Asian Food Science Journal

Published by Sciencedomain International
Online ISSN: 2581-7752
Publications
The research was held from September 2021 until January 2022 in Laboratory Livestock Product Technology Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia. Microencapsulation is a technique used to protect bacteria from harmful (extreme) environmental factors such as heating, freezing and low pH through a coating process or coating a core substance in this case LAB with a polymer wall layer. The purpose of this study was to obtain a combination of the use of gelatin and sodium alginate as a coating material in the encapsulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051 and Streptococcus thermophilus FNCC 0040 using the emulsion technique based on its physical and microbiological properties. The research method used is a laboratory experiment using a completely randomized design (CRD) pattern with 3 treatments and 3 replications. The treatment using a combination of gelatin and sodium alginate consisted of T1 (1:1); T2 (1:2); T3 (1:3). Data were processed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA); If the analysis happens to show a significant difference (P<0.05) or a very highly significant difference (P<0.01), then the Duncan's Multiple Range Test was applied. Data from the results of microstructure testing using Scanning Electron Microscopy which were qualitative were analyzed descriptively. The results of the analysis show that encapsulation using a combination of gelatin and sodium alginate gives a very significant difference (P<0.01) to the value of encapsulation efficiency and does not give a significant difference (P>0.05) on microcapsule particle size and microcapsule particle size distribution, with percentages T1 97.43±0.31%, T2 98.50±0.48%, T3 99.00±0.44 %; T1 1.08±0.07 µm; T2 1.18±0.11 µm; T3 0.95±0.11µm; and T1 4.79±1.04; T2 2.53±2.16; T3 4.15±3.13 and microcapsules using SEM showed the microcapsules were round and smooth. The combination of gelatin and sodium alginate T3 (1:3) as a microcapsule material is a good alternative to protect lactic acid bacteria so that it can be applied in food products functional.
 
The polyacetylenic compound cis-heptadeca-1,9-diene-4,6-diyne-3,8-diol with the trivial name of falcarindiol, has been shown through various studies to exhibit anticancer activities. The beneficial effects of polyacetylenes occur at nontoxic concentrations and thus represent pharmacologically useful properties indicating that polyacetylenes may be important nutraceuticals of vegetables. In the human diet, carrots are the major dietary source of falcarinol-type polyacetylenes, in particular falcarinol and falcarindiol. The prediction of physicochemical parameters relevant for drug likeness was performed by computational methods. The Lipinski, Ghose and Veber rules were applied to assess drug likeness and to predict whether the compound is likely to be a bioactive compound according to other important parameters such as molecular weight, LogP, number of hydrogen bond donors and hydrogen bond acceptors. The SwissADME tool used vector machine algorithm (SVM) with fastidiously cleaned large datasets of known inhibitors/non-inhibitors as well as substrates/non-substrates for its predictions. Results from the in silico pharmacokinetics study on falcarindiol showed that the compound exhibited drug likeness characteristics and as such can serve the purpose of an anticancer agent, being a nutaceutical and bioactive component of falcarindiol.
 
Aim: The guarantee of quality and safety of foods and all the agents involved in the processes of the food chain in the covid times is of public health concern. This study aimed to evaluate the safety quality of street vended ‘Ogi’ from selected Street hawkers in Iwo, Nigeria in light of the present COVID-19 pandemic. Study Design: The experimental design used is completely randomized. Methodology: Vendors from five locations were randomly selected to procure samples. pH, total titratable acidity (TTA), microbial loads, identification of isolates, and storability studies were carried out using standard methods. Results: pH ranged from (4.1 to 6.3); TTA (0.6 to 0.75 %) for raw ‘Ogi’ slurry. All the ‘Ogi’ samples were contaminated. Counts ranged from (2.6x107 to 1.3x108 CFU/g); (5.6x106 to 2.0x107 CFU/g); (5.2 to 7.2x107 CFU/g); (6.2x106 to 6.1x107 CFU/g); and (1.2x105 to 4.4x106 CFU/g) for total viable (TVC); Staphylococcal; Salmonella-Shigella; Lactobacillus and fungal respectively. pH of cooked ‘Ogi’ ranged from (4.2 to 6.1); TVC and Salmonella-Shigella count ranged from (2.3to 8.5x 106 CFU/g), (1.7 to 3.3x 106 CFU/g); (5.8x106 to 1.5x107 CFU/g), (3.1 to 7.9x106 CFU/g); and (6.6x106 to 1.6x107 CFU/g), (4.0x106 to 1.0x107 CFU/g) for days 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Conclusion: Even after ‘Ogi’ is cooked, there is still a high probability of survival of some pathogens in this functional food, and consumption could result in gastro-intestinal disorder, thereby creating a food safety concern for consumers who may have other health challenges.
 
This study was carried out to assess complementary feeding practices of under-five children in Akuku Toru Local Government Area of Rivers State. A cross-sectional descriptive survey research was adopted for the study. The population for the study consisted of nursing mothers with children (0-24 months) attending their normal health services in seven (7) major primary health care centres in Akuku Toru Local Government Area, Rivers State. A sample size of 210 nursing mothers was selected for the study. The instrument used for data collection was a self-structured questionnaire titled “Assessment of Complementary Feeding Practices of Children Questionnaire”. The questionnaire was validated by three validates. Data generated using the research instrument was analyzed using frequency, percentages and mean. The findings obtained showed that most nursing mothers initiate complementary feeding at early age and their reasons often times are pressure from their family members who do not understand the benefits of adequate breast milk and pressure from employers to resume work. Majority of the sampled nursing mothers in the study area prefer cereal/grain, fruits, vegetables, yoghurt and custard over other complementary foods used in nursing a child. Majority of the respondent agreed that the nutritional status of infants introduced to complementary foods at their early stage of development is usually underweight, stunting and wasting. It was also established that inappropriate complementary feeding practices adopted by nursing mothers in the study areas has significant effect on the nutritional status of their infants. Therefore, the study recommends that there is need for promotion of women’s health and nutrition as a strategy that will benefit child nutritional status. Interventional programmes should target poorer household and mothers with lower educational level to improve complementary feeding practices of mothers. Developmental programmes should focus on empowering women in rural communities by improving of household income through creation of employment and access to credit facilities that will enable women engage in sustainable means of livelihood.
 
Germinated brown rice (GBR) was produced from FARO 44 rice cultivar by sterilizing the paddy in sodium hypochlorite solution, steeping it in potable water and germination of the de-husked grain. Germination temperatures were maintained at 30 and 40oC for 12 and 36 h. The mould content, functional, cooking and sensory properties of the GBR were compared to non-germinated brown rice (BR) and non-germinated parboiled milled rice (MR) which were used as controls. The results showed that germination temperatures did not significantly affect (p<0.05) the parameters analyzed. The germinating conditions did not encourage the growth of moulds. The foaming capacity (55.73%), foam stability (43.11%), water absorption capacity (1.24 g/g), and oil absorption capacity (1.07 g/g) of BR did not differ significantly (p<0.05) from that of MR but they increased significantly in GBR to the range of 66.43-73.05%, 60.48-74.715%, 2.15-2.88 g/g, and 1.95-3.08 g/g respectively. These values were significantly higher (p<0.05) at germination duration of 36 h than 12 h. The bulk density (0.93 g/cm3) and swelling power (6.78 g/g) of BR did not differ from that of MR but they decreased significantly (p<0.05) in GBR to the range of 0.61-0.90 g/cm3 and 2.67-4.70 g/g respectively. Much significantly lower (p<0.05) values were obtained at a germination duration of 36 h. The cooking time was least in MR (11.0 min) against BR (18.0 min) and GBR (12.0-15.0 min), and the water uptake ratio (g water/ g rice) was also least in MR (2.00) against BR (2.19) and GBR (2.20-2.37). MR and GBR germinated for 12 h were accepted while BR was rejected.
 
Proximate and energy compositions of the samples
This work analyzed the nutritional composition of germinated brown rice (GBR) produced from FARRO 57 rice cultivar and compared it with that of ungerminated brown rice (UBR) and ungerminated parboiled milled/white rice (UWR) from the same cultivar which were used as controls. The aim was to evaluate and compare the nutritional composition of UBR, UWR and GBR of the rice cultivar. The experimental design used was a completely randomized design. GBR was produced by soaking brown rice grains in distilled water for 24 h and then made to germinate in a laboratory incubator at 35° C for 12, 24 and 36 h. The parameters determined included proximate composition, energy value, minerals, vitamins, total starch, amylose and total reducing sugar contents and they were determined in triplicates. It was found that GBR had significantly higher contents of protein (14.54-15.01%), ash (3.36.98%), total dietary fibre (9.23-9.31), phosphorus (130.55-187.15 mg/100 g), iron (6.22-9.94 mg/100 g), calcium (455.0-560.0 mg/100 g), zinc (2.51-2.72 mg/100 g), selenium (92.10-107.50 µg/100 g), vitamin B2 (2.35-2.92 mg/100 g) and vitamin E (1.82-2.68 mg/100g) than UBR and UWR. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the contents of vitamins A (19.45-19.72 IU), B1 (0.33-0.34 mg/100g) and B6 (1.00-1.10 mg/100g) of GBR and UBR samples, however they were all significantly higher than that of UWR. The GBR also had significantly lower amount of total carbohydrate (64.21-71.09%), total starch (54.91-60.92%), amylose (22.05-28.14%), and total reducing sugar (5.14-11.23%) than UBR and UWR. Amongst the GBR samples, the ash, protein, and the minerals increased with increase in duration of germination while the total carbohydrate, starch and amylose decreased with increase in duration of germination. GBR was recommended over UBR and UWR due to its optimum levels of the nutrients.
 
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional quality of the infant flours offered to mothers received in the dietary service of the CHR of Daloa. Introduction: Ivory Coast’s membership in Scaling up Nutrition (SUN) is a momentum in a collective effort to improve the nutrition and nutritional status of the population. Method : For this purpose, analyses of biochemical compositions, in particular the levels of protein, fat and minerals in the proposed infant flours, were carried out. Results: The formulations of the flours proposed have high nutritional values. The protein content of compound flours increases proportionally with the amount of soy incorporated. Indeed, for FC2 and FC3 formulations, these contents are 17.12 ± 0.19 g / 100 g (FC3) and 17.50 ± 0.56 g / 100 g (FC2) with a rate of incorporation of 25% soy. In addition, the FC1 flour formulation enriched with peanuts is low in protein with a value of 8.69 ± 0.11 g / 100 g. These flours also had mineral contents in accordance with WHO standards of calcium (> 125 mg / kg), iron (> 4 mg / kg) and zinc (> 0.8 mg / kg). In addition these formulations are highly digestible. Conclusion: However, to use the proposed meal formulations as food for malnutrition, it would necessarily be necessary to supplement them with available local fruits and vegetables, rich in vitamins and minerals.
 
With respect to anti- nutritional factors, results show there are significant differences among the flour samples.
Anti-nutritional contents and phytate-mineral molar ratios of selected minerals of peeled, unpeeled and blanched plantain flours
Predicted protein quality indices of peeled, unpeeled and blanched plantain flours
This investigation evaluated some nutritional and anti-nutritional properties of flours from peeled, unpeeled, and blanched plantain (Musa AAB). Green matured plantain was peeled and sliced (PUF), peeled, sliced and soaked in boiled water (100°C) for 10 mins (PBF), sliced unpeeled (UUF), and sliced, unpeeled and soaked in boiled water (100°C) for 10 mins (UBF). Slices were dried at 65 ±1.5°C until constant weight was obtained and milled into flour (< 212 µm) using a grinding mill. Flours were evaluated for anti-nutritional, minerals and amino acid contents and protein quality indices. Dumplings prepared from flours were evaluated for sensory parameters. There were significant (P = .05) differences among flours for most properties evaluated, and for most sensory parameters of dumplings. Minerals, mineral-mineral ratios and anti-nutritional contents were significantly (P = .05) higher in unpeeled flours than peeled flours, but anti-nutrients and phytate-mineral molar ratios 0.013-0.016(Ca), .059-0.062(Fe) and 0.098-0.121(Zn) were within acceptable thresholds. Essential amino acids were slightly lower in unpeeled flours than peeled flours, but flour from unpeeled unblanched sample (UUF) was slightly higher in leucine, valine and isoleucine compared to other samples, with values of 6.47, 4.10 and 3.25mg/100g protein respectively. Protein quality indices were 54-66%, 1.52-2.22, 47-60.7% and 4.19-6.07 for EAAI, PER, BV and NI respectively, with samples PUF and UUF having highest and sample (UUF) having 59%, 2.22, 53% and 4.19 respectively. All dumpling samples had high acceptability mean scores (6-7) for most sensory parameters, while flour sample from unpeeled, unblanched matured green plantain (UUF) produced dough meal with high consumer acceptability and nutritional quality.
 
Aims: To determine the effect of roasted soybean flour substitution on the chemical and sensory properties of maize flour snack (Aadun). Study Design: Multiple comparison test was performed on the data obtained using Duncan test Place and Duration of Study: Samples were prepared in Department of Food Science and Technology, Osun State Polytechnic, between August 2020 and November 2020. Methodology: Composite flours were developed from roasted maize and soybean to produce snacks (Aadun). Proximate, mineral, amino acid profile and sensory properties of the samples were determined using standard procedure. Results: The protein content of the sample ranged between 8.94–16.43% with sample with 40% soybeans having the highest value. The mineral content of the samples increased with increased addition of soybean. Total amino acid of the Aadun samples ranged between 64.81 and 83.42 g/100 g showing an increase as fortification with soybean flour increased. The sensory evaluation showed no significant differences (p>0.05) in the overall acceptability of all the snacks. Conclusion: The chemical properties of Aadun increased with addition of soybean flour. Addition of 10 % soybeans to the maize snack did not have significant effect on the taste, texture and overall acceptability.
 
Melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) is a widely cultivated and consumed oil-seed in West Africa. Its seeds deteriorate quickly in storage due to microbial attack introduced during the shelling stage of processing. Aim: This study investigated and compared the microbial and proximate composition of Hand shelled and machined melon seed as sold in the market in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Study Design: The total bacterial, total fungal, Staphylococcal and coliform counts of the machine shelled and hand shelled melon seeds samples were determined. Methodology: The mould count was estimated as SFU/g and isolates (Aspergillus) were identified through spore formation, production of fruiting bodies, morphological and molecular characteristics. The proximate and chemical compositions-Free Fatty Acid (FFA) and Peroxide Value (PV)-were determined by standard analytical methods. Data were analysed using analysis of variance. Results: There is no significant (p<0.05) difference in the proximate composition of both the hand shelled and machine shelled melon seed save the pH. The proximate compositions of hand shelled and machine shelled melon samples were within the recommended limits for Curcubitaceae, both FFA (1.88±0.02%, 1.88±0.01%) and PV(2.64±0.01 meq/kg, 2.65±0.02 meq/kg) values respectively were within the Codex Alimentarius range for oily seeds. The pH value of Hand shelled (5.57±0.09) is significantly higher than Machine shelled (6.10±0.06). The fungal count of machine shelled (92.33x108 SFU/g) was significantly higher than hand shelled (38.00x108 SFU/g). Staphylococcal count of hand shelled (59.00x108 CFU/g) was significantly higher than machine shelled (42.00x108 CFU/g). However, there is no significant difference in total bacterial and coliform counts of both melon samples. The fungal species found in hand shelled and machine shelled melon samples were mainly genus Aspergillus with A. niger with percentage of occurrence (30%, 22%) and A. flavus (8%, 11%) respectively. Bacillus subtilis (14%, 40%) and Staphylococcus aureus (43%, 20%) were also found in hand shelled and machine shelled melon. These organisms are of spoilage and food poisoning importance. Conclusion: The study concluded machine shelled melon harbours more spoilage microorganisms and may spoil faster than hand shelled melon seed.
 
Distribution of samples collected according to the collected places and the kind of hot beverages
Distribution of S. aureus strains according to the sampled hot beverages
Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main pathogens found in street food, including hot beverages. However, information about S. aureus isolated from street hot beverages from coffee carts is very limited in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Aims: We aimed to characterize phenotypically S. aureus isolated from street hot beverages sold in Abidjan. Methodology: A total of 400 samples of hot beverage were collected and analyzed. The identification was made through conventional microbial and biochemical analysis. Macroscopic identification on the Baird Parker agar supplement with egg yolk tellurite. Microscopic observation through Gram staining as well as biochemical tests such as catalase, DNase and coagulase were performed. To confirm staphylococcal strains, the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was used. After identification, the susceptibility of the staphylococcal isolates was evaluated using disc diffusion method. Results: Result showed that most of Staphylococcus aureus (18.4%) were isolated from tea. All the strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from street beverages were sensitive to cefoxitin and vancomycin. All the S. aureus isolated from milk were resistant to Erythromycin. Although beverages are consumed hot, the presence of S. aureus in ready-to-drink beverage transmitted infections to consumers. Conclusion: This drink need attention for the seller and the user to avoid some infections.
 
Aims: The aim of the current study was to determine the antibiotic resistance profile of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from rinse water of chicken carcass in artisanal slaughterhouses in Abidjan. Place and Duration of Study: Chicken’s rinse water samples were collected between January and March 2020 in three areas of Abidjan district. Methodology: A total of 75 rinse water samples were collected from three markets of Abidjan district. Enumeration and isolation of S. aureus were carried out on Baird Parker agar supplemented with egg yolk tellurite emulsion followed by morphological and biochemical identification. Antibiotics resistance profiles were performed by using disks diffusion methods. Results: Out of 75 samples, 21 (28%) were contaminated with S. aureus. Among the isolates, 21 (one by positive sample) were tested for antimicrobial resistance against 14 most commonly used antibiotics. All strains were resistant to two antibiotics (minocyclin and fusidic acid). However, some drugs such as gentamiycin, norfloxacin, and Tigecyclin showed great activity on tested isolates. Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that rinse water could consist of a major critical point of chicken carcass contamination by S. aureus with high drugs resistance capacity. Therefore periodic control is need to good hygiene practice and improving the poultry meat sanitary quality produce from these slaughterhouses.
 
The study investigated the effect of temperature and variety on water absorption kinetics of three Ghanaian maize varieties (Abrohemaa, Omankwa, and Akposoe) during soaking and also to generate the required moisture diffusivity data for the varieties. The study employed a gravimetric method at four different temperatures of , and . Varying soaking temperature affected the water absorption rates and behaviours of the varieties and that soaking was reduced by increasing the soaking water temperature. The differences in rate of water absorption by the varieties could be attributed to kernel characteristics such as physiochemical and nutritional composition. The Fick’s diffusion law satisfactorily predicted the absorption kinetics of the varieties at all temperatures and that variety and temperature were the most important factors controlling water absorption rate of the maize kernel. The moisture diffusivities of the kernels varied in the order of Abrohemaa Omankwa Akposoe and increased as the soaking temperature increases with values ranging from for Akposoe, for Omankwa and for Abrohemaa. The Arrhenius equation was able to describe the effects of temperature on the diffusion coefficient with activation energy values of for Abrohemaa and for both Akposoe and Omankwa. The study investigated the effect of temperature and variety on water absorption kinetics of three Ghanaian maize varieties (Abrohemaa, Omankwa, and Akposoe) during soaking and also to generate the required moisture diffusivity data for the varieties. The study employed a gravimetric method at four different temperatures of , and . Varying soaking temperature affected the water absorption rates and behaviours of the varieties and that soaking was reduced by increasing the soaking water temperature. The differences in rate of water absorption by the varieties could be attributed to kernel characteristics such as physiochemical and nutritional composition. The Fick’s diffusion law satisfactorily predicted the absorption kinetics of the varieties at all temperatures and that variety and temperature were the most important factors controlling water absorption rate of the maize kernel. The moisture diffusivities of the kernels varied in the order of Abrohemaa Omankwa Akposoe and increased as the soaking temperature increases with values ranging from for Akposoe, for Omankwa and for Abrohemaa. The Arrhenius equation was able to describe the effects of temperature on the diffusion coefficient with activation energy values of for Abrohemaa and for both Akposoe and Omankwa.
 
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of soaking temperature and variety on the rehydration parameters and solute loss (essential minerals and vitamin C) of two maize varieties. Sun-dried kernels of the maize varieties (Omakwa and Abrohemaa) were soaked at four different water temperatures of 30oC, 40oC, 50oC and 60oC in a thermostatic water bath and the rehydration parameters determined. Temperature and variety were the two principal factors found to influence water uptake by the kernels. The highest rehydration ratio of 13.28 and 14.65 for Omakwa and Abrohemaa respectively occurred at the highest soaking temperature of 60oC. The quantitative analysis of solute loss (phosphorus, sodium, potassium and vitamin C) carried out reveals that large amounts of Potassium and vitamin C leached into the soaking water at higher water temperatures while residual amount of sodium saw an initial increase before decreasing to a low value as the temperature increases. For phosphorus, larger residual amounts were obtained at low to moderate soaking temperatures while a further increase in soaking temperature beyond 50oC resulted in a decrease. Soaking at temperatures of 40oC and 50oC were found to retain more nutrients hence moderate temperature of 40oC ≤X≤ 50oC may be considered for soaking of Omakwa and Abrohemaa maize varieties.
 
Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) R.Br. (Fabaceae)
Morphological characteristics of bacteria isolated from Pakia biglobasa beans collected at Kuje market
Biochemical characteristics of bacteria isolated from locally fermented Parkia biglobosa bean
Growth profile from bacteria isolated from locally fermented Parkia biglobosa bean
Lactic acid bacteria constitute one of the most abundant groups of microorganisms in most fermented food products across Nigeria. The biochemical signatures of these species make the ideal catalysts for a range of processing events with the food industry. This study was undertaken to isolate and screen for lactic acid bacteria strains obtainable from fermented Parkia biglobosa seeds purchased at a rural seed market in Abuja. Data obtained revealed that seven morphologically distinct bacteria isolates were obtained using antifungal induced (0.3 mg/ml Fluconazole) yeast extract, malt extract, peptone, glucose, agar media. The seven bacterial isolates were given the designations TEA, TEB, TEC, TED, TEF, TEJ, and TEL respectively. The obtained all but two isolates (TEB and TEL) were all capable of fermenting fructose, glucose, lactose, sucrose and trehalose as the sole carbon source in the broth. Morphological examination revealed that the isolates obtained were non-spore forming gram positive colonies ranging from creamy to white, clear, cocci and rod-shaped, smooth textured and flat elevation with transparent opacity. Their Growth measurements were determined by measuring the optical density of the cells in broth using spectrophotometer at 600nm over a 96 hour incubatory period in nutrient broth at 37oC. Isolate TEC displayed the highest overall growth pattern over the 24 hour period via optical density readout 1.85, 2.40, 2.65, 2.80. All isolates except TEB were negative for catalase and citrate, thereby suggesting that TEB was a specie of the Citrobacter family. All isolates tested negative for coagulase, indole and motility tests. Suggestions from the data obtained lean towards the use and suitability of the isolated bacteria as ideal cultures for commercial fermentation.
 
Bread is one of the most essential food products that is universally accepted as a very convenient form of food that has desirability to all population rich or poor, rural or urban dwellers. A staple food prepared by baking dough of flour, water and/or sugar. It is a good source of nutrients, such as macronutrients and micronutrients that are all essential for human Bread like other bakery products are subject to microbial contamination and spoilage by molds irrespective of the intrinsic composition of the product. The present study was carried out to identify the fungi associated with bread spoilage sold in Abuja metropolis, Nigeria and the possible health risks. Twenty-four (24) bread products from different locations within FCT, Abuja, Nigeria covering the six regions; Abaji, AMAC, Bwari, Gwagwalada, Kuje and Kwali were sampled and the molds associated with them were isolated using spread plate method. Based on the cultural and morphological characterizations using standard identification techniques, the mold namely Aspergillus sp. (29.7%), Mucor sp. (17.4%), Penicillum sp. (17.1%), Fusarium sp. (14.7%), Rhizopus sp. (8.0%), Cladosporium sp. (7.4%) Alternaria sp. (3.4%) and Geotricum sp. (2.3%) were found. The presence of mold is a signal to the possibility of mycotoxin build-up and other food safety risks. Therefore, bread manufacturer and distribution vendors need to periodically validate their preventive measures to control potential hazards associated with fungi-laden breads.
 
Food is considered safe when it is free from substances that might compromise individual or populations' health and well-being, and is realizable with appropriate food safety cultures. This study accessed 150 food vendors across four of twelve political wards of the Abuja Municipal Area Council, AMAC who consented to the exercise. Results indicated no significant relationship between location with perception and practices of vendors on food safety, which had mean scores of 0.593, and 0.139 respectively. With p value (< 0.05), there is clearly a significant difference between the options measuring food safety (yes = good, and not sure = fair), and option no (poor) having the highest observed count of 78, the null hypothesis was rejected. As a result, it was concluded that, the food safety culture of food vendors in Abuja will not deliver safe foods to consumers. High market prices of food supplies, complex/cumbersome processes involved with meeting government regulations on food safety with weighted means of 3.3133 and 2.8667 respectively, were identified as the prevalent constraints on food safety cultures among food vendors in Abuja. In assuring safety, while maintaining the benefits of food vending to both sellers and buyers, emphasis should be given in to promoting food safety rather than mere revenue generation among both vendors and local government officials who register these vendors.
 
Proximate components of flour samples OFSP -Orange-fleshed sweet potato flour complementary foods.The carbohydrate percentage (61%) reported in this study was lower than those found by Laryea [20] and Dansby and Bovell-Benjamin [21] which were 83.29% and 90.6% respectively.The difference in carbohydrate content as cited by Laryea [20] and Dansby and Bovell-Benjamin [21] may be due to a difference in the variety of the sweet potato, the method of cultivation and the soil conditions under which the sweet potatoes were planted, as asserted by [22].The percentage of moisture recorded were relatively higher (27.5%) for tomato powder as shown in Fig. 2.This was not surprising because tomato is a fleshy vegetable, known to have a high water content [23]. Onion powder had 18.35% moisture, while anchovy powder had 7.6%. The lowest moisture content of 6.9% was found in the OFSP flour.The value in this study was within the range reported by other researchers [16,24,25]. These authors reported a moisture content ranging between 2.50 and 13.2%. Similarly Dery [26] observed that the Apomuden OFSP variety used in this study contained the highest moisture content among the six varieties of sweet potatoes studied.This implies that the moisture content obtained in this study for OFSP flour was reasonably good.
Compositions of formulations
Functional characteristics of the complementary food samples
The study focuses on the development of a complementary food (CF) with the orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) to help address the public health problem of vitamin A deficiency among infants. Experimental research design was used for the study. Fifty six infants aged between 6 and 24 months were purposively sampled, together with their mothers, to evaluate three complementary food (CF) products and a control, code-named GAD, PEA, SAB and KAN respectively. The CF products were formulated from orange fleshed sweet potato, anchovies, onion and tomatoes; and the nutrients and functional properties were determined. A questionnaire and an interview guide were used to collect data to assess the sensory attributes and overall acceptability of the formulated CF products. The results showed that the three complementary foods were nutrient dense, with the moisture content being highest in PEA and lowest in GAD. GAD, PEA and SAB were all high in protein and fibre but low in fat and carbohydrate. KAN (control) was the most acceptable with respect to all the sensory attributes of a complementary food, although its overall acceptability was not significantly different from that of the other three CF products - GAD, PEA and SAB.
 
Cookies were developed from composite flour of wheat, African Walnut and Carrot. The wheat flour was substituted at levels of 5%, 10%, 15%, & 20% with African Walnut flour for samples, B, C, D and E, respectively, and with 5% of Carrot flour. The moisture content of the cookies reduced with increase in substitution with walnut flour and carrot flour but there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the values obtained. The ash content and protein content of the cookies also increased with increased substitution whereas fat content of the substituted cookies samples increased and significantly differed (p˂ 0.05) from the control. The physical attributes are as follows:11.28 g - 13.09 g for Weight, 45.80 mm - 52.68 mm for Diameter, 6.85 mm - 9.45 mm for thickness, and 5.12 - 7.44 for spread ratio. The values of the Minerals obtained are 29.38 mg/100 g – 50.46 mg/100 g, 3.75 mg/100 g – 11.36 mg/100 g, 14.11 mg/100 g – 15.47 mg/100 g and 49.20 mg/100 g – 58.90 mg/100 g for Calcium, iron, Sodium, and Potassium, respectively. The Bioavailability was highest in sodium(57.07%-84.86%), and potassium(69.55% - 72.31%).The highest values for Vitamin C (13.85 mg/100 g), Vitamin E (0.90), and Invitro protein digestibility (59.64%) were recorded in sample E while the highest Carotenoids (257.40 mg/100 g) was observed in sample C. Sensory evaluation confirmed that there was no significant difference (p˃0.05) between Samples A (control sample) and the substituted samples in terms of appearance, taste and aroma, and although sample A had highest overall general acceptability value, the samples produced compared favorably with the control.
 
This study investigated the influence of frying oil types and storage duration on the acrylamide concentration, moisture variation pattern, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content and acceptability factors of commonly consumed snack (chin-chin). A standard processing procedure was used to prepare the snack (chin-chin) using a combination of ingredients such as wheat flour, sugar, salt, margarine, ground nutmeg, egg, and water. Two types of vegetable oil used for deep-frying were soybean oil and refined palm olein oil while commercial chin-chin samples were also purchased to serve as the control. The results showed that during the storage period, the acrylamide contents in chin-chin samples exhibited gradual increase. The commercial chin-chin (CH-COM) contained the highest initial moisture content (13.54%) while all the chin-chin samples exhibited gradual increase in moisture content during the 12-day storage period. The study also revealed that during the storage period, all the chin-chin samples exhibited gradual reduction in the TBARS level. However, the degree of reduction in the TBARS content of commercial chin-chin was the highest as it reduced from the initial 0.33 mg MDA/kg to 0.17 mg MDA/kg during the 12-day storage duration. The fresh chin-chin samples exhibited relatively high level of browning index with significant differences at p<0.05 while there were variations in the oiliness index of the snack samples. The chin-chin samples in this study were generally found to satisfy the requirements for the tolerable levels for both the acrylamide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) throughout the 12-day storage period.
 
A study of the Physico-chemical and functional properties of pumpkin / wheat flour blends and sensory attributes of cakes made from the flour blends where evaluated in the food science laboratory of Rivers State University. The physico-chemical analysis were carried out using standard AOAC methods with 100% wheat flour serving as control. Result of chemical analysis of wheat/pumpkin composite flour blends ranged from 6 .51 – 11.78%, 0.58 – 6.74%, 5.81 – 11.97%, 0.90 – 1.56%, 0.51 – 6.93% and 72.22 – 73.68% for moisture, ash, protein, fat, crude fiber and carbohydrate, respectively. There was a decrease in moisture, fat, protein and carbohydrate and an increase in ash, and crude fiber as the level of pumpkin flour substitution increased. Starch, amylose and amylopectin ranged from 37.68 – 83.82%, 8.76 – 24.64 % and 28.92 – 59.18%, respectively. The lowest starch (37.68%) content was recorded in pumpkin flour made entirely of pumpkin. Depending on the mixing ratios between flour and pumpkin flour, a wide range of functional properties were recorded, including 1.04 – 5.30 ml/g water absorption capacity, 0.58 – 0.61 g/ml bulk density, 8.50 – 16.50% least gelation concentration, 1.07 – 54.26% foaming capacity, 0.00 – 27.84% foaming stability, 53.71 – 93.33% swelling capacity, 45.46 – 48.49% emulsion capacity and 35.50 – 56.02% emulsion stability. Sensory evaluation of the cakes showed no significant difference (p>0.05) in general acceptability between the control and up to 70% substitution with pumpkin flour. The scores ranged from 2.61 – 8.22, 4.13 – 7.13, 5.04 – 7.70, 3.87 – 7.70 and 2.74 – 7.83 for taste, appearance, colour, mouthfeel and general acceptability respectively. Incorporation of pumpkin flour to wheat flour increased the ash and crude fiber content of the composite flour.
 
The present study was aimed at the assessment of physicochemical and consumer acceptability of breakfast cereals developed from locally-sourced materials (sorghum, soybean, Bambara groundnut and groundnut). Ten samples were formulated by mixing the flours in different ratios while the formulated flours were subjected to various analyses including proximate composition, functional properties, vitamins and microbial evaluation and consumer acceptability. The results revealed the following ranges in the proximate parameters: moisture (6.45 – 10.46%), protein (10.26 –19.64%), fat (3.89–11.42%), ash (1.48 – 2.69%), crude fiber (1.94–3.72%), carbohydrates (56.09 – 72.06%), and energy (363.52 – 405.64 Kcal). The functional properties of the formulated breakfast cereal were bulk density (0.65-1.14 g/cm3), water absorption capacity (70.45-82.45 ml/g), swelling index (7.05-10.95%), solubility (73.55-88.84%), and viscosity (22.96-38.84 cP). Appreciable quantities of vitamins were present in the formulated breakfast cereal including vitamins C, B1, B2, B3, and folic acid. The sensory evaluation on the formulated breakfast cereal revealed that sample F (5% Malted sorghum flour + 65% Unmalted Sorghum flour + 30% Soybean flour) was rated the highest in terms of appearance, taste, and overall acceptability. The comparative advantage of this formulated cereal meal is that the ingredients used (soybean, sorghum, Bambara groundnut and groundnut) are easily grown in the tropical areas with high yield and are locally available.
 
Picture of ugali prepared from HQCF blended with cereal flours
Socio economic and demographic characteristics of the study population
Food attributes influencing the preference of ugali
The influence of gender and education level on the overall acceptability of ugali
Cassava is the most known hunger fighter crop in sub-Saharan African countries during drought and severe famine, its production has been limited to household’s consumption and not to commercialization. The aim of this study was to assess consumer acceptability and willingness to pay for blends of high quality cassava flour (HQCF) and refined maize (sembe) or unrefined maize (dona) or sorghum in Lake Zone. The HQCF was mixed with either sembe flour (20:80) or dona flour (80:20) or sorghum flour (80:20) separately. Ugali made at these ratios of the blends were fed to 129 people (Mwanza n = 60 and Bunda n = 69) and descriptively evaluated sensory properties. It was found that 65.9% of the consumers preferred ugali made from blends of HQCF. About 51.2% consumer preferred ugali made from blends of HQCF and Sorghum flour and for blends of HQCF and dona at (80:20). Consumers willing to pay price between TZS 1000/kg and TZS1500/kg for blends of HQCF: sembe was 62%, HQCF: sorghum was 61% and HQCF: dona was 46%. Marketing expansion opportunities for blends of HQCF and cereal flours are high suggesting the needs for interventions at production, processing and supply to the market.
 
Map of Northern region showing the location of the two irrigation sites
Descriptive statistics of the respondents
Farmers perception on the factors that influence access to irrigable farming
Econometric analysis of factors influencing irrigation farming and vegetable land size
Perceptions on yield difference under irrigation and rainfed regimes
Aim: The impacts of climate change and variability requires proactive and reactive adaptation. The high reliance of farmers on rainfed agriculture leads to their high vulnerability to climate change. As an agrarian economy, irrigation farming system is an essential proactive and/or reactive strategy for the increasing erratic rainfalls in Northern Ghana. This study analyzed the perceptions of smallholder farmers on irrigation farming and the factors that influence access to and size of irrigable lands among communities in the catchment of two irrigation dams. Study Design: The study adopted a multi-stage sampling procedure. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the Northern Region of Ghana. The data for the study was collected in 2014. Methodology: Through a multi-stage sampling, a cross-sectional data was collected from 240 smallholder farmers. These included both irrigation farmers and non-irrigation farmers. The data was analyzed through switching regression and descriptive statistics. Results: The result revealed that water unavailability is not a major challenge to most irrigation farmers. The farmers engaged in irrigation vegetable farming mostly for cash purpose and also perceived a high demand for vegetables, especially in the dry season. From the farmers perception, group membership, distance to irrigable land, cost of irrigable land, leadership characteristics and nativity significantly influenced access to irrigable lands. From the econometric result, experience, farmer group, credit, extension, labour availability and age had significant influence on irrigation farming while education, experience, extension, sex and labour availability significantly influenced the acreage cultivated by the vegetable farmers. Conclusion: The study concluded that, while there is high market potential for irrigated produce, access to and the size of irrigable lands are significantly determined by a mixed of factors. Therefore, while farmers are encouraged to go into irrigation vegetable production, government’s policies such as ‘one village one dam’ should be effectively implemented to realize the needed results.
 
Aims: The broad objective of the research produce acceptable yoghurt flavoured with two accessions of passion fruit (pulp and skin) and evaluate its quality (physicochemical, phytochemical, microbiological, selected mineral and vitamin content). Study Design: The experimental design that was used is Completely Randomized Design. Place and Duration of Study: The study took place at the Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka between August 2016 and September 2017. Methodology: Yoghurt is a diary product obtained from lactic acid fermentation of milk. Yoghurt and two accessions of passion fruit juices (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa O. Deg) were processed to formulate enriched yoghurt in the following ratios 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50. Yoghurt without the passion fruit juice (100:0) served as the control. Based on sensory evaluation, the best samples were subjected to physicochemical, phytochemical, microbiological, selected mineral and vitamin content evaluation using standard methods. The best enriched yoghurt samples were those in the ratio 90:10 and 80:20. Proximate composition of the enriched yoghurt samples significantly (p<0.05) differed with the controls. Results: Enriched yoghurt showed an increase in the protein content (3.70, 3.52, 3.86, 3.93, 3.94, 3.52%) than control (2.81%). The control had higher fat content (3.43%) than enriched yoghurt (2.93, 3.12, 3.14, 2.78, 3.03 and 2.90%). The ash content ranges from 0.59 - 0.82% while addition of passion fruit juice caused pH to drop from 4.24 in the plain yoghurt to 4.18, 4.20 and 4.23 in the enriched yoghurt. The titratable acidity of yoghurt samples increased from 0.18 in the control to 0.72, 0.54, 0.52, 0.50 and 0.45 in enriched yoghurt. No direct relationship was observed between the pH and the titratable acidity. The total solid content ranges from 4.57-30.03. The phytochemicals were in trace amount. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the tannin content. The titratable acidity of yoghurt samples increased from 0.013 µg in the control to 0.015, 0.027, 0.028, 0.016, 0.020 and 0.024 in enriched yoghurt. Significant (p<0.05) difference in the phenolic content value was observed among all the samples. The phenolic content in the yoghurt samples ranges from 0.06 to 0.10 mg/g. The mineral content and vitamin content of the flavoured yoghurt samples significantly (p<0.05) differed with that of the control. An increase in the sodium content was observed in the samples from the control (168.24 mg/100 g) to the enriched sample (209.31, 202.66, 169.48 and 192.82 mg/100 g). Similar increases were observed for potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus content of the samples. Enriched yoghurt showed an increase in the vitamin C content (6.40, 7.53, 7.29, 7.15 and 7.13 mg/g) than in the control (5.10 mg/g). Vitamin A content ranged from 14.96 µg/100g - 20.67 µg/100 g. The total viable count was higher in the control (5.67 × 105 cfu/ml) than in enriched yoghurt. The mould count of the yoghurt samples varied from 0.33 × 101 cfu/ml - 1.58 × 103 cfu/ml. All the sensory attributes tested in the flavoured yoghurt samples significantly (p<0.05) differed. Conclusion: Yoghurt enriched with local specie passion fruit juice from pulp, was the most accepted.
 
Roe has a high protein content and a number of amino acids. The process of removing fat and hydrolyzate with enzymes leads to the breaking of the bonds, so that complex proteins are converted into short chain proteins or peptides and free amino acids. The peptide can act as bioactive and has an effect as antihypertensive, antibacterial, antioxidant and so on. This research was aimed at utilizing processed roes to make hydrolyzate which had previously viewed the chemical composition both fresh and defatted, and to determine the protein profile of the roes from hydrolyzate. The research data were analyzed descriptively, and the average value and standard deviation were calculated. The results showed that skipjack roes have a fairly complete chemical composition, such as Proximate (protein, fat, moisture, ash, and carbohydrates), with values, respectively 19,19%, 0,67%, 76,32%, 2,51% and 1,31%. It was also found that the dominant amino acid composition of defatted skipjack mature roes is lysine, glutamate and leusine with values, respectively 12.65, 11.20 and 7.72 g/100 g protein and have activity as an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory. The ACE inhibitory activity of Skipjack roe hydrolysates of crude papain enzyme from immature and mature value, respectively 36.62% and 38.82%, while pure papain enzyme from immature and mature value respectively 42.63% and 47.54%. The protein profile of the immature roe hydrolyzate range from 10.88 to 125,80 kDA, while the mature roe hydrolysates range from 10.08 to 125,30 kDa.
 
The study investigates the chemical, physical and sensory properties of sweet potato and acha flour based biscuits. The work was aimed at ameliorating the quality of acha-based biscuit with addition of sweet potato flour. Flour blends were produced by substituting sweet potato into acha flour at 20, 40 and 60%. Proximate, physical and sensory properties of the biscuit were analyzed. The carbohydrate, moisture content, fat content, fibre and ash increased from 67.21 to 75.94, 5.69 to 6.74, 13.81 to14.87, 1.4 to 1.68, and 2.48 to 3.45 respectively with an increase in added sweet potato flour (20-60), while the protein decreased from 8.14 to 3.73. The relative decrease could be due to the low inherent protein of sweet potato. Magnesium, phosphorus and potassium increased from 220.33 to 375.22, 0.438 to 0.632 and 218 to 252.33mg/100g respectively with added sweet potato flour. There was an increase in break strength and spread ratio from 1.35 to 2.95 kg 4.80 to 5.13, respectively, with an increase in the level of sweet potato flour substitution. The reverse was observed for thickness and diameter of the biscuit which decreased from 0.70 to 0.60 and 4.28 to 4.13 cm, respectively. The average mean score of texture, colour, taste, flavour and general acceptability ranges from 6.05 to 7.65, 6.55 to 6.40, 5.55 to 6,25, 6.70 to 5.75 and 6.10 to 6.95, respectively. The sample 40:60 sweet potato-acha flour blend biscuit with average means scores of 6.95 was most preferred and acceptable with the corresponding increment of 3.45, 14.87, 8.14, and 1.68 of ash content, fat content, protein and crude fibre, respectively.
 
Aims: To investigate the health and the physiological status of farm animals. Study Design: We formulated seven (7) samples from ACHA and orange-fleshed sweet potato mixture with two (2) samples serving as control. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Federal University Wukari between February 2022 and May 2022. Methodology: The orange fleshed sweet potato flour was mixed with ACHA flour separately at different proportions (100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 85:15, 80:20, 75:25 and 0:100) while one hundred percent (100%) acha flour and orange-fleshed sweet potato was used as the control. Bone meal (10%), blood meal (10%) and salt (5%) were added to each sample. The albino rats were kept in a cage in five (5) segments, and the blends were fed to the rats for 21 days and 100g of the formulated feed were weighed into plates in each segment. The daily weight of the albino rats was measured. Evaluated bioassay parameters including feed and water intake, and body weight. Hematological properties including hemoglobin, red blood cell, white blood cell, mean cellular volume, mean cellular hemoglobin, and mean cellular hemoglobin concentration of the albino rats were also measured. Results: The result of feed intake/weight gain revealed that the rats fed with 0% OFSP showed the highest values for 21 days. The kidney, liver and heart weight of the albino rats decreased from1.23 to 1.05, 5.65 to 2.65 and 1.28 to 0.23g, respectively, while the carcass increased from 104.55 to 111.55g upon OFSP substitution. Conclusion: The result of this study revealed that locally available food commodities such as ACHA and orange fleshed sweet potato can be utilized to produce a protein-rich complementary food capable of combating malnutrition among children. A protein and carbohydrate-rich weaning food comparable to commercial weaning food (cerelac) can be strategically formulated from the blends of ACHA and orange-fleshed sweet potato (75:25).
 
Aims: To produce protein and fibre enriched extruded product that can be used as a protein supplement by combining legumes, cereal and fruits, evaluate the proximate properties of the snacks, evaluate anti-nutritional factors in the snacks, assess the functional properties of the flour blends, determine the physical properties of the extruded snacks, evaluate the quality and sensory properties of the snacks produced, carry out the mineral content analysis of the extruded products. Methodology: Acha flour (A), Jack bean flour (J) and Pawpaw flour (P) were produced and blended to give various ratios of AAA (100% Acha, 0% jackbean, 0% pawpaw pomace), AJP (70% Acha, 20% Jackbean, 10% pawpaw), APJ (70% Acha,10% Jack bean, 20% pawpaw), AJN (70% Acha, 30% Jackbean, 0% Pawpaw), ANP (70% Acha, 0% Jack bean, 30% Pawpaw). These composite flour blends were used to produce extruded snacks and were analyzed for their proximate, minerals, anti-nutritional contents, and sensory properties, functional and physical properties. The analysis were carried out in triplicates for all the five formulations. The result obtained from the analysis were statistically analysed using SPSS 16.0 defined at (P < 0.05). Results: Protein content ranged from 10.92% to 6.98% with ANP having the highest and low in AAA, Carbohydrate content also ranged from 83.76% to 79.40%, high in AJP and lower in ANP, AAA had the highest moisture content of 3.88% and low in AJP 2.66, Fat content was high ANP (4.41%) and low in AJN and AJP (3.00%), APJ has the highest fibre content of (3.60%) and lower in AJN (1.18%) Ash was high in AAA and low in AJP (2.89% and 1.59%) respectively. The tannin content ranged between 0.18 to 0.36mg/g with ANP to be the highest, phytate content ranged between 0.25mg/g to 0.63mg/g. Saponin content ranged from 0.35 to 0.73mg/g with ANP to be the highest among them. As for the functional properties, the bulk density ranged between 0.84 - 0.92g/ml with the control samples (AAA) having the highest value and the lowest value was observed in sample AJP. Water absorption capacity and Oil absorption capacity ranged between 0.88 – 3.5% and 1.33 – 2.33% respectively. Physical properties of the extruded snacks; bulk density ranges between 0.23 – 0.38% with sample AAA having the highest value and ANP being the lowest, Apparent density, Lateral expansion and Porosity ranged between 0.36 – 0.62%, 79 – 130% and 0.47 – 0.81% respectively. All the five formulations have no significant difference in there sensory attributes. Mineral content, Potassium content was high in ANP (203.75mg/100g) and low in AJP (148.75mg/100g), Calcium was high in ANP (576.25mg/100g) and low in AAA (435.50mg/100g), Magnessium was high in ANP (208.25mg/100g) and low in AAA (208.25mg/100g). Conclusion: Inclusion of pawpaw pomace and Jackbean to the composite increased (p<0.05) the protein and Mineral content of the product, when compared with the control. Based on the nutritional values and sensory attributes, AJP and ANP snacks could be recommended as an appropriately enriched snack product.
 
Cookies was produced from wheat (Triticum, spp), acha (Digitaria exilis), and sprouted soybeans (Glycine max) flour blends. The acha and soybeans were processed into flour and used to substitute wheat flour at different proportions with 100:0:0 wheat, acha and sprouted soybeans flour (WAS) as the control, 60:30:10, 50:40:10, 45:45:10, 40:50:10 and 35:55:10 (WAS). The functional properties of the wheat, acha and sprouted soybeans flour blends, physical properties and proximate compositions of the cookies were determined. The functional properties of the flour samples shows that the bulk density, wettability, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and gelatinization temperature ranged from 0.63 g/ml-0.99 g/ml, 10.21-12.98 g/sec, 6.53-12.52 g/g, 0.52-0.66 g/g and 63.7-65.1ºC respectively. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in all the values. The proximate composition of cookies sample showed that crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ash, moisture and carbohydrate content ranged from 12.14-16.48 %, 2.10-3.74 %, 1.76-2.55 %, 2.75-8.55 %, 9.18-9.50 % and 59.37-72.06 % respectively. The physical properties of cookies showed that the weight, diameter, thickness and spread ratio ranged from 15.61-17.11g; 61.59-63.20mm; 9.88-11.99mm and 5.28-6.24 respectively. The control sample cookies from 100:0:0 (WAS), wheat, acha and sprouted soybeans flour blends sample had the highest sensory scores in terms of the taste, appearance, texture, aroma and overall acceptability. There was significant difference (p<0.05) in the colour, texture and aroma but there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the taste and overall acceptability in 60:30:10, 50:40:10, 45:45:10, 40:50:10 and 35:55:10 (WAS) samples.
 
Production and quality evaluation of biscuits from mango seed kernel-Acha flour blend were studied. The biscuits were formulated with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 50% of mango seed kernel (magnifera indica) flour with acha flour. The biscuits were prepared from the flour blends with other ingredient (fat, salt, baking powder and sugar) and evaluated for chemical composition, physical and sensory properties. The moisture, ash, protein and carbohydrate content decreased from 14.79-9.03, 2.37-2.17, 16.85-15.5 and 58.08-56.70, while the fat and fibre content increased from 5.67-8.99 and 0.40-0.90 respectively with increased in the level of mango seed kernel flour addition. Minerals and vitamins content result indicated increasing level of potassium, magnesium, vitamin A and vitamin K (256.31-486.43, 11.26-12.35, 0.01-0.07 and 0.02-0.51mg/g) respectively with increased in mango seed kernel flour. While decreased level of calcium and vitamin C were 1.10-0.66 and 1.65-1.27 with increased mango seed kernel flour addition. Physical properties result indicated a decreased in the weight, height diameters, thickness and break strength 24.95-21.90, 3.15 - 2.85, 5.25 - 4.85, 1.15 - 0.75 and 1.45-0.30 respectively, spread ratio and volume 5.25-6.25 and 21.66-22.91 of the biscuit sample increased with increased in mango seed kernel flour addition. In sensory evaluation, biscuits containing 10% mango kernel flour had the highest sensory score for all sensory attribute. The biscuit blends were generally accepted up to 15% but most preferred and accepted blend biscuits is that of the 100% acha and 100% wheat flour. The mango seed kernel incorporation had significant effect and could contribute to the improvement of the flour blend biscuits.
 
The functional, sensory and cooking characteristics of noodles from blends of Acha-tigernut composite flour were investigated. The flour blends and noodles produced were analyzed for functional properties and cooking characteristics. The tiger nut flour was substituted into acha flour at 5, 10, 15 and 20% to produce Acha-tigernut composite flour which was used with other ingredients (salt and powdered ginger) to produce acha-tigernut based noodles. The functional properties of the flour, sensory and cooking characteristics of the noodles produced were determined. The water absorption capacity and swelling capacity increased from 210.59 to 215.53 (g/g) and 524.43 to 586.57, respectively with increase in tigernut flour. While oil absorption, solubility and bulk density decreases from 209.80 to 192.72 (g/g), 10.17 to 5.19 and 0.79 to 0.61 (g/ml) respectively. The swelling capacity ranged from 524.43 to 586.57 (%) with an increase in tigernut flour. The final viscosity of the samples was found to range from 2833.00to 2201.00 (m2/s). The peak properties decreased from 2680.67 to 1580.33 (RVU). The pasting temperature increases from 82.47to 87.57°C. The addition of tigernut decreased the trough, breakdown and peak time from 1730.67 to 1205.67, 985.67 to 434.67, and 5.84 to 5.71 RVU, respectively. The average mean scores for colour decreased from 6.95 to -6.30(%) While that of taste, flavor, texture and general acceptability increased from 5.55 to 6.60, 5.95 to 6.85 (%), 5.95 to 6.44 (%) and 6.70 to 6.83 (%), respectively, as the percentage of tigernut increased.
 
The objective of this study was to investigate the quality characteristics and sensory properties of noodles produced from composite flours of wheat, acha, bambara groundnut, and cocoyam. Composite flours of wheat/acha, wheat/bambara groundnut, wheat/cocoyam and wheat/acha/bambara groundnut/cocoyam were formulated by substituting acha, cocoyam and bambara groundnut flours at 10, 20 and 30% each while 100% wheat flour was used as the control. The composite flours were used to produce noodles and the noodles subjected to chroma meter analysis, proximate analysis, culinary and sensory properties evaluation. Proximate analysis revealed that the noodles contained moisture content of 10.11-11.11%, 2.72-3.99% ash, 10.34-17.52% protein, 1.25-7.51% lipid, 0.56-1.64% crude fibre and 59.38-75.03% carbohydrate. There was an increase in the moisture, ash, protein, lipid and crude fibre contents with a decrease in carbohydrate as substitution with cocoyam, acha and bambara groundnut flours increased without observed significant (p>0.05) differences. With the addition of acha, bambara groundnut and cocoyam composites into wheat flour, water absorption progressively increased from 1.75 (control) to 2.07ml/g (Wheat-Acha-bambara-cocoyam 60:10:20:10). There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in the cooking loss of the noodle samples as substitution levels of acha, Bambara groundnut and cocoyam flour increased. Cooking time decreased for wheat: acha flour noodles and increased for wheat: cocoyam flour noodles as substitution levels of acha and cocoyam flour increased. The composite flour of wheat: acha: cocoyam: Bambara groundnut flour also showed a decrease in cooking time as acha, cocoyam and Bambara groundnut flours were incorporated. There was no significant (p 0.05) difference in the L*, a* and b* values of wheat-bambara composite noodles. L* values of wheat-acha composite noodles increased significantly (p 0.05) with the increase in substitution with acha composite. Substitution of wheat flour with 10% to 30% acha flour and 10% to 20% Bambara groundnut flour resulted in noodles with acceptability sensory attributes.
 
Fatty acid composition (%) of oils
Aims: This study aims to determine the fatty acid, sterol and total polyphenol composition of Ricinodendron heudelotii, Terminalia catappa, Moringa oleifera, Cyperus esculentus, Sesamum indicum and Coula edulis oils. Study Design: Plant material consisting of almonds of Ricinodendron. heudelotii, Terminalia catappa, Moringa oleifera, rhizomes of, Cyperus esculentus, seeds of Sesamum indicum and hazelnuts of Coula edulis were collected in different producing areas of Côte d'Ivoire in 2017. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted between November 2017 and June 2018 at the Laboratory of Industrial Processes, Synthesis, Environment and New Energies, National Polytechnic Institute Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Côte d'Ivoire. Methodology: The extraction of oil from the oil-bearing organs of different plants was carried out by maceration of the crushed parts of these organs in hexane at a crushed/solvent ratio of 1:10 (grams/volume) for 6 hours at cold temperature. These oils were analyzed by gas chromatography for the determination of fatty acid profile, then by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer for the determination of sterols and Ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer for the quantification of polyphenols. Results: The results show a fatty acid composition of the different oils dominated by four fatty acids: oleic (18.89 - 93.93%), linoleic (1.03 - 43.2%), palmitic (2.65 - 35.6%) and stearic (1.09 - 11.66%). We also note average unsaponifiable matter (0.5 - 1.71%) and sterols dominated by sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol. Concerning polyphenols, the values obtained range from 52.09 to 863.67 µg gallic acid equivalent/g oil. Conclusion: The presence of sterols, phenolic compounds and unsaturated fatty acids in interesting proportions show that these oils are important sources of edible oils beneficial to human health.
 
Top-cited authors
Israel Okpunyi Acham
  • Benue State University, Makurdi
Abraham T. Girgih
  • Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi
Augustine Ikhueoya Airaodion
  • Federal University of Technology Owerri
Emmanuel O Ogbuagu
  • Abia State University
Dorcas Kundam
  • University of Mkar