performances of the date palm. The plantation was divided according to growth variabilities. Assessment of macro fauna species was carried out using plots of 20m × 20m which was randomly selected, using plots of 1m x 1m that where laid at each anger point,Top soil for biological assessment of soil samples, were collected using trowels at depths ranging from 0-30cm depth. The soil samples was immediately spread on board of about 60cm2 and sorted for the presence of macro fauna. Soil macro-invertebrates ‘identification and enumeration. Soil macro-invertebrate assemblage was analyzed for diversity indices of species using relevant formulae. Results showed a total of 648 macro fauna scattered within the study area. Seventeen (17) Families of macro fauna were also identified in the study. Lumbricus terrestris (earthworm), the Heterotermes species (termites) and those belonging to the Formicidae family (ants) were the groups having the highest number of individuals. Leading to the conclusion that soil Macro fauna were present in the study area. However, the numbers of macro fauna were very active in the date palm plantation soil. This is an indication that strong relationship exists between macro fauna-invertebrates the date palm trees.
 
The study was carried out to assess the domestication of wild fruit trees in communities of Mayo-Belwa LGA of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Seven wards within the LGA (Tola, Mayo-Fareng, Binyeri, Gangfada, Gorobi, Gangwaso and Nasarawo Jereng) were selected for Agroforestry. 14 farms from each of the selected wards were randomly sampled and surveyed for observation and recording of indigenous fruit trees on the farms and also by ocular inspecting the proportion of farm land under fruit trees cultivation. Results shows that preference matrix ranking was used to generate a species priority list of indigenous fruit trees preferred by the local people through the use of questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as table, frequencies and percentages were used to analyse the data obtained which includes, proportion of indigenous fruit trees DBH ranging (10.1-45.1), basal area ranging (80.1-1597.8), agricultural crops grown alongside fruit trees, local people towards wild fruit trees domestication, socio-economic variables of the respondents, and opportunities and constraints to on-farm cultivation of indigenous fruit trees. The result of the findings indicated that indigenous fruit trees species on-farm was relatively moderate:- The average proportion of farmland under indigenous fruit trees DBH was however low in Gorobi ward and higher in Binyeri ward. Some of the preferred indigenous wild fruit trees were Vitallaria paradoxa, Vitex doniana, Annona senegalensis and Tamarindus indica among others. The study recommended that in order for indigenous fruit trees to meaningfully contribute to household food security and incomes, there is need to: Formulate clear policies and by-laws on conservation of indigenous tree resources. Trees are assets, which contribute to the well-being of the rural community and through their longevity, serve as a cultural linking element throughout generations. Policy-makers and decision-makers also need to be kept informed of the latest advances in domestication and commercialization.
 
The effects of seed size on the germination and early growth of A. digitata were assessed. Seeds were sourced locally within the University of Ilorin Campus. One hundred viable seeds were selected from each of the size classes. The seed weight, length, breadth, and width were measured for all the selected seeds. Mean weight, length, breadth, and thickness were: 0.62 g, 9.16 mm, 7.45 mm, and 5.85 mm, respectively for small seeds. 0.41 g, 9.54 mm, 7.68 mm, and 6.03 mm, respectively for medium seeds; and 0.44 g, 9.92 mm, 7.89 mm, and 6.21 mm, respectively for large seeds. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD). Seed dormancy was broken through the acid scarification method by soaking in H2SO4 at 70% concentration for 20 minutes with constant stirring. Variables of interest include: leaves number, seedlings height, collar diameter and leaf area. Based on the results of this finding, medium and large seeds germinated in 7 days after sowing while small seeds germinated in 10 days after sowing. Large seeds had the highest germination percentage (55%), followed by medium seeds with 27%. The small seeds were the least in terms of germination rate (21%). There was no significant difference in mean seedling heights, collar diameters and number of leaves among the seed size classes (P˃0.05). Mean leaf area significantly differed among the three size classes (P˂0.05). The result showed that large seeds gave best germination at a shorter period than the medium and small seed sizes. Thus, large seeds of A. digitata are recommended in propagation activities involving the species.
 
Mabolo (Diospyros discolor), which is an indigenous species locally known as Kamagong, is popularly called “iron-wood”. With over-exploitation, these species are now threatened and are becoming extinct. Hence, it is the only way to conserved and save this economically valuable species by using nursery techniques with appropriate pre-sowing treatments. Therefore, the present study was attempted to evaluate the effect of coconut water on pre-sowing treatments additive on seed germination and initial growth performance of Kamagong (D. discolor). The seeds were extracted and subjected to the following treatments for 12 hours: Soaking in 100% water which is the control (T1), soaking with 50% of coconut water and 50% water (T2), and soaking in 100% coconut water (T3). The results showed that T3 had the highest germination mean value (78.33%), mean seedling height (11.80 cm) and mean number of leaves (2.04). By contrast, T2 (50% coconut water + 50% water) obtained the least germination mean value (76.67%), mean seedling height (11.63 cm) and mean number of leaves (2.00). However, there were no significant differences in the germination percentage, seedling height and number of leaves among all treatments at (p ≤ 0.05). The seeds subjected to T2 and T3 were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) better than seeds subjected to T1, having a mean root collar diameter (RCD) value of 3.98 mm, 3.75 mm and 3.48 mm, respectively. In terms of leaf measurements, the seedlings subjected to T2 and T3 had the highest leaf width value of 5.18 cm and 4.97 cm, respectively, whereas the seedlings subjected to T1 had the significantly lowest leaf width of 4.88 cm. Moreover, there was no significant effect among all treatments in terms of leaf and root length. Furthermore, it was observed in the study that fungal pathogens should also be taken into account as the pathogens are associated with the reduction of the germination percentage of the D. discolor seeds. Also, the study found out that seeds treated with 50% and 100% coconut water positively influenced the germination and initial seedling growth performance of D. discolor.
 
Socio -economic chacteristics of the farmers
Level of adoption of agrofrestry practice by the farmers in the study area
Types of agroforestry practices adopted by farmers in the study area
Factors influencing farmer's willingness to adopt agroforestry practices
Constraints to adoption of agroforestry practices by farmers in the study area
The study examined the level of adoption of agroforestry practices among arable farmers in Igabi Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. Data was collected from 100 randomly selected farmers with the use of structured questionnaire. The questionnaire focused on socio-economic characteristics of the farmers, level of adoption of agroforestry practices, types of agroforestry practices adopted, factors influencing the willingness of farmers to adopt agroforestry practices and constraints faced by the farmers in adopting agroforestry-based farming. Data was analysed using frequency, percentage, mean and probit model. The study found that male (78.00%) dominated farming activities in the study area, the majority (96.00%) of the farmers is in the age group of 21-60 years, most of the farmers (87.00%) are educated and the majority (76.00%) of them had more than 5 years farming experience. The study revealed that the adoption of agroforestry practices is high (79.00%) in the study areas. Retention of trees on farmland was mostly adopted (31.00%) while shifting cultivation is the least adopted (5.00%) agroforestry practice in the study area. The result of the probit model analysis showed that farm size (1.1122), farming experience (0.0231) and access to credit (0.1103) were the factors that significantly influence farmers’ willingness to adopt agroforestry practices at 10.00% probability level in the study area. However the level of adoption of agroforestry practices in the study area was hampered by constraints such as high capital intensive nature of agroforestry practices (87.00%), poor extension service (80.00%), inadequate capital (77.00%), poor technical know-how of agroforestry practices (45.00%), land tenure system (36.00%) and lack of access to credit (13.00%). The study suggests that to enhance the adoption level of agroforestry practices among farmers in the study area, improved agroforestry extension services should be provided to farmers; workshops, seminars and symposia should be organized for adequate training of farmers to understand the techniques of agroforestry; and farmers should be encouraged to form cooperative societies so that they can have access to credit facility to boost their capital.
 
The research examined the status of adoption of BRRI dhan49 and explored the contribution of the selected characteristics of the cultivators to their adoption of BRRI dhan49. The methodology of this study is an integration of quantitative and qualitative methods based on data collection. Data were collected from 116 BRRI dhan49 cultivators from January 21 to February 20, 2017. Descriptive statistics and multiple regressions were used for analysis. Most of the farmers (78.4%) belong to medium adoption followed by high adoption (11.2%) by the rice cultivators. Among the influential variables, the level of education, annual family income, extension media contact, rice cultivation knowledge and attitude towards BRRI dhan49 were significant contributors and provided 53.8% contribution on adoption of BRRI dhan49. It was also found that 3.4%, 16.3%, 38.8%, 33.7% and 7.8% farmers were innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority and laggards, respectively. It can be concluded that the composite adoption of BRRI dhan49 production technologies is moderate and needs further advancement. Based on the findings, it is recommended that respective authorities should implement and popularize farm-based projects on a massive scale for the adoption of BRRI dhan49.
 
This study assessed the adoption of agroforestry practices among farmers in Gwaram Local Government Area of Jigawa State, Nigeria. The multistage sampling procedure was used to select 120 farmers from four (4) out of the six (6) districts in the Local Government Area for the study. Primary data were collected through the use of questionnaires and oral interview and were subjected to both descriptive and logit regression analysis. Findings from the study revealed that the mean age of the farmers was 39 years. Majority of the farmers were male and mostly married. The study also showed that majority of the respondents had at least one form of education with a mean farming experience of 7 years and a mean farm size of 3.5 hectares. A greater percentage of the respondents acquired their farmlands through inheritance. The greater proportion of the farmers affirmed to have had contact with extension agents three times in a year and the majority of them aware of agroforestry. The average number of agroforestry practices adopted by the farmers is approximately 2 with home garden adopted by the majority of the farmers. The results also revealed that the mean annual income of respondents is N113,529. The logit regression result showed that educational level, income, membership of cooperatives and land tenure had a significant relationship with the adoption of agroforestry practices at different levels of probabilities. The major constraints to agroforestry practices as opined by the respondents include; land and tree tenure rights, long gestation period to obtain benefits, lack of knowledge and skills in agroforestry, low awareness of agroforestry practice and the high cost associated in adopting agroforestry. The study recommended the formulation of a good land use policy so that farmers can acquire land titles to guarantee the security of their land.
 
Number of layers placed per diameter classes and substrates
Average number of roots per diameter classes and substrates (Mean ± standard deviation)
Average values (mm) of root diameter per diameter classes and substrates (Mean ± standard deviation)
Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. is a fruit species from the Sahelian and Sudano-sahelian zones, highly appreciated by the population. It provides a source of income for the rural population and its various parts are used for human and animal food, handicrafts and traditional medicine. However, the lack of data on propagation techniques of the species is a significant limitation to its domestication. This study aims to evaluate the vegetative propagation capacity of Balanites aegyptiaca by air layering. The trials were conducted in the Arboretum of Sahara Sahel Foods in Zinder, Niger. The layers were placed on orthotropic branches. The variables selected were the diameter class (1-2 cm, 2-3 cm and 3-4 cm) and the substrates (sand+manure, sand+sawdust and sand). A total of 116 layers were made. The results show that 93.1% of the layers have taken root two months after realization. The diameter classes and the three substrates have no significant influence on the number of roots. In contrast, root length varied significantly with substrates (P = 0.000) and branch diameter classes (P = 0.031). As for the diameter of the newly formed roots, a significant difference was observed between the diameter classes and the substrates have no significant effect on this parameter. One month after weaning of layers, an average survival rate of 68.5% was obtained. The seedlings of the diameter class 2-3 cm have the highest survival rate (83.1%). These results suggest that it is possible to produce Balanites aegyptiaca plants by air layering, and could contribute to the development of strategies adapted to its domestication.
 
Photosynthetic oxygen evolution of photoautotrophic cultures of Euglena gracilis as affected by growth PFDs. a) exponential phase, b) transitional phase, c) stationary phase. Three light intensities have been used; 28 (black circles), 84 (gray circles) and 210 (open circles) μmol m -2 s -1 . Day-white type fluorescent lamps (National FL 20SS-N18) were used to irradiate the cultures during growth and a xenon light source (LAX-102) was used to irradiate samples in the photosynthetic oxygen evolution measurements
Change in (a) relative growth rate (RGR) and (b) specific growth rate (SGR), and (c) the relationship between RGR and SGR as affected by growth PFDs. Three light intensities have been used; 28 (black circles), 84 (gray circles) and 210 (open circles) μmol m -2 s -1
Dry biomass (ng) per cell in photoautotrophic cultures of Euglena gracilis as affected by PFDs (μmol m -2 s -1 ). Three growth phases have been considered; Exponential phase (Diamond), Transitional phase (Square), Stationary phase (Triangles) Means with different uppercase letters are significantly different within the same light intensity and means with different lowercase letters are significantly different within the same growth phase (P<0.05)
Aims: The research aimed to investigate the shade response of E. gracilis Klebs while making the irradiance a crucial factor for photosynthesis based physiological activities and its applicability for industrial level culture conditions. Study Design: Euglena was cultured at three different light intensities of 30, 90, and 210 mol m-2s-1 photoautotrophically and axenically in modified Cramer-Meyer medium at 25 ˚C as batch cultures. Methodology: The photosynthesis O2 evaluation of Euglena cultures was measured under exponential (EP), transitional (TP), and stationary phases (SP). The light compensation point (LCP), light saturation point (LSP), and dark respiration rate (DRR) were obtained. Cell volume and cell number in each culture were measured simultaneously. Cells were collected and obtained dry mass (DM) after drying aliquots at 80˚C. Specific growth rate (SGR) and relative growth rate (RGR) were calculated. Tests for homogeneity of variance were performed on all parameters and LSDs were used for the mean separation. Results: In the TP, the lowest LCP was achieved in the higher light culture. The values of both the DRR and the LSP were the same as in EP. The DRR, LCP and LSP are lower in lower PFD cultures and decreased with increasing cell titers. The cellular growth levels were lower in lower light culture and decreased as each culture grew. Cellular DM was maintained constant in the EP, where SGR almost equaled RGR. In the EP, SGR was maintained constant in each culture, SGR displayed a saturation phenomenon. In the later TP, SGR became equal to RGR and all the cultures revealed constant DM. Conclusion: Euglena photoautotrophic cultures can tolerate low light intensities. With the SGR and RGR behavior under the shade conditions, they can maintain the constant photosynthesis rate and constant dry matter level.
 
In Akwa Ibom State, timber is used for building, construction, furniture making, transmission pole, pulp and paper, and chemicals. Timber harvesting, processing and utilization had remained a big business to quite a number of people with its attendant forest destruction and deforestation. The State was richly endowed with forest resources, which are of great benefit to man but the high demand and continuous harvesting of timber products in the State ecosystems without any deliberate sustainable management programmes has resulted in the over-harvesting and complete devastation of the standing stock of indigenous wood species. In addition, indiscriminate exploitation of these resources has caused depletion of forest leading to serious timber deficit. This work has discussed factors affecting timber production in Akwa Ibom State and the way forward. The paper has identified deforestation and ‘dereservation’, overexploitation of forest resources, revenues target by government, population growth and infrastructure expansion, non-participation of the private sector in forest development, amongst others, as factors responsible for the decline of timber resources in the state. The paper recommends that reforestation and afforestation programmes, conservation of natural forests, private sector participation in forest management, adoption of agroforestry system and sustainable management of natural resources can improve timber production in the State.
 
Description of Variables and the Expected Signs to be used in the Tobit Model
Summary statistics of continuous variables for household heads
Summary Results of Discrete variables
Tobit marginal effects (Coefficient) regression outcome on factors influencing production of AILVs
This study investigated the contribution of African Indigenous Leafy Vegetables (AILVs) to the welfare of smallholder farmers in Kisii County. AILVs have recently been attracting research attention not only in terms of their inherent nutrition quality and healing properties but also for their economic potential that is brought about by increased consumer demand of these vegetables. Despite having multiple benefits and positive promise towards contributing to household food dietary quality and income, utilization of African indigenous Leafy Vegetables (AILVs) by farming households is still low as indicated by a constant deficit in supply. Based on the claimed benefits in the face of low volumes in terms of utilization, this study sought to examine the socioeconomic characteristics of AILVs smallholders and factors that influence production of these vegetables in Bomachoge Borabu Sub-County, Kisii County Kenya. A Multistage sampling method was used to obtain a sample of 150 AILV farmers. Questionnaires were used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the socio-economic characteristics while Tobit model was utilized in analyzing the factors that influence production of AILVs. The Tobit regression results indicated that age, gender, education, value awareness, occupation and household income significantly influenced AILV production. The study concluded that engagement in AILVs utilization brings along unmatched benefits. The study recommends a long term campaign majorly targeting the young and the non-growing communities in creation of value awareness to improve on the utilization of the vegetables. The study also recommends a similar study in regions of the Country that record low levels of utilization.
 
More often than not, the emphasis is laid on the essence of employing organic manures for raising plant seedlings and even in improving the nutrient status of their growth media for higher productivity. Afrormosia elata has numerous medicinal uses but not very much available. Thus, the study on the effects of fish pond sediments (FPS) and decomposed cow dung (DCD) on the early growth of A. elata seedlings was carried out at the nursery ‘A’ of the Federal College of Forestry, Ibadan, Nigeria. A. elata seeds were sown in a finely perforated sieve (filled with washed river sand) and seedlings were pricked – out 2 weeks after seedling emergence into polythene pots with varying levels of FPS and DCD. The experimental design was Completely Randomized Design (CRD) consisting of nine treatments and eight replicates. Treatments include; T1(2 kg of FPS + 2 kg of topsoil); T2 (2 kg of DCD + 2 kg of topsoil); T3 (1.5 kg of FPS + 2 kg of topsoil); T4 (1.5 kg of DCD + 2 kg of topsoil); T5 (1 kg of FPS + 2 kg of topsoil); T6 (1 kg of DCD + 2 kg of topsoil); T7 (500 g of FPS + 2 kg of topsoil); T8 (500 g of DCD + 2 kg topsoil); and 2 kg of topsoil without any treatment served as control). Morphological parameters such as seedling height, collar diameter and leaf count as well as leaf biomass were assessed and the data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The result showed that T3 (1.5 kg FPS + 2 Kg TS) had the best performance in height, leaf area and leaf biomass with mean values of 11.02 cm, 21.65 cm2 and 1.16 g respectively. Though, there were no significant differences amongst the growth parameters assessed for this study. But T3 (1.5 kg FPS + 2 Kg TS) could be employed in raising the seedlings of this plant for faster growth rate.
 
With decrease in wood from the forest, non-wood fibres have attracted interest in the production of pulp and paper products in recent times due to their short growth cycles, moderate irrigation and fertilizer requirements as well as their low lignin content. The use of these plants will aid sustainable development in the pulp and paper industry. This study investigated leaf dimensions and fibre characteristics of Agave sisalana and how the leaf dimensions relates to its fibre characteristics. Leaves were collected from three sisal plant stands in Oyo State, Nigeria. The plant whorl was divided systematically into bottom, middle and top from which five leaves were randomly collected from each whorl position. The fibres of the leaves were extracted from which 2cm of fibres were taken from three positions on the leaf (top, middle and base). Extracted fibres were macerated and 3375 fibres were measured. The result shows that Agave sisalana leaves collected at the top had the longest length and was also widest at the base and middle. The average fibre length was 1.69 mm, while the fibre diameter, lumen width and cell wall thickness of Agave sisalana were 16.98 µm, 12.33 µm and 2.32 µm respectively. The slenderness ratio averaged 99.4 while the coefficient of flexibility averaged 72.61. The highest value of the runkel ratio of Agave sisalana was 0.42. There was significant negative correlation between leaf characteristics and fibre characteristics. Young sisal (Agave sisalana) leaves produced the best fibre characteristics suitable for the production of high quality paper.
 
Aims: To evaluate the technical efficiency (TE) in selected agricultural sub-sectors and to propose possible policy interventions to the government with the aim of reducing the poverty of farmers in the developing world. Study design: A meta-analysis based on empirical studies conducted by various scientists throughout the developing world. Methodology: Research articles for the meta-analysis were selected using a thorough screening process based on the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) concept. Selected 94 articles were sub-divided in to three main agriculture sub-sectors for detailed analysis; (a) paddy, other field crops-OFC and vegetables, (b) fruits, and (c) livestock. Mean TE of each crop or livestock type was calculated by averaging the TE values for a particular crop or livestock type across different studies included in this study. Results: TE data presented in the original articles showed a considerable dispersion within a given study. The highest mean TE was recorded in B-onion (0.83±0.15) whereas the lowest was recorded in maize (0.703±0.09) and in soybean (0.705±0.13). The TE of chili cultivation was 0.78 with the greatest variability (standard error of mean [SEM] 0.19) among the crops considered, which signifies the unpredictable nature of the chili cultivation. Mango was found to be the least technically efficient crop among the studied, with a mean TE of 0.596±0.11. Dairy, poultry and aquaculture farming operations were found to be highly technically efficient having mean TE values of 0.80±0.16, 0.89±0.02 and 0.88±0.08 respectively. Conclusion: Findings of this study will lead to several key policy implications including, improvement of the socioeconomic characteristics of farmers, implementation of farmer field schools (FFS) and establishment of a cautious and gradual strategy for expansion of the rural financial institutions.
 
Effect of SLM indicators to sustainable land use in the study area
Farmland sustainability and increased agricultural production have been a major concern of average farmers in Nigeria especially in South Western part of the Country. The study examines the farm level indicators and their effects on agricultural production among rural farmers. Multi-stage methods of sampling technique were used to select fifty respondents for this study using a well-structured questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed by the use of descriptive such as means, percentage, standard deviation and fuzzy logic analysis. The result shows that average age of farmer, farm size, household size and farming experience are 52.28 years, 2.072 hectare, 6.80 and 29.42 years of farming experience respectively. The fuzzy logic method was used to compute the composite indicator of sustainable land use (ISLU) which was 0.2843 indicating that farmers' land management practices in the study area are generally sustainable with the current application of the indicators. Land fallowing, trends of vegetative cover, irrigation, pesticide used among others contributed a higher percentage of land use sustainability with about 3.8% each, while minimum tillage, cover crops, crop rotation and cassava cutting use had no contribution to land use sustainability. The study recommends that rural water should be made available and that informal training through extension services should be conducted to educate farmers on sustainable land management (SLM) practices in order to have a better environment and improve production in the study area.
 
The research work investigated the effect of macroeconomic variables on agricultural output in Nigeria. The study used annual data spanning from the period 1995 to 2020. The agricultural output growth represented the explained variable while money supply, commercial bank loan on agriculture, exchange rate, interest rate, recurrent government expenditure on agriculture and inflation rate represented the explanatory variables which served as the selected macroeconomic variables under study. The stationary of the variables were checked using the Augmented Dickey-Fuller test. The long run relationship was tested using the Johansen Co-integration technique. The OLS analysis was computed which shows that the model is statistically significance, judging with the p-value of the F-statistic. The analysis also presented that money supply, exchange rate and inflation have a positive relationship with agricultural output within the given period of study while commercial bank loan on agriculture, interest rate and recurrent government expenditure on agriculture have a negative link with the explained variable. Based on the findings, the researchers recommended among others things, that a favorable interest rate should be placed for farmers to easily access the loans of the financial institutions, which will ensure increase in the productivity of the sector.
 
The study analyzed effect of crisis on yam production in Southern Agricultural Zone, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to; determine the effect of socio-economic variables on yam production, determine the factors affecting yam production, and to compare the gross margin of yam production before and after crisis in the study area. A multi-stage sampling procedure was adopted for this study and a total of sixty (60) respondents were sampled for this study. Data were collected through the use of structured questionnaires and analyzed using descriptive statistics which involves use frequency, percentages and the gross margin analysis. The study revealed that before the conflict the total variable cost was 233,288.4 while after the conflict, the total variable cost was 172310. The study conclude that price of fertilizer was doubled after conflict thereby reducing production. The result shows that 17.6% of the respondent’s stopped producing yam because of the fear of conflict. And also, there was a reduction in food production between the period of the conflicts and peaceful disposition. The study therefore recommend that government should develop policies and strategies to curtail future occurrence of crisis among farmers and herdsmen, and focus more on giving incentives to farmers and subsidy on farm inputs such as fertilizer, improved varieties, chemicals among others to boost food crop production, farmers income level and to ensure maximum security on lives and properties of prospective citizens and farmers.
 
Agroforestry is one of the most sustainable land management systems practiced around the world due to the socioeconomic benefits to farmers. In Bangladesh, farmers practice agroforestry, applying indigenous knowledge. The objectives of the study are to explore the dominant agroforestry systems and species preferred by and to assess the socio-economic impact of agroforestry technologies on their livelihoods of farmers of the Char dwellers in Jamuna and Teesta river basins. The study was conducted at four Char Upazillas such as Kazipur, Shariakandi, Kaunia and Dimla. A total 120 farmers were surveyed during the research period using structured questionnaire with both open and closed ended questions. The majority of the respondents (56.67%) having low score in adoption of traditional agroforestry practices. Most of the farmers (94.17%) in Teesta and Jamuna river basins are practicing traditional homestead agroforestry system. The most frequent strategy was boundary tree plantation (44.17%) followed by scattered tree plantation technique on composite planting system, and the alley of cropland. A total of 41 tree species are abundant in Char areas of Teesta and Januna basins. Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) is widely adaptable in Bangladesh including Char areas followed by Mango (Mangifera indica) in homestead besides, Mahagony (Swietenia mahagoni) is another abundant species planted in croplands boundaries of Char areas along with Akashmoni (Acacia auriculiformis). The farmers mentioned different problems they were facing in practicing agroforestry but ‘shade cast by trees’ was the major problem. Majority farmers of Char areas plant trees in homestead for fruits (63.33%) and in cropland for fuel wood (95.83%) and timber production (82.50%). Farmers’ livelihoods improved enormously by practicing agroforestry as they have more access to food, fodder and fuel wood which is reflected by greater access to livelihood capitals except social capital. However, the farmers have experienced increased incidences of pests and diseases to annual crops and trees. Agroforestry practices increases species diversity, ensure economic return and sustain farmers’ livelihoods. The respondents, local leaders and experts suggested the constrains of adopting agroforestry in Char areas are lack of awareness, education, technical skills, capital, technical assistance, interest, marketing and transportation facilities at the study areas . The government should initiate some agroforestry focused projects, especially in the Char areas for the capacity building of the farmers and equip them with the new farming techniques through trainings and orientation workshops. The farmers should be provided scientific guidance about suitable tree species grown on agricultural land with field crops, their silvicultural operations and tree management practices along with free services and inputs including seeds, seedlings and loan schemes for promoting agroforestry.
 
This study was conducted at Kamalganj Upazila of Moulvibazar District in Bangladesh during January to September 2015 to explore the impact of homestead agroforestry on the socio economic condition of the respondents and to explore their relationships with the selected characteristics of the respondents. Face to face interview was performed with 135 respondents to collect the data with the help of questionnaire. Eight different characteristics of the farmers namely; educations, farm size, homestead size, annual income, annual expenditure, savings, knowledge on homestead agroforestry, socio-economic class of the respondents showed significant positive relationships with the numbers of diversified plant species, while negative relationship of diversified plant species was observed with age and family size. Agro forestry based practices plays a vital role to uplift the socio-economic classes of the respondents. For uses of agroforestry products, annual savings and expenditures the highest decisions comes from females 45% and 41% followed by male 38% and 39% respectively. In other cases also female participation is greater than male respondents. Results conclude that homestead agroforestry is a unique area for maintaining both plant diversity and productivity for farmers’ livelihood in the studied area.
 
The study was conducted on the impact of climate change on arable crops production among farmers in Akko Local Government Area of Gombe State, Nigeria. A multistage sampling method was adopted selecting one hundred and fifty respondents. Both primary and secondary data were collected covering a period of five years. The data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics. The research found that male farmers within the age bracket of 20-40 years dominate the farming system, with 62.2% being married and having one form of formal education or the other. The result indicated that 92.9% of the respondents are aware of climate change and are predominantly small land holders. The farmers highlighted increased in drought period, higher temperature, erosion, desert encroachment, loss of vegetation and reduced vegetation as effects of climate change. It was revealed that 92.9% of the respondents’ cropping patterns have been affected by climate change. To cope with these effects, farmers diversify their enterprises. The findings show that farming activities such as deforestation, clean clearing, bush burning, open grazing contributes to climate change. The amount of rainfall experienced from 2015-2019 in the area was moderate. The respondents use farmers’ saved seed as planting materials with 62.2% comprising of improved seed. The result indicates that over 95% of the sampled population uses synthetic and organic fertilizers in soil management. From the result, 52.0% of the respondents obtained good yield during the period under study. However, farmers engaged in different cropping systems to mitigate the effect of climate change. It is recommended that extension services should be improved to educate farmers more on adaptation strategies to increase output; Research Institutes should develop more advance or improved seeds as well as disseminate same to farmers timely and adequately.
 
Different climes are endowed with a myriad of biodiversity resources, ecosystem services and functions suited to sustenance of lives and providing assorted raw materials for sustainable development if effectively managed. There is global outcry about disappearing biodiversity and mismanaged fragile ecosystems. Human endeavours are strongly implicated in the resulting distorted ecological balance. This study therefore sets out to examine the cause and effects of the declining singular gazetted forest reserve in Akwa Ibom State, the Stubbs Creek Forest Reserve (SCFR). Threats to survival of biodiversity and ecosystem services (BES) were studied qualitatively (a combination of field observation and engagement with key stakeholders of SCFR). Community forest occupational user-groups, corporate players and the public sector were engaged. Outcomes of the study suggest that among other factors, institutional weakness and unsustainable consumption patterns may be of primary concern in tackling further degradation. A quick concerted intervention is required to reposition SCFR for alignment with global sustainable development goal 15, ecosystem restoration and climate change adaptation.
 
Effects of boiled water pre-sowing treatment on Germination Rate (GR) of F. albida in three ecological zones GSZ = Guinea Savannah Zone, FSTZ = Forest-Savannah Transitional Zone and MSFZ = Moist Semi-deciduous Forest Zone. T1(0/0), T2(0/24), T3(30/24), T4(60/24), T5(120/24), T6(180/24), T7(300/24). Error bars are standard errors
Effect of pre-sowing treatments on total seedling length of F. albida seedlings in three ecological zones GSZ = Guinea Savannah Zone, FSTZ = Forest-Savannah Transitional Zone and MSFZ = Moist Semi-deciduous Forest Zone. T1(0/0), T2(0/24), T3(30/24), T4(60/24), T5(120/24), T6(180/24), T7(300/24). Error bars are standard errors
Root dry weight of seedlings from seeds that were subjected to different boiled water treatments after 120 DAS in three ecological zones GSZ = Guinea Savannah Zone, FSTZ = Forest-Savannah Transitional Zone and MSFZ = Moist Semi-deciduous Forest Zone. T1(0/0), T2(0/24), T3(30/24), T4(60/24), T5(120/24), T6(180/24), T7(300/24). Error bars are standard errors
Shoot/root ratio of seedlings of different boiled water pre-treated seeds of F. albida 165 DAS in three ecological zones GSZ = Guinea Savannah Zone, FSTZ = Forest-Savannah Transitional Zone and MSFZ = Moist Semi-deciduous Forest Zone. T1(0/0), T2(0/24), T3(30/24), T4(60/24), T5(120/24), T6(180/24), T7(300/24). Error bars are standard errors
Aims: To identify an appropriate boiled water pre-sowing treatment regime for improved germination, survival and early growth performance of Faidherbia albida (Delile) A. Chev., in three ecological zones of Ghana. Study Design: The design was a Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD) in three replicates, where the three different ecological zones were considered as blocks. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Bolgatanga (Guinea Savannah Zone), Abofuor (Forest-Savannah Transitional Zone), and Kumasi-Mesewam (Moist Semi-deciduous Forest Zone) between April 2017 and April 2018. Methodology: Matured seeds of F. albida were harvested, dried and cleaned. For each treatment replicate, one hundred F. albida seeds were immersed in boiled water (100ºC) for 0, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 300 seconds and then, soaked in water at room temperature for 24 hours. Seeds were then sown in drills on well prepared seed beds, and then observed for germination. Watering was done to keep the soil moist until the onset of germination. Results: There were significant interactive effects between ecological zones and pre-sowing treatments with respect to Final germination percentage (P<0.001), Germination rates (P<0.001) and Survival percentage (P=0.007). Root length (P=0.040), total plant length (P=0.040) and Number of leaves (P<0.001) also exhibited significant interactive effects due to ecological zones and pre-sowing treatments. Roots were significantly longer in the GSZ than in the more humid ecological zones whereas stems were significantly longer in the MSFZ than in the drier GSZ. Conclusion: Different durations of F. albida seeds in boiled water had different effects on germination and growth in the different ecological zones.
 
Maize (Zea mays L) is still largely a subsistence food crop under promotion as a food security crop and source of income for smallholders. It is grown in the mid altitude zone of Rwanda. Herbagreen is a Bio fertilizer, used successfully in agriculture in different countries of the world. The objective of this study was to determine the maize response to herbagreen foliar fertilizer application and determine the optimum rate for maximum yield. This was done in Randomized Complete Bloc Design (RCBD) with four treatments, replicated in four times. Four treatments of herbagreen rates including T1 as control, T2=0.31Kg/ ha-1, T3=0.63Kg/ha-1and T4=0.94Kg ha-1 of herbagreen foliar fertilizer. This was applied to a population of 53.333 plants/ha. The planting spacing was used at 75 cmX50 cm with 2 plants per hill. Analysis of variance for the different parameters measured showed that there was a high significant (p<0.001) among treatment for number of leaves, ear weight and grain yield. The effect of herbagreen foliar fertilizer differed significantly (p<0.05) for male flowering, female flowering, ear length, ear diameter and plant height. The maximum grain yield was 4.922 t ha-1 recorded with the application of 0.94 kg ha-1, followed by 0.63 kg/ha which produced 4.629 t ha-1 also 0.31 kg ha-1of herbagreen yielded 4.589 t ha-1 and lastly the minimum grain yield was found in control plots where it produced 3.569 t ha-1 The control plots did not receive any herbagreen foliar fertilizer. The optimum herbagreen foliar fertilizer rate for maximum grain yield was 0.94 kg ha-1 from the regression equation and the predicted grain yield at this rate was 4.8 t ha-1. Herbargreen foliar application can increase Maize yield to a certain extent. However, further experiments need to be done to ensure the sustainability of the application.
 
This study evaluated the early germination and growth variables of Irvingia gabonensis under organically primed and thermally amended soil media. Six media were prepared from Gmelina plantation topsoil by amendment with poultry waste (T2), river sand (T3) and combusted forest floor litters for 5 (T4), 10 (T5), 15 (T6) and 20 (T7) minutes respectively to contrast a control topsoil (T1). Soil media were analyzed for critical nutrient properties and engaged in the germination and early growth trial of Irvingia replicated three times, and arranged in a completely randomized design. Data collected were analyzed with ANOVA and significant means separated with the Duncan multiple range test. The results showed that Ca/Mg ratio was widest for T3, least CEC (13.2 meq/100 g soil) by T7 and slightly acidic pH (H2O) for T1 and T2 while T3, T4, T6 and T7 were alkaline. Germination at 6WAS was T4 (100%)> T1=T2=T5 (85.71%) > T3 (71.43%) > T6 (42.86%) > T7 (0%). The growth variables of seedling varied significantly (P<0.05) with T3 and T4 comparing favorably in collar diameter (4.50x10-1± 0.05 mm) and leaf area (35.08±4.85 mm2) although T3 recorded the highest stem height (117.79±0.42 mm). The study recommends the use of least thermally modified media (T4) and primed topsoil-riversand (T3) for fast germination in view of conserving food reserve for the critical early growth period of I. gabonensis in pursuit of its domestication in nutrient degraded soils.
 
Level of income generated by households from Non-timber forest products in the study area
Constraints to Non-timber forest products collection in the study area
Non-Timber Forest Products are important sources of income that can supplement farming and/or other activities to the rural dwellers. In spite of this, its potential to improve the standard of living and generate income to rural dwellers has not been known in Awka-North Local Government Area. The study was carried out from January to August, 2017. The study identified the variety of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) available to rural households, the level of income generated by households from these available Non-timber forest products and constraints to Non-timber forest products collection in the study area. Three towns; Achalla, Amansea and Mgbakwu were selected using multi-stage random sampling technique. A total of 100 copies of structured questionnaires were administered to obtain information from respondents who engaged in NTFPs based activities in the selected towns. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and 5-point Likert Type Scale. The study revealed that fish, snail, bush meat, spices, firewood, fruits, seeds and nuts, vegetables and honey are the Non-timber forest products available to the rural dwellers. Monthly income of ₦61,000 and above was generated by the rural dwellers who engaged in NTFPs sales. Lack of marketing, bush burning, deforestation, NTFPs scarcity, over exploitation, transportation, bad road network, distance from forest, market price of other products and unfavourable government policies are the constraints confronting the respondents in the collection of Non-timber forest products in the study area.
 
Variation in day time activities of dog faced baboon (Papio anubis) in captivity
Variation in the activities of dog faced baboon (Papio anubis) in Kano Zoological garden/week
Variation in the activities of dog faced baboon in Kano University of Science and Technology Wudil, Zoo/day
Variation in the activities of dog faced baboon (Papio anubis) in Kano University of Science and Technology Zoo/week
Aim: This study seeks to observed the daily activity patterns of dog faced baboon (Papio anubis) in Kano University of Science and Technology Wudil Zoo and Kano Zoological Garden. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out daily between 6:00am to 6:00pm from December 2016 to January 2017. Digital camera was also attached to cages at the two sites. The observation in the activity patterns were recorded on recording sheet, observation is done three times a week at 20 minutes intervals. Results: The findings on activity pattern of dog faced baboon (Papio anubis) in captivity shows that the day time activities decrease from morning to evening. Resting activities was 47.5%, movement and feeding were carried out in the morning, followed by afternoon and evening with 33.3% and 19.1% activities respectively. The results from the Kano Zoological Garden, indicated that 42.7% of the activities perform by dog faced baboon in captivity are resting, this is followed by movement which accounted for 34.9% of the activities, while feeding activities account for the least with 22.4%. Similarly, about 43.2% of the recorded activities carried out by dog faced baboon in Kano University of Science and Technology Wudil, Zoo was resting, followed by movement which constituted 34.8% of the activities and feeding activity which accounted for 22%. Conclusion: Due to the fact that majority of the baboons activities usually take place between morning and afternoon, it is recommended that visitors interested in baboons should plan their visitation to the Zoo pen during that time. It is also recommended that feeding and harassing of animals by the visitors should be discouraged in order to ensure consistency in their behaviour.
 
Represented eigenvalue factors of the principal component analysis
Apricot is a deciduous perennial tree, which classified within to the Rosacea family, sensitive to climatic factors, and its production has an economic role for many countries of the world, including Palestine. Mean annual temperatures and precipitation were analyzed, using data from a meteorological station of Jerusalem, Palestine, which has recorded between the year (1993-2012), and with the same number of years of apricot production, knowing that production data were taken from the Palestinian Statistics Center for the mentioned period. On the other hand, we used Professor Salvador Ravers Martins' methodology to classify the Earth in the process of analyzing environmental factors, there are two aspects of the factors: The first is climatic, which is the amount of rain or precipitation, mean monthly temperature and soil water reserve, and the second factor is the bioclimatic, which is annual ombrothermic index, simple continentality index, compensated thermicity index, and water deficit. In conclusion, Jerusalem was adversely affected by mean monthly temperature, precipitation, compensated thermicity index, deficit water, annual ombrothermic index during (1997-2002 and 2007-2012), but positively influenced by soil water reserve on apricot production, during (1993-1997 and 2002-2007), with a great rate of the variance in axis F1 (98.8%), axis F2 (0.82%) and symmetrical plot axes F1and F2 (99.8%), when the correspondence analysis was applied. However, humid areas characterized by mild summers are the suitable region for apricot production and productivity, with a temperature ranging between 22-24°C, at which high quality production can be obtained, the amount of rain is between 600 - 800 mm annually. Final, environmental regions in the thermomediterranean and the Mesomediterranean, with simple continentality index is 17 - 22, annual ombrothermic index is 2.5, while the compensated thermicity index is about 250/420, to obtain the highest ideal production of apricots in Jerusalem, Palestine.
 
The study investigated the effect of cassava peel on the growth and development of Gmelina arborea seedlings. The treatment was made up of cassava peel applied to top soil at 1 g, 2 g, 3 g, 4 g, 5 g, 6 g, 7 g, 8 g, 9 g, 10 g. The treatments were replicated three times. The treatments were mixed with 20 kg of soil thereby making a total of thirty three (33). The experiment, which lasted eight weeks, was laid out in Complete Randomized Design (CRD) and the following variables were assessed; stem height, stem diameter, leaf length and leaf production. The data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and mean separation was carried out using Least Significant Difference (LSD). The result obtained showed that treatment 6 g gave the best response in term of number of leaves with mean 16.35 while treatment 2 g had the least performance with mean 6.67. The treatment 3 g of cassava peel performed best in terms of leaf length with mean 18.00 while 10 g and 8 g treatments had the lowest stem diameter of 29 cm. With respect to plant height, the treatment of 6 g of cassava peel application had the best response with plant height of 46.67 cm, while the least value of 20.67 cm was recorded in treatment 8 g. Hence, the control (0 g) has significant difference from treatment 8 g. In all the variables assessed, the control showed close values with treatment 8 g, 9 g and 10 g. The result shows a higher level of significant difference to the control at p < 0.05. However, it is recommended that when raising Gmelina arborea where the traits, plant height and leaves are of importance, 6 g of cassava peel is better adapted. Hence, the plant could be raised in the absence of any treatment where appropriate soil is used.
 
The main objective of this study was to clarify the best concentration of the indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) in order to induce the formation of strong roots of Arbutus pavarii Pamp, an endangered plant in the El-Jabel El-Akhdar region in Libya. A study was carried out to find a protocol for its in vitro propagation. The present paper aimed to investigate the effects of different concentrations of IBA plant growth regulator on the rooting. Three weeks old seedlings obtained with in vitro germination were transferred to Murashige and Skoog (M&S) roots induction medium supplemented with different concentrations of IBA (0, 1, 1.5 and 2 mg L-1). The highest response was obtained with the M&S medium half-strength supplemented with IBA 1 mg L-1 concentration. All the measured growth indicators (rooting percentage, root length and dry weight) significantly enhanced when using this concentration.
 
Map of Ekiti State showing the location of the study areas
Tree species composition and classification of Ikogosi warm spring and Arinta waterfall watershed
Contribution of family to tree species density in the study area
Diversity indices of tree species in the study areas
An in-depth knowledge of the richness, diversity and species composition of plant community is vital for providing information for planning and sustainable utilization. This study assesses the diversity of tree species of Ikogosi warm spring and Arinta waterfall watersheds in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Direct observation and vegetation assessment were used for data collection in two hectares (ha) of land divided into four plots of 50 m by 50 m in each of the two study sites (Ikogosi warm spring and Arinta waterfall). Two plots were diagonally selected within each hectare. All living trees of basal diameter ≥10 cm were identified and classified into families. Shannon-Weiner diversity index, species evenness, relative density (RD), relative dominance (RD0) and importance value index (IVI) were used to assess and compare tree species diversity and abundance. Sorenson’s coefficient was used to compare sites for overlapping of similarity. The results revealed that seventy eight (78) species and 25 families were recorded in both watersheds with family Malvaceae having the highest species density (15). Malacantha alnifolia (5) and Voacanga africana (5) were the species most frequently encountered. Species diversity indices revealed vegetation with very high tree species diversity and abundance in the two study sites. Species evenness value revealed even distribution in Arinta waterfall than in Ikogosi warm spring. Diameter and height distribution of trees at the two watersheds indicates a forest structure that is immature and still expanding. Anthocleista vogelii, has the highest value of RD0 (15.63) and IVI (10.6) respectively. The study revealed that some species such as Anthonotha macrophylla, Aningeria robusta, Bridelia atroviridis, among others are threatened and endangered. Consequently, it was recommended that management strategies should be put in place to improve status of the watersheds while conservation efforts should be stepped up for species with rarity index value to prevent them from going into extinction.
 
Agriculture has taken a new dimension within the last few decades as emphasis is placed on value addition, especially in developing countries like Nigeria. However, extent of involvement of youth artisanal fisher-folks in value addition in fish production is largely unknown in literature. The study was conducted in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State of Nigeria with the view to determining youth artisanal fisher-folks involvement in fish value addition. Specifically, the study identified areas of fish value addition, sources of technical information and analyzed their extent of involvement in fish value addition. One hundred and twenty five respondents were selected with the use of multi-stage sample technique. Data collected were adequately described with frequency, percentages, mean while Chi-square was used to analyse association between variables. The mean age of fisher folks was 26.5 years with male dominance of about 74.4%. Furthermore, all fisher folks had a minimum of primary education. Smoking was the common value addition practiced. Government ADP and Fadama remained the sources of value addition practices and 62.2% of the fisher folks had low extent of involvement in value addition. To boost income was the main reason for engaging in value addition among the youth and sex ( = 16.12), extension contact ( = 9.06) and educational status ( = 9.24) were significantly associated with their extent of involvement in value addition at 0.05 significant level. The study establishes that youth fisher folks predominantly involved in smoking as the value addition to fish production. Adequate education on the importance of other value addition practices should be taught by the stakeholders in food security programme in Nigeria, especially to fish fishers. This will be a strategy to minimum fish importation in Nigeria.
 
This research was conducted to analyze the soil physico-chemical properties of Shonga Irrigation Scheme to ascertain its suitability for rice production. The study was carried out in the dry season of 2019. Disturbed soil samples were collected from the 0–15 and 15–30 cm soil layers in five identified areas in the irrigation scheme. The samples were sent to the Soil laboratory of the Lower Niger River Basin for physical and chemical analysis. Most of the soils were strongly acidic to moderately acidic with pH values ranging between 4.8 and 5.7. The organic carbon and organic matter ranged from 0.13 to 0.19% and 0.03 and 0.32%, respectively which implies low fertility. Calcium values ranged between 2.1 and 3.75 cmol/kg, with the low values related to the soil pH status. Magnesium values averaged 2.48 and 1.95 cmol/kg in the top and lower soil layers, respectively. Exchangeable Acidity (EA) values ranged between 0.20 and 3.40 cmol/kg in the surface horizon and between 0.2 and 5.4 cmol/kg in the sub-surface horizons. Available phosphorus had an average of 40.05 and 23.14 ppm in the surface and sub surface soil layers, respectively. Analysis of variance techniques was used for significant differences within chemical properties. For all tests, a threshold of P=.05 was used to define statistical significance. Soil pH and available phosphorus were within the recommended land suitability requirement for rice cultivation. Organic carbon, organic matter, calcium and magnesium were not within the recommended range for rice production. Organic carbon and organic matter can be supplied through the incorporation of organic manure.
 
Top-cited authors
Pinaki Chowdhury
  • Noakhali Science & Technology University
Issoufou Amadou
  • Dan Dicko Dankoulodo University of Maradi, Niger
Narayan Saha
  • Shahjalal University of Science and Technology
Tusher Kumer Ray
  • Bangladesh Forest Research Institute
Moussa Soulé
  • Université Dan Dicko Dankoulodo de Maradi (UDDM)