"This paper examines how and to what extent the three demographic components of urban change, urban reclassification, natural increase and net migration, operated in Malaysia between 1980 and 1991.... Since there is a spatial dimension to urban demographic changes, another emphasis of the paper is to differentiate the areal patterns of such changes. The analysis is conducted at both the national level and sub-national levels." Data are from the Malaysian Department of Statistics. The author finds that "the important role of natural increase in urban population change is remarkable considering that a rapid fertility transition had been unfolding in Malaysia up to the mid-1970s."
How the process has been developing in a country of 1000 million is of great significance to world urban growth trends. Gives a detailed treatment of the urbanization process of China in 1949- 82. -from Author
"The historical background of migration to Hong Kong from China is reviewed. The focus is, however, on the 'wave' of migration that occurred in the late 1970s. Two distinct streams of migration are identified, legal and illegal, each with different characteristics." Data are primarily from official Hong Kong sources. The author notes the high levels of education among immigrants and the relative ease with which they have been absorbed into the labor force. "Political conditions in China are seen to be a major factor in explaining fluctuations in the volume of migration to Hong Kong. No relaxation of controls on future movement is seen as Hong Kong becomes part of China."
The continued transfer of agricultural labor into the industrial sector is crucial to China's transformation into an industrial economy. We argue in this paper that rural industry offers an alternative to urban industry for employing agricultural labor from areas without off-farm employment opportunities. Characteristics of rural industry differ from their urban counterparts. These characteristics may serve to shape the growth in employment for incoming workers and provide opportunities for certain types of workers, and affect the impacts these workers have on the local economy.
In this paper we examine the features of China's rural-to-rural labor movement and the villages where these workers are employed. Using a nationally representative sample of 215 villages, we show that the growth in rural-to-rural labor movement between 1988 and 1995 has been much faster than in rural-to-urban movement or in local off-farm employment. The rapid growth in rural-to-rural commuting and migration has not negatively affected off-farm income earning opportunities for workers living in the receiving villages. Rural-to-rural labor movement also has many positive effects. Labor movement into rural villages provides opportunities for workers generally underrepresented in other parts of the off-farm labor market, allowing rural industry to maintain labor intensive practices, and promoting national economic integration.
This study offers a new framework of classifying research and development (R&D) at multinational corporations (MNCs): strategic vs. tactical. Strategic R&D facilities are serving not only domestic markets, but also the global markets; they are involved not only in development, but also in original research; they are working not only on short-term projects, but also on projects that are crucial for MNCs' future in the long-term. Mainstream theories have limited possible locations of strategic R&D facilities to developed countries where markets are most demanding and R&D infrastructures are readily available. It has been assumed that MNC R&D facilities in developing countries are only marginally important to their parent companies' long-term fortune, if such facilities exist at all. It is argued that such a point of view is too simplistic. Large and fast growing developing countries, such as China and India, are becoming increasingly attractive locations for strategic R&D facilities from MNCs, particularly in the new technological fields. In this process, their large and growing market demands are particularly crucial in understanding the existence of strategic R&D in developing countries. The above arguments are examined and supported through detailed examination of four foreign research labs in Beijing.
This study examines the relationship between technological innovation and export, using data obtained through surveys of enterprises in three counties of Jiangsu, China. It reveals that most rural enterprises in Jiangsu are oriented toward China's domestic market and there exists significant geographic difference regarding export probability and intensity. It also finds that most rural enterprises are not very innovative measured by multiple indicators. Innovation does not seem to have significant impacts on export (either probability or intensity) in rural enterprises of Jiangsu. The most significant factors contributing to export probability of rural enterprises include presence of imported equipments in the enterprises and their size. However, no variable well explains export intensity among rural enterprises. It is recommended that more studies be conducted to better understand the export behaviors and mechanisms of rural enterprises in developing countries.
On March 11, 2011, Japan experienced the most powerful earthquake ever recorded in that country. A coastal port and fishing city in Miyagi Prefecture, Kesennuma was one of the hardest hit population centers, the waves having destroyed much of the city’s commercial core and nearly all of its low coastal neighborhoods. The wave’s destruction highlighted certain elements of the city’s sense of place and forever changed others. I explore how the Kesennuma Shark Museum reflects ways in which the 3/11 disaster has simultaneously maintained and altered Kesennuma as a place. I analyze the spatiality of the museum and how its narrative evokes a sense of place in the broader community. The case of the Shark Museum is one example of how scholars can use museums to examine sense of place and how it has been impacted by natural disasters. This work represents a unique contribution to cultural geography inquiry into the spatiality of museums, museum experiences, and how such spaces reflect an interaction between people and place.
The dust storm disaster in northern China in AD 1523 was extremely severe. In the present study, the history of the disaster was reconstructed by using historical Chinese documents. Our results show that during the dust storms, the horizontal visibility dropped below 0.05 km, while the wind speed surpassed Scale 10 of the Beaufort Wind Force Scale (i.e., 88–103 km/h). The dust storms severely affected agriculture, resulting in crop failures and famines. The blowing sand of the dust storms buried and killed about 100 people. Such damage and fatalities has never happened in northern China in modern times. Furthermore, the dust storm disaster happened against a background of normal climate and therefore might have been caused by factors other than temperature and precipitation. It implies that global warming may not result in more frequent extreme dust storm events because their occurrence can be unrelated to climatic factors.
High-resolution proxy data are limited in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, which inhibits our understanding of long-term climate variability in historical periods. In this study, we developed one tree-ring-width chronology of Tsuga dumosa (D. Don Eichler) in the Gaoligong Mountains, southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Tree-ring-width chronology showed negative correlations with monthly temperatures in most months, especially for current year, whereas correlations with precipitation and relative humidity were mostly positive. Significant positive correlations were found between tree rings and relative humidity in February, April and June of current year and May of previous year. February–April relative humidity was reconstructed for the past 321 years (A.D. 1695–2016) in the Gaoligong Mountains, which explained 26% of the actual variance during the calibration period 1962–2004. In this reconstruction, dry periods occurred in 1808–1820, 1831–1842, 1914–1921, 1958–1964 and 1980–1988. Wet periods were found in 1700–1727, 1821–1830, 1843–1859, 1944–1957 and 1965–1979. The dry and wet episodes of our relative humidity reconstruction match well other studies in the nearby regions, which demonstrate that the new record is reliable and captures large-scale climate signals.
China’s industrialization after the 1840s has been mainly regarded as a reaction to external shocks from Western countries. However, Rostow’s stages of growth theory states that industrialization should be achieved by adequate groundwork of agrarian economy. In this context, this study aims to quantitatively analyze China’s industrialization from 1874 to 1927 by comparing the external influences of foreign factors (including trade and finance) and the internal agrarian economy. Statistical results empirically supports China’s industrialization should be treated as a self-strengthening movement in response to the negative impact of foreign factors and weak basis of agrarian economy. The empirical findings could further supplement the current knowledge on the development of China’s industrialization and the case of such industrialization must be analyzed in the context of colonized economy from a macro-scale in time and space. Furthermore, current findings could also show the limitation of Rostow’s stages of growth theory as applied to a colonized society.
The COVID-19 pandemic has swept the world since December 2019. The spread of COVID-19 has much to do with population flow and close human contacts. This paper demonstrates that the distribution of COVID-19 cases has close relation with the population flow and migration flow in the case of China. Rapid globalization has increased the volumes of migration and travelers in the world since the 1970s. If we reduce the number of air passengers to the level of 0.31 billion in 1970 by 13.6 times in the world, this may delay the same level of infections from being reached by about 3.5 weeks with reduced number of virus export and diffusion. But various authorities may only begin to take systematic and restrictive actions after the case number reaching certain “alarming level”, above “saved time” may not be effectively used as the “alarming level” may simply emerge later. The global production network is not able to meet unexpected surging demand of personal protective equipment and other medical essentials in the early stage of pandemic. Emergency plans are need to expand production capacity quickly to deal with future pandemic.
This paper contributes to a geographically-informed preliminary assessment of the diverse and uneven immediate impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic, and outlines an agenda for geographical studies of its longer term effects. Intrigued by the apparent tendency of an inverse relationship between a country’s health security capacities and Covid-19 mortalities, the paper explores the significance of a range of geographically situated contextual factors in the realms of the economy, governance and culture as mediators of the public health impacts of Covid-19, and questions how these realms may also be reshaped by this viral pandemic. The paper concludes with reflections on the path dependency and state centrality of pandemic response, and the potential post-pandemic reconfiguration of state-market-society relationships.
The article probes into the connection between territorial nationalism and the disciplinary formation of modern geography in early twentieth-century China. It explores how a group of Republican Chinese geographers, such as Zhu Kezhen 竺可楨 (1890–1974), Hu Huanyong 胡煥庸 (1901–1998), and Zhang Qiyun張其昀 (1900–1985), reexamined Chinese traditional dynastic geography (yange dili) and defined the nature and methodology of what they called the “new geography” under the context of foreign imperialism, Chinese nationalism, and escalating frontier crisis. It argues that Chinese intellectuals’ efforts to overcome the frontier crisis led to a significant shift of major methodology in geography from textual research to actual fieldwork or on-site investigation. The adoption of this new methodology distinguished the “new geography” from the old dynastic geography. Geographers also grappled with multiple concepts and diverse traditions in physical geography, human geography and regional geography. Environmental determinism was adopted but quickly replaced by possibilist approaches. There were also attempts at reforming the traditional Chinese gazetteers using modern geographic ideas. Geographical research was imbued with political concerns. Cooperation between geographers and the state also led to the establishment of important geographical departments and study societies, providing institutional foundation for the maturation of modern Chinese geography as a discipline independent of either history or geology.
Focuses on the spatial and demographic effects associated with the 'urban-biased' national development programme of Peninsular Malaysia since Independence in 1957. It is evident that the level and pace of urbanization in Peninsular Malaysia has increased steadily during the post Independent era (1957-1980). In particular, during the last intercensural period (1970-1980). Simultaneously, the rank size distribution of urban units in the urban system of Peninsular Malaysia has also changed in the direction of increased deviations from the Rank Size Rule. With this, the degree of Primacy has also increased, reflecting the disproportionate growth of the nation's largest city, Kuala Lumpur, in relation to other cities in the Peninsula. These changes in the form and structure of the urban system indicate that the urbanization experience in Peninsular Malaysia developed from the 'formation' and 'consolidation' stages during the 1960s towards 'take-off' and 'acceleration' in 1970s and possibly into the 1980s. -Author
The four strategies, namely administrative reorganisation, investment modernisation, structural readjustment and social control, adopted by the urban managers of SE Asian capital cities are reviewed in the perspective of social classes, the State and the inter-relationships between them. Concludes that a reversal of the present trends, a move from authoritarian to representative government, a move from increasing centralisation to decentralisation of political power, is necessary in order to prevent these primate cities from generating into 'wild cities'. -after Author
This study examines the diffusion and determinants of foreign direct investment (FDI) in Guangdong, the traditional growth pole in China, between 1980 and 2011. FDI have been gradually diffused from the growth poles to the peripheral regions in Guangdong, with Shenzhen as the main growth pole at the early stage, and Shenzhen and Guangzhou as the bi-growth poles at the latter stages. The re-emergence of Guangzhou, the historical economic, political, cultural, and industrial center of Guangdong, as the growth pole at the later stages is different from the conventional theories and experiences of FDI that the historical economic and industrial center is usually the growth pole in the early stage of the takeoff. The trickling down effect of the growth poles on the peripheral regions is evident in Guangdong. Both the market force and the government are considered as important players in the emergence of these growth poles and the subsequent diffusion of FDI. By concentrating available investment and favorable ...
Air transport has been expanding rapidly in China over the past decade. That growth corresponded with economic development as well as liberalization in the regulations surrounding airline operations and city and provincial responsibilities for air transport infrastructure. This paper analyses the way the airline industry responded to those changes by identifying the rank of 37 cities on a series of measures of airline operations in 2005 and 2015. Results show that the ranks of the seven leading cities remain unchanged, and only a small change has been recorded on each of the measures at other cities over this time period. The results suggest that there is a level of inertia in the overall geography of China’s air transport. Closer attention to the activity of the airlines, with particular attention to small and large airlines, as well as those within corporate groups will be an important direction in future research.
A massive earthquake of 7.6 magnitudes on 25 April 2015 and a major aftershock of 6.8 magnitudes on 12 May 2015 hit central Nepal. The earthquake took the lives of about 9000 people, injured about 24,000 and affected one-third of Nepal’s total population (28 million). Despite a huge amount of money (US$ 4.4 billion) pledged by the international community, reconstruction works could not take place on time. Using participatory approach to reconstruction and development as a theoretical framework and reflexivity as a methodological tool, this paper argues that the delay in reconstruction was caused by the inability of the Government of Nepal (GON) as well as the international community, mainly donors, to encourage local participation. The amount of loan pledged by the international community has increased Nepal’s debt stock rather than really helping those who are affected by the disaster. The paper concludes that the modernist top-down model of development – that both government and donors take for granted – has created roadblocks towards understanding Nepal’s contextual realities. Sustainable reconstruction and development cannot be achieved without strengthening the capability of local communities.
The U.S. National Academies' recent effort to specify “strategic directions for the geographical sciences” identifies a variety of ways in which research drawing on geographical ideas, methods, and techniques can help address pressing social and scientific challenges. The value of the study does not lie solely in the identification of promising research areas; it also offers insights into the relevance of geography's longstanding concern with location, geographical space, place, landscape, and mapping for efforts to understand a world being remade by rapid environmental, social, and technological changes. A careful reading of the study reveals that geography's traditional concerns continue to animate forward-looking research directions, but that those concerns are evolving in the face of recent empirical, conceptual, and technological advances.
Vietnam is highly vulnerable to climate change, and those most severely affected tend to be members of ethnic minority groups living in poverty in marginalized areas. This paper focuses on the Tay, Dao, and Hmong ethnic minorities the Northern Mountainous Region (NMR) of the country, and employs a mixed-method qualitative approach to assess their adaptation to a changing climate in the region as a case study. The NMR is the poorest area of Vietnam, and each of these ethnic minority groups was found to be both vulnerable and adapt in different ways. Results show that adaptation strategies faced considerable barriers, often directly influenced by gender, age, ethnicity, wealth, and location. Many locally-employed coping strategies were also found to be conditional on the strength and foresight (or futility and the lack of foresight) of institutions and policymakers on the local, regional, and central levels. While local knowledge and social capital did ease pressures, policy failures more typically led to mal-adaptation and welfare dependence. Improving not only the quality but also the focus of and access to government resources would considerably enhance the capacity for communities to adapt to the impacts of a changing climate.
Bangladesh is ranked top among the locations most affected locations by extreme weather events over the last two decades and one of the potential victims of the consequences of climate change. Around 3.26 million rural Bangladeshi households are landless. These landless households usually constitute the poorest and most vulnerable groups in Bangladesh and are the first victims of climatic hazards. Despite the adaptation measures taken by the government and non-governmental organizations, landlessness generates constraints to adapt to the changing environment. Taking the above premises, this paper principally aims to unveil how landlessness poses challenges for the rural poor of Bangladesh in their endeavor to adapt to already emerging conditions of climate change. Based on qualitative interviews of relevant stakeholders, this paper finds that landlessness is a key challenge to the climate change adaptation process as it hinders livelihoods and income-generating activities of the people living in rural and coastal regions. Moreover, this study finds that landless people living near urban spaces are better placed to migrate to the cities for livelihoods and shelter. This study also adds insightful evidence suggesting that lack of access to land or land entitlement is a major setback to the existing climate change adaptation policy in Bangladesh.
The effectiveness of agricultural adaptation determines the vulnerability of this sector to climate change, particularly during the preindustrial era. However, this effectiveness has rarely been quantitatively evaluated, specifically at a large spatial and long-term scale. The present study covers this case of preindustrial society in AD 1500-1800. Given the absence of technological innovations in this time frame, agricultural production was chiefly augmented by cultivating more land (land input) and increasing labor input per land unit (labor input). Accordingly, these two methods are quantitatively examined. Statistical results show that within the study scale, land input is a more effective approach of mitigating climatic impact than labor input. Nonetheless, these observations collectively improve Boserup's theory from the perspective of a large spatial and long-term scale.
There was widespread concern in Australia following the mid-1997 outbreak of the Asian financial crisis because the nation's strong trade orientation to Asia implied that the national economy would be adversely affected. Against expectations, whilst exports to Asia did indeed drop, this was compensated for by increases to other countries and by the general strength of the Australian economy. Sydney, Australia's largest and most globalised city, has benefited most from Australian economic restructuring since the 1970s, especially through growth in the service economy that is strongly linked with Asia. Those linkages, combined with other factors of competitive advantage, including Sydney's cultural diversity, which has a strong Asian dimension, are the cornerstones of the city's economic resilience. They will be the basis for future growth as circumstances in Pacific Asia improve. The social fallout resulting from the creation of economic resilience will need to be managed by governments if the basis for future growth is to be maintained.
During the rainy season (May-November) a large area of West Africa experiences a distinct midseason rainfall minimum whose duration and intensity decreases from three months along the Guinea Coast to a few weeks around latitude 10°N. The decrease in rainfall is attributed to increased stability in the lower troposphere at the southern extremities of the Maritime Tropical air. -Author
The global ageing phenomenon leads to major road safety concerns. This paper represents a pioneer but preliminary attempt to propose an exposure-based time-space approach to examine elderly pedestrians' crashes in a district in Hong Kong. A disaggregate Geographical Information Systems (GIS)-based three-dimensional (3D) time-space framework is used to relate individual travel activities with crash patterns. In an attempt to integrate the activity-based and spatial crash analysis models, this study combines three rich relational databases to better describe elderly pedestrian behavior in a road network. In the model calibration, space-time paths of the elderly were first generated, they were then superimposed on crash data which were snapped to the link-node system in a 3D environment, with the additional dimension of the time to supplement the traditional 2D analysis. Finally, one- and four-hourly snapshots of vehicle-pedestrian crashes involving the elderly within the district are derived to identify possible associations between the space-time slices of crash frequency and crash risk. The results show that the district's center during the afternoon rush hours was the most hazardous for elderly pedestrians.
Describes agriculture land use patterns and environmental problems, particularly those relating to poultry and pig farms. Measures to tackle pollution problems are discussed and alternative approaches suggested.-after Author
The present paper concerns over the phenomena of encroachment of agricultural lands for urban purposes, in the fringe areas of Aligarh city located in the plains of North India. In reality, it is a consequential phenomenon of urbanization characterized with predominance of non-agricultural pursuits, high density of population, fast pace of life, availability of improved civic amenities, and affluences. Urban growth and encroachment of agricultural lands in urban fringe of Aligarh city are the main components of the research paper. An enumeration of process and parameters has been attempted and examined on the basis of eight parameters that have led encroachment of agricultural lands for urban uses. The research work involved an extensive gamut of data and information which has been used to analyze and assess the phenomena. In the end, the paper arrived to conclude that, as a result of physical and socio-cultural advancement, the city of Aligarh spares out continuously over large areas, and the process of encroachment of rural lands continues far and in wide areas for the use of urban activities.
Nanjing, the capital of China's Jiangsu Province, has grown rapidly during the post-reform era and the pace of change placed tremendous pressure on the city's arable land resources. This case study of land use/land cover change (LU/LC) in Nanjing's Jiangning district assesses changes in agricultural land, production, and labor within the ten 2016-era jiedao (sub-district political units) of Jiangning from 2000 to 2015. This case study provides an opportunity to assess an important component of the Ginsburg-McGee desakota hypothesis predicting that Asian extended metropolis regions, unlike similar large cities in Western nations, will consistently maintain agricultural land and labor supplies within metropolitan boundaries. The study is based on field visits combined with time-series LU/LC analyses of a GIS database joining archived agricultural and agro-economic data with additional LU/LC data layers derived from satellite imagery including Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery. Results show Jiangning continues to retain high, if decreasing, proportions of agricultural land and employment. After significant decreases for all ten jiedao from 2000 to 2010, government policies appear to have helped stabilize arable land losses from 2010 to 2015. Jiedao in the closest proximity to Nanjing's central business districts lost arable land at greater rates than those in the periphery. OLS linear multiple regression analyses identified factors that are the most effective predictors of arable land persistence including lower mean annual income, higher percentage of men in the farm workforce, higher reliance on traditional double-cropped rice-wheat, and less vegetable production.
Discusses the formation of agricultural regions, the regions of Guangdong, land use structure including the production structure of mulberry dyke fish ponds, paddy-cane in the sand fields, and paddy-oil-fruit structure of the hilly district. Concludes that agricultural regionalization through an understanding of the agricultural land use structure at various scale levels will be of practical value in guiding the restructuring of agriculture to enhance future development.-after Author
Urbanization in India has been characterized by declining environmental quality and increasing class and caste segregations. These trends suggest the need to analyze distributive injustices that situate environmental hazards within urban scale inequalities. Our article seeks to address this need by linking the distribution of industrial facilities classified as Major Accident Hazard (MAH) units with the distribution of socially disadvantaged groups in Ahmedabad, a large metropolis in western India with a long history of industrial development. Using bivariate statistical comparisons and multivariable generalized estimating equations, this study examines whether socially disadvantaged groups are overrepresented in neighborhoods with the highest density of MAH units. Our statistical findings suggest a pattern of distributive environmental injustice based on significantly higher proportions of young children, Scheduled Castes and Tribes, and households without assets and amenities in areas with the highest concentrations of MAH units. Overall, this article shows how India's cities pose greater environmental hazards for socially disadvantaged communities, thereby raising concerns about the future of its urbanization.
Describes a suite of microcomputer-based software for systematic computer-aided planning at the overall land-use transport interaction level and at the levels of transport, infrastructure, and local area development. Details of the models and their applications to planning at the metropolitan and submetropolitan levels are described.-Authors Division of Building Research, Industrial Res. Organization (CSIRO) Melbourne, Australia
The present study is focused in the Kelang Valley, one of the most industrialized areas of the country. The results indicated that there existed a serious pollution problem. The policy implications of the findings have also been discussed.-from Author
This paper analyzes the airline network geography of Northern Europe and intercontinental passenger flows to Asia and US. Airline companies and alliances organize themselves according to economic principles attempting to reconcile their profitability, state control, and the passenger needs. States have interests in controlling airline transportation, because the connectivity of cities functions as an instrument for local economic development. Cities as nodes can be characterized by their linkages as central or intermediate. Our paper presents two estimations of international airline connectivity from the cities of Copenhagen, Helsinki, Oslo, Riga, and Stockholm. The data concerns passenger seats per flight per destination. Connectivity was measured based on a network analysis. A gravity model was also formulated to explain divergent geography of the airline connections. The major connecting hub in the region remains Copenhagen, with most connective links to US hubs. The results indicate that the most important factors in the explanation of the total traffic include population, GDP and distance. The resulting geography of connectivity elaborates the competition among the Nordic airports. Copenhagen and Stockholm have the most similar destination palettes and the SAS (Scandinavian Airlines) hub overlaps are evident. Helsinki has the strongest profile towards Asian destinations. The geographical divergence of the flight hub specialization is essentially visible in the case of studied intercontinental flights.
Tourism and the sharing of the associated revenues with local people have become a popular strategy for implementing sustainability in nature reserves (NR) or protected areas (PA) globally. Although the local people have obtained some modest economic gains from the development of tourism, especially in infrastructural development, there are still some constraints on revenue sharing. These restrictions are very obvious in many underdeveloped countries and they lead to the passive state of local community participation in tourism development. The main purpose of this article is to, through the example of Aksu-Jabagly NR, study how the Tourism Revenue Sharing (TRS) constraints in a tourism destination inhibit the implementation of sustainable tourism development in Kazakhstan. In order to understand the impact of TRS constraints on the implementation of sustainable tourism, we surveyed the perceptions of 222 residents from the village Jabagly adjacent to Aksu-Jabagly tourist destination. Results suggested that due to certain TRS restrictions, residents believe that a small portion of the revenue generated by tourism has been shared with local development. They evaluated on the indicators of TRS level with a lower score (average mean = 2.606). Most residents are not satisfied with the development of tourism, and their participation in tourism is also comparatively low. The results also reveal that highly perceived constraints of TRS are the main indirect cause of residents’ dissatisfaction with the development of the tourism industry. In the end, residents’ dissatisfaction results in fewer residents participating in tourism.
The term foodgrain availability refers to the per caput amount of foodgrains available for human consumption during a given period and should be employed in variance with the consumption level and foodgrain availability estimates. The rates of losses fixed by the earlier workers are doubtful and therefore the revised rates are finalized in the paper on the basis of data collected in field investigations in the villages of the Sagar district in Madhya Pradesh. The regional dimensions of nutritional availability patterns are also discussed.-from Authors
Skilled migration has become increasingly gendered. Situating within the context of globalization and mobility, this article examines skilled women migrants from the U.S. to China. Based on in-depth interviews conducted in the Pearl River Delta Region of China, this article aims to address these questions: What are the factors that influence skilled women migrants’ agency in migration decision-making? How is agency reflected in skilled women’s post-migration experience, including labor market and social relationships in the Chinese context? This research revealed a paradoxical dynamic in skilled migration. First, even for skilled migrants, the capacity to exercise agency in migration decisions is not equal between men and women. Being highly skilled does not guarantee gender equality in distribution of domestic work and responsibilities. Secondly, despite their high levels of education and skills, women migrants had limited options in the labor market and may become more economically dependent on their husbands after moving to China. Thirdly, although the women migrants were not all employed in professional sectors, they all took initiatives to fulfill their talent through home-schooling, and volunteering for community building events. Through these activities, the American women managed to use their existing skills or develop new skills to cope with the post-migration realities; nevertheless, their agency is ultimately constrained by the larger structural forces, including the socially constructed definitions of skills, and conventional gender norms and practices.
Food safety crises have constituted a persistent challenge for the Chinese government and people. Because of international trade, consumers’ concern regarding the safety of food products imported from China is increasing in many countries. Yet, no systematic investigation has examined the perception of Western respondents regarding the safety of food imports coming from China. This study, based on an online survey (n = 289) between April and May 2017, is an initial attempt to investigate the perception of consumers in Europe and North America regarding different food safety issues and regulations in the People’s Republic of China and their attitudes towards food products imported from China. Our results show that socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and the influence of different types of media were not related to the perceptions and attitudes towards food safety. But, we found a strong relationship between the perception of the food safety regulations in China and the personal consumption of food products imported from China. In addition, a positive relationship was discovered between having been to China and the purchase of food products imported from China. Our findings suggest that investments in the promotion of the knowledge of food safety regulations implementation in China would lead to an increase in the export of food products. Also, the positive relationship between having been to China and the purchase of food products imported from China should be further investigated to consider the implications for tourism and food trade in China.
Livelihood in developing countries draws grave attention to the climatic and anthropogenic stressors that contribute to risk the livelihood despite diversification, and thus wane people’s adaptive capacity and capabilities to cope with unanticipated shocks. Following stratified purposive sampling techniques, a total of nine focus group sessions were performed at three island-chars of Mahishkhocha union in Lalmonirhat district, from February to May in 2013, and explores current livelihood practices and likely risks. The analysis explores evolving risks sprouted from climatic stressors including riverbank erosion, flooding, cold wave, erratic rainfalls and droughts that contribute to livelihood disturbances and slothful processes of sustainable livelihood renewal. The findings suggest that risks are compounded by anthropogenic stressors classifying into state and non-state engagements across manifold institutional scales and policy arrangements, providing insight for promoting rural livelihoods through different actors, formal and informal institutions. Despite challenges to addressing likely risks at different scales, this research demonstrates how public policies can elevate adverse conditions for the emergence of sustainable livelihood pathways.
The paper examines the recent landcover history of Manchuria and its implications for a socio-ecological decline that is spreading across Northeast Asia. Beginning by looking at forest decline and land use change implemented under Japanese colonial rule (1905-1945), the paper argues that the colonial dynamics of deforestation and monocultural farming intensified hydrological stress. Due to land clearance and intensive land use under Japanese and subsequent Chinese management, boreal forest resources have eroded and desiccated to a point where socio-ecological needs can no longer be met. As China has turned to foreign timber resources for its economic needs, the environmental decline experienced across Manchuria has extended to other, poorly managed forest regions in Northeast Asia. I argue that interdisciplinary studies are needed to provide more comprehensive views of the long-term dynamics of agricultural transformation, urbanization, lumber markets, and state policy on forests and ecosystems. Such studies would shed light on the causes of forest degradation as well as help create more successful forest restoration policies in Northeast Asia.
Interest from the Chinese government has been on the rise since about 2005, and the media have widely reported on these Chinese projects. China is often described as being very interested in both Arctic mineral resources and the opening of Arctic shipping routes, but in this characterization there is a hint of a perceived threat, as commentators are often stressing out that China's appetite may lead Beijing into considering the Northwest Passage an international strait and resources as open up for grabs. However, the motives for this Chinese interest boils down to three points: diplomacy, access to natural resources, and access to Arctic sea routes. To what extent are Chinese shipping firms really interested in developing active service along these polar waterways?
Having gone from 11.8% of its population inhabiting urban areas in 1950 to 49.2% by 2010, China represents the most dramatic urban transformation the world has seen. With the contemporary urban narrative presenting new challenges, particularly in terms of its unprecedented pace and scale, this paper conducts an inquiry into the nature and causes of China’s rapid urban ascent. Making use of a new analytical framework, this paper maps out the changing stages of China’s urban transition and examines the components of urban growth underpinning it. It arrives at several notable findings. Rural to urban migration has been the dominant component of urban growth, followed by urban natural population increase and reclassification. Although China’s urban growth rates were high, it is the reduction in rural growth rates that underpinned China’s particularly rapid urbanization rates. China is currently in the latter part of the accelerated stage of its urban transition, and is expected to enter the terminal stage by 2030. In light of China’s ongoing urban transition, this paper concludes with reflections on China’s New-Type Urbanization Plan 2014–2020.
Based on previous work by the same authors, the study examines 400 rock thin-section slides with the objective of correctly renaming the rock unit. Structure and lithology, chemical composition, petrographical characteristics and zonal variations are described. Affirms that the designation of the lithology of this part of the area as a shallow intrusive sheet is a misinterpretation of the highly welded portion of the welded tuff. -after Authors
Northeast Asia is a regional imaginary of limited capture among both academics and the general public. As a result, ongoing tensions relating to island claims, sea rights, borderlands, population mobilities, and resource access are too rarely considered from a Northeast Asian regional perspective. The region’s parameters are also highly debated, with some conceptualizations restricted to Japan and the Korean Peninsula, while more expansive considerations include Russia, South Korea, North Korea, China, Japan, and Mongolia. We suggest that in addition to these countries, even maritime border zones in the Asia-Pacific and Arctic might be included as part of Northeast Asia’s extent. In an effort to advance scholarly research on Northeast Asia, this special issue brings together articles that critically interrogate the region’s political, economic, cultural, and environmental dynamics and conditions. Articles approach the region as a whole or employ specific case studies pertinent to relations within and/or between its composite states, subregions, and stakeholders. This introduction brings into relief the region’s unique history as an inter-imperial frontier and its role as an understudied European, Asian, and North American borderland. These broad themes require consideration of Northeast Asia as a site of mass migrations, increasing environmental fragility, tentative geo-economic integration, and enduring geopolitical contestation. The editors of this special issue aim for this collection of articles to advance Northeast Asia as both a subject and frame for varied modes of geographic inquiry.
The Pacific Asia economic crisis and apparent recovery are part of the dynamics of globalization and urbanization that are transforming the economies, societies and political processes in this world region. Globalization of finance, cross-border mergers and acquisitions that are internalizing international trade within corporate systems, and the shift from asset ownership to control of production and distribution networks are changing the nature of comparative advantage and heightening intercity competition for investment. Leading to the crisis competing for positions in the global economy saw cities sacrifice the quality of urban life for the sake of economic growth. In the emerging global context, making cities more livable is becoming a principal source of economic resilience and sustainability. Three policy directions are explored: localization of capacity building; creating processes for collaborative planning; and building intercity networks of cooperative exchange.
This article utilizes an interdisciplinary border studies perspective in order to explain the absence of regional integration in Northeast Asia. While in other parts of the world, such as Europe or Southeast Asia, the cessation of the Cold War and increasing cross-border linkages promoted the emergence of integrative institutions and imagined regional communities, this has not occurred in Northeast Asia. Although the region experienced a veritable explosion of cross-border activity in the aftermath of the Cold War, potentially beneficial effects of economic and migratory flows for inter-state relations have not led to comparable success constructing regional institutions. The central issue with which the article is concerned is to understand the role of borders in this marked absence of regional integration. The paper adopts a pluralistic perspective on Northeast Asia’s borders that considers them as institutions existing between states, processes of exchange and mobility over them, and as constituting the region as a borderland space characterized by functionally and spatially extensive contestation over state and regional boundaries. Border studies allow us to analyze the Northeast Asian region from the edges of both its constituent states and the region itself, and thus offers a multi-layered lens through which to examine this space. The historical and comparative analysis conducted here reveals the dynamics of regional development and constraints under which the region operates. The paper suggests that the contrast between the Northeast Asia’s sharp, securitized, internal borders, multiplying into novel spaces, and its undetermined outer ones accounts for the failure to integrate today.