Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research

Published by Sciencedomain International
Online ISSN: 2582-0273
Publications
The corrosion inhibition characteristics of Chrysophyllum cainto cotyledon aqueous extract was studied for the corrosion of pipeline steel in 0.5 M HCl using gravimetric technique. The corrosion surface morphology and corrosion surface film were studied using Scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy respectively. The results obtained showed Chrysophyllum cainto aqueous extract as a good corrosion inhibitors of pipeline steel corrosion in acidic environment, recording an average corrosion inhibition efficiency above 90% at 303 K. The Scanning electron micrograph showed a smoother corrosion surface morphology in the presence of the extract while the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic data showed the corrosion inhibition mechanism to be through adsorption.
 
Aims: Development of a simple and accurate spectrophotometric method for the determination of Cu, Zn and Pb in adult Egyptians’ blood, plasma and serum using dithizone. Place of Study: Hematology Laboratory, Armed Forces Laboratories for Medical Research and Blood Bank, Kobry El-Kobba, Cairo, Egypt. Methodology: 100 blood samples from adults frequenting the Hematology Lab services were randomly obtained. The tested group comprised 57 males aging from 22 to 55 years and 43 females aging from 27 to 57 years. Three methods: Ready-to-use Kit (Reference method), ICP-MS (validation method) and Dithizone spectrophotometric method were used to determine Cu, Zn and Pb levels in these samples. Results: The results for the proposed dithizone revealed that the Cu levels were higher than those obtained for Zn content. As for the per gender levels, the Cu concentration range was (60 -148.11 µg/dL) for males and for females, it was (60.71-159.19 µg/dL). The measured Zn levels for males ranged between 72.2-132.83 µg/dL but for females, it was between 55.95 – 123.62 µg/dL. Pb levels obtained ranged from 0 - 25.8 µg/dL and the results showed no gender distinction. The proposed method was validated and showed a linear regression coefficient (R2) above 0.99 for all elements. The limit of detection (LOD) for the developed method was 4.47, 4.37 and 3.97 µg/dL for Cu, Zn and Pb, respectively. As well, the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 13.55, 13.25 and 12.03 µg/dL for Cu, Zn and Pb respectively. The modality of the data obtained was tested statistically. Conclusion: The developed method provided wider calibration and working ranges for Cu, Zn and Pb in the tested blood samples than that reported for the reference and validation methods. The higher levels of Cu and Zn may be linked to dietary/nutrition intake while Pb content may be more linked to anthropogenic exposure.
 
Fig. A1. 1 H-NMR for Ergosta-5,7,22-triene-3β,14α-ol (22Z) (1)
Aims: To determine the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Kenyan Ganoderma lucidum. Study Design: Structural determination of the isolated compound was done using spectral evidences and in comparison with literature. The antibacterial properties of the compound was done using disc diffusion method. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, between January and November, 2019. Methodology: Sequential extraction of dried samples of Kenyan G. lucidum were done using solvents hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Chromatographic separation of hexane extract of Ganoderma lucidum was done using spectroscopic data. The compound was assayed against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Methicillin–Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pyogenes. Standard antibiotic namely; ampicillin was used as the control. Disc diffusion method was used and zones of inhibition, after respective incubation periods, were used to quantify antibacterial activity. Results: From hexane extract of Ganoderma lucidum, Ergosta-5, 7, 22-triene-3β, 14α – diol (22Z) was isolated. Ethylacetate and methanol extracts produced a mixture of complex compounds. Ergosta-5,7,22-triene-3β,14α-diol (22Z) exhibited significant activity against Methicillin-Resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (p=0.022) and Streptococcus pyogenes (p = 0.05). The most sensitive microbe was Streptococcus pyogenes. Conclusion: One major compound, Ergosta-5, 7, 22-triene-3β, 14α – diol (22Z) was isolated, characterized and antibacterial activity determined.
 
Air pollution is reported to have reduced to a level that has not been recorded since the end of World War (II), and this is largely due to the global lockdown imposed to curb the spread of the novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) across the globe, hence the need for a review, interpretation and harmonisation of the available literature in this regard. Attempt is made from the available literature in elaborating the generality of the concepts of air pollution from the perspective of the global lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The synergy between the lockdown and decreased air pollution in relation to climate change, is explored. Various health and environmental consequences of air pollution and climate change are outlined. Major ailments and mortalities associated to air pollution are bound to decrease due to reduction in air pollution, and this is affirmed. We highlight some achievable control measures and techniques for tackling air pollutants in line with the principles of green chemistry for re-consideration under reviewed policies and guidelines by governments, stakeholders and policy-makers. Additionally, we propose some new remediation measures and policies that could be harnessed and deliberated upon by stakeholders and policy-makers to checkmate greenhouse gases emissions, improve air quality and minimise air pollution and climate change. We recommend how these measures could be adopted and implemented for improved health care. Data need to be collated post COVID-19 to ascertain the level of mortalities due to the consequence of air pollution and compare same with the mortality rate for COVID-19.
 
A series of five-membered heterocyclic rings like Benzimidazole were synthesized by the reaction between benzene-1, 2 diamine and formic acid to form various Benzimidazole derivatives (BD- BK) compounds and was tested for their anti-inflammatory activity determined by rat-paw- oedema method. All the synthesis compounds have been characterized by 1HNMR, IR and some Mass spectral data. The compounds were purified by recrystallization method. The entire compound gives good response for the anti-inflammatory activity: Benzimidazole (AA), 1-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-2-(3-hydroxyphenyl) ethanone (AC); 2-{3-[2-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-2-oxoethyl] phenyl}-N-phenylacetamide (AJ); 2-{3-[2-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-2-oxoethyl] phenyl}-N-(2-nitrophenyl) acetamide (AK); 2-{3-[2-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-2-oxoethyl] phenyl}-N-(3-nitrophenyl) acetamide (AL). For this anti-inflammatory activity, Indometacin was used as a standard drug and compared to new synthesized drugs. Some new synthesized drugs have shown better activities for the anti-inflammation. The synthesize compounds were establish to be AA to AL. The compound AA, AC, AJ, AK and AL were established to be the most potent compound through compare to standard drugs Indomethacin.
 
A fundamental structural feature of benzimidazoles, a group of heterocyclic, aromatic compounds, is the fusion of a six-membered benzene ring with a five-membered imidazole moiety. Formic acid, Acetyl chloride, hydrazine hydrate, Benzene-1,2-diol, Glycolic Acid, Benzoyl chloride, Methyl chloride, Ethyl chloride, Benzamide, and other chemicals were utilized in this research study. In this research study different methods were used such as TLC, IR spectra, 1H-NMR, and MS. These derivatives were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity determined by rat-paw- oedema method. It was determined that the synthetic chemicals ranged from BA to BK. When compared to common medicines like Indomethacin, the compounds Benzimidazole (BA), 1-(1H-benzimidazole-2-yl)-(3-hydrazinylphenyl) ethanone (BC), N’- {4- [2 - (1H-benzimidazol-2yl) -2- oxoethyl] phenyl} -2-hydroxyaceto hydrazide N- (3-nitrophenyl) acetamide (BK), N’- {4- [2 - (1H-benzimidazol-2yl) -2- oxoethyl] phenyl} -2-hydroxyaceto hydrazide N- (2-nitrophenyl) acetamide (BJ),N’- {4- [2- (1H–benzimidazol-2-yl) -2 -oxoethyl] phenyl} -2-hydroxyaceto hydrazide –N - phenylacetamide (BI) were found to be the most potent.
 
Absorption spectra of symmetrical azine derived from 2,4-dichlorobenzaldehyde have been recorded in various solvents in the range 200–400nm. The effects of solvents on the absorption spectra of investigated compound is interpreted by correlation of absorption maxima with Kirkwood function{ԑ, 1/ԑ and f(ԑ) }.
 
A pesticide is any substance or mixture of substances used to destroy, suppress or alter the life cycle of any pest. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been known to resist biodegradation, persist in the environment and thus can concentrate through food chains and produce a significant magnification that can pose severe toxic risk to human health. Bioaccumulation and concentration levels of 26 Organochlorine Pesticides were assessed in water, sediment and fish samples from the Warri River, Nigeria. Samples were collected across the two predominant seasons - rainy and the dry season. The results obtained reveal the presence of 22 of the investigated 26 OCPs in the dry season whereas 19 were detected in the rainy season. Results obtained revealed p,p’-DDT, γ-HCH, and aldrin as the most predominant pesticides detected in the water samples with concentrations of 0.588; 0.160 and 0.092 μg/L, respectively. γ-HCH, p’-DDD and aldrin (29.00; 23.00 and 22.00 ng/g, respectively) for the sediment samples. The most predominant contaminants in the fish samples were HCB, o,p’-DDT, γ-HCH (60.00; 29.00 and 27.00 ng/g, respectively). The Hazard Quotient (HQ) analysis was carried out on the fish samples collected revealed factors of 1.34 to 3.17 indicating a moderate hazard while the Bioaccumulation Index (BI) was found to be below 1 indicating their suitability for consumption. However, the risk of toxicity and bioaccumulation arising from long-term consumption of the OCP-contaminated fish may still exist.
 
Theoretical modeling of organic synthesis is a powerful tool and leads to further insight into chemical systems. Computational chemistry allows obtaining the potential energy surface that experimentally cannot be observed, in addition to transition state calculations, which lead to better understanding the reactivity of an organic synthesis work. The Diels-Alder (DA) reaction of cyclopentadiene 1 and N-phenylmaleimide 2 has been studied at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. This DA reaction occurs through a one-step mechanism. It was expected that this reaction undergoes two regio-isomeric reaction paths passing through two different transition states to form two different products 3 and 4. The reaction paths are irreversible due to the exothermic character of -41.24 and -41.73 kcal.mol-1. This DA reaction are exergonic with reactions Gibbs free energies between -27.26 and -27.74 kcal⋅mol−1. Analysis of the CDFT indices predict the global electronic flux from the strong nucleophilic cyclopentadiene 1 to the electrophilic N-phenylmaleimide 2.
 
Discharge of Cr(VI) laden effluents is highly toxic and decontaminating the wastewater from Cr(VI) is necessary for Environmental Protection. An investigation on the adsorption characteristics of activated carbon prepared from neem nut (NNC) for the removal of Cr(VI) from wastewater by varying the parameters such as carbon dose, pH, equilibration time by batch studies was found to be effective for the removal of Cr(VI) from wastewater. Carbon characteristics of activated neem nut carbon were ascertained. Evaluation were done by varying the pH from 1 to 6, carbon dose from 0.1 g to 0.5 g and equilibration time from 1 to 6 hours. Maximum Cr(VI) removal of 95% took place when batch studies were done at an optimal pH of 2, carbon dose of 0.2 g//100mL, and equilibration time of 4 hours. Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models were considered for analysis.
 
Concentrations of heavy metals in Cattle liver
Concentration of heavy metals in Cattle heart
Concentration of heavy metals in Cattle blood (mg/L)
This study was to determine the concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in the organs (liver, kidney and heart) and tissues (intestine and blood) of slaughtered cattle using spectroscopy method based on comparison with standards. The results obtained for these heavy metals have values that ranged from 0.00±0.00 to 7.33±5.01mg/kg for Pb, 0.00±0.00 to 0.50±0.50 mg/kg for Cd and 0.00±0.00 to 51.67±10.54 mg/kg for Zn. Generally, Zn was found to be present at the higher significant levels in the liver, heart, kidney and intestine. It was also found that there was no detection for Zn in the blood. Pb was found relatively high than the standard permissible limit by FAO/WHO [1] in the tissues. Cd was found to be present at the lowest concentration level. Hence, the concentrations of all the heavy metals were within the tolerance limits with the exception of Pb.
 
We present linear optical absorptions of photo/thermochromic molecules interacting with a gold nanoparticle. The photo/thermochromic system is the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene (DHA/VHF) system and our aim is to study the effects of the interaction between the gold nanoparticle and the molecular systems. We consider the changes of the one-photon excitations of the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene system as we increase the interactions between the molecules and the nanoparticle by decreasing the distance between them. We utilize a quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical method for investigating the photo/thermochromic molecular system interacting with the gold nanoparticle. The photo/thermochromic molecules are described quantum mechanically using density functional theory whereas the gold nanoparticle is represented as gold atoms with atomic polarizabillities using molecular mechanics. We observed that the optical properties of the photo/thermochromic systems are affected by the presence of the nanoparticle and the changes depend strongly on the conformer of the molecular system along with the relative orientation and distance between the photo/thermochromic molecules and the nanoparticle.
 
Water is one of the most important global requirements for every activity in life including agricultural irrigation. Water if polluted, creates direct problems of alkalinity/salinity/toxicity to agricultural farms, thereby negatively affecting the quality and nutritional value of cultivated crops. This study was carried out to evaluate the physicochemical parameters of river water from eight different rivers within Gwagwalada Area Council of the FCT, using standard methods. These parameters were determined during wet and dry seasons and the results showed seasonal variations of all the parameters. Means of seasonal values of pH ranged between 6.37 - 7.95, temperature 22.40 – 27.100°C and electrical conductivity 124.55 μS/cm – 312.32 μS/cm. The mean values of Dissolve oxygen (DO) and Dissolved solid (DS) in the two seasons (wet and dry) were 3.37 mg/l – 9.39 mg/l and 67.76 mg/l - 151.23 mg/l respectively. For sulphate, phosphate, nitrate and turbidity, the mean values for wet and dry seasons ranged between 42.94 – 98.98 mg/l, 0.98 – 3.56 mg/l, 4.98 – 11.94 and 4.90 – 47.32 NTU respectively. Other parameters are potassium 3.12-6.56 mg/l, sodium 13.78 -24.33 mg/l, magnesium 3.76 – 8.90 mg/l and calcium 9.78 – 19.87 mg/l. These chemical parameters also showed significant seasonal variation. The results of the analyses indicated that some of the parameters fall within the recommended limits and thus largely suitable for irrigation and domestic purposes.
 
Bioactives from Acacia nilotica Linn [1]
This review article aims to provide details on the primary phytochemicals found in Acacia and its numerous pharmacological activities. For those working on the creation of new pharmaceutical products, this review is helpful.
 
Map showing the location of Kilembe mine, Kasese district, Western Uganda. Inset is the location of the mine in Uganda
Aim: Active mining in Kilembe copper mine, Kasese district, Uganda ended about four decades ago. However, various health problems are believed to be from the effect of mining activities that took place in the area. In this study therefore, we quantified the concentration of trace metals: chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and copper (Cu) in cabbages and tomatoes grown in Kilembe mining area and assessed the health risks from consumption of the vegetables after 40 days and 120 days of growth. Study Design: This study employed quantitative research design. Place and Duration of Study: The experiments were done at Department of Chemistry, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Uganda from 2018 to 2019. Methodology: The vegetables were planted, and their roots, leaves, fruits and stems were sampled after 40 days and 120 days. Elemental analysis was performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The estimated daily intake (EDI), target harzard quotient (THQ) and cancer risks were calculated to explore health risks that could arise from consumption of the vegetables. Results: The levels of Fe, Cu, Zn and Cr did not exceed WHO/FAO permissible limits. The EDI of Fe (294.678 × 10-4 mg/kg/day) was the highest while the lowest was 0.052 × 10-4 mg/kg/day for Cr. The THQ ranged from 0.000004 to 1.3134. Cancer risk values ranged from 0.126 × 10-4 to 28650 × 10-4. Conclusion: There are discernable non-carcinogenic health risks (THQ >1) and cancer risks associated with consumption of cabbages and tomatoes by the local inhabitants. The risks are escalated in children who consume both vegetables after 40 days of growth. Arsenic and Cd poses the highest carcinogenic health risk while Pb poses the highest non-carcinogenic health risk. Consumption of the vegetables after 120 days of growth poses lower health risks.
 
The present work involves extraction of phytochemicals from aerial part of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn with n-hexane and 85% methanol. The isolation and characterization of Phytoconstituents was done from the methanol extract through portioning with chloroform and ethyl acetate. Fractionation and isolation (using column and thin layer chromatography respectively) of ethyl acetate column pooled portion afforded a compound coded as E-3.3C. The structure of the isolated compound was established on spectroscopic evidences (IR, 1HNMR, MS), which revealed the compound as 1-de (oxygalloyl)-2ˈ,3ˈ,-di-methoxy-amariin a hydrolysable tannins.
 
Ficus capensis (farin baure) has wide application in traditional medicine especially in the Northan part of Nigeria in the treatment and management of diarrhoea and digestive distress. This is attributed to the presence of many biologically active compounds in their different parts. In this study, stem bark of F. capensis was extracted with four (4) solvents of different polarities ranging from non-polar, moderately polar to polar. Qualitative phytochemical screening of these extracts was conducted using standard laboratory procedures. The results revealed that only alkaloids, glycosides and carbohydrates were detected from the n-hexane (non-polar) extract of F. capensis while the chloroform and ethyl acetate (moderately polar solvents) and methanol (polar solvent) extracts showed the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, flavonoids and proteins. But anthraquinones were not detected in all the extracts. Antimicrobial properties of the extracts were evaluated using clinical isolates of four different bacteria and fungi each. Different concentration of extracts was prepared and activity was measured using zone of inhibition in millimetres (mm). Methanol extracts showed activities against E. coli with the zone of inhibition 10 mm, 11 mm, 12 mm and 14 mm; B. subtilis with the zone of inhibition 10 mm, 11 mm, 13 mm and 15 mm all for 10, 20, 25 and 30% concentration of extracts respectively. Chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts showed antimicrobial activities against S. aureus (12 mm, 14 mm), E. coli (12 mm, 14 mm), P. aeruginosa (14 mm, 12 mm) and B. subtilis (12 mm, 16 mm) respectively for 20% concentration of the extracts. The methanol and ethyl acetate extracts showed considerable antifungal activities against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fungatus. But the n-hexane extract did not show any reasonable antibacterial and no antifungal activities.
 
Telfairia occidentalis rind extract has been studied as a potential green inhibitor for mild steel corrosion in 1 M H2SO4 using weight loss and hydrogen evolution methods. The results of the investigation reveal that Telfairia occidentalis rind extract is a good inhibitor of mild steel corrosion in sulphuric acid solution. The inhibition efficiency increases with increase in rind extract concentration but decreases with increase in temperature. The calculated thermodynamic parameters reveal that the corrosion inhibition process was endothermic and spontaneous. Physical adsorption has been proposed for the adsorption of Telfairia occidentalis rind extract onto mild steel surface. The adsorption of the extract on mild steel surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm.
 
The objective of the present work is to synthesize and characterizethe production of biodiesel from palm oil. Acid activated heterogeneous catalyst was used in the synthesis process. The clay was characterized using SEM. The effect of process variables such as reaction temperature, catalyst weight and oil to alcohol ratio were investigated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized in the design of experiment and modeling of the biodiesel production process. The biodiesel was characterized and compared to standard properties of biodiesel. The result showed that H2SO4 activation increased the surface area of the clay. In the RSM modeling, the maximum biodiesel yield obtained was 82.99% at reaction time of 5 hours, temperature of 140oC, methanol to oil ratio of 10:1, and catalyst weight of 3.6 wt%. Quadratic model with correlation coefficient of 0.9657, best described the experimental data. The physio-chemical properties of the biodiesel synthesized were comparable to the properties of standard biodiesel. This study has shown that clay heterogeneous catalyst can be used to catalyst the synthesis of biodiesel from palm oil. The finding of this study is recommended for solving some of the challenges posed by the use of fossil fuel.
 
Adsorption using activated carbon (AC) has been proven to be effective in the treatment of wastewater. In this study, Carica papaya seeds were utilized for activated carbon (AC) preparation using zinc chloride as the activating agent. Experiment was carried out to explore the methylene blue uptake by both the Carica papaya seeds activated carbon (CPSAC) and commercial activated carbon (CAC). The physicochemical characteristics, Iodine number and adsorption isotherms of CPSAC were also compared with those of CAC. The adsorption equilibrium was represented with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best fit for both CPSAC and CAC with the coefficient correlation (R2) values of 0.9922 and 0.9964, respectively. Going by the good fitting of the Langmuir isotherm, MB adsorption on both CPSAC and CAC can be ascribed to be of monolayer adsorption process, and is associated with the chemical functional groups inherent on carbon surface. The optimum adsorption capacities of CPSAC and CAC according to the Langmuir isotherm at approximately 25◦C were 238.78mg/g and 241.14mg/g, respectively. This implies that CPSAC demonstrated similar outstanding adsorption properties to CAC for MB.
 
Aims: In this study the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata were investigated. Study design: The study contains determination of the chemical composition of the essential oil of E. caryophyllata and the in vitro evaluation of the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of this oil. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the laboratory of research on local animal products of Ibn-Khaldoun University, Tiaret, Algeria during the period from December 2020 to March 2021. Methodology: The essential oil composition was characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometrical analyses. The antibacterial activity of this oil was tested against four pathogenic bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 33862, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 by using disc diffusion method and agar incorporation method to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the tested oil. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by using DPPH radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging assays and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Results: Our results have shown a greater antibacterial effect of E. caryophyllata essential oil against all the bacterial tested strains with inhibition zone diameters varied from 17.5 to 20.5 mm and minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) ranged between 0.8 μl / ml and 4.4 μl / ml, B. cereus and S. aureus are the most sensitive species with a MIC value of 0.8 μl / ml, however P. aeruginosa is the most resistant species with a MIC value of 4.4 μl / ml. The result of the antioxidant effect showed that the essential oil of E. caryophyllata is a powerful antioxidant that expresses a higher antioxidant activity than the standard antioxidants: gallic acid, vitamin C and BHT. Conclusion: The obtained results suggest that the essential oil of E. caryophyllata has a strong antibacterial and antioxidant effect and it may be an alternative natural source medicine to prevent and treat many diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria and oxidative stress.
 
Five substituted tridentate salicylaldimines, (E)-2-((2-hydroxybenzylidene)amino)phenol, (E)-2-(((2-hydroxyphenyl)imino)methyl)-4-nitrophenol, (E)-4-chloro-2-(((2-hydroxyphenyl)imino)methyl) phenol, (E)-2-(((2-hydroxyphenyl)imino)methyl)-4-methoxyphenol, (E)-4-bromo-2-(((2-hydroxy-phenyl)imino)methyl)-6-methoxyphenol were synthesised and characterised by elemental analysis, IR, UV and NMR (1H and 13C). They were screened against some multi-drug resistance Gram-positive (Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus), and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium) organisms by the agar-well diffusion method. The total antioxidant capacities of the salicylaldimines were determined by the phosphomolybdenum assay. Their antibacterial and antioxidant activities were screened to understand the substituents effects. The result showed that the methoxy-substituted compound exhibited the highest antibacterial and antioxidant activities while the nitro-substituted compound exhibited the least activities. This implies that the electron-donating group of the compound increases its antibacterial and antioxidant activities. The one-way analysis of variance was performed with MINITAB 17 at 95% confidence level.
 
Aims: Nigerian indigenous kola nuts (Garcinia kola, Kola acuminate, Kola vera) were evaluated for potential phytochemical properties. Study Design: Phytochemical analysis. Place and duration of Study: Renaissance University, Ugbawka, Enugu State, Nigeria, July 2016. Methodology: The nuts were dried, ground and extracted by cold maceration with 99.5% methanol for 72 hours after which the methanol was allowed to evaporate. Results: The phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of saponin glycosides, glycoside, volatile oil, steroid and alkaloid in Kola vera; saponin, saponin glycoside, glycoside, tannins, pseudo tannins, volatile oil, steroid and alkaloid in Kola acuminate while flavonoid, alkaloid and steroid were found in Garcinia kola. Conclusion: The phytochemical activities results showed that kola acuminate and Garcinia kola extracts exhibited more phytochemical than kola vera.
 
Formulas of fermented oat products
Changes in free phenolic content (mg GAL /100 g ww) of fermented oat during storage
Changes in free radical scavenging activity of fermented oat during storage
Organoleptic evaluation of fermented oat products
Fermentation of oats by probiotics provides higher nutritional value and can be considered as a significant source of bioactive compounds for the human body. Moringa leaves powder (MLP) at the levels of 0.25 and 0.50% were used as an additional prebiotic source to supply oat fermentation by Lactobacillus plantaram ATCC 14917 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus EMCC 11102. The results indicated that oat products supplemented with MLP (0.50%) and fermented by L. delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus EMCC 11102 showed the highest values of free phenolic content and antioxidant activity (30.87 mg Gallic acid (GAL) /100 g and 7.64%, respectively), followed by oat products supplemented with MLP at level 0.50% and fermented by L. plantaram (28.38 mg GAL /100 g and 5.31%, respectively). Also, oat products fermented by probiotics showed different antibacterial activity by well-diffusion agar method against selected pathogenic bacteria. It is thus concluded that supplementation of fermented oat products with MLP will improve the nutritional value and health benefits of fermented oat products.
 
Map of Adamawa State showing Hong local government area
The quality of water from surface and ground water sources in Hong Local Government Area of Adamawa State was studied to determine their suitability or otherwise for drinking and domestic purposes. Nine (9) samples, three (3) each from streams, dug wells and boreholes were randomly collected, during the dry season, in the months of October and November, 2016. The samples were analysed, and the values compared with WHO and NAFDAC standards to ascertain their compliance. The results of the analysis revealed that the physico-chemical parameters studied and concentrations of heavy metals determined, falls within the maximum permissible limits of WHO and NAFDAC standards for drinking water. However, the water samples were predominantly alkaline (pH 6.30 ± 0.10 to 7.00 ± 0.10), (6.70 ± 0.20 to 7.30 ± 0.20), and (7.60 ±0.20 to 8.20 ± 0.10), for boreholes, dug wells and streams respectively. The heavy metals concentrations were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric method. The suitability of water for domestic and drinking purposes indicates that water samples were within the standards prescribed for potable waters.
 
Sulphadiazine and their copper metal complexes are dexterous ligands, which are condensation products of primary amines with carbonyl compounds gaining importance day by day in the present scenario. Spectral characterization and examination of the potential antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the synthesized complex were performed. The imine Cu(II) complex is characterized by FTIR and UV/Vis spectroscopy. The Stoichiometric M:L ratio was determined by Joe and Jones method. These compounds and their copper metal complex are very important in various biological systems and their medicinal and pharmaceutical fields. Schiff foundations show beneficial natural functions such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, antitubercular, anticancer, antioxidant, anthelmintic, and antiglycation. The present review summarizes information on the diverse biological activities and also highlights the recently synthesized numerous Schiff bases and their metal complex as potential bioactive core.
 
Observation of linearity response
The research work aims to develop a bioanalytical method using liquid chromatography and validated for the determination of canagliflozin by using an internal standard. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Smt. Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, New Kamptee, Nagpur (MS). Isocratic chromatography separation was achieved on an LC system with PDA detector on an ACE C18 (150mm× 4.6mm × 5µm) column using a mobile phase composition of acetonitrile: ammonium acetate buffer in the ration of 50:50 v/v (pH 4.5), orthophosphoric acid is used to adjust pH of mobile phase and the flow rate at 1.0ml/ min. and estimation was carried out at 291 nm. The retention time of a drug was 4.633 minutes. The method was validated for several parameters (specificity, linearity, precision, and accuracy) and also successfully applied for the pharmacokinetic in female rats. Calibration plot was linear (r2 > 0.9973) over the concentration range of 5-30 µg/ml for canagliflozin. The high recovery and low relative standard deviation (%RSD) confirm the suitability of the method. The result of Limit of Detection (LOD) and Limit of Quantitation (LOQ) were found to be 0.1099 μg/ml and 0.3331 μg/ml, respectively. The new RP-HPLC method can be conveniently adapted for examining canagliflozin concentration in rat plasma after oral administration.
 
Copper II sulphate is one of those contaminants that undermine the economic, environment and deleterious health effects on people. Kaolin sample from Illela local government of Sokoto state, Nigeria was used as adsorbent for removal of Copper II sulphate and to check for the effect of concentration. The collected kaolin sample was pretreated to remove debris, grinded and dried. The adsorption methods of the parameters onto the kaolin were investigated by maintaining constant amount of adsorbent, temperature and other factors except for concentration. The results from different concentrations shows that with increase in concentration of the copper solution, the more the kaolin adsorbed. From the findings, it was established that kaolin form Illela local government of Sokoto state, Nigeria can serve as an economic, safe and effective natural adsorbent for removal of copper II sulphate from wastewater.
 
Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) – modified and unmodified sodium bentonite were both used for the competitive adsorption of m-xylene and toluene from their aqueous solution. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) and expansion tests (adsorption capacity and Foster swelling) measurement were performed in order to evaluate the performance of the adsorbents. The FT-IR results indicated that the quaternary ammonium salts (CTAB) were intercalated between the layers of the sodium bentonite clay. The Foster swelling test results indicated that the affinity of CTAB was more in the treated clay for all other organic compounds tested. The result showed that modified sodium bentonite swelled more than the unmodified and the order of the swelling factor is; m- xylene > toluene > gasoline > diesel > kerosene > water. However, when the assay was performed under agitation, it yielded higher swelling capacity. The modified clay exhibited very high capacity of adsorption compare to unmodified samples. The m-xylene and toluene uptake follows a pseudo second order kinetics mechanism, suggesting that the rate determining step of adsorption involves the two adsorbates competitively adsorbed on the adsorbent sites. Therefore this organo-modified bentonite can be used for the removal of organics from polluted aqueous effluents.
 
Proximate analysis of the samples
The main aim of this work is determine the feasibility of palm kernel shell (PKS) with phosphoric acid impregnation to biosorb methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution by carrying out isotherm studies of the process. The influence of various factors such as contact time, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH of dye solution and temperature were investigated in a batch adsorption technique. Result showed that adsorption of methylene blue (MB) dye was favourable at acidic pH. The percentage adsorption was found to increase with time of agitation, temperature, and mass of adsorbent but decreased with increase in initial MB concentration. In order to obtain a suitable model for the MB adsorption process, obtained data were fitted into different isotherm models like Langmuir and Freundlich models. Results showed that Freundlich adsorption isotherm model best describe MB adsorption onto palm kernel shell (PKS).
 
The freundlich isotherm constants for the adsorption process
The removal of Cr6+ from aqueous solution using unmodified and hydrochloric modified African nutmeg pod was studied. The effects of particle size, pH and initial metal ions concentration adsorbed were investigated. The amount of metal ion adsorbed increased as the initial metal ion concentration increased and also decreased at low pH of 2 for both modified and unmodified African nutmeg pod. 400 µm and 250 µm were the optimum particle sizes for both modified and unmodified African nutmeg pod respectively, values given as 75.8 mg/g for the modified and 93.39 mg/g for the unmodified. Generally, it was observed that the unmodified African nutmeg pod showed greater adsorption capacity than the modified African nutmeg pod. The equilibrium experimental data were examined via Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Freundlich isotherm model gave the best fit for the data in both unmodified and modified African nutmeg pod based on the correlation coefficients (R2 values) gotten. The results of the study showed that the African nutmeg pod is efficient for the removal of Cr6+ from aqueous solutions especially when unmodified.
 
The PZC is essential parameter for the characterization of certain materials used for the treatment of organic or inorganic wastes in the environment, particularly from waste water and industrial sludge. Potentiometric titration and batch experimentation method was used to determine PZC value and type of adsorption isotherm behavior observed. Red ash is the natural metal oxides collected from the rift valley of Ethiopia which have PZC values of 3.35 for 0.5g, 1g and 1.5g adsorbent dose studied. On the adsorbent surface, monolayer and homogeneous adsorption process of fluoride observed. Therefore, based on the interest of the researcher and the adjustment of the pH of red ash solution might used for the treatment of ionic wastes.
 
Potentiometric titration curves of activated carbon from velvet tamarind shell
Ftir spectrum of activated carbon prepared from velvet tamarind shell
Column adsorption of pb(ii) by activated carbon from velvet tamarind fruit shells at different initial concentration .
Ultimate analysis of activated carbons from velvet tamarind fruit shells
Column kinetic parameters for Pb ions adsorption on activated carbon from velvet tamarind fruit shells
The removal of Pb ions by activated carbons prepared from velvet tamarind (Dialium indum) shells was studied to investigate its uptake potentials using column sorption at different operating conditions (flow rates, initial concentrations and bed height). The prepared adsorbent was characterized by determining the physicochemical properties, proximate analysis, carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen and Sulpur analysis, Fourier Transform-Infra Red, Potentiometric titration. Different dynamic models were used to describe the sorption processes. The FTIR analysis results suggested the presence of functional groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl and amine which could bind the metals and remove them from the solution. The values of moisture content, volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash content as obtained from % proximate analysis are 3.43, 27.07, 65.05, 4.45 for activated carbons prepared from velvet tamarind shells. Ultimate analysis revealed that activated carbons prepared from velvet tamarind shells contained 75% carbon. The surface area and Iodine number of activated carbon from velvet tamarind shell are 570 m2g-1 and 614.7 mgg-1 respectively. The column experimental data revealed that an increase in bed height and initial metal concentration or a decrease of flow rate enhances the longevity of column performance by increasing both breakthrough time and exhaustion time thereby delaying bed saturation. Low ash content and high surface areas are indication of good mechanical strength and microporosity of the activated carbons prepared from this precursor. The activated carbons are inexpensive and appeared to be effective and can be explore for future commercial application for environmental sustainability.
 
Water hyacinth powder before adsorption; b= spectrum of water hyacinth loaded with Cd 2+ ions
Changes in spectral structure when various heavy metals are adsorbed on the water hyacinth
The adsorption behavior of selected metal ions on water hyacinth powder was investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Water hyacinth powder was used as an adsorbent due to its popularity, low cost and ease of availability. Water hyacinth stems were dried and ground to a powder. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted at room temperature by adding known concentrations of Pb2+, Cd2+, Cr3+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ to 5 g of water hyacinth powder in different test tubes and allowed to stand for the same time respectively. Adsorption is one of the methods used to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions and wastewaters. FTIR analysis was performed to identify the functional groups in the water hyacinth powder using the KBr disc method. The study showed a strong broad absorption band in the region of 3300-3200cm-1 which is characteristic of O-H stretching vibrations of the adsorbed water molecules at the surface of raw water hyacinth powder particles. Other peaks appeared at 1732cm-1 which corresponded to C=O stretching vibrations while the band at 1396cm-1 could be attributed to C-H bonds. The functional groups identified were: C-H; O-H; C=O or C-O. After adsorption there was a disappearance, reduction or a shift in the adsorption bands depending on the type of metal ion. Lead for example showed a strong absorption band in the region of 1732cm-1 which is characteristic of C=O stretching bond structure which is found in esters and carboxylic acids. The disappearance of the peaks indicated that the H atom present in the functional groups of the raw water hyacinth powder could have been substituted with lead ion. The intensity of the adsorption bands reduced for all the metals confirming that functional groups were responsible for adsorption of the heavy metal ions on to the material.
 
The sorption uptake of lead by marine brown alga Fucus spiralis was investigated in bimetallic solutions. The experimental data fitted very well to Langmuir model. In bimetallic systems, the affinity of biomass for lead and cadmium increased and the sorption uptake of these metals was not affected by increasing concentrations. However, in solutions with both metals there was a significant mutual decrease of their sorption levels at high concentrations of the other metal. There is practical removal up to 100 ± 4% for biomass dosage 4.0 ±0.1 g which correspond to lowest adsorbed amount of 0.25 ± 0.1 mg/g. The highest adsorbed value was recorded with biomass dosage 0.25 ± 0.1 g but with the lowest percentage removal of 92.50 ± 6%. In this study at initial metal concentration of 10 mg/L the highest metal removal of 96% was achieved.
 
Study on the evaluation of the nutritional quality of poorly utilized plant products is of immense importance. This research work, therefore, evaluates the amino acid profile and mineral content of Balanites aegyptiaca kernel using standard analytical methods. The amino acid profile analysis revealed the presence of essential and the non-essential amino acids of which Total sulphur and Total aromatic amino acids content were 2.86 g/100 g protein and 7.21 g/100 g protein respectively. Analysis of the mineral content showed the presence of the following minerals in the order; Magnesium ˃ Sodium ˃ Calcium ˃ Potassium ˃ Iron ˃ Zinc ˃ Manganese ˃ Lead ˃ Copper ˃ Nickel ˃ Chromium ˃ Cadmium. The kernel could, therefore, be used as a good source of protein and minerals in supplementing other sources in order to reduce food insecurity and hence malnutrition from lack of protein diets.
 
There are numerous medicinal plants in the Southern and Eastern Nigeria. These plants are widely utilized in Nigerian traditional system of medicine for the treatment of countless of illnesses. This paper focused on the phytochemical and essential composition of the aerial parts of Leonurus cardiaca. The phytochemical and essential oil screening and characterization were carried out using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography. Results obtained from this investigation showed seven different terpenoids and their total concentrations were 26.19 x 10-1 (mg/100 g), nine different phenolic acids (506.33 mg/100 g), twelve different saponin (62.33 mg/100 g), seven different cyanogenic glycosides (118.03 mg/100 g), thirteen different glycosides (16.17 mg/100 g), five (5) different anthocyanins (56.53 mg/100 g), twenty six different alkaloids (1.31 mg/100 g), six different flavonoids (7.31 mg/100 g), seven different sterol (5.91 mg/100 g), tannins (426.49 mg/100 g), and phytate (69.12 mg/100 g). Analysis for essential oils showed fourty one different essential oils (100. 00 %). Our uncovering indicated Leonurus cardiaca is an excellent source of terpenoids, saponins, alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthocyanins, phenolic acid, sterols, cyanogenic glycoside, phytate, tannins, glycosides, flavonoids and essential oils. This present research exemplify the preparatory detection for discretion or selection of Leonurus cardiaca potential source of novel therapies for the treatment of various diseases.
 
At laboratories of Delta Sugar Company, Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, as well as Food science Department Faculty of Agriculture, Minia University, Egypt during 2019 working season was carried out this work. It was particularly designed to evaluate the affination process of raw sugar at different temperatures on refined sugar quality parameters during sugar refining process under prevailing industrial conditions. The obtained results revealed that there were a significant differences among raw cane sugar samples in the all studied physiochemical traits, i.e. moisture, sucrose, reducing sugars, starch, dextran and color (ICUMSA units) except total sugars and ash % , Significant effect of dextran addition for sugar type, where white sugar was affected more than raw sugar, and added dextran level, significant effect of affination syrup temperature on physiochemical properties of white sugar, i.e. dextran, starch, sucrose, ash, and colour, except reducing sugars percent was non-significant it can be concluded from the present research that affination syrup temperature at 70oC is the best treatment under the study conditions regarding white sugar quality and can be recommended to the industry for further processing and quite near to the standards of white sugar.
 
This study investigated the potential of some agricultural wastes viz; African Star apple seed shell (ASS, plant source), crab shell (CS, animal source) and chicken egg shell (ES, animal source) as eco-friendly and low-cost biological materials for the removal of heavy metals from poultry wastewater. TS, TSS and TDS of the wastewater sample were assayed by filtration methods, chloride content by previously reported method and heavy metal contents (Zn, V, Cd, Fe, Ni, Cu, Co, Pb, Cr and Mn); were analyzed using Microwave Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer. The results of the solids and chloride contents of the poultry wastewater were TDS (3100 mg/L), TS (3700 mg/L), TSS (6000 mg/L) and chloride (4.7 g/L); all above the EPA permissible limits. Results of the FTIR analysis showed that ASS is an amide polymer while the CS and ES shells are mixtures of amide and carbonate polymers. Also, results of heavy metal analysis before and after adsorption showed that ASS caused removal of Zn, V, Fe, Cu, Co/ Pb and Mn by 48.27, 32.22, 49.64, 91.44, 100 and 82.39% respectively while Cd, Ni and Cr contents increased by 31, 61 and 48.3% respectively. CS showed removal of Fe, Ni/ Co/ Cr, Pb and Mn by 89.64, 100, 3.51 and 95.96% respectively while Zn, V, Cd and Cu contents increased by 1.7, 61.2, 76.1 and 68.1% respectively. Meanwhile, with ES, the contents of Zn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Cr and Mn increased by 31.56, 86.36, 100, 55.5, 45.80 and 90.33% respectively while the contents of V, Cd, Co and Pb decreased by 78.9, 86.7, 42.5 and 46.2% respectively. This study demonstrated the use of ASS, CS and ES as low- cost and eco-friendly agricultural wastes with significant potential for removal of heavy metals from wastewaters.
 
Result of TLC analysis
Phytochemical screening result of mistletoe samples obtained from different plant host
Aim: Mistletoes are highly utilized in traditional medicine to treat different kinds of diseases such as heart diseases, diabetes and malaria, among others. The chemistry of African mistletoe is not sufficiently documented. This paper is therefore, aimed at determining the phytochemicals present in the crude extracts of mistletoe parasitic on plants that are commonly seen as hosts. Study Design: This study was designed to compare the phytochemical profiles of mistletoe stem barks obtained from different plant hosts. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State Nigeria, between August and September, 2018. Methodology: Powdered stem bark of mistletoe was extracted successively with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out on the extracts. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was carried out on silica gel precoated plates in 9:1 (hexane/ethyl acetate), 1:1 (hexane/ethyl acetate), and 7:3 (ethyl acetate/methanol) mobile phases for hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts respectively. Results: The study revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins/phenols, cardiac glycosides, steroids and triterpenoids. It was evident from TLC analysis that mistletoes from various plant hosts contain similar chemical profile. Conclusion: We therefore debunk the claim by some herbalists that medicinal values of mistletoes vary due to host plant. This is the first time a study of this kind is reported on mistletoe parasitic on Vitellaria paradoxa Pilostigma thonningii, Combretum fragrans.
 
Result for FTIR on African locust bean seed oil
Linoleic acid from African locust bean seed oil (GCMS analysis)
Results of Oil Yield and Physicochemical Parameters of African Locust Bean Seed Oil
Result for GC-MS analysis on African locust bean oil
The extraction of oil from African locust bean seeds was carried out in this work. Standard procedures were followed to determine the yield present in the oil feed stocks using n-hexane in a Soxhlet extraction apparatus. Analyses were carried out to determine their proximate compositions and physicochemical characteristics. The determination of the functional groups and fatty acid compositions present in the extracted oils was also carried out using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometry (FTIR) and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS) respectively. The results revealed that African locust bean seed has higher oil yield, crude fat, crude protein, ash content, crude fibre, moisture content than some other seeds such as Date palm seed with the exception of the carbohydrates content. Similarly, African locust bean seed oil which was yellowish brown in colour contained higher acid value, iodine value, peroxide value, free fatty acid with the exception of saponification value and specific gravity in comparism. Result from the FTIR analysis shows that 15 peaks were noticed in African locust bean seed oil, indicating the presence of various functional groups such as OH, C-H, C=C, C=O, C≡ C and C — N. Similarly, the GC-MS result also reveals that there are 6 dominating fatty acid compounds present in locust beans seed oil in relation to their relative weight composition abundance. In locust bean seed oil, linoleic acid stood out as the fatty acid compound with the highest weight composition of 31.9% having a relatively high degree of unsaturation. Furthermore, capric acid and lauric acid were found in this oil. Judging from all the results in this work, it can be deduced that African locust bean seed oil may serve as better alternative oil for consumption and in large-scale production of lubricants, cosmetics, paints, and hydraulic brake fluid.
 
As the oils used for biodiesel production face food competition, many scientific research is now focusing on the upgrading of non-conventional oils, which are not edibles. This study consisted in revalorizing of Congolese nonedible Afzelia bella seeds oil as raw materials for the biodiesel production. Afzelia bella seeds oil was extracted with oil yield of 26.38±0.22% and subsequently transesterified by alkali-catalyst using methanol with KOH as catalyst. The maximum yield of the obtained Diacetylenic Light Fuel Oil was 96.53% and FTIR spectroscopy showed the presence of fatty acid methyl esters in the produced biodiesel. The FTIR spectrum of Diacetylenic Light Fuel Oil revealed the following characteristics functional groups: Carbonyl group stretching (C=O), Methyl asymmetric bending (CH3) and Methoxy group stretching (O-CH3) with the peaks at 1743.94, 1436.11 and 1197.38 cm-1, respectively. Physicochemical properties (Kinematic viscosity, density, flash point, Cetane number, cloud point, pour point, water contents, ash and sulfur contents) values of Biodiesel (B100), and biodiesel blend in Gasoil (B50 and B20), were within the range of values set by the international standards specifications of diesel and biodiesel (American Society of Testing Materials and European Standard). Thus, these three produced biodiesels (B100, B50 and B20) from the Congolese Afzelia bella seeds oil could be used as a substitute for diesel without damaging the engine.
 
This work contributes to the monitoring of heavy metal pollution of Agricultural soils, Katsina State Nigeria, using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The heavy metal contamination of the soil samples were analyzed based on the Geoaccumulation index (Igeo), enrichment factor (EF), contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI) and potential ecological risk index (PERI). The health risks of the evaluated heavy metals were estimated using the Hazard Quotient (HQ) and Hazard Index (HI)) to evaluate the possible non-carcinogenic effect and the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) for the cancer risk to the population. The results of the study had revealed that in the soil samples all the evaluated heavy metals lie within acceptable limits as set by the regulatory agencies. The evaluated soil samples pollution indices had revealed that the I-geo values for the soil samples were within the range of unpolluted to moderate pollution. Also, the heavy metal enrichment factor (EF) value for the soil samples have indicated that only the heavy metal Fe showed significant enrichment, with the soil samples being moderately contaminated with Fe. The pollution load index (PLI) also indicated unpolluted to moderate pollution. With the potential ecological risk index (PERI) values presenting low ecological risks. The calculated non-cancer risk indices in both the children and adults population for all the heavy metals were less than 1. With the exception of the ILCR for the heavy metal Pb in children from Daura zone that was in limits that environmental and regulatory agencies considered as unacceptable risk, risk values for all the heavy metals falls within the range of the threshold of the safe limit and limits regarded as safe by the regulatory agencies (10-7 to 10-4). The results of pollution indices have indicated that the Agricultural soil samples have low contamination and low health risks by the heavy metals evaluated.
 
The objective of the study was to survey the common pesticides used in postharvest storage of agricultural produce within Makurdi, Nigeria and to test the knowledge of the farmers and marketers on the health effects of these chemicals. The study provides information on the type of pesticides used by farmers, marketers and consumers of stored agricultural food products such as cowpea, yam chips, cassava chips, sesame seeds, maize and soybeans being major farm produces found within Makurdi and Benue State in general. Selection of 100 respondents were done using simple random sampling techniques across five major markets (Modern, Wurukum, North bank, Wadata and High level markets) through structured interview schedule. Socio-economic characteristics of the respondents were analyzed using frequency and percentages. Percentages were used to determine the common storage pesticides used within Makurdi, storage time, the frequency of customer purchase and perceived health impact of the storage pesticides. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results revealed that 51% of the respondents were males with 41% between the ages of 30-39. Married respondents accounted for 52% and 48% having household sizes of 1-5, only 20% had no form of formal education and 75% were marketers. In a multiple response schedule, aluminium phosphate tablets ranked 80% for storage pesticide while dichlovos was 60%, DDT 35%. Others such as endosulfan, gamalin, carbofuran, carbendazim and permethrin were between 5-15%. Furthermore the study revealed the use of many restricted and obsolete pesticides still in use within this state and in outrageous quantities which could pose health challenge to consumers of these food products.
 
Comparison of mean concentration with others in literatures concentration level for zinc was 53.91 mg/kg and [10] whose mean concentration level for zinc was 300 mg/kg.
Sample points and their coordinates
Absorption of heavy metals through swampy agricultural soils may have serious consequences on human health. Present study determined the levels of Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) using X- Ray Spectrometry in 10 swampy agricultural soils. The result of this study revealed that, the heavy metals with their respective concentrations (Cr (278.1), Ni (462.1), Cu (314.1), Zn (502.8), As (13.5), Cd (524.5) and Pb (295.5)) were found in the soil samples in mg/kg. It also pointed out that the concentration of the heavy metals in the all soil samples for all locations in decreasing order was Cd > Zn >Ni > Cu >Pb > Cr >As. The concentration in swampy agricultural soils from Kokona was obviously higher than the safe limit set by the regulatory bodies which may be because of the geological activities in the studied area. Hence, heavy metals accumulation in swampy agricultural soils is a big concern in Kokona where people’s daily meal largely contains rice or rice based products which are mostly cultivated in swampy agricultural soils.
 
Comparison of carcinogenic mean daily intake for present study with WHO
Exposure parameters used for the health risk assessment through different exposure pathways for soil
Concentration levels of elements in some swampy agricultural soils from Keffi L.G.A
Mean Daily Intake (MDI) values of heavy metals for carcinogenic risk assessment (mg/kg/day)
Carcinogenic risk assessment
Swampy agricultural soils could be contaminated as a result of accumulation of heavy metals through emission from industrial areas, mines tailings, metal wastes, gasoline, paints, fertilizers, manure, sewage sludge, pesticide, waste water irrigation, coal combustion residue, spillage of petrochemicals and atmospheric deposition. This study aimed at evaluating the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk of the study area using X-Ray fluoroscopy. The results shows that, mean concentration level in the area was in decreasing order Ni(525) > Cu(515.9) > Zn(367.6) > Cr(336.6) > Cd(260.9) > Pb(219.5) > As(18.9). The Hazard Quotient (HQ) was all recorded to be low except ingestion adult which is higher than unity. The Hazard Index (HI) was also recorded to be 2.3 a value greater than one (>>1). This makes non-carcinogenic effects significant to the population and poses serious effects in the area under study. The total excess life cancer risk were found to be (5.0 x 10-2), a value greater than that of U.S (1.0x10-4 to 1.0x10-6) and above that of South Africa (5.0x10-6). This implies that there is a probability that one person in 1,000 may be affected. Regular monitoring and evaluation of the soils and the crops cultivated at the sample locations is recommended.
 
Comparison of yield percentages (%) of BHL: Buberuka Highland, CPL: Central Plateau, ESV: Eastern Savannah. Mean values ± standard error of four replicates; mean values followed by (*) are significantly different (Tukey HSD test at 95% CI, Minitab 17).
Climatic and geographical information of study-based habitats of C. lusitanica populations
Chemical composition and essential oil contents among essential oil-bearing plants are mostly influenced by different factors including ecological features of habitat. In this study, variation in yield and chemical composition of essential oils (EOs) from the leaves of Cupressus lusitanica Mill. (Cupressaceae) in different regions of Rwanda was investigated. Extraction of essential oils from fresh leaves of C. lusitanica collected in March 2021 and April, 2021 from three different ecological zones of Rwanda, Buberuka highland zone (Burera), Central plateau zone (Huye) and Eastern savannah zone (Kayonza) was realized through steam distillation. The chemical compositions of distilled EOs were analyzed using both Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), while their yields were determined by simple calculus. The average yields of the EOs were 0.27 ± 0.02, 0.34 ± 0.02 and 0.39 ± 0.01% (v/w) for Burera, Huye and Kayonza, respectively. Results of FT-IR analysis were confirmed by those of GC-MS analysis, and indicated the presence of different groups of compounds including aliphatic alkanes, carboxylic acids, alkenes, aldehydes, aromatics and ketones in the EOs. GC-MS results revealed that sabinene (20.84%), myrcene (19.63%), α-pinene (10.23%) and δ-3-carene (10.13%) were the dominant chemical constituents for EOs of C. lusitanica from Burera. Umbellulone (24.21%), δ-3-carene (16.76%), sabinene (10.54%) and α-pinene (8.21%) were the main constituents for EOs of C. lusitanica from Huye, while γ-terpinene (18.77%), umbellulone (18.16%), isobornyl acetate (9.972%), and myrcene (7.20%) were the major components of EOs of C. lusitanica from Kayonza. The current results demonstrated an intraspecific variation in content and chemical profile of C. lusitanica EOs from one geographical region to another. The observed variations are mostly due to the interactions of C. lusitanica species with climatic and environmental conditions of ecological habitat. However, it could also be the effects of various biotic factors, as well as maturity of plant and stage of plant growth. Further studies are needed to establish the influence of different geo-climatic and environmental factors on each single major component of C. lusitanica EOs.
 
Aims: The present study is part of a project concerning the characterisation of a limited number of selected Albanian Byzantine and post-Byzantine icons, through the identification of pigments, of painting technique and the state of conservation of the artworks. The Albanian iconographers produced an extraordinary amount of icons from the 14th till the 19th century, and over six thousand of them are kept in the Museum of Medieval Art of Korça (Albania). This paper refers to the results obtained in the study of two artworks, the first one by Simoni i Ardenices an important Albanian painter of XVII century, and the second one attributed to him. Study Design: The present work is part of a more general study concerning Albanian Byzantine and post-Byzantine icons. Place and Duration of Study: Museum of Medieval Art of Korça, Albania, between June 2008 and July 2009. Methodology: The work was conducted by non-destructive methods, X-ray fluorescence, visible light reflectance spectrophotometry and UV fluorescence analysis, according to a systematic procedure developed in the same Chemical Physical Laboratory for Cultural Heritage. A number of areas, for each painting, were chosen in order to carry out the measurements. With this procedure, we could identify the inorganic pigments from their characteristic features. Moreover, the study of the chemical physical properties of paintings is of fundamental importance for any accurate restoration intervention. Results and Conclusion: The present work, concerning the study of two icons of the second half of 17th century by Simoni i Ardenices, has allowed us to identify the painting technique and the palette used in these works of art. Moreover, the areas of the paintings in which old restorations have been made have also been identified.
 
Aim: To investigate the varietal difference in the composition of the oil of two Chryosophyllum albidium species. Study Design: Laboratory experimental design was used. Place and Duration of Study: Chryosophyllum acreanum and Chrysophyllum africana seed species of Chrysophyllum albidium were collected from Oja Oba market, Ibadan, Oyo State. The study was carried out between February 2019 - August 2019 at the Oilseed Laboratory of Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi, Lagos State, Nigeria. Methodology: Oil in both seeds was extracted using Soxhlet extraction method. The physical and chemical properties of the oils were determined using official methods of analysis while the fatty acid composition of the seed oils was analysed using Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrophotometer. Results: The oil yield for both seeds was low, 3.52% for C. acreanum and 3.75% for C. africana. The values for the physical properties (Specific gravity, refractive index and unsaponifiable matter) of C. acreanum seed oil were higher than for C. africana seed oil. The chemical properties shows that the acid and peroxide values are 2.79mgKOH/g; 2.67mgKOH/g, 1.78mEq/kg; 1.63mEq/kg for C. acreanum and C. africana seed oil respectively while the iodine values for both seed oils are below 100mgI2/100g. The fatty acid composition shows that both seed oil contains myristic acid as their major fatty acid. Conclusion: The evaluated characteristics of the seed oils showed that there is no significant differences in the oil composition of C. albidium seed varieties as the oil composition are closely related except for the slight difference in their fatty acid profile.
 
The physicochemical properties of oils extracted from three locally available plant seeds in Nigeria namely: Alchomea cordiforlia, Cyperus esculentum and Irvingia gabonensis using n-Hexane were determined. The results of the analysis revealed that their % yield were 37.00, 27.50 and 33.00 for A. cordiforlia, C. esculentum and I. gabonensis respectively. Their odour was non-offensive and their colours were reddish, light yellow and milky white for A. cordifolia, C. esculentum and I. gabonensis respectively, making them bright and attractive. The specific gravity of the oils at 25oc was 0.91, 0.94 and 0.92 for A. cordiforlia, C. esculentum and I. gabonensis respectively. Their flash points in °c were also 155, 159 and 229 respectively, indicating that I. gabonensis is the most thermally stable oil and suitable for frying. The chemical properties for A. cordiforlia, C.esculentum, and I. gabonensis respectively were as follows: Acid values in mgKOH/g were 24.67, 5.33 and 3.73. Peroxide values in mEqKg-1 were 7.26, 9.86 and 2.96. Saponification values in mgKOH/g were 162.13, 179.52 and 238.43. Iodine values in g/100g were 24.62, 11.68 and 3.38. These results indicate that the three seeds are viable sources of oil based on their % yield. They are good for both domestic and industrial use based on their acid, saponification and iodine values. Their properties in most cases compete favorably with palm kernel oil (PKO) which is currently being used for many domestic and industrial purposes in Nigeria especially for the making of paints, soap, cosmetics, lubricant, and varnishes.
 
Top-cited authors
Timothy Omara
  • University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna
Rilwan Usman
  • Nigerian Army University, Biu, Borno State, Nigeria.
Ephraim Kefas
  • University of Abuja
Md. Ali Asraf
  • University of Rajshahi
Md. Faruk Hossen
  • University of Rajshahi