Asian Journal of Humanity Art and Literature

Published by ABC Journals
Print ISSN: 2311-8636
Publications
The constitution is the guide that leads a nation to prosperity. We cannot think of a modern state without it. So, after nine months of long blood-shedding battle in 1971, Bangladesh achieved her long-awaited independence and, therefore, made an instant effort to formulate a constitution rapidly, based on the ideological spirit of the war of independence. However, to accommodate the demands and will of the people and even sometimes to fulfill the narrow interests of the rulers, Bangladesh Constitution has been amended several times. Except for a few cases, almost every amendment; has a tremendous political impact on the constitution. Bangladesh's Constitution was recently revised to include a parliamentary procedure for judicial discipline for high court judges. The previous one supported judicial independence and separation of powers. The current system compromises judicial independence with accountability. As a result, the judiciary seems to fail to maintain its dignity and discharge its sacred responsibility.
 
Borrowing concepts from Edward Said’s Orientalism (1978), this article argues that Rudyard Kipling holds the same views on native rule in India as Alexandre Dumas does on Algerian structures of government. Both regard native rule as a paradigm of ‘Oriental despotism,’ which Orientalist scholars attribute to Oriental structures of power. Dumas asserts that Algerians owe their ‘misgovernment’ to the political influence of their late Turkish conqueror. Kipling contrasts native ‘misrule’ with enlightened British rule in order to legitimate British encroachment in India. Besides, both agree that native misgovernment fosters the spread of corruption and violence among their subjects.
 
The Partition of Bengal (1905) and the creation of a new province opened a new chapter in the history of this region. Whatever might have been the real motive of the colonial government behind the scheme, it divided the Hindus and the Muslims of Bengal. Most of the upper caste Hindus opposed it on the ground that by partitioning Bengal the government, in effect, had planned to divide the Bangla- speaking people. The also argued that it was the part of the government’s grand design of ‘divide and rule’. On the other hand, most of the upper class Muslims in general supported the scheme. The thought that their interests would be better protected in the newly created province and the would be able to overcome decades of backwardness. Yet, there were some Muslims who opposed the partition. As they belonged both to upper class and ordinary section of the Muslim population, their reasons for supporting the partition also varied. Personal, community, national and economic interests prompted interests prompted them to oppose the partition of Bengal.
 
Masculinity, in Lacan’s sense, is an imagination. To specifically theorise Chinese masculinity, Kam Louie examined the elements of wen (cultural attainment) and wu (martial valour) rendered through historical or artistic images, and Song Geng and Derek Hird guide the discussions about Chinese manhood represented in everyday life. With a Marxist perspective, Lo Kwai Cheung illustrated the dissolvability of Chinese masculinity under international capitalism. With reference to Aristotle, it is supposed that Chinese masculinity, similar to ‘tragicity’ in nature, can be represented through imitating actions and hence be perceived. Based on Aristotle’s understanding, we can regard actions as ‘iterable’ media (like Derrida’s understanding of written texts) which engender performances according to the genealogy of quantitative mimesis. Integrating theoretical discussions with a chronological approach, my full paper will go through following points in order to summarise the changes in Hong Kong crime films from the post-Bruce Lee era to the 2000s: (1) Hong Kong crime film inherited the martial side of masculinity from action films and became a popular genre since A Better Tomorrow was well received in the mid-1980s. (2) Many directors diversified the interpretation of crime in the late 1980s and the 1990s, but remained a focus on the strength, nimbleness and boldness of men. (3) After the decline of Hong Kong film industry for several years, Infernal Affairs’s success renewed the representation of manhood. (4) From the 2000s to now, male characters in crime films are preferably intelligent and wisely-romantic, like the fragile scholar in ancient China. (5) While globalisation seems to be eliminating the Chineseness of Chinese masculinity, I argue that geographical specificity and different speed of cultural development lead to the impossibility of synchronic masculine similarity. (6) Through a brief discussion concerning Hollywood’s adaptation of Hong Kong films, I argue that local masculinity is not transformable.
 
This study deals with the conflict of Nigerian Biafran War 6 July, 1960-15 January, 1967 as represented in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s novel Half of a Yellow Sun (2006). The study attempts to address the following four questions: first, what are the causes-effects of Biafran/Civil war? Second, why Nigerians have been suffering during the wartime? Third, how does the representation of Nigerian history enable understanding of the post-colonial issues? And final, what is the role of conflict in Nigerian history? In order to understand this conflict, the study addresses the detailed analysis of war conflict, ethnic conflict, class conflict, military conflict and eco-political conflict. The post-colonial approach becomes one of the ways of engaging the theoretical understanding of the novel Half of a Yellow Sun. In sum up, the novel is located with the issues of marginality, history and conflict, which interrogates through post-colonial theoretical formations and the six-phase structure of war novels.
 
The study focused on child abuse and neglect on pupils’ academic achievement in primary schools. The ex-post facto design was adopted. Out of the four forms of child abuse, two were identified for the study, physical abuse and neglect. Four research questions were formulated to guide the study. The population of the study consist of 3125 primary five (5) pupils. 312 primary five (5) pupils were selected as sample from thirteen primary schools from the population using simple random sampling technique. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions. The result revealed that physical abuse and child neglect influence pupils’ academic achievement. Based on the findings, it was recommended that parents and guardians should see beating, hitting, slapping, punching among others as physical abuse and should desist from using them as means of correcting children under their care. Rather advice and state the implication of any negative behaviour a child wears to correcting them whenever they derail from adult expectations on such children and also make home a peaceful place for their children, love, protect and care for them. The study concluded that if child abuse and neglect are reduced to its beeriest minimum, pupils’ academic achievement in primary schools would be enhanced towards development of other levels of education for national development.
 
Working Mechanism of Proposed Approaches
Ongoing studies have anticipated that in 2030, car crashes will be the fifth driving reason for death around the world. The main cause of car crashes is difficult to decide these days because of a complex mix of qualities like the mental condition of the driver, road conditions, climate conditions, traffic, and infringement of traffic rules to give some examples. The expenses of fatalities and driver wounds because of car crashes incredibly influence the general public. The use of machine learning methods in the field of road accidents is picking up speed nowadays. The organization of machine learning classifiers has swapped conventional data mining methods for creating higher outcomes and exactness. This work presents a review of different existing businesses related to accident prediction utilizing the machine learning area. Wounds because of road accidents are one of the most pervasive reasons for death separated from health-related issues. The investigation of road accident seriousness was finished by running an accident dataset through a few machine learning arrangement calculations to see which model played out the best in characterizing the accidents into severity classes, for example, slight, extreme, and fatal. It was seen that calculated relapse to perform multilevel order gave the most noteworthy exactness score. It was additionally seen that variables, for example, the number of vehicles, lighting conditions, and road highlights assumed a part in deciding the seriousness of the accident. Engineers and analysts in the car business have attempted to plan and manufacture more secure vehicles, yet auto collisions are unavoidable. Examples associated with hazardous accidents could be identified by building up a prediction model that naturally orders the sort of injury severity of different traffic accidents. These social and roadway designs are valuable in the improvement of traffic security control strategies. Significantly, estimates be founded on logical and target reviews of the reasons for accidents and the seriousness of injuries. This paper presents a few models to predict the seriousness of the injury that happened during traffic accidents utilizing machine-learning paradigms. We considered networks prepared to utilize machine learning methods. Analysis results uncover that among the machine learning ideal models considered different standards paradigm approaches.
 
This study examined the roles and challenges of secondary school instructional leadership for the achievement of student learning in some selected schools in the South Gondar, Ethiopia. The researchers used a descriptive research design of survey type and gathered data through questionnaire and interview. The sample of this study comprises; principals, unit leaders, teachers and students in eight secondary schools in the South Gondar Zone. Thus, one hundred seventy five (175) teachers, seventy five (75) instructional leaders (20 principals, 11 unit leaders & 44 department heads), two hundred eighty five (285) students and eleven (11) officials at regional and district level were selected. Five research questions guided the study. The data collected were analyzed through the computation of percentages. Findings indicated significant relationships between distributed leadership and school goal achievement; teachers’ professional development; instructional programme management; effective teaching and learning; and promotion of school climate which include facilitating and understanding of the lesson, create an interesting environment with high class participation. Based on this finding, school heads/authorities should make it mandatory that distributed leadership should be adopted in such a way that everyone in schools is empowered to make his or her job more efficient, meaningful, and effective.
 
Voter education is expected to enthrone sustainable social order in Nigeria’s political scene. Voter apathy works against the principles of democracy. The values of voter education are delineated as follows: encouraging leadership discipline, control of political violence, exposure on the process of election, peace building and maintenance of democratic order. Sustainable democracy can be actualized through voter education in the following ways: extension of voter education, mass mobilization, values to shun violence, stemming corruption and national consciousness sensitization. The consequences of voter apathy are addressed as follows: absence of sustainable democracy, forced leadership, stabilizing illegitimate government, low political participation and political instability. Conclusion was drawn based on the ensuing discoursed and it was recommended amongst others that voter education will encourage mass political participation and the maintenance of sustainable social order.
 
Bangladesh National Budget 2019-20
Gender of the Respondents
Age of the Respondents
Participants of FGD
Developing scientific values in students’ mind is the goal of science teaching. Bangladesh, of late, has adopted various strategies to educate the people and mainly the children. There are still many challenges for the country to attain an acceptable standard of education. Science education here in Bangladesh is in a state of crisis. The enrolment for science studies in the country shows a sharp decline over the past few years. This discipline, what once used to be the most sought after subject at secondary, higher secondary and tertiary levels in the country, is losing its appeal in an alarming shift of choice. Indeed it is important know what the obstacles are and how they are removed within a stipulated short period. This paper aims to present the current situation of Bangladesh in terms of science and technological development in the education sector. There is no alternative of a scientifically and technologically literate workforce as the future economy will also be science i.e. ICT based.
 
There is now clearer recognition that, in a country as culturally and linguistically diverse as Nigeria, specific attention must be paid to the mental readiness of learners especially in acquiring language different from their first language or lingua franca such as French language. Vocabulary acquisition is part of the psychology of foreign language learning that has received short shrift from applied linguistics, and has been very largely neglected by recent developments in research. This study therefore examined the impact of psychological well-being on the vocabulary acquisition level of Nigerian adolescents learning French language in rural settings. Survey research design was adopted in this study. Sixty eight students from fourteen secondary schools were randomly selected for this study with age range 15 to 18 years. They were made up of 38 males representing 52.9% and 30 females representing 47.1%. Out of this sample 42% were in SS1, 36% in SS2 and 22% in SS3. All these students had French language as one of subjects they were taking in school. These schools were located in rural areas in Ogun and Oyo states, Southwest Nigeria. A questionnaire was developed to measure students’ psychological well being while cloze test was used to measure vocabulary acquisition level. The two instruments yielded 0.78, and 0.76 test-retest reliability respectively with 0, 64 Cronbach Alpha for Psychological well being measure and 0.66 for cloze test. The findings revealed low level of performance in the five subscales of Psychological Well being Measure, self-acceptance, quality ties to other, autonomy in thought and action, the ability to manage complex environments to suit personal needs and values, the pursuit of meaningful goals and a sense of purpose in life and continued growth and development as a person. The study equally reported low level of vocabulary acquisition of French language across all the levels. A significant impact of psychological wellbeing on the vocabulary acquisition of French language was found at r=0.62, adj r2=0.59 and f(1,66)= 48.26, p<0.05. It was concluded that improved psychological wellbeing will definitely leads to high level of vocabulary acquisition of French language among students even in rural areas. It was recommended that health-promoting factors for maintaining good health should be strengthened in learners for positive learning outcomes.
 
English for Specific Purposes (ESP) has flourished to meet the growing demand of the academic and professional learners. Since the tertiary level of education is the concern, ESP can be a way out to teach English as a second or foreign language. At the end of primary, secondary and higher-secondary level of English language education, a learner is expected to have a good command of the four skills of English language. Even though, if one fails to have the proficiency, s/he needs intensive teaching. ESP has very thoughtful and research-oriented arrangement for language teaching by needs analysis, formulation of goals and objectives, specific syllabus design, appropriate material development, effective teaching, and accurate evaluation. In ESP, the practitioner, who is a needs analyst, is also a setter of goals and objectives, a syllabus designer, a material developer and a teacher as well as an evaluator. For this reason, there lies no gap among the steps of a whole project of language teaching. ESP learners are mature and more enthusiastic. In ESP, syllabus design depends on the analysis of the language used in the target area of learners. Sometimes, the syllabus designers consider the learners’ opinions. Teaching materials are collected from the area of job or study of the learners. Interests, target and levels of previous knowledge of the ESP learners usually vary. Thus, for an individual group, a tailor-made ESP course is, therefore, suitable. The goal of the present action research is to design an English language course for the medical students. In my professional life, I used to teach English language to the medical students. Since I taught them with general English language materials, I observed a gap between their target area and English language. “They cannot relate their achieved language knowledge to the medical context. For example, in a class, when they are asked to solve some exercises of active and passive voices, they can solve properly. But when they define terms like hypertension, or nervous system, they confidently use called/ call/ calls instead of is/ are called. Medical students are really motivated by their subject specific texts. It is my assumption that, specific English language course can solve the problem by bridging the gap between their knowledge and their proficiency language.” (Sharmin, L. -2011). On the basis of the information of data, collected from one preset questionnaire, I have analyzed needs and formulated an ESP course obtaining vocabulary, topic and examples from medical context. I found the classes more effective and interesting with these special materials. I have collected another set of data. I compared the data and found the results very optimistic.
 
In the contemporary era, fatwas mostly contain derivative information from classical texts such as the Quran and Hadith. Fatwas are used to tackle pornography addiction while it may lack productivity in spreading innovative solutions among Muslim students. Failure to provide solid Islamic pornography rehabilitations and disfavouring to speak openly on pornography does not stop the prevalence of pornography among Muslim students. Therefore, the purpose is to explore the prevalence of pornography, its effect on Muslim students, and strategies to overcome pornography addiction. Through SPSS analysis, the numerical data shows that both Muslim male and female students view pornography regardless of its prohibitions. Some Muslim students are engaged in maladaptive behavior, affecting their spirituality, religion, and overall well-being (Ademola, 2017). The study, therefore, suggests alternative awareness programs to support Muslim students to overcome the struggles of pornographic addiction that is often too tempting to resist. Dealing with pornography per today's context perhaps will diminish the statistical rate of Muslim students watching pornography.
 
Summary of individual contribution of the factors which included in the research on women's leadership position
Women face multi –faceted challenges to participate in management position due to different factors. The purpose of this research is to investigate factors that affect participation of women in leadership position. . And for ward some possible suggestion for the challenges identified through this study. The study was descriptive in nature and survey solving method was used in data gathering. Data used in this research was mainly primary and secondary data as well, quantitative and qualitative types was incorporated. The data was collected by interviewing and conducting questionnaires. The study revealed that the current status of women participation was low in number in city administration and there are different factors that affect women’s participation in leadership position. The factors which contribute for women's low participation in leadership positions were categorized under three main factors: societal, institutional (organizational) and individual factors. It was observed those women’s career advancements are not affected by one factor alone but a combination of different factors. From these factors the research found that three factors (institutional socio culture and individual) have decisive contribution for low participation of women in leader ship position. According to the respondents, there are institutional (organizational), socio culture and individual factors that have major contribution to the low representation of women in the leadership positions of governmental organization respectively by proper implementation of women policies in the organization, equal treatment during assignment leadership position, providing training to build women’s capacity and creating awareness to the society that women capable for leadership position the researcher recommends that women should be encouraged and supported in order to compete on leadership positions.
 
t-value of Social maturity between the adolescent boys' students and adolescent
t-values of social maturity of adolescent girls students undergoing NCC and adolescent girls' students without NCC training
The present study focuses on social maturity of adolescent students undergoing NCC (National Cadet Corps) training and without NCC training .The sample consists of 124 school students of Purba Medinipur, District of West Bengal in India. The researchers has developed the social maturity scale and standardized it to apply towards subjects. The researchers analyse the data using statistical technique t – test using the software SPSS. The major finding of the study is that, the adolescent students who got the NCC training achieve more social maturity than the students without NCC training.
 
Low adoption of agricultural marketing technologies in the field of agricultural commodities marketing is one of the main reasons for profit loss of the farmers in Bangladesh. This paper examines the factors that influence farmers' decision of modern agricultural marketing technologies adoption in Northern Bangladesh. By using questionnaire survey the researcher collect data from 216 farmers in Dinajpur and Naogaon district in Northern Bangladesh and the binary logistic regression model was estimated to find out the factors influence farmers decision. Seven independent variables i.e. age of the farmer, formal education of the farmer, farm size, level of expected benefits, off-farm income generating activities, access to institutional credit and training about use of marketing technologies are statistically significant factors that influence the decision of farmers to adopt modern agricultural marketing technologies in Northern Bangladesh. So it is concluded that the farmers' decision to adopt modern agricultural marketing technologies depends on their socio-economic status and organizational effectiveness. We recommend that such policies should be made so that the positive impact factors on technologies adoption are properly utilized and negative issues are reduced.
 
Respondents view about women representations in public leadership and decision making
Respondents work experiences
Emphasis given for women
Respondents attitude towards women's successfulness in leadership roles
Respondents view about women friendliness of other Government policies than NWP
This study aimed to identify status of women in Bedele town administration, as well point out factors hindering women from the participating in public and forward some possible recommendations for solving the problems identified through study. Primarily, the study is of descriptive in nature and survey method was used in data gathering. Data used in this paper is mainly primary but to some extent secondary data as well, quantitative and qualitative types was incorporated. In doing this research paper, of total employees existing in Bedele Town administration, 108 (30% of total population) sample respondents were selected using systematic random sampling method, and were placed questionnaires containing open ended and closed ended nature questions personally, 103 (95.37%) of them had filled and returned the questionnaire. In addition, a mayor of the town and Women Affair office head were addressed through interview using interview guide. In way of analyzing data, techniques such as tabulation, percentages, chart and the like has been employed. Study revealed that, in public institutions existed in Bedele Town, the majority of women were having an educational status of diploma and lower, holding lower non decision making and leadership positions, and observed major barriers hindering women from public leadership and decision-making positions include: Socio-cultural attitudes and lack of acquisition of the necessary experience for taking part in public decision-making, Over burden of domestic responsibilities continuation of the negative attitudes regarding women’s ability to lead and govern, Lack of role models of women leaders for young women and girls, and the like can be stated. Finally, the researcher has forwarded some possible ways in which women could appear in public decision making and leadership.
 
This study aimed to identify status of women in Bedele town administration, as well point out factors hindering women from the participating in public and forward some possible recommendations for solving the problems identified through study. Primarily, the study is of descriptive in nature and survey method was used in data gathering. Data used in this paper is mainly primary but to some extent secondary data as well, quantitative and qualitative types was incorporated. In doing this research paper, of total employees existing in Bedele Town administration, 108 (30% of total population) sample respondents were selected using systematic random sampling method, and were placed questionnaires containing open ended and closed ended nature questions personally, 103 (95.37%) of them had filled and returned the questionnaire. In addition, a mayor of the town and Women Affair office head were addressed through interview using interview guide. In way of analyzing data, techniques such as tabulation, percentages, chart and the like has been employed. Study revealed that, in public institutions existed in Bedele Town, the majority of women were having an educational status of diploma and lower, holding lower non decision making and leadership positions, and observed major barriers hindering women from public leadership and decision-making positions include: Socio-cultural attitudes and lack of acquisition of the necessary experience for taking part in public decision-making, Over burden of domestic responsibilities continuation of the negative attitudes regarding women‟s ability to lead and govern, Lack of role models of women leaders for young women and girls, and the like can be stated. Finally, the researcher has forwarded some possible ways in which women could appear in public decision making and leadership.
 
GIRFEC approach was carried out in this research in order to test the effectiveness, durability and strength along with its shortcomings, which works for the betterment of children and youth of Scotland (Government of Scotland, 2015). The study carried out by the author is to understand the interpretation and calculations of the multiple agencies that work for this cause.The existences of these agencies is not a new thing in Scottish environment and with the participation of parents and these agencies, the researcher found that for many years now, working of the agencies together in order to support team work had been encouraged. As the collaboration of the parents and multiple agencies has its perks and showed better results over the years, there were many researches that showed that in some agencies, they lacked team work and they were not compatible and because of that it resulted into deaths of many children across the UK (Hammond et al., 2010; Laming, 2003; Lord, 2009, Department for Education, 2010). Researcher in the current study focal point revolved around the idea of how the agencies carried out their investigations and if it had shown any better results for the parents and their children.
 
The Kite Runner is a novel by Khaled Hosseini and one of the literary works that presents the social life of Afghan people in each political era of Afghanistan. The aim of this paper is to discuss the impact of the Afghan conflict since the end of 1970’s until the 2000’s, the author describes the impact of the conflict of Afghanistan since the time of Daoud Khan’s coup, the Soviet Invasion, the Civil War Afghanistan, and the Taliban regime. This study used a mimetic approach that compares the actual occurrence with what is found in the novel. In analyzing this novel, the author uses sociological theory of literature by Alan Swingewood, first perspective regard literature as historical documentation and the time of the literary works made. Then the author uses qualitative methods, where the research described in a descriptive form of words or experts from novel and other sources related to the Afghan conflict. This paper focuses on the condition of Afghan society’s life during the Afghan conflicts and the impact of Afghan conflicts as reflected in the novel, The Kite Runner.
 
Human reproductive health is still at risk in Nigeria. In response to the problem, the Federal Government of Nigeria launched the National Reproductive Health Policy in 2001 to serve as the framework to base reproductive health strategies and interventions. Despite this, the country is far from achieving its set target. Several factors have been identified as the elements behind this challenge. One of such factor is cultural and religious beliefs. Religions have been known to have influenced people on beliefs of various kinds, especially on the issue of human sexuality and reproduction. There are two main religions in Nigeria – Christianity, and Islam. Their doctrines on sexual and reproductive health have been challenging. This paper sets out to map out these religious perspectives in the light of contemporary and practical relevance based on a sound philosophical understanding. This approach is important in order to bridge the communication gap between the cultural/religious community and the public health intervention workforce, so as to create synergy towards effective action. Moreover, the paper argues that silence on sexual matters should no longer be held as a virtue since traditional norms have lost their capacity to modernity.
 
This paper interrogates the nature of protest literature as well as their issues and problems while addressing the discourse on apartheid South Africa underlined the politics. In this paper, I explore the connection of banned books of history with the present time. In South Africa: the numbers of the books banned, and these books never become part of a literary form. As a result, it also claims to the Censorship Act (have an authority to ban the books). This paper relates to examine the relationship between these two major research queries, which underpins as under two contexts as: (i) Protest literature and (ii) Racial discrimination. The racial discrimination needs for understanding the problems and struggle in South African. It also ignites to the fight for human rights of the people, who suffer from inequality and struggling for their identity crisis. South African novels represent the problems and concerns of people who belong to the marginal group. However, this paper focuses on South African protest literature, which demands to the end of racial discrimination, unequal educational system and segregation as divided land policy represents through the discourses. This paper has significant to demand for equality and justice through the protest literature also it demands of non-racial society as well. I come to conclude, it can be inferred in apartheid and the post-apartheid government failed to give equal rights to all.
 
Interbreeding between human ancestors and other hominins has been extensively studied outside of Africa, but their shared history within Africa has received less study. However, comprehending subsequent events outside of Africa requires shining light on human evolution during this period, about which little is known. We investigate the genetic relationships of humans. By finding relatively short DNA sequences that these hominins share in the 1000 Genomes Phase 3 data, researchers were able to distinguish between African, Neandertals, and Denisovans descent by identical (IBD). It was confidently detected very short IBD segments by focusing on low frequency and uncommon variations. These segments reflect occurrences from the distant past because small IBD segments are likely older than larger ones. There have been two types of very old IBD segments found that are shared by humans, Neandertals, and/or Denisovans. Longer segments are more common in Asians and Europeans, with more segments in the South. Asians exceed East Asians in both Neandertal and Denisovan cultures. These longer portions indicate complex admixture occurring outside of the admixture events. Africa, the second category comprises shorter pieces that are largely shared among Africans and hence may depict African-related events.
 
Association between satisfactions of elderly people among socio-economic characteristics
Improving the ability of the satisfaction and proper management to reach the aged population is important for health and essential to mitigate the income erosion consequences of ill health in Bangladesh. This study examined the satisfaction and proper management of the elderly of some identified disadvantages of aged populations; including the effect of poverty-focused nongovernmental development interventions. The objective of the study is to determine the more influential factors that are affecting the health status and living arrangements of the elderly. The data were collected by direct interview method from Chapai-Nawabgonj District, Bangladesh. The chi-square test and logistic regression model were used to fulfill the objective of this study. The results of this study reveal that among literate the majority percent aged population has at least primary education and slightly over half of them have secondary level education. The majority of the elderly people are low income, economically dependent, living with married children. Also, they are unhealthy to suffer from different kinds of illnesses like Lame, Gastric, Blood pressure, Paralysis, Diabetics, etc. A large number of people is taking treatment from M.B.B.S, and a small portion of people are taking treatment from Homeopathic and Ayurvedic physician. Despite their suffering, most of them do not get the proper care. Television, Newspaper, monthly income-expenditure, family member, and educational status are associated with the satisfaction of elderly people. The logistic regression model exposed that serious operation and proper management are the most major significant factors effects satisfaction. It also exposed that mental torture, a different shelter for the elderly are major significant factors effects proper management. The paper concludes by emphasizing the importance of enhancing local capacities to determine whether self-treatment is indicated, to investigate socio-economic background, or in cases where satisfaction and proper management is sought, to judge provider competence and evaluate whether basic needs are justified. The provision of pharmaceutical training to the full spectrum of satisfied providers is also recommended.
 
This paper proposes to explore gender relations in Joseph Conrad’s The Secret Agent. Operating from the knowledge that gender is culturally determined feminists criticize male-dominated patriarchal societies, which they argue marginalize or discount women by limiting their opportunity for self-definition and self-actualization. The question that needs to be addressed, then, is: Is gender relation in The Secret Agent constructed around stereotypical representations? Or can this work be read otherwise? Our assumption is that Conrad’s criticism of such patriarchal system is done through irony. The ‘Edenic home’ that would embody Conrad’s cherished ideals is, as we know, a home browbeaten by a political exile. We shall argue that Conrad deals narratively with his own traumatic history by displacing it onto Winnie’s otherness. This traumatic event is ironically expressed in the falling down of the novel’s house, the house of an overweening, unquestioned patriarchy. On one hand, the fallen house symbolizes the ‘idealization’ of the Western society. On the other hand, it raises ideological issues in relation to the “Other”, the oppressed. We shall argue that the evidence of his biography, correspondence, and the fictional work under study suggest a complex relationship between the writer, the women in his life, and the fictional female characters. The importance of the female character, Winnie Verloc, may be explained by the fact that women played a vital role during his youth in Poland. In a letter of 1900 to Edward Garnett, Conrad himself remarked on the benefit he had received from the close bond and the extraordinary ‘sister-cult’ established amongst the Bobrowski women.
 
Statistical analysis of specialized agrarian-economic texts
Statistical analysis of parts of speech representation within the terms in the text
The paper deals with one of the principles of term formation in the economic terminology of the French language. When analyzing ways of enriching the French agrarian-economic terminology, a word-formation process of terminologization is discussed in more detail. To determine the degree of agrarian-economic terminologization in the French text, a statistical survey was carried out, based on four types of document - a scientific publication, university textbooks, popular professional publication and scientific paper. It would be necessary to use the results of the statistical analysis in the teaching of i.e., languages because the knowledge of the principle of the term formation is one of the prerequisites for mastering the terminology.
 
Ethical Considerations
The fast technological advancements in machine intelligence and automation may also arrive with risks and some negative effects on employees, firms, and society at large. Currently, both end-users, scientists, and practitioners have acknowledged the need for machine assistance and also welcome consideration for a robust ethical strategy that will allow a safe application and usage of improved technologies. Artificial Intelligence related ethics has been presented and considered from various standpoints and views. This paper furthers on the subject. Potential ethical issues are envisaged in the area of machine end-user perceptions, privacy, accountability, and the robot/ human rights, design of ethical machines, and technological singularity. It, therefore, possesses the question. What are the current ethical issues with the use of machines? The study adopted a quantitative and qualitative approach to drawing conclusions from the thematic and descriptive analysis. The result shows that majority of the respondents were males 46 (65.7%) while 24(34.3%) were females. They are mainly literates/ Majority 49(70%) are from the private firm and come majorly from the Asian continent. The majority of the respondents view that ethical consideration is necessary for machine and automation design, the machine-human relationship should be improved. Their privacy should be instituted while they consider technology singularity as a severe issue and desire the creation of ethical machines. Following this result, the study documents policy recommendations.
 
Distribution of respondents by their age, educational level, monthly income,
Distribution of the respondents by knowledge of prevention of HIV infection
Distribution of the respondents by the signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS patients
HIV/AIDS is found commonly among sexually active young adults, many of whom may live in slum. This group may serve as the gateway for HIV transmission to the general population because of their vulnerable lifestyle, and lack of information about the disease and its prevention. Cross-sectional questionnaire-based study of 116 slum dweller was carried out in a selected slum area. Among them highest age group is 43.10% (26-35) and the Mean age of population is 26.5 SD ±5.34. (43.10%) of the respondents are male and were (56.90%) of the respondents are female. The large numbers of the respondents (43.10%) cannot read and write, 34.48% people have primary education. Most of the respondents (39.67%) income level is (2000-5000) and Median income is 8500 SD±4514.9. Table shows that 83.62% were married, 72.41% respondents live in the nuclear family and 56.9% respondents have family member of 2-4 persons. Large numbers (32.76%) of the respondents are working as house maid. 87.93% of the respondents heard the name of HIV/AIDS and the source of information was Media (Radio, TV, newspaper.). Majority (60.34%) respondents thought that HIV/AIDS is a disease but 10.34% seems that it is a curse of God. Out of total respondents 66 thought that unsafe physical relation is the foremost source of infection and about prevention 46.55% respondents told that protected sexual measure can prevent the disease. Majority (64.66%) of the respondents don’t know signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS but rest of them thought that Rapid weight loss, Dry cough for more than 2/3 months, Recurring fever for more than 2/3 months and Diarrhea lasting more than a week are the symptom of HIV/AIDS. Most (41.38%) of the respondents told that HIV/AIDS cured by treatment and 89.66% respondents thought that the patients should not isolated from family. Their knowledge level is seems too reduced.
 
It is a well-known fact that the very environment which surrounds us bears a great impact on our body, mind and soul. Anybody can understand what will be the feelings of a person when he is surrounded by cold and heavy air in a situation that he comes in contact. In the same way the feelings of a person in a desert are well understood by anyone without having any question to the person concerned. This is why the environment portrayed by a novelist for the plotline of a novel is so important that it must suit to the characters in question, it must help the smooth progress of the plotline as well as it must pierce in to the heart of a reader, so that the reader can visualize the very movement of the protagonist at every moment of time. To air out our thoughts in this regard it might be the best way to cite the example of the environment that had been created by the great novelist Ernest Hemingway in his novel The Old Man and The Sea. He had allowed the old man to go to the sea again and again for a long period but he never allowed the old man to have success at his hand. In fact he had portrayed an environment of pessimism for the readers by not allowing the old man to have a success at his hand despite of his all efforts. In order to add more pessimism in the mind of a common reader he had given a nick name to the old man by Shalao. The very environment created by the author made every reader believe that the old man will never be successful at any cost, whatever the intensity of his effort may be. This is how one can imagine the influence of the environment on the mindset and belief of a common reader.
 
In this study, Indonesian short story is explained from the environmental psychology perspective. The core of environmental psychology is human interaction with the environment, from the side of restoration or degradation. This research uses data source from Cerpen Pilihan Kompas 2015 [2016]. From this environmental psychology perspective, it is found that Indonesian short stories shows environmental conditions from the unhealthy side, for example the short story of “Anak ini Mau Mengencingi Jakarta?” by Ahmad Tohari. As for the environmental restoration side, it appears in the short story of “Liang Liu” by Utari. Short story of “Batu Lumut Kapas” by Gus TF Sakai tells about the environment and natural stone.
 
How far did the covid-19 go in terms of affecting the lives and way of living of people? The outbreak of this deadly virus not only made the people leave their way and stay in isolation but also served a major role in vanishing businesses, making people jobless, causing deaths, and much more. Apart from people losing their lives, there was a massive risk of employees losing jobs, or earning half of what they used to earn. The Covid is influencing the day-to-day routines and methods of experienced individuals. The flare-up of this dangerous virus served a significant job in loss of lives, disappearing organizations, making individuals jobless, isolated, and substantially more. Humans besides losing lives have faced a monstrous situation of losing jobs. With all this when the employees were in a state of work from home, there was an important role played by cloud computing. Its applications played their part in making people achieve their tasks. In this situation, cloud computing has held one side of the rope when employees were in the condition to work remotely. The smart working apps have proved their amazing performances. Its applications had their influence in causing individuals to accomplish their assignments. The truly great individual in the COVID-19 pandemic emergency is the cloud computing environment (CCE). It comprises the high-speed rehearses for administrations that mirror the pattern of quickly deployable applications for keeping up with information. In any case, there is an increment in its utilization, and the exploration shows there is a test to see the performance of CC applications accessibility in regards to the security, data, and everything worried about it. The focal point of this paper is to talk about the difficulties that the Coronavirus has welcomed on cloud computing and what will be the future and further difficulties it.
 
The study was aimed at understanding the EFL Iraqi students’ perspective on speaking anxiety. Specifically, the study investigated the causes of speaking anxiety based on data collected for a pilot study involving two Iraqi EFL postgraduate students in Universiti Utara Malaysia. Pseudonyms were used to refer to the participants as Omer and Sarah. The data were collected through in-depth interviews with the participants. The interview sessions took approximately 15-20 minutes for each participant and were videotaped and audiotaped. Semi-structured interviews with 15 questions and probes were used. The results showed that the speaking anxiety experienced by the two Iraqi students were due to the class atmosphere, the teacher’s attitudes, lack of vocabulary, rate of speech, different accent and long conversation, fear of being embarrassed, and fear of failing to perform. The causes identified are rooted in Iraqi status of English as a foreign language and method of teaching English as well as the teacher’s attitude towards their students.
 
Social networking websites are: face book, twitter, beebo, orkut etc. The fact is that this technological advancement is changing the urban sociology drastically. Its effects range from personal friendships to political movements. The demonstrations in Iran were mainly organised through face book and twitter. They had a major role in the overthrow of Tunisian president. There are wide spread protests in Egypt also. People of Egypt were demanding the end of Hosni Mubarak's regime and Egyptian government has banned both face book and twitter because people were demanding that president Hosni Mubarak should resign. These websites don't start any movement but people who start movements use them to contact public. Previously it was difficult to arrange demonstrations and political parties had to announce in advance, which gave the government the chance to put a ban or just block the area where demonstration was to be held but now what they do is they just announce it one hour before the actual time and the government has no time to control it, that is why these websites have made political demonstrations more effective. On the personal level they have made it easier to maintain contact with your friends but the level of close friendships is reduced. Previously we used to have few friends and one or two were very close friends but now we have hundreds of friends but no one is close. Besides dedicating more time to online activities means we have less time to actually go out and meet friends. This phenomenon is very common in the developed world. It is a major change and we still don't know where this change is leading. The other aspect of technological advancement is that now knowledge is not restricted. Everybody and anybody can learn whatever they want all they need is an internet connection. The fact is nobody can close the internet. So internet in effect is the new super power in the world. America is not the super power internet is because America cannot close the internet but internet can close America.
 
Social networking websites are: face book, twitter, beebo, orkut etc. The fact is that this technological advancement is changing the urban sociology drastically. Its effects range from personal friendships to political movements.The demonstrations in Iran were mainly organised through face book and twitter. They had a major role in the overthrow of Tunisian president. There are wide spread protests in Egypt also. People of Egypt were demanding the end of Hosni Mubarak's regime and Egyptian government has banned both face book and twitter because people were demanding that president Hosni Mubarak should resign.These websites don't start any movement but people who start movements use them to contact public. Previously it was difficult to arrange demonstrations and political parties had to announce in advance, which gave the government the chance to put a ban or just block the area where demonstration was to be held but now what they do is they just announce it one hour before the actual time and the government has no time to control it, that is why these websites have made political demonstrations more effective.On the personal level they have made it easier to maintain contact with your friends but the level of close friendships is reduced. Previously we used to have few friends and one or two were very close friends but now we have hundreds of friends but no one is close. Besides dedicating more time to online activities means we have less time to actually go out and meet friends. This phenomenon is very common in the developed world. It is a major change and we still don't know where this change is leading. The other aspect of technological advancement is that now knowledge is not restricted. Everybody and anybody can learn whatever they want all they need is an internet connection. The fact is nobody can close the internet. So internet in effect is the new super power in the world. America is not the super power internet is because America cannot close the internet but internet can close America.
 
The study conducted in arid areas of Dera Ghazi Khan occasionally affected by hill torrents (Suri-Lund, Vidore, Sakhi-Sarwar, Mithawan) coming from Koh-e-Suleman range. The study found that hill torrent water is used for agriculture, domestic and livestock. The management of this water significantly affects on income, crop yield, soil fertility, health conditions and living standard of farmers. The local cost effective methods to store this water include wah, dubba and bundh but most of water is wasted as they are insufficient. The water distribution mechanism fosters cooperation and helps to form new relations with co-farmers. The study suggested that government and NGOs should help people to construct concrete diversions, bundhs, ponds and dams to manage hill torrent water.
 
“Tamasha” is a form of entertainment, which came in the 16th century and transforms it into business and politics after the independence of India. It became a cultural part of the Kolhati community in Maharashtra. This paper has significant to define that the politics of Tamasha and female suffering through the twentieth century dalit autobiography Kishor Kale’s Kolhatyach Por (1994). It will also discuss that his personal and painful experiences where he born and grown up in the misery environment. It needs to understand that how the dalit women becoming the victims of politics and how their family takes tragic and painful end. Therefore, this paper tries to make a link between the Tamasha dancers and the dalit experiences through the power politics. In the end, it comes to conclude that emergence of the dehumanized social conditions and ignorance of the dalit Kolhaty community. It demands for their right and the respect of the Tamasha art.
 
This paper sought to reveal insights into how Haruki Murakami’s After Dark is reflective of the isolation currently being experienced by Japanese society today. The writer analyzed and consolidated the author’s writing style and explored the prominence of the theme of isolation on the novel’s protagonist. This was achieved using a formalist approach to the story, sticking only to what the text has to offer and give evidence for. The paper found that the expression of a society’s culture can be seen in how they depict themselves for others to read and understand them, especially in analyzing the character of Mari.
 
Top-cited authors
Yitayal Alemu
  • University of Gondar
Wondwosen Mitiku
  • University of Gondar
Abu Md. Abdullah
  • Eastern University, Bangladesh
Morve Roshan K
  • University