Asian Journal of Research and Reviews in Physics

Published by Sciencedomain International
Online ISSN: 2582-5992
Publications
In this paper, the quasi-elastic scattering (p, n) reactions are studied for a wide range of target nuclei 13C, 14C, 48Ca, 90Zr and 208Pb and different incident energies (35-160 MeV). The phenomenological Optical model potential and density independent approaches are used for these calculations in comparison with density dependent semi-microscopic approach. The density dependent parameters are modified to achieve the best calculations for many targets at different energy levels.
 
Previous laboratory work using a 0.12 M Epsom salt solution showed that HyPIR Electrolysis, or Hydrogen Production by Infrared Electrolysis, can increase the rate of hydrogen production from a solution of Epsom salt dissolved in water by irradiating the electrolyte with an optimum wavelength of light. This article presents data for a 0.25 M Epsom salt solution. A comparison of the data for different molarities shows that an increase in molarity of the electrolytic system decreases the rate of hydrogen production.
 
The release of magnetic field and plasma from the solar atmosphere (i.e. coronal mass ejections-CMEs and solar wind) resulting from solar magnetic activity can produce shock waves and geomagnetic storms. Shock waves are known to occur while the solar ejected particles alter from the supersonic to the subsonic regime. Especially, in the supersonic case for the flow of compressible gas interaction of shock waves with viscosity plays a key role for space weather broadcasts. Therefore, the major objective of this paper was to search the outcome of viscosity in the shocks subsequently detected after the CMEs occurred on December 18, 1999 and April 4, 2001 by using the previous modelling study of [1].
 
Spatial distribution of mean annual cumulative rainfall on Marche Region in 2000-2018 years. Red lines represent the boundaries of regional hydrographic catchments. G-B stands for Gauss-Boaga cartographic projected coordinate system
Spatial distribution of mean monthly air temperature during January on Marche region in 2000-2018 years
Aims: Temperature changes in the air, land and ocean together with the hydrological cycle and changing precipitation patterns are some of the topics assessed by scientist all over the world in order to study the signals of a changing climate. As the impacts of climate change are expected to be noticed both at global and local scale, a dataset of real-world precipitation and average air temperature at regional scale spanning a period of 19 years is provided and described in the present paper. Study Design: Starting from cumulative precipitation and average air temperature data, a set of annual and monthly spatially distributed maps have been generated in order to provide the scientific community with regional-scale data related to a temperate climate area. Place and Duration of Study: Marche Region, East-Central Italy, between January 2000 and December 2018. Methodology: We used in-situ rainfall and air temperature data provided by Marche Region (Italy) Security and Civil Protection Department in the framework of the regional meteorological and hydrological monitoring network (SIRMIP). SIRMIP network is composed of a mechanical and a telemetric sensing system. SIRMIP network consists of, among others, 230 rain gauges and 137 thermometers. Rainfall and air temperature data have been interpolated on a 1 km-resolution regular grid using Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) spatial interpolation. Temperature data were further processed through a linear regression using elevation from a high-resolution digital terrain model (DTM). Results: The generated dataset described in this paper consists of 228 monthly- and 19 annual-spatially distributed maps of rainfall and air temperature.
 
Coulomb Displacement Energies in mirror nuclei 25Mg, 25Al have been calculated using shell model code OXBASH [1] and compared with experimental results. The code calculations were done in the USD model space with the W Hamiltonian [2]. The OXBASH code which is based on famous nuclear model, the shell model, deals with evaluating energy levels in nuclei. A comparison had been made between our results and the available experimental data [3] to test theoretical shell model description of nuclear structure in mirror nuclei. The energy states of mirror nuclei are almost identical, except for the small effects due to Coulomb interaction where the symmetry in being broken. Energy spectrum calculated with this code was in good agreement with the published experimental data [3].
 
A statistically driven spectral method was carried out on 3D seismic data and well logs in ‘’VIC’’ Field within the Niger Delta with the aim of deriving reservoir properties and delineating stratigraphic features using edge detection attributes like coherence so as to have a better and clearer view of subsurface structure of a reservoir interval that possesses hydrocarbon using Spectral method. A suite of data consisting of seismic sections and composite logs comprising Gamma-ray, Resistivity, Spontaneous Potential, Sonic Time and Porosity logs (density and Neutron) were utilized to identify reservoir interval on log signature across wells 4 and 5 and the reservoir interval obtained was between 11,164 feet and 11,196 feet. Edge detection attribute like coherence was computed from the amplitude data in time domain and transformed to frequency domain using Fourier Transform tool in MATLAB. In order to display well log in time, well to seismic tie was carried out using check shot data which was used as time to depth relationship. The analysis of the spectral domain shows distinct bright spots that vary with measured depth due to variation in fluid and formation properties. The results led to an enhancement of seismic data interpretation in the field of study due to a spectral technique method that was applied to calculate the frequency slices. The results indicate that the spectral domain in coherence attributes revealed better geological features and the reservoir character such as faults and fractures. Frequency domain gives better geological maps as it is used to filter data, which means it is an enhancement of hidden features in time domain and gives a smoother variation of the features that has low frequency values. A reservoir with low frequency values is a sandy environment showing stratigraphy features. Hence, the reservoir is suspected to be a channel fill reservoir. This implies that Spectral domain (frequency) defines major geological areas of the ‘’VIC’’ field and gives much clearer image of the reservoir features within the field than in time domain.
 
In this work, data extracted from OPAC 4.0 was compared and validated with 11 years data record from MEERA-2 model (average Angstrom Exponent and average Extinction Coefficient). The 11 years MEERA-2 model data for 10 selected deserts was extracted at an average relative humidity (RH) condition of 78%RH while OPAC considers eight different (RH) levels (00% to 99%RH). Based on the investigation, MEERA-2 model has the highest angstrom exponent (a) values for (Arabian, Danakil, Ferlo, Lompoul, Patagonian, Registan and Syrian deserts), which is greater than 1, and this signifies the dominance of fine mode particles over coarse mode particles when compared to OPAC 4.0. It can be seen that Chalbi (0.845), Karoo (0.482) and Sahara (0.417) deserts have an a values which is less than 1(indicating the dominance of coarse mode particles over fine mode particles). It can also be said that, MEERA-2 (a) is still greater than that of OPAC and this shows that the deserts atmosphere can be dominated by fine mode particles. The angstrom exponent (a) for OPAC 4.0 fluctuate all through the four studied components except for WASO which increases with the increase in RH and particles concentration (and this signifies that the particles dissolved as they uptake water and reach their saturation level). Based on the results of the investigation (time series analysis), it was found that the model’s significance (b) level are very high, and this shows that the aerosols distribution fluctuates around a reasonable stable, which signifies that the models are very significant. The analysis further found that, the significance (d) from the seasonal aspect is very poor except for Ferlo and Lompoul deserts, this signifies that season effect is consistent over time. It was also found that, the MEERA-2 has the highest visibility (km) over (OPAC 4.0). The investigation further revealed that the Arabian, Syrian and Patagonian deserts have the highest visibility (km) in the months of January, February, June, November and December. OPAC model underestimated the visibility when compared to MEERA-2 model.
 
Aim: Design Analysis of 7.5KW Stand-alone Solar Photovoltaic Power System for an Intermediate Household. Methodology: A design analysis of standalone 7.5KW PV system was carried out using PV modeling equations based on load estimated. The analyzed data of the solar photovoltaic components was used to determine the estimated output power of 7.5KW. Therefore, a number of modeling equations and methodologies for designing a PV system based on application have been developed and simplified in order to ensure the optimum performance of the system. The analyzed solar powered 7.5KW system was achieved by designing 24 solar panels of 335W each, 16 deep cycle battery of 200A each, and a pulse width modulation (PWM) charge controller of 60A to monitor the output of the battery for safety operation. The battery will be connected to the inverter circuit (DC-AC) to generate 220V alternating current in its output via a step-up transformer. In this paper, design analysis of a standalone PV system enables of producing power to a household with approximate consumption of 7.5KW was conducted. Results: The standalone PV system along with the cost implications was analysed and designed. In this analysis a sequential design plan of an independent standalone solar powered photovoltaic structure was analysed and overviewed to supply continuous and uninterrupted power to a typical utility with maximum power consumption of 7500W (7.5KVA). The calculated/computed values of all the components yield a result that can serve the purpose. Based on the design analysis, the result implies that the estimate consumption of 7.5KW in a day requires 24 PV panels of 335 Watts each, 16 (12V, 200Ah) batteries, 10KW inverter, (12V, 60A) charge controller and copper wire of cross-sectional area (1.688mm2) for installation. Conclusion: In Nigeria, to generate a solar power of 7.5KVA requires almost $15,585.70 which is equivalent to N 5,965,426.66.
 
Measurement of radioactive contamination in some commonly consumed foodstuffs within the six area councils of Abuja, Nigeria was conducted in this study by means of a very sensitive and portable 3M/3-X Geiger Müller counter-based environmental radiation dosimeter. Eight different food samples were randomly selected in each of the sample locations making a total of 48 foodstuffs samples surveyed across the six area councils. The results obtained show that, the range of radiation dose levels in the analyzed samples varied from 0.01590.0001 to 0.34070.0002 μSvy-1 at Bwari; 0.14900.0001 to 0.39020.0002 μSvy-1 at AMAC; 0.00950.0001 to 0.02090.0001 μSvy-1 at Gwagwalada; 0.00570.0001 to 0.01330.0002 μSvy-1 at Kuje; 0.02740.0001 to 0.22710.0002 μSvy-1 at Abaji; Kwali was between 0.01820.0001 and 0.35030.0002 μSvy-1, and their corresponding arithmetic mean are 0.16900.0001 μSvy-1, 0.22560.0001 μSvy-1, 0.01330.0001 μSvy-1, 0.00880.0001 μSvy-1, 0.13600.0001 μSvy-1 and 0.12370.0001 μSvy-1, which gives estimated annual effective dose rates of 0.18850.0003 mSvy-1, 0.25760.0001 mSvy-1, 0.11700.0001 mSvy-1, 0.07710.0001 mSvy-1, 0.15530.0002 mSvy-1, and 0.14120.0001 mSvy-1 for Bwari, AMAC, Gwagwalada, Kuje, Abaji and Kwali area councils respectively. This finding reveals that the obtained values were sufficiently less than the maximum recommended global average exposure dose limit for environmental background (2.4 mSvy-1) and general public dose limit (1.0 mSvy-1). The radiation dose levels and dose rates associated with the intake of foodstuffs across the area councils are, therefore, relatively low and may not pose any immediate radiological health hazard to the populace, as deterministic radiation effects occur only in extreme cases.
 
Physics is science that determines the living and life styles of the people. However, it has many misconceptions in the concepts. In this study, the effect of group work and traditional method in addressing the Class IX student’s misconceptions about light is investigated. The explanatory sequential mixed method was used for the study. It was carried out in one of the Middle Secondary School [MSS] under Trashigang district. The sample of this study consisted of 42 Class IX students and 5 science teachers. The data collection was done using multiple choice questions as pre-test and post-test with explanations. The semi-structured interview was conducted to support the quantitative findings. The data obtained indicated that the students in the experimental group were more successful in addressing the misconception of light concept than the control group. The independent t-test result showed the significant difference in terms of mean score p<0.05 in the post test result. The result obtained from the study rejects the null hypothesis. The findings confirm that the group work is effective in addressing the misconceptions of light comparing to traditional method of teaching and learning.
 
This paper discussed the role of physics in medical science that enhanced the health standard of the people in Nigeria towards healthy national development. The paper addresses some critical and ever-growing health challenges such as cancer, tumor, mental illness, kidney problems and the recent global pandemic COVID-19 confronting the health sector and its implications towards health care development in Nigeria. It is noteworthy that physics techniques have provided help in the field of medicine in facing the identified challenges in the health sector through effective diagnosis and therapeutic managements. The study concluded that the intervention of physics in medical science helps in enhancing the entire health standard of the people which brings about increase in productivity leading to national development. It was suggested that development of physics-based technologies across the nation be given the desired encouragement.
 
Map of the sampled locations in Nasarawa west
Measured exposure rate and their geopoints and elevation for swampy agricultural soils in Keffi, Nasarawa State
Measured exposure rate and their geopoints and elevation for swampy agricultural soils in Kokona, Nasarawa State
Measured exposure rate and their geopoints and elevation for swampy agricultural soils in Toto, Nasarawa State
Measured exposure rate and their geopoints and elevation for swampy agricultural
In this study, assessment of outdoor background exposure levels in some selected swampy agricultural soil in Nasarawa West, Nigeria has been conducted. An in-situ measurement of outdoor background exposure rate (in mRhr-1) for a total of fifty farms (ten each from Keffi (KF), Kokona (KK), Karu (KR), Toto (TT), and Nasarawa (NS)) were done using a well calibrated portable halogen-quenched Geiger Muller (GM) detector (Inspector alert Nuclear radiation monitor SN:3544). A geographical positioning system (GPS) was used at an elevation of 1.0 m above ground level to obtain the geographical location. The radiological hazard parameters were evaluated using the measured outdoor background exposure rates. The values obtained were compared with recommended permissible limits to ascertain the radiological hazard status of the swampy agricultural farms. The mean values of the outdoor background exposure levels (0.23, 0.038, 0.028, 0.022, and 0.039 mRh-1), absorbed dose rates (458.49, 334.95, 188.79, 194.01, and 343.65 nGyh-1) and excess lifetime cancer risk (1.968, 1438, 0.810, 0.832, and 1.475) each for KF, KK, KR, TT, and NS respectively, are higher than the recommended safe limits of 0.013 mRh-1, 84.0 nGyh-1, 0.00029 respectively as recommended by UNSCEAR and ICRP. On the other hand, the mean annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) values (0.563, 0.410, 0.232, 0.238, and 0.421 mSvy-1 for KF, KK, KR, TT, and NS respectively) are below the recommended permissible limits of 1.00 mSvy-1 for general public exposure. Generally, the study revealed that swampy agricultural soils in Nasarawa west are radiologically safe with little contamination which could be attributed to the geological formation and partly due to human activity in the area.
 
In this study, an analytical model is proposed to investigate the sound transmission loss through multi-walled plates with air layers or decompression air layers, under the diffuse incidence field. Using the present approach, the influences of various parameters, such as the wall thickness, the decompressed air and the thickness of air space, on the sound transmission loss through are simulated and discussed in detail. It is seen that, due to the wave frequency of mass-air-mass resonance between double-walled glass plates, the sound transmission loss of the plates can be improved at low frequency range. The sound transmission loss tends to increase with decreasing air pressure because the sound is not transmitted through vacuum space. The design method can be used to investigate the effect of various geometric and material parameters on the sound transmission loss. The advantage of the simulation procedure is easily used for designing the layer structures with different parameter to improve the sound insulation effect.
 
Typical wind turbine power output with steady wind speed
is the bar chart for average monthly wind speed against the month of the year. The red horizontal line indicates the level of the threshold speed which can generate electricity. Observation from the figure shows that the winds speed exhibits double maxima along the months of the year. The wind speed increases from the month of March and first maximum is observed in June, it then decreases consistently until October when the minimum wind speed is attained. The second maximum starts from November of one year and attained the peak gust in January of the following year. it is likely that the wind speed decreases with increase in the amount of rainfall because the period covered by decreased wind speed is well known rainfall period for the study
One of the major developments in the technology today is the wind turbine that generates electricity and feed it directly to the grid which is used in many part of the world. The main purpose of this work is to determine the wind potential for electricity generation in Aliero, Kebbi state. Five years Data (2014-2018) was collected from the metrological weather station (Campell Scientific Model), the equipment installed at Kebbi State University of Science And Technology Aliero The data was converted to monthly and annual averages, and compared with the threshold average wind speed values that can only generate electricity in both vertical and horizontal wind turbines. The highest average wind speed 2.81 m/s was obtained in the month of January and the minimum average wind speed of 1.20 m/s in the month of October. Mean annual wind speed measured in the study area shows that there has been an increase in the wind speed from 2014 which peaked in 2015 and followed by sudden decrease to a minimum seasonal value in the year 2016. The highest wind direction is obtained from the North North-East (NNE) direction. From the results of wind power density it shows that we have highest wind power density in month of January and December with 0.8635 w/ m2 and 0.8295 w/ m2 respectively, while lowest wind power density in the month of October and September with 0.6780 w/ m2 and 0.6575 w/ m2 respectively. Result of the type Wind Turbine to be selected in the study area shows that the site is not viable for power generation using a horizontal wind turbine but the vertical wind turbine will be suitable for the generation of electricity.
 
The interaction of high velocity plasma with Earth’s magnetic field is fundamental and offer many questions on high latitude electrodynamics. The problems associated with influence of electric field and Field Aligned Current (FAC) generation is investigated with the aid of spherical cap harmonic analysis at 830 Mag. Lat. in southern hemispheres. The investigation is done on the cases with different Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) conditions after the earth directed solar events. The helio-plasma parameters viz., density, velocity, energy, electron temperature are also noted during the field aligned current studies. It seems that, due to external magnetic field influence polarization of plasma electric field take place (reorientation of the convective cells). It happens with different orientation as per the magnitude and direction of By and Bz component and the horizontal currents. It is noted that the FAC value also depends on kinetic energy of the plasma streams and conductivity of external loading. As the plasma decelerates by force Jsw X Esw, the resultant current may extend along the field lines. Increases in the FAC density are seemed to be proportional to the transmission function.
 
In the form of two quasi-particles coupled to a core described by the IBM-1 and Triaxil Rotor models, the high-spin states of the Ba and Ce isotopes are studied. Bands based on both (vh11/2)-2 and (configurations are considered, which is found to be appropriate for this region to better explain band-crossing systems. Between the recent experimental data and the calculated energy spectra and electric transition probability, fair agreement is achieved.
 
The measurement of magnetic field intensity within Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic, Rumuola was carried out with the aid of a handheld Bentech (GM-3120) Model Electromagnetic Radiation Metre. A total of 6 sampled locations were recorded; randomly with six distinct measurement and their coordinates at each of the sampled location with the aid of the global system position satellite (GPS) device. The measurement took place between 2017 November to 2018 March. A minimum value of 0.3417 0.65 T was recorded at the Administrative Block and a maximum value of 1.9767 1.43 T at the Business Centre. The overall mean values of all the sampled locations all fall below the recommended limit for the outdoor magnetic field intensity exposure of 100T of the International Commission of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The outcome of the measurement reveals that the exposure to magnetic field intensity to staffs, students and commercial workers within the campus of the Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic poses no health hazard.
 
Substrates used in perovskite solar cells as front contact are usually transparent conductive oxide (TCO) to allow light to pass through the device. The dominating TCO employed in perovskite solar cells are indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO). However, it is imperative to investigate alternative TCOs due to the scarcity of indium metal, relatively low electrical conductivity and high leakage current in ITO and FTO. In this study, simulation has been carried out using Solar Capacitance Simulator (SCAPS) to investigate the efficiency of methyl-ammonium tin iodide (CH3NH3SnI3) based solar cells including various TCOs such as boron-doped zinc oxide (BZO), molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) and zinc oxide (ZnO). TCO parameters such as thickness, donor concentration and operating temperature were varied to study their influence on device performance. The best device performance was achieved using MoO3 with power conversion efficiency of 25.83 % and Jsc, Voc and FF of 32.44 mA/cm2, 0.979 V and 81.38 % respectively. The work shows the potential of fabricating an improved CH3NH3SnI3 perovskite solar cell with MoO3 as front contact.
 
In this article we investigate the two-dimensional incompressible rotating and stratified, just rotating, just stratified Euler equations, comparing with each other and with the normal Euler equations with the self-similar Ansatz. The motivation of our study is the following the presented rotating stratified fluid equations can be interpreted as a well-established starting point of various more complex and more realistic meteorologic, oceanographic or geographic models. We present analytic solutions for all four models for density, pressure and velocity fields, most of them are some kind of power-law type of functions. In general the presented solutions have a rich mathematical structure. Some solutions show nonphysical explosive properties others, however are physically acceptable and have finite numerical values with power law decays. For a better transparency we present some figs for the most complicated velocity and pressure fields. To our knowledge there are no such analytic results available in the literature till today. Our results may attract attention in various scientific fields.
 
The solar power capacity depends on orientation angle of the solar panel. This study evaluates the angle dependence of solar power capacity for a summer season in 2017. Using three solar panels, with 10 Watt capacity each placed on a metallic frame to facilitate changing tilt and azimuth angles independently. Experiments were done for the first six days of three months, and the first three days of each month were used to measure voltages for different tilt angles by changing from 0° to 26° in steps of 2o. The remaining three days of a week of every month, the middle solar panel was fixed at a tilt angle that yielded maximum power while the two panels were moved with azimuth angles from 0o to 270 in steps of 3o to clockwise and counterclockwise with respect to the middle solar panel. A digital multimeter was used to record the circuit voltage of the solar panels with 10 ohms resistor serving as a load. Data gathering was done every ten minutes, during the daytime from 9:30 am to 16:30 pm. The study has shown that the maximum power output was obtained at the tilt angle of 4o in June and July, 2o in August and a season tilt was found at 4o. Maximum solar power outputs were obtained when solar panels facing east and west were oriented between 0o and 3o. This recommends that the maximum solar power production depends on the tilt angle of 4o and clockwise and counterclockwise of 3o orientation for this geographical location.
 
a) b)
a. Standing wave with 2-antinode ,and 3-nodes
We follow theoretically the motion of the sodium atoms in vapor state under the influence of a laser mode in (1 + 1) D, which is achieved by introducing different optical filters. In the Dirac interaction representation, the equations of motion are represented via the Bloch form together with the Pauli operators to find the elements of the density matrix of the system. The emergence of the principle of coherence in varying the angles of the laser mode permits the evaluation of the average force affecting the atoms' acceleration or deceleration, and hence the corresponding velocities and temperatures are investigated. The atomic vapor is introduced in a region occupied by a heat bath presented by the laser field, such that the state of the atomic vapor is unstable inside the system due to the loss or gain of its kinetic energy to or from the laser field. This instability is studied by finding the eigenvalues of the system's entropy. Resorting to the assumption of Botin, Kazantsev, and Pusep, who issued in the presence of the weak and strong spontaneous emission, a coupling between the mean numbers of photons in terms of time, which allows the evaluation of the rate of entropy production of the system under study. No singularities are found throughout the process of equations solving and other calculations. Resorting to symbolic software, a set of figures illustrating the nonlinear behavior in the dynamics of the problem is present. In this paper, we introduce a theoretical study of the effect of two-counter propagation traveling plane waves on the motion of the sodium atoms in the vapor state by varying the coherence angles to investigate the atomic behavior. Good agreements are found with previous studies.
 
In this study, we consider an holographic dark energy and dark matter interacting model in the Bianchi Type-V universe with a stretched exponential scale factor. We obtain the Hubble, shear, deceleration, and equation of state parameters based on the presented model and give the numerical solutions. We show that the anisotropy in the early universe plays an important role in the time evolution of the universe. Furthermore, we show that an interacting anisotropic model with stretched exponential scale factors can explain all epochs of the universe.
 
Map of Pokhara City of Nepal [15,16]
Effective dose from natural background radiation at different locations of Pokhara city
Measurement of outdoor natural background radiation doses at different locations of Pokhara city, Nepal was carried out using GCA-07W, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) certified Geiger Muller (GM) detector. From the measurements, the least value of background radiation dose rate was found to be 0.26 ± 0.08 μSv/hr for Mahendra Cave area, and the highest value of dose rate was found to be 0.65 ± 0.12 μSv/hr for Prithvi Narayan Campus. The average annual effective dose rate of Pokhara city was found to be 0.56 ± 0.12 mSv/yr ranging from 0.31 ± 0.09 mSv/yr to 0.80 ± 0.14 mSv/yr. The radiation levels in Pokhara, the most populated city of the western development region of Nepal, were found to be within the secure limit for areas of the normal background recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (1 mSv/yr). Further, the current result was compared with the previous study of annual effective dose rate measured in Kathmandu city. Comparable value of the average annual effective dose rate in Pokhara and Kathmandu was obtained.
 
The cohesive energies of 3-dimensional (3-D) topological insulators bismuth antimony (BiSb) and bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) were calculated. The Fritz Haber Institute Ab-initio molecular simulations (FHI-aims) code was employed for this calculation. The output files of the FHI-aims code were used during the computation and the total energies at each number of iterations for single free atoms and bulk were then calculated. The results from this work revealed that bismuth atom becomes stable at 3rd iteration meanwhile both selenium and antimony atoms gain stability at the 5th iteration. The results also showed that bismuth antimony acquire stability at the 3rd iteration and bismuth selenide gain stability at 9th iteration. This implies that among the free atoms studied in this work bismuth atom is more stable and for the bulk bismuth antimony is more stable. The cohesive energies of BiSb and Bi2Se3 were calculated using the optimized parameters. The results obtained from the calculation of the cohesive energies in this work were 1.02eV and 1.76eV for BiSb and Bi2Se3 respectively. This results compared reasonably well with experimental results and have little percentage errors of 1.30% for bismuth antimony and 29.55% for bismuth selenide. The deviation observed in this work may be due to the DFT calculation of the solid rather than the atoms themselves.
 
Determination of radionuclides’ activity concentration in fruits is essential for the protection of human health. Fruits can be radioactive due to the present of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) and technically enhanced radioactive materials (TENORMs) in the environment. The Assessment of Radionuclide activity concentration in Some Fruits from Niger Delta, Nigeria and its Health Risks were carried out using gamma ray spectroscopy. The study measured the activity concentration of radionuclides in fruits and the results showed that the total activity concentration of 40K, 232Th and 226Ra in fruits were 578.24 Bqkg-1, 263.84 Bqkg-1 and 128.35 Bqkg-1 respectively. The study found out that 40K has the highest value of activity concentration while apricot has the highest value of radionuclide concentration compared to other fruits. The statistical analysis of data was also done using statistical packages. The average estimated AED for Infants, Children and Adults due to the radioactivity in Avocado, Apricot, Guava and Pear were; 829.02 µSvy-1, 565.865 µSvy-1, and 838.725 µSvy-1, 2737.665 µSvy-1, 4361.4875 µSvy-1 and 2497.9025 µSvy-1, 651.20833 µSvy-1, 1202.6767 µSvy-1 and 813.22167 µSvy-1, and 1164.7883 µSvy-1, 1724.2933 µSvy-1 and 1088.8933 µSvy-1 respectively. The estimated AED due to the consumption of various fruits are above the world value. However, the estimated excess lifetime cancer risks for the various fruits are far below the world (WHO) limit. The study concluded that there is no cancer risk associated with the consumption of fruits in the study area and that the fruits that have tap root systems recorded highest value of radionuclides’ activity concentration.
 
Map showing the study area [6]
Radionuclide concentration on soil
Hazard Indices
Soil /plant transfer ratio
The assessment of activity of concentration of radionuclides in soil and food crops from solid mineral mining sites at Ishiagu, in Ivo L.G.A of Ebonyi State was carried out using the necessary measuring instruments. Samples of soil and cassava crop collected from around the mining sites. The samples were analysed using gamma ray spectrometry. The average activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soil samples were 12.37,16.08, and 144.29 Bqkg-1 while those for cassava were 2.81, 16.80, and 205.41 Bqkg-1. The soil/plant radionuclide transfer ratio estimated are 0.62, 2.43 and 2.51 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. All the radiological risk parameters estimated are relatively low. The result of this work showed that the obtained results for all samples were lower than the international accepted limit. Hence, from radiological health standpoint, the obtained values of effective doses may not pose significant threat to both human and the environment.
 
Wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometer was used to analyze heavy metal concentration in soils and vegetables. The soil and vegetable samples were randomly collected from Minjingu village of Manyara region in Tanzania. The results indicate the soils to be contaminated with heavy metals with mean concentrations of 53±0.4 For Mn, 40±0.2 for Sr, 2059±4.2 for Fe, 760±2.7 for Al, 12±0.3 for Cs and 4±0.04 for Ni in mg/kg which was above the Maximum Tolerable Limits (MTLs). Except Cl was below MDL. While vegetables recorded the mean concentrations of 60±1.2 for Mn, 68±0.1 for Sr, 620±2.36 for Fe, 284±1,13 for Al, 56±0.5 for Cs, 13±0.1 for Ni and 714±0.7 for Cl in mg/kg. The reference and experimental results of soil and vegetables revealed that the optimized machine has given the best results, where the experimental data was very close to the reference values The reference material of soil 7 and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 395 for vegetables shows the deviation of less than 2%.The Minimum Detection Limit (MDL) for vegetables and soil of the WDXRF spectrometer was obtained under low back ground for different matrix effects. There were high correlation coefficient of heavy metals in soils and vegetables at 99% level. The findings indicate that Minjingu soils and grown vegetables were highly contaminated with heavy metals mainly from soils and polluted air, at levels able to pose detrimental health effects to the consumers. Thus need of regular monitoring of the grown vegetables around phosphate mines is recommended.
 
Aim: The aim of this research is to design an automatic fire detection and control. Methodology: The system consists of two sensors, microcontroller, buzzer and a pump/sprinkler. An LM35 integrated chip has been used as temperature sensor while MQ-2 gas sensor has been used as smoke sensor. All sensors are connected to the microcontroller through an input/output port. The controlling software for the whole system was designed in C programming language. The popular high performance, low power 8-bit microcontroller from the AVR family microcontrollers has been used. The system was finally tested by introducing fire parameters (smoke and temperature) close to the smoke and temperature detectors respectively. When the parameters go above the set level in the detectors, audio alarm, light indicator and pump/sprinkler were activated. The measured temperature of the system was compared with the reference temperature. Results: The result showed that there was a mean deviation of 1.550C between the measured values and reference values which served as the control. Conclusion: The constructed system is compact and easy to install. The constructed fire control device is quite cheap and affordable to every category of person.
 
For the periods 01 July, 02 July, and 03 July 2018, important atmospheric parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, pressure, wind direction, and wind speed have been calculated over a tropical Indian station Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E). Atmospheric Boundary Layer height (ABLH) was estimated using various analytical methods such as, vertical gradient, double gradient, and logarithmic gradient, and the results are compared with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ABLH data. With the COSMIC Radio Occultation (RO) technique and a regular balloon-borne radiosonde, tropopause heights and their corresponding temperatures were determined using minimum temperature criteria. Gradient and double gradient methods were more successful at capturing ABLHs than the logarithmic gradient method.
 
Atmospheric concentrations of 7Be and 212Pb were measured for 11 years (2008 – 2018) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The mean activity concentrations of 7Be and 212Pb were found to be within the range of 1.29 – 5.71 mBq/m3 and 10.85 – 50.06 mBq/m3, respectively. The annual mean activity concentrations of 7Be and 212Pb were 4.72 ± 1.18 mBq/m3 and 29.76 ± 13.63 mBq/m3, respectively. Distinct annual trends were depicted on 7Be and 212Pb, suggesting that the two radionuclides were affected differently with atmospheric conditions. Monthly atmospheric concentrations of 7Be showed a strong seasonal variation trend with the highest in January and February and lowest in April. 212Pb depicted the highest concentration during June and July and lowest in January and December. The regression analysis for 7Be and 212Pb activity concentrations together with number of meteorological parameters revealed that the relative humidity, rainfall, air temperature, absolute humidity and wind speed are the most significant parameters affecting radionuclides activity concentrations in the atmosphere. The sunspot numbers show 66.7% of its variability with 7Be activity concentration which further suggesting that other parameters may influence its variation. 212Pb, on the other hand, shows only 27.3% of its variability which clearly indicates that the existence of cosmic rays does not affect its activity concentration in the atmosphere.
 
In this paper, it is presented a representative sample of steady state iron plasmas focusing the attention on two issues. First, the huge computation capability extension up to millions of plasmas with the implementation of a collisional radiative balance in the relativistic average atom model ATMED. Second, it will be addressed the good agreement of atomic and radiative properties not only with respect to very recent experimental measurements of laboratories and High Energy Density facilities, but also to the last theoretical developments in quantum mechanics of statistical methods, as new codes based on the self consistent Hartree-Fock-Slater model for the average atom which in turn solve the Schrödinger’s or Dirac’s equations of radial wave functions. The new codes have been validated with some state of the art models as OPAL, SCO-RCG, STA, CASSANDRA, LEDCOP, THERMOS, etc. The results for plasma properties can be considered as relatively precise and optimal, being checked fundamentally the high sensitivity of calculations to changes in regime, local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) or non-LTE (NLTE), electronic and radiation temperatures, dilution factor, matter or electronic density and plasma length. The systematic theoretical investigation is carried out through comparison of calculations performed with a wide set of atomic collisional radiative codes with detailed configurations or codes of the average atom formalism. Some transmissions computed with ATMED CR using UTA (Unresolved Transition Array) formalism are also checked with respect to very recent experimental measurements of laboratories.
 
Location 1 (Iyana Isashi)
Geophysical and physiochemical investigations were carried out along Lagos-Badagry Expressway, Southwest, Nigeria on three locations dominated by highway runoff, with a view to monitoring the effect of highway runoff on nearby groundwater. The locations were: Iyana Isashi, Iyana Era and Agbara. An overview of the subsurface resistivity distribution was achieved employing Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) using Schlumberger array and Two-dimensional (2D) resistivity imaging (Wenner array). The ABEM Terrameter SAS 1000 was used for both VES and 2D resistivity surveys and the data were analysed using IPI2win and RES2DINV, respectively. The VES results showed up to four geoelectric layers consisting of sand, clayey sand, clay and sandy soils. The resistivity at Agbara was found varying from 3.52 Ωm - 11 Ωm. This low resistivity value showed a high level of infiltration of highway runoff into the subsurface, thereby causing contamination of the groundwater. Iyana Isashi and Iyana Era have a relatively moderate resistivity values ranging from 103 Ωm to 178 Ωm. Physiochemical analysis of groundwater samples collected at the study locations revealed high electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and pH values. The results of the borehole sample taken at 32 m away from the profile point at Agbara produced higher values of electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids than those of other locations, hence validating the electrical resistivity surveys, indicating that the groundwater sample from the survey point at Agbara is contaminated.
 
The ghost condensation of the early universe in a pre-big bang phase has been presented in this paper through duration of a non-singular bounce. The undergoing universe contracts and passes smoothly in an expanding universe via a post-big bang phase. Initially developing and then taming any ghost like instabilities, the Null Energy Condition (NEC) is explicitly violated through the curvature mechanism of an adiabatic perturbed metric. The vacuum state of the ongoing phase is stabilized via a Lagrangian that in essence stabilizes the vacuum state under the higher order derivatives. The violation of the NEC regards a catastrophic vacuum instability, which re-emerges with a correction valid at small energies and momenta, below the UV-cut-off scale that, could potentially be problematic if one tries to construct a UV-completed theory of this Ekpyrotic model. The scale-invariant curvature perturbation, that arises and is sourced out of the scale-invariant entropy perturbations sourced by 2-Ekpyrotic scalar fields, that, in contrast, becomes constant on the super-horizon limits, due to the non-singular nature of the background geometry. Apart, from the ghost condensates, this theory addresses the new Ekpyrotic theory which in order becomes a distinguishable alternative to inflation theory for the birth of the universe. As per the recent WMAP data, the Ekpyrotic model has a spectral red tilt that shows the bounced scalar potential falling through a negative phase shift during the matter-fluid fluctuations in the hot big bang phase.
 
Based on quantum entanglement and corresponding quantum communication, we research a simple superluminal entangled communication scheme, whose key is to establish two mutually entangled particles or devices A and B. We observe and control the information of A position, then can know the corresponding results of the other B. This is not to send directly information each other. It may be superluminal. In special relativity we provided that there are necessary two symmetrical topological structures separated by the light-cone, which includes the generalized Lorentz transformation (GLT) for the spacelike interval, in which phase velocity is superluminal. It is base of this scheme, and may test GLT.
 
When heavenly bodies are made up of tiny atoms, it is imperative to find the correlations that might exist among ‘atoms’ and ‘heavenly body’ as a whole. In this context, by considering three virtual gravitational constants assumed to be associated with the three atomic interactions i.e. (electromagnetic, strong and weak interactions) and by considering four basic semi empirical (reference) relations pertaining to the four gravitational constants, a bold attempt is made to estimate the Newtonian gravitational constant (GN). Its fitted and recommended values are 6.679855x10-(11) m3/kg/sec2 and 6.67408x10-(11) m3/kg/sec2 respectively and error is -0.08653%. As current unification paradigm is failing in estimating (GN) from atomic and nuclear physical constants, our work can be recommended for further study.
 
An analysis of Geothermal Gradients in the Eastern Niger Delta basin was done using Bore Hole Temperature (BHT) data from three (3) adjacent oil fields. BHT data was converted to static formation temperature by using the conventional method of increasing measured BHT data by 10% and Geothermal Gradient computed using its simple linear relationship with depth, surface temperature and static temperature at depth. Projections were then made for change in Geothermal gradients at 1km intervals to a depth of 4 km. Results obtained showed significant variations across Idama, Inda and Robertkiri fields with average geothermal gradients of 17.3⁰C/Km, 22.6⁰C/Km and 23.1⁰C/Km respectively. Variation in the geothermal gradients in the area is attributed to lithological control and differential rates of sedimentation during basin evolution. Also, results showed that the Geothermal Gradient in the area are generally moderate and could be a good reason for the occurrence of more oil hydrocarbons than gas in the area.
 
The arrangement of piezo sensors and connections in the system
Piezo sensor voltage output for different weight
Aim: The study examined the effect of time on amount of voltage generated in a foot beat electricity generating system stored in a battery. Study Design: A system made of piezoelectric materials was designed such that the foot beats of dancers on a platform would cause a mechanical deformation that would lead to conversion of mechanical energy due to pressure from the foot beats to electrical energy; and can be stored in a rechargeable lead acid battery for future use. Place and Duration of Study: Awka Anambra State, Nigeria, between November 2018 and April 2020. Methodology: A sheet of plywood measuring 300 mm x 300 mm x 3 mm thick was placed on a hard wooden board of 300 mm x 300 mm x 25 mm thick where twelve piezoelectric sensors were connected in series with foam spring inserted as separators and to aid in returning after deformation. As the dancers step on the platform, multimeter was used to take the voltage and current readings, while Lead acid rechargeable battery could be connected at the output point to store energy generated in the system and or Light Emitting Diodes (LED) and Universal Serial Bus (USB) outputs. A stop clock was also used to take the time. Results: The study revealed that it would require 901 seconds for a 50kg dancer to increase a unit voltage state of charge in a battery. It also found that it would require 749 seconds for a 60 kg dancer; and 595 seconds for an 80kg dancer respectively to increase the same 1-unit voltage state of charge in a battery. The study showed that the voltage in the battery would continue to increase until the battery is fully charged at which point it is expected that there would no longer be any increase in charge in the battery irrespective of increase in the number of foot beats or time. Conclusion: The result implies that the charge in battery caused by pressure from the foot beats is subject to the maximum voltage capacity of the battery in the system. Likewise, the amount of time and number of foot beats required to add a unit voltage state of charge in a battery in the system is subject to the applied pressure from the foot beats. In view of this, the study craves for popularisation of this technology through large scale research supported by government, corporate organisations or international organisations and institutions that will support new products development in the building and construction industry as it is the case in India and other developed countries.
 
In this paper, the generalized KP-BBM equation is considered. The G′ / G-expansion method and the first integral method are applied to integrate the equation. By means of the two methods, the rational solutions, the periodic solutions and the hyperbolic function solutions are thus obtained under some parametric conditions.
 
The fabrication of Schottky diodes using electroplated n- type CdSe thin films and gold metal contact have been successfully achieved. The electronic properties of the fabricated diodes with the device structure glass/FTO/n-CdSe/Au have been investigated by current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (CV) measurement techniques. The I-V characteristics revealed a good rectifying behaviour with an ideality factor of 1.50, a potential barrier height (ϕb) >0.79 eV and rectification factor (RF) surpassing 102 at 1.0 V. Results from the C-V measurement showed that the fabricated Schottky diodes have doping density of ~1.61 × 1017 cm-3 and a built-in potential (Vbi) of 0.24 V which falls in the range of reported Vbi values for Schottky diodes. Both I-V and C-V parameters revealed that the CdSe Schottky diodes possess qualities for excellent performance in electronics circuit or as an electronic device.
 
The scattering of electromagnetic plane waves by triangular prism and its truncated form (the isosceles triangle and the trapezoid are transverse sections, respectively) has been studied in order to determine possibility of high field intensity (photonic jet) formation. Using high-resolution finite-difference time-domain simulation, an optimal relationship between the wavelength and the size of the prism was found to form photonic jet with sub wavelength waist on the shadow side of the prism. Truncation of the prism (with trapezoids as transverse sections) leads to an improvement in the characteristics of photonic jets (intensity, length and waist). A qualitative explanation of the simulation results obtained is presented.
 
Activity concentration (Bq/kg) of Mushroom species from Gboko
Mean values of activity concentrations (Bq Kg -1 ) of species
Average annual committed effective dose and threshold consumption rate associated with each sample
The activity concentration and Annual Effective doses of 40K, 226Ra, and 232Th in some edible mushroom species (Cantharellus cibarius, Agaricus campestris, Termitomyces robustus) found in three Local Government Areas of Benue state-Nigeria were determined using Gamma Spectrometry; the 1460KeV gamma-radiation of 40K was used to determine the concentration of 40K, gamma transition energy of 1764.5KeV 214Bi was used to determine the concentration of 226R, while the gamma transition energy of 2614KeV 208TI was used to determine the concentration of 232Th. The activity concentration due to 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the samples ranged from 10.06±1.6 - 14.19±3.01Bqkg-1; 10.88±2.65 to 15.38±4.30Bqkg-1and 202.31±1.4 to 318.44±3.20Bqkg-1 respectively; the highest activity due to 226Ra was found in Termitomyces robustus grown in Gboko; that due to 232Th was recorded in Agaricus campestris grown in Buruku L.G.A., while the highest activity concentration due to 40K was recorded in Termitomyces robustus found in Buruku. Generally, 40K recorded the highest activity concentration in each mushroom species examined. Annual Effective Dose from these species sampled ranges from 0.0006952mSvy-1 (in Makurdi- Termitomyces robustus species) - 0.0008467mSvy-1 (in Buruku Termitomyces robustus species). The average effective dose value of 0.00788±0.000186mSvy-1 obtained in this work is below the maximum permissible level established by ICRP (1996). Thus, these mushrooms species will not pose any apparent risk to human health.
 
With reference to authors recently proposed three virtual atomic gravitational constants and nuclear elementary charge, close to stable mass numbers, it is possible to show that, squared neutron number plays a major role in reducing nuclear binding energy. In this context, Z=30 onwards, ‘inverse of the strong coupling constant’, can be inferred as a representation of the maximum strength of nuclear interaction and 10.09 MeV can be considered as a characteristic nuclear binding energy coefficient. Coulombic energy coefficient being 0.695 MeV, semi empirical mass formula - volume, surface, asymmetric and pairing energy coefficients can be shown to be 15.29 MeV, 15.29 MeV, 23.16 MeV and 10.09 MeV respectively. Volume and Surface energy terms can be represented with (A-A2/3-1)*15.29 MeV. With reference to nuclear potential of 1.162 MeV and coulombic energy coefficient, close to stable mass numbers, nuclear binding energy can be fitted with two simple terms having an effective binding energy coefficient of [10.09-(1.162+0.695)/2] = 9.16 MeV. Nuclear binding energy can also be fitted with five terms having a single energy coefficient of 10.09 MeV. With further study, semi empirical mass formula can be simplified with respect to strong coupling constant.
 
Ramganga river is the main tributary of holy river Ganga and navigates through various cities of Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh of India. Its water quality is very important because a lot of population is directly connected to this river. Wavelet transforms is a new analytical tool to analyze non-stationary signals/data because it captures the localized time frequency information of a signal. In wavelet transforms, the Approximation gives the low frequency terms and average behaviour of any data, while Detail gives the high frequency terms and differential behaviour of any data. The trend represents the slowest part of the signal and corresponds to the greatest scale value. As the scale increases, the resolution decreases, producing a better estimate of the unknown trend of the signal. The dissolved oxygen and biological oxygen demand data of station Kannauj, Uttar Pradesh from October 2015 to June 2020 are studied and processed by Haar wavelet transforms. The statistical parameters like skewness, kurtosis and correlation coefficient are determined and discussed. The strong agreement between wavelet analytical and statistical results is obtained.
 
Incorporating Parikh and Wilczek’s opinion Hawking radiations of Kerr-Newman-de Sitter (KNdS) black hole has been investigated by Hamilton-Jacobi method. We have assumed the space time background as dynamical, energy and angular momentum as conserved incorporating the self-gravitation effect of the emitted particles. We have shown that the massive particle tunneling rate is related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the derived emission spectrum deviates from the pure thermal spectrum.
 
Aims: To investigate The effect of concentration on organic solar cell efficiency. Study Design: Polymer and natural dye Eriochrome black T were deposited on ITO glass substrate, and then the resulted cells were tested for characteristics. Place and Duration of Study: International University of Africa Faculty of Pure and applied science-Department of Physics collaboration with University Medical Science and Technology- Alawia Centre and AlNilain University – Faculty of Science and Technology – Department of Physics, between March 2016 and May 2017. Methodology: we have dye of different colour, we select three colours the dye, and then UV-visible spectrometer used for absorption spectra. After that, the relation between absorption and wavelength, absorption coefficient, and energy band gap were found graphically. Finally, cells were designed on ITO glass substrate by using spin coating deposition. Characteristics measured. Results: The relation between the Eriochrome black T concentration of dye for three samples are 6.67, 6.03, and 5.43 g/L, and the corresponding efficiencies for dark blue are 0.091, 0.090 and 0.229 respectively. The efficiencies of yellow Eriochrome Black T are 0.228, 0.193 and 0.181. And the efficiencies of red Eriochrome Black T are 0.246, 0.235 and 0.193. The decreases of efficiency due to the decreases of Eriochrome Black T concentration is related to the direct relation between Eriochrome Black T concentration and solar cell. Conclusion: The efficiency of dye-sensitised solar cells can be increased by increasing the Eriochrome Black T dye concentrations at least within the examined range. The Eriochrome Black T dye type also affect efficiency. This includes the transparency of the Eriochrome Black T dye beside the value of the Fermi energy. In addition to the relative positions of highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbits (LUMO) to nearby layers.
 
This paper discuss the numerical simulation of one step block method for treatment of second order forced motions in mass-spring systems of initial value problems. The one step block method has been developed with the introduction of off-mesh point at both grid and off- grid points using interpolation and collocation procedure to increase computational burden which may jeopardize the accuracy of the method in terms of error. The basic properties of the one step block method was established and numerical analysis shown that the one step block method was found to be consistent, convergent and zero-stable. The one step block method was simulated on three highly stiff mathematical problems to validate the accuracy of the block method without reduction, and obviously the results shown are more accurate over the existing method in literature.
 
In this article we consider the two end-points of the string to be attached to D-brane with the different Born-Infeld field strength F and calculate the total momenta for the special case.
 
In this study, the effect of modifying boron doping concentration on the optical properties, electrical properties and microstructural images of TiO2 thin films was investigated by the sol-gel technique by grinding TiO2 powder with a boron compound at a wavelength range of 250 nm to 850 nm. The SEM micro-images revealed the homogenous, continuous and nanocrystalline surface morphology: 10% is the tolerable amount of boron doping concentration into the TiO2 for achieving sphere-like nanostructures materials with low agglomeration. The XRD spectra of the B-TiO2 films showed anatase peaks of greater intensities when compared to the pure TiO2 film. All the films illustrate extinction coefficient in the visible region of solar spectra corresponding to the low absorption, and absorption peaks established in the ultraviolet region near 330nm with the optical transmittance varied from over 52 - 96% in the UV-Vis wavelength range. Diffuse reflectance absorption spectra analysis indicated that the incorporation of B into TiO2 material results in a substantial red shift and the absorption extends significantly into the visible range. The optical band gap energy values of the thin films were found to be 3.38, 3.35, 3.28, 3.26, and 3.36eV. This showed a low probability of raising the electron across the mobility gap with the photon energy in the visible region. The refractive index values varied between 1.891 and 1.922 depending on the percentage content of boron. Moreover, the imaginary part of the dielectric constant increase slowly, whereas the real part increases sharply and the optical conductivity was found to increase with the increase in boron addition.
 
Using IBM-2 configuration mixing calculations, the normal and intruder 2p-2h bands in even-even tin isotopes are examined. The states of the normal and intruder bands were computed separately and then mixed using a basic band-mixing Hamiltonian. The experimental data for energy levels and electronic transition probability from current and past investigations are compared.
 
Using the Interacting Boson Model-2 (IBM-2), we determined the most appropriate Hamiltonian for the current calculations of energy levels and electromagnetic transition probability values of 124-138Ce nuclei with a mass around A=140 in this study. We estimated energy levels and electromagnetic values and mixing ratios (E2/M1) for a number of transitions in 124-138Ce isotopes using the best fitted values of parameters in the IBM-2 Hamiltonian. When the results were compared to the experimental data, they were found to be in good agreement.
 
Top-cited authors
H. A. Abdullahi
  • National Agency for Science and Engineering Infrastructure, Abuja -Nigeria
Rilwan Usman
  • Nigerian Army University, Biu, Borno State, Nigeria.
G. C. Onuchukwu
Shantanu Das
  • Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (1984 to 2020)
Olanrewaju Ajanaku
  • Ondo State University of Science and Technology