In this paper, the quasi-elastic scattering (p, n) reactions are studied for a wide range of target nuclei 13C, 14C, 48Ca, 90Zr and 208Pb and different incident energies (35-160 MeV). The phenomenological Optical model potential and density independent approaches are used for these calculations in comparison with density dependent semi-microscopic approach. The density dependent parameters are modified to achieve the best calculations for many targets at different energy levels.
Previous laboratory work using a 0.12 M Epsom salt solution showed that HyPIR Electrolysis, or Hydrogen Production by Infrared Electrolysis, can increase the rate of hydrogen production from a solution of Epsom salt dissolved in water by irradiating the electrolyte with an optimum wavelength of light. This article presents data for a 0.25 M Epsom salt solution. A comparison of the data for different molarities shows that an increase in molarity of the electrolytic system decreases the rate of hydrogen production.
The main objective of the research was to identify the semiconducting characteristics of mature medium-thick (diameter 14, 15 µm) "Xorazm-150" cotton fibers both undoped and doped with 1.5% aqueous solution of KMnO4, including current versus voltage and temperature dependence, temperature dependence of electrical conductivity, the influence of doping time on conductivity, and photoconductivity. The research was conducted in the temperature range (296-360 K) and the voltage range (0-100 V). The infrared spectra of the undoped and KMnO4-doped samples were studied (Both samples were mercilized with NaOH). It was found that the cotton fibers sample doped with KMnO4 had considerably higher electrical conductivity than the undoped sample. It was determined that the cotton fibers sample doped with KMnO4 obeys the law of Ohm when current flows through it. Also, it was analyzed that the formation of photoconductivity of the cotton fibers sample doped with KMnO4 under the influence of ultraviolet radiation indicates that the photoconductivity is mainly related to the formation of band electron-hole pairs. The deep surface created by doping cotton fibers with a 1.5% solution of KMnO4 in water was found to have an activation energy that was determined from the results.
The release of magnetic field and plasma from the solar atmosphere (i.e. coronal mass ejections-CMEs and solar wind) resulting from solar magnetic activity can produce shock waves and geomagnetic storms. Shock waves are known to occur while the solar ejected particles alter from the supersonic to the subsonic regime. Especially, in the supersonic case for the flow of compressible gas interaction of shock waves with viscosity plays a key role for space weather broadcasts. Therefore, the major objective of this paper was to search the outcome of viscosity in the shocks subsequently detected after the CMEs occurred on December 18, 1999 and April 4, 2001 by using the previous modelling study of .
Aims: Temperature changes in the air, land and ocean together with the hydrological cycle and changing precipitation patterns are some of the topics assessed by scientist all over the world in order to study the signals of a changing climate. As the impacts of climate change are expected to be noticed both at global and local scale, a dataset of real-world precipitation and average air temperature at regional scale spanning a period of 19 years is provided and described in the present paper. Study Design: Starting from cumulative precipitation and average air temperature data, a set of annual and monthly spatially distributed maps have been generated in order to provide the scientific community with regional-scale data related to a temperate climate area. Place and Duration of Study: Marche Region, East-Central Italy, between January 2000 and December 2018. Methodology: We used in-situ rainfall and air temperature data provided by Marche Region (Italy) Security and Civil Protection Department in the framework of the regional meteorological and hydrological monitoring network (SIRMIP). SIRMIP network is composed of a mechanical and a telemetric sensing system. SIRMIP network consists of, among others, 230 rain gauges and 137 thermometers. Rainfall and air temperature data have been interpolated on a 1 km-resolution regular grid using Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) spatial interpolation. Temperature data were further processed through a linear regression using elevation from a high-resolution digital terrain model (DTM). Results: The generated dataset described in this paper consists of 228 monthly- and 19 annual-spatially distributed maps of rainfall and air temperature.
A widely used measure of entropy to quantify uncertainity in an open system is the Boltzmann-Gibbs (B-G) entropy. It, however, cannot describe non-equilibrium systems with large variability and multi-fractality. A generalisation of the B - G entropy is the Tsallis’ entropy. The values of the horizontal components of the Earth’s magnetic field, observed at various stations in India in 2002 were used. During the years 2000 – 2002, solar cycle 23 reached its maximum. Data from Ettaiyapuram (ETT, latitude = 90 10’ N, longitude = 780 01’ E, geomagnetic latitude = 0.130 N), Visakhapatnam (VIS, 170 41’ N, 830 19’ E, 8.170 N), Hyderabad (HYD, 170 25’ N, 780 33’ E, 8.170 N), Alibag (ABG, 180 37’ N, 720 52’ E, 10.020 N) and Tirunelveli (TVI, 80 42’ N, 770 48’ E, 0.320 S) were used. Using these values as inputs, we demonstrate that Tsallis’ entropy can be used to detect minor differences in the horizontal components of the geomagnetic field observed between different pairs of stations. The method is a very simple and elegant one to detect minor variations between pairs of similar signals.
Coulomb Displacement Energies in mirror nuclei 25Mg, 25Al have been calculated using shell model code OXBASH  and compared with experimental results. The code calculations were done in the USD model space with the W Hamiltonian . The OXBASH code which is based on famous nuclear model, the shell model, deals with evaluating energy levels in nuclei. A comparison had been made between our results and the available experimental data  to test theoretical shell model description of nuclear structure in mirror nuclei. The energy states of mirror nuclei are almost identical, except for the small effects due to Coulomb interaction where the symmetry in being broken. Energy spectrum calculated with this code was in good agreement with the published experimental data .
A statistically driven spectral method was carried out on 3D seismic data and well logs in ‘’VIC’’ Field within the Niger Delta with the aim of deriving reservoir properties and delineating stratigraphic features using edge detection attributes like coherence so as to have a better and clearer view of subsurface structure of a reservoir interval that possesses hydrocarbon using Spectral method. A suite of data consisting of seismic sections and composite logs comprising Gamma-ray, Resistivity, Spontaneous Potential, Sonic Time and Porosity logs (density and Neutron) were utilized to identify reservoir interval on log signature across wells 4 and 5 and the reservoir interval obtained was between 11,164 feet and 11,196 feet. Edge detection attribute like coherence was computed from the amplitude data in time domain and transformed to frequency domain using Fourier Transform tool in MATLAB. In order to display well log in time, well to seismic tie was carried out using check shot data which was used as time to depth relationship. The analysis of the spectral domain shows distinct bright spots that vary with measured depth due to variation in fluid and formation properties. The results led to an enhancement of seismic data interpretation in the field of study due to a spectral technique method that was applied to calculate the frequency slices. The results indicate that the spectral domain in coherence attributes revealed better geological features and the reservoir character such as faults and fractures. Frequency domain gives better geological maps as it is used to filter data, which means it is an enhancement of hidden features in time domain and gives a smoother variation of the features that has low frequency values. A reservoir with low frequency values is a sandy environment showing stratigraphy features. Hence, the reservoir is suspected to be a channel fill reservoir. This implies that Spectral domain (frequency) defines major geological areas of the ‘’VIC’’ field and gives much clearer image of the reservoir features within the field than in time domain.
In this work, data extracted from OPAC 4.0 was compared and validated with 11 years data record from MEERA-2 model (average Angstrom Exponent and average Extinction Coefficient). The 11 years MEERA-2 model data for 10 selected deserts was extracted at an average relative humidity (RH) condition of 78%RH while OPAC considers eight different (RH) levels (00% to 99%RH). Based on the investigation, MEERA-2 model has the highest angstrom exponent (a) values for (Arabian, Danakil, Ferlo, Lompoul, Patagonian, Registan and Syrian deserts), which is greater than 1, and this signifies the dominance of fine mode particles over coarse mode particles when compared to OPAC 4.0. It can be seen that Chalbi (0.845), Karoo (0.482) and Sahara (0.417) deserts have an a values which is less than 1(indicating the dominance of coarse mode particles over fine mode particles). It can also be said that, MEERA-2 (a) is still greater than that of OPAC and this shows that the deserts atmosphere can be dominated by fine mode particles. The angstrom exponent (a) for OPAC 4.0 fluctuate all through the four studied components except for WASO which increases with the increase in RH and particles concentration (and this signifies that the particles dissolved as they uptake water and reach their saturation level). Based on the results of the investigation (time series analysis), it was found that the model’s significance (b) level are very high, and this shows that the aerosols distribution fluctuates around a reasonable stable, which signifies that the models are very significant. The analysis further found that, the significance (d) from the seasonal aspect is very poor except for Ferlo and Lompoul deserts, this signifies that season effect is consistent over time. It was also found that, the MEERA-2 has the highest visibility (km) over (OPAC 4.0). The investigation further revealed that the Arabian, Syrian and Patagonian deserts have the highest visibility (km) in the months of January, February, June, November and December. OPAC model underestimated the visibility when compared to MEERA-2 model.
Aim: Design Analysis of 7.5KW Stand-alone Solar Photovoltaic Power System for an Intermediate Household. Methodology: A design analysis of standalone 7.5KW PV system was carried out using PV modeling equations based on load estimated. The analyzed data of the solar photovoltaic components was used to determine the estimated output power of 7.5KW. Therefore, a number of modeling equations and methodologies for designing a PV system based on application have been developed and simplified in order to ensure the optimum performance of the system. The analyzed solar powered 7.5KW system was achieved by designing 24 solar panels of 335W each, 16 deep cycle battery of 200A each, and a pulse width modulation (PWM) charge controller of 60A to monitor the output of the battery for safety operation. The battery will be connected to the inverter circuit (DC-AC) to generate 220V alternating current in its output via a step-up transformer. In this paper, design analysis of a standalone PV system enables of producing power to a household with approximate consumption of 7.5KW was conducted. Results: The standalone PV system along with the cost implications was analysed and designed. In this analysis a sequential design plan of an independent standalone solar powered photovoltaic structure was analysed and overviewed to supply continuous and uninterrupted power to a typical utility with maximum power consumption of 7500W (7.5KVA). The calculated/computed values of all the components yield a result that can serve the purpose. Based on the design analysis, the result implies that the estimate consumption of 7.5KW in a day requires 24 PV panels of 335 Watts each, 16 (12V, 200Ah) batteries, 10KW inverter, (12V, 60A) charge controller and copper wire of cross-sectional area (1.688mm2) for installation. Conclusion: In Nigeria, to generate a solar power of 7.5KVA requires almost $15,585.70 which is equivalent to N 5,965,426.66.
In this article, we demonstrate the first-principles computation of quantum chemistry through symbolic computation, using computational algebraic geometry. We generate symbolic formulas of one- and twoelectron integrals. The approximations of those integrals by multivariate polynomials yield the set of equations required by quantum chemistry. We solve these equations in hybrid ways where numeric and symbolic computations are intertwined. Thereby polynomials are converted into the Gronber basis; and it is decomposed to the primary ideals (each of which represents a quantum state). The primary ideals are equipped with triangular forms, which allows us to evaluate the roots robustly.
Measurement of radioactive contamination in some commonly consumed foodstuffs within the six area councils of Abuja, Nigeria was conducted in this study by means of a very sensitive and portable 3M/3-X Geiger Müller counter-based environmental radiation dosimeter. Eight different food samples were randomly selected in each of the sample locations making a total of 48 foodstuffs samples surveyed across the six area councils. The results obtained show that, the range of radiation dose levels in the analyzed samples varied from 0.01590.0001 to 0.34070.0002 μSvy-1 at Bwari; 0.14900.0001 to 0.39020.0002 μSvy-1 at AMAC; 0.00950.0001 to 0.02090.0001 μSvy-1 at Gwagwalada; 0.00570.0001 to 0.01330.0002 μSvy-1 at Kuje; 0.02740.0001 to 0.22710.0002 μSvy-1 at Abaji; Kwali was between 0.01820.0001 and 0.35030.0002 μSvy-1, and their corresponding arithmetic mean are 0.16900.0001 μSvy-1, 0.22560.0001 μSvy-1, 0.01330.0001 μSvy-1, 0.00880.0001 μSvy-1, 0.13600.0001 μSvy-1 and 0.12370.0001 μSvy-1, which gives estimated annual effective dose rates of 0.18850.0003 mSvy-1, 0.25760.0001 mSvy-1, 0.11700.0001 mSvy-1, 0.07710.0001 mSvy-1, 0.15530.0002 mSvy-1, and 0.14120.0001 mSvy-1 for Bwari, AMAC, Gwagwalada, Kuje, Abaji and Kwali area councils respectively. This finding reveals that the obtained values were sufficiently less than the maximum recommended global average exposure dose limit for environmental background (2.4 mSvy-1) and general public dose limit (1.0 mSvy-1). The radiation dose levels and dose rates associated with the intake of foodstuffs across the area councils are, therefore, relatively low and may not pose any immediate radiological health hazard to the populace, as deterministic radiation effects occur only in extreme cases.
In this study, the electrical conductivity and physical properties of loamy soil samples with various additives is determined. The electrical conductivity meter was used to obtain the electrical conductivity and some standard methods have been adopted to obtain other properties. It is observed that the soil combined with NPK had the highest electrical conductivity with the least coming from the soil (control). It is concluded that NPK raises the electrical conductivity of the soil. This goes forth to show a measure of the amount of salts in soil (salinity of soil), which is an important indicator of soil health. It affects crop yields, crop suitability, plant nutrient availability, and activity of soil microorganisms which in turn influences key soil processes including the emission of greenhouse gases such as nitrogen oxides, methane, and carbon dioxide. It is recommended that soil with organic manure should be used in order to maintain low salinity and good soil health.
Physics is science that determines the living and life styles of the people. However, it has many misconceptions in the concepts. In this study, the effect of group work and traditional method in addressing the Class IX student’s misconceptions about light is investigated. The explanatory sequential mixed method was used for the study. It was carried out in one of the Middle Secondary School [MSS] under Trashigang district. The sample of this study consisted of 42 Class IX students and 5 science teachers. The data collection was done using multiple choice questions as pre-test and post-test with explanations. The semi-structured interview was conducted to support the quantitative findings. The data obtained indicated that the students in the experimental group were more successful in addressing the misconception of light concept than the control group. The independent t-test result showed the significant difference in terms of mean score p<0.05 in the post test result. The result obtained from the study rejects the null hypothesis. The findings confirm that the group work is effective in addressing the misconceptions of light comparing to traditional method of teaching and learning.
This paper discussed the role of physics in medical science that enhanced the health standard of the people in Nigeria towards healthy national development. The paper addresses some critical and ever-growing health challenges such as cancer, tumor, mental illness, kidney problems and the recent global pandemic COVID-19 confronting the health sector and its implications towards health care development in Nigeria. It is noteworthy that physics techniques have provided help in the field of medicine in facing the identified challenges in the health sector through effective diagnosis and therapeutic managements. The study concluded that the intervention of physics in medical science helps in enhancing the entire health standard of the people which brings about increase in productivity leading to national development. It was suggested that development of physics-based technologies across the nation be given the desired encouragement.
This paper examines the possible use of African Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa) Pulp as a binding agent for the production of biofuel briquettes. Sawdust biomass was briquetted using hot and cold prepared African Locust bean pulp (SBP) and cassava starch (SBCS) as binders. Physical and combustion analysis of the fuels were performed in accordance with ASTM analytical methods and calculations to analyse the briquettes strength and aptness as a solid biofuel. The results obtained for the maximum density, relaxed density and shatter index ranged between, 802.03 to 931.87 , 300.60 to 336.40 and 89.29 to 99.77% respectively, with samples SBCS and SBP(Cold) showing a better result. The proximate analysis performed shows that, the %Moisture content (Dry basis), %Ash content, %Volatile matter and %Fixed carbon ranged between 6.52 to 8.08%, 2.60 to 5.12%, 78.21 to 86.53% and 2.79 to 10.15% respectively. The Calorific Value obtained for the material briquettes are 17,230kJ/kg, 18,270kJ/kg and 16,550kJ/kg for SBCS, SBP(Cold) and SBP(Hot) respectively. It has been observed from analysis that the strength of the briquettes descends in the order SBCS→SBP(Cold)→SBP(Hot), with a little variation between samples SBCS and SBP(Cold). The study indicates the potential of the binder for the production of biofuel and significantly improve the carbon content as well as the calorific value of the fuel.
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are immensely energetic explosions that have been observed in distant galaxies. This signatures from distant stars helps in carrying out spatial mapping of physical parameters related to soil properties, such as soil temperature. In investigating the effect of gamma-ray burst on the agricultural soil temperature, we used gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) data collected for some period of time to carry out some estimations. Linear regression analysis was carried out using the soil temperature and the GRBs arrival time, . There is an exponential relationship between temperature and time as the soil is heated. This depicts an exponential curve that was fitted into a line; and the slope at any point on the line gives the rate of cooling, which is a determining factor for the time it takes for the soil to adjust between its high and low temperature. The thermal flux which relates to soil temperature is expected to decay at late times. The cooling rate reflects the degree of fall of temperature with time; and the higher the cooling rate, the shorter the time it takes for the soil to readjust its temperature between the upper and the lower ranges of thermal states. Thus the role of gamma-ray bursts in the management of agro-ecosystem is now becoming a reality.
In this study, assessment of outdoor background exposure levels in some selected swampy agricultural soil in Nasarawa West, Nigeria has been conducted. An in-situ measurement of outdoor background exposure rate (in mRhr-1) for a total of fifty farms (ten each from Keffi (KF), Kokona (KK), Karu (KR), Toto (TT), and Nasarawa (NS)) were done using a well calibrated portable halogen-quenched Geiger Muller (GM) detector (Inspector alert Nuclear radiation monitor SN:3544). A geographical positioning system (GPS) was used at an elevation of 1.0 m above ground level to obtain the geographical location. The radiological hazard parameters were evaluated using the measured outdoor background exposure rates. The values obtained were compared with recommended permissible limits to ascertain the radiological hazard status of the swampy agricultural farms. The mean values of the outdoor background exposure levels (0.23, 0.038, 0.028, 0.022, and 0.039 mRh-1), absorbed dose rates (458.49, 334.95, 188.79, 194.01, and 343.65 nGyh-1) and excess lifetime cancer risk (1.968, 1438, 0.810, 0.832, and 1.475) each for KF, KK, KR, TT, and NS respectively, are higher than the recommended safe limits of 0.013 mRh-1, 84.0 nGyh-1, 0.00029 respectively as recommended by UNSCEAR and ICRP. On the other hand, the mean annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) values (0.563, 0.410, 0.232, 0.238, and 0.421 mSvy-1 for KF, KK, KR, TT, and NS respectively) are below the recommended permissible limits of 1.00 mSvy-1 for general public exposure. Generally, the study revealed that swampy agricultural soils in Nasarawa west are radiologically safe with little contamination which could be attributed to the geological formation and partly due to human activity in the area.
In this study, an analytical model is proposed to investigate the sound transmission loss through multi-walled plates with air layers or decompression air layers, under the diffuse incidence field. Using the present approach, the influences of various parameters, such as the wall thickness, the decompressed air and the thickness of air space, on the sound transmission loss through are simulated and discussed in detail. It is seen that, due to the wave frequency of mass-air-mass resonance between double-walled glass plates, the sound transmission loss of the plates can be improved at low frequency range. The sound transmission loss tends to increase with decreasing air pressure because the sound is not transmitted through vacuum space. The design method can be used to investigate the effect of various geometric and material parameters on the sound transmission loss. The advantage of the simulation procedure is easily used for designing the layer structures with different parameter to improve the sound insulation effect.
This study evaluates the air temperature products of Sentinel-3 and Terra MODIS satellite images, with the aim of determining the comparison results of Sentinel-3 and Terra MODIS satellite images for air temperature observations, and also to determine the minimum and maximum temperatures of the Denpasar area obtained using satellite images. Correlation relationship analysis and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) were used to investigate the correlation and the degree of accuracy between the air temperature of satellite imagery and the air temperature of field observations. The results showed that Terra MODIS satellite imagery has better accuracy to BMKG air temperature compared to Sentinel-3 satellite imagery. Terra MODIS imagery has a correlation coefficient value of 0.95 and an RMSE value of 0.51, while Sentinel-3 satellite imagery has a correlation coefficient value of 0.78 and an RMSE value of 0.93, so it can be noted that Terra MODIS satellite images are better used in air temperature observations than Sentinel-3 satellite images. The results also showed that the minimum temperature detected by Sentinel-3 satellite images from 32 observations was 9.51°C on September 23, 2021 and the maximum temperature was 41.50°C on April 14, 2021. Meanwhile, in Terra MODIS satellite images from 32 observations, the minimum temperature was 20.57°C on September 23, 2021 and the maximum temperature was 37.08 on April 16, 2021.
The present study estimate and investigate the variation of albedo for Maiduguri situated in the Sahelian region of Nigeria, using meteorological data of global solar radiation obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) extending for a period between 1984 to 2021. Investigation was carried out on the variation of albedo with surface temperature, maximum wavelength, clearness index, global solar radiation, relative humidity and mean temperature. The study found that the estimated surface albedo exhibited a direct opposite relationship with the clearness index, an inverse relationship with the emitting Earth’s surface temperature and a direct relationship with the wavelength for the location. The highest value of 0.5125 and lowest value of 0.3344 were found in August and November respectively. The emitting Earth surface temperature ranged between 232.8674 K in August and 251.7177 K in November. This is in agreement with the standard emitting Earth surface temperature (255.0000 K). The values of the maximum emitting wavelength were found to be > 4 indicating longwave radiation which is within the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The results from this study will be useful for the design of solar energy collectors and researches on atmospheric radiative transfer.
To analyze a harmonically Van der Pol oscillator, this work used a combination of graphs, time steps distribution, adaptive time steps Runge-Kutta, and fourth order algorithms. The goal is to examine the performance of third and fourth order Runge-Kutta algorithms in finding chaotic solutions for a harmonically excited Van der Pol oscillator. Fourth-order algorithms favor larger time steps and are thus faster to execute than third-order algorithms in all circumstances studied. The accuracy of the data acquired with third order is worth the longer overall computation time steps period reported
The interaction of high velocity plasma with Earth’s magnetic field is fundamental and offer many questions on high latitude electrodynamics. The problems associated with influence of electric field and Field Aligned Current (FAC) generation is investigated with the aid of spherical cap harmonic analysis at 830 Mag. Lat. in southern hemispheres. The investigation is done on the cases with different Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) conditions after the earth directed solar events. The helio-plasma parameters viz., density, velocity, energy, electron temperature are also noted during the field aligned current studies. It seems that, due to external magnetic field influence polarization of plasma electric field take place (reorientation of the convective cells). It happens with different orientation as per the magnitude and direction of By and Bz component and the horizontal currents. It is noted that the FAC value also depends on kinetic energy of the plasma streams and conductivity of external loading. As the plasma decelerates by force Jsw X Esw, the resultant current may extend along the field lines. Increases in the FAC density are seemed to be proportional to the transmission function.
In the form of two quasi-particles coupled to a core described by the IBM-1 and Triaxil Rotor models, the high-spin states of the Ba and Ce isotopes are studied. Bands based on both (vh11/2)-2 and (configurations are considered, which is found to be appropriate for this region to better explain band-crossing systems. Between the recent experimental data and the calculated energy spectra and electric transition probability, fair agreement is achieved.
The measurement of magnetic field intensity within Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic, Rumuola was carried out with the aid of a handheld Bentech (GM-3120) Model Electromagnetic Radiation Metre. A total of 6 sampled locations were recorded; randomly with six distinct measurement and their coordinates at each of the sampled location with the aid of the global system position satellite (GPS) device. The measurement took place between 2017 November to 2018 March. A minimum value of 0.3417 0.65 T was recorded at the Administrative Block and a maximum value of 1.9767 1.43 T at the Business Centre. The overall mean values of all the sampled locations all fall below the recommended limit for the outdoor magnetic field intensity exposure of 100T of the International Commission of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The outcome of the measurement reveals that the exposure to magnetic field intensity to staffs, students and commercial workers within the campus of the Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic poses no health hazard.