Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics

Published by Emerald
Online ISSN: 1355-5855
Publications
Article
Looks at consumer research in Greater China including Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Maps out the contributions within this area and guides future research. Examines the state of the art over the 1979-97 period, with particular emphasis on the topics that have been researched, the extent of the theory development in the field and the methodologies used in conducting research. Uses content analysis to review 75 relevant articles. Suggests that, while a considerable breadth of topics have been researched, there remains much to be done, there is further room for theoretical development in Chinese consumer behaviour studies; and the methodologies used need improvement and further refinement.
 
Article
Private label growth in Australia has not kept pace with the growth in private labels elsewhere. This research paper establishes that the odds of a consumer being highly pleased with a store label product when they are supportive of the quality of private labels, is more than the odds of the consumer being highly satisfied when purchasing private label products simply because they are priced significantly lower than manufacturer brands. It would therefore be useful for Australian retailers to increase investment in private label programs including changing their customers' attitudes to the quality of private labels if they are to stay competitive.
 
Article
In this article a proposal of a non-traditional methodology in achieving optimal flexibility with minimal inventory risk will be applied. The non-traditional methodology will be able to achieve different levels of the production schedule changes with maximum flexibility and minimal inventory risk. The basic principle, implementation methodology as well as its effectiveness and benefits will be discussed. In order to overcome the risk of achieving flexible manufacturing or enhancing supply chain management, this article will address issues on methods to accommodate production sequence changes which include total production quantity change in a short lead time. The study uses the Family Ordering System methodology which has proven capable in solving manufacturing flexibility issues by reducing the total manufacturing lead time. Family Ordering System provides the flexibility of model changes and reduces production line stoppage as a result of part shortage by carrying extra inventory of unique parts.
 
Article
The notion that consumers might have similar acquisition patterns for consumer durable goods has been an enduring one during the past 25 years, with a considerable research effort being undertaken “to establish, within tolerable limits, a unique order in which a particular set of durables tends to be acquired by all members of the population or particular subgroups”. Such information, it has been suggested, is interesting in its own right and also can be used as an aid to forecasting and in identifying those consumers who might be purchasers of a particular consumer durable.
 
Article
For many small firms, buying technology through licensing has long been regarded as a major route to successful new product development. However, little research aimed at comparing the attitudes of small firms towards buying technology through licensing has been conducted. Using both univariate and multivariate analysis, this article reports an empirical study comparing the characteristics and perceptions of 81 Australian licensee and 107 nonlicensee small firms towards buying technology from international nonaffliated firms. Surprisingly, small nonlicensee firms are found to scan international technology developments more than their licensee counterparts. In addition, whereas nonlicensee firms have higher perceptions of the costs of technology licensing than licensees, paradoxically they also appear to have higher perceived benefits than licensees. Based of this inconsistency between attitude and behavior four types of firms are proposed — active/satisfied licensees, passive/dissatisfied licensees, potential licensees and nonlicensee firms. Theoretical and managerial implications of the results are discussed.
 
Article
This study empirically explores one of the important channel issues – the relationship between various channel support given to channel partners and the perceived (by managers) goal-orientation of a firm. Results from an emerging market, India, indicate that perceived orientation towards both profitability and market share is not associated with any of the channel support considered. Growth orientation however is strongly associated with most of the channel support activities – both business (e.g., business advice, pricing and ordering assistance, and personnel training) as well as marketing (advertising support, sales promotional material, and inventory management assistance) oriented activities. In contrast, perceived sales volume orientation is only associated with advertising support and business advice, however, the relationship is negative. These findings have interesting implications for channel management and channel motivation.
 
Article
Over the past ten years, export activity has become a central plank in growth strategies across the Pacific region. Hawaii is in the unique position of being an American State with an indigenous Polynesian culture. This article investigates export activities and prospects for Hawaiian firms, explaining America's Hawaii as a gateway to the Pacific. Hence, it is written from an American perspective.
 
Article
Much of the hype associated with the impact of electronic business is associated with the business to business (B2B) model. Analysts believe that enormous cost savings and efficiencies can be achieved through the utilisation of e-procurement, a component of theB2Bmodel. The role of procurement and the emerging use of large information systems to conduct e-procurement is analysed and presented with the results of a survey of 38 major Australian organisations. The current direct and indirect procurement practices of the sample organisations will be analysed together with an analysis of the eprocurement drivers and barriers. The main results show that direct procurement is heavily dependant upon traditional practices whilst indirect procurement is more likely to use “e” practices. Small-medium organisations are more nimble at adopting e-procurement practices. Technical issues dominate e-procurement barriers, with cost factors dominating e-procurement drivers.
 
Article
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to contribute to research on the cognitive capacity theory. The paper aims to examine the effects of advertising recipients' positive and negative associations, that is their memories and fantasies evoked by the advertising stimulus, on brand attitude for advertisements that require little effort to process; focusing on positively framed advertisements. Design/methodology/approach - This paper suggests a model on the effects of positive and negative association on brand attitude and tests it using partial least square. Advertisements that are easy to process were selected in a pre-test. Findings - It is shown that if advertisements are easy to process, the effects of consumers' associations depend on their favourableness: positive associations have a positive effect and negative associations have a negative effect on brand attitude. These findings are an extension of knowledge on the effects of associations, because for informational advertisements previous research has demonstrated that associations generally have a negative effect on brand attitude. Practical implications - Results of this study suggest that evoking positive memories and fantasies in the target group enhances the effectiveness of advertisements that require little effort to process. Originality/value - Effects of associations on brand attitude have not been studied for advertisements that require little effort to process. Previous studies have not distinguished positive and negative associations; this study analyses their effects separately.
 
Article
Although culture appears to be an important element in consumer behaviour, few have researched its direct impact on the adoption of innovation. In an exploratory study, research was conducted with migrants from Vietnam and Poland to examine the impact of culture on the adoption of high technology products. Specifically, data were examined for differences in adoption of these products between Vietnamese and Polish migrants to Australia; and the effect of cultural factors of “traditions,” “religion” and “fatality” (beliefs about man's inability to control nature), on adoption. This research was a preliminary study, but the results indicate that culture has an important role in the adoption process of high technology products.
 
Article
Uses Resnik and Stern’s content analysis criteria to examine audio and visual information of in-cinema slide advertisements within one regional market in Australia to determine whether two types of cues are compatible or reinforce one another. Suggests that there was extensive information framing for a narrow set of information cues. States that there were also significant differences in the types of audio and visual cues, which might result in conflicting information being communicated or information overload.
 
Article
This article has no abstract
 
Article
Examines the recent research on advertising in mainland China over the 1979-1998 period. Suggests that findings show a sustained effort in academic research/publications on advertising in China is in the early stage of its development and whilst many areas have been researched, there are many more yet to be touched. Concludes that the research is seldom based on established theoretical or conceptual framework and the research methods and types of analysis used have not been very advanced when compared to general advertising research.
 
Article
Examines the issue of how variations in language used in advertising affect advertising preference with a sample of bilingual, Korean Americans. Uses past literature to hypothesise that the level of acculturation would moderate ethnic consumers’ preference for advertisements in English versus their native language. Extends previous research in the field of ethnic advertising by considering whether findings from studies conducted with Hispanic American consumers are applicable to Asian Americans. Shows that no significant differences were detected in bilingual Korean American preferences for advertisements in which the message was presented in English as compared with those that used Humgul (Korean language) to communicate with the audience. Concludes with suggestions for further research.
 
Article
This study seeks to determine if body image disturbance and eating disorders that have plagued Western women are now becoming more common in Asia as well. Additionally, it attempts to examine perceptions of the impact of models in advertising in both cultures. The third person effect which states that people believe the media impacts others more than themselves is tested to determine if this contributes to behaviors related to body image. A comparison of responses from young women inHong Kong and the US indicate that both cultures are similar in the degree of body dissatisfaction and dieting behavior exhibited. However, Western women spend significantly more time exercising and are more willing to have plastic surgery to improve their appearance. The third person effect appears robust across cultures, but generally does not contribute significantly to explaining body image related attitudes and behaviors. The results have important implications for both third person effect and cross cultural consumer behavior.
 
Article
Field survey studies undertaken in Nigeria, Korea, China and India explored the way inner-age satisfaction is experienced in those culturally diverse societies. Chronologically 20 to 59 year old respondents’ inner-age satisfaction was gauged as the average difference between feel, look, do, and interest cognitive (self-perceived) and desired (ideal) inner-age dimensions. Analyses of covariance (with chronological age factored out) across the four nations showed Nigeria to differ significantly in terms of inner-age satisfaction from each Asian population, contrary to the Asian societies where no differences were found across samples (except between Korea and India where inner-age satisfaction differed at a p .05). High levels of satisfaction with inner-age (coming about when cognitive and desired ages are equal) commonly transpired: 31.4 per cent of Indian, 36.9 per cent of Nigerian, 44.3 per cent of Chinese, and 44.9 per cent of Korean respondents. Age dissatisfaction in an elder direction (ideal age older than self-perceived age) was atypical and happened most often among Nigerian (23.4 per cent) and least among Korean subjects (10.7 per cent). In contrast, wishing for a younger innerage was a commonplace phenomenon in India (50.6 per cent of the sample), as well as in China where it occurred the least (36.6 per cent). The study’s findings imply the universal nature of the way human beings (irrespective of culture) perceive and feel about inner-age, as well as the potential of an inner-age satisfaction psychographic as a relevant consumer behavior segmentation trait for marketing planners of age-sensitive products and services who seek to standardize their global branding and distribution.
 
Attitudes to Automation
Current Use of Automation
Perceived Future Use of Automation
Article
Presents an exploratory study on travel agents’ attitudes towards automation. Surveys 167 travel agents from both Canada and New Zealand. Shows that there are four distinct groups of agents whose attitudes towards automation differ quite substantially and that these attitudes are related not so much to current use of technology but more to perceived future usage.
 
Article
Commercial rumour can have a very negative impact on companies and products. As soon as a negative rumour begins to spread, sales often fall drastically. The major battle is not only to recover sales but how to recover consumer confidence before buyers eliminate the company’s brands from their evoked set. The literature on commercial rumour implicitly assumes that consumers will react to commercial rumours in a homogenous manner. However, most marketing scholars involved in studying cultural effects suggest that the culture of the buyer will influence their reaction specifically through their acceptance/rejection of the source attempting to refute the rumour. Therefore, any attempt to address commercial rumour without regard to the buyers’ cultural backgrounds may not be effective. An experiment was developed to test the effect of cultural background on choice of spokesperson to refute commercial rumours. The results of this experiment show that consumers from Eastern and Western cultural backgrounds respond in a different manner to spokespersons addressing commercial rumours. Their cultural backgrounds and values appear to influence their belief about the veracity of the source responding to the commercial rumours and their message. It is recommended that marketing personnel consider consumers’ and buyers’ core values when developing strategies for and selecting sources for controlling commercial rumours.
 
Article
b>Purpose – It is not uncommon for sports fans to follow multiple sports teams across different sports and even several teams across different leagues of the same sport. Whereas this might be considered a competitive situation, the purpose of this paper is to examine how interest in overseas football (soccer) leagues played a symbiotic role in the successful development of an Australian national soccer league. Design/methodology/approach – Results of survey data are presented from two clubs in Australia’s newly formed A-League. Three surveys were conducted over a two year period with over 3,700 season ticket holders. Specific attention is paid to fans’ previous interest and exposure to football, which is then related to attitudes and behaviour associated with the new clubs. Findings – Interest in overseas clubs and leagues is found to be a major antecedent of interest in the Australian league. Those who follow teams in overseas leagues are more likely to be heavy consumers of the new local league than those who follow local leagues or had no prior experience. They also exhibit stronger attitudinal and behavioural loyalty, such as higher attendance and renewal rates of season tickets. Practical implications – Recognising fan interest in multiple teams/leagues as positive involves a shift in management thinking away from a competitive to a collaborative stance. In this case, rapid adoption of new teams is encouraged by capitalising on strong interest in overseas leagues. This requires careful structuring and branding of the competition that mimicks familiar foreign leagues, while minimising unfavourable comparisons in areas like quality of play. Originality/value – This study capitalises on the rare opportunity to examine foundation teams in a new national league. The findings highlight the importance and value of taking a ‘‘global’’ perspective to the marketing of sports, and of carefully leveraging the interest in other elite competitions to build interest in new leagues.<br /
 
Article
Looks at the problems of logistics in military operations and today’s commercial businesses. Traces the development of logistics management from a subordinate activity within a product producing entity to its performance by a separate entity which specializes in this area and requires a strategic alliance. Looks at this issue from the perspective of the outsourcing company and the logistical company. Considers what happens when this process is reversed and provides implications for the future.
 
Article
States that although Japan's pharmaceutical industry has succeeded in steadily advancing its total sales revenues in recent years, its market share of worldwide volume has actually retreated slightly. Its major competitor continues to be the USA, while its three top European rivals: Germany, France and Italy - in combination - have consistently outperformed Japan. Significantly, Japan remains the single largest recipient of US pharmaceutical exports with a surplus over imports of more than $500 billion. Discusses various findings based on survey results within Japan's market structure. Posits that the US experience shows that successfully operating on the Japanese market requires considerable preparation, especially in the areas of distribution and promotion. Owing to the technical segmentation and endemic distribution system of the Japanese pharmaceutical industry, concludes that it is unlikely that the pharmaceutical industry in Japan will rise to dominate this industrial sector on a global basis as they have prevailed in others.
 
Article
Presents the results of an empirical investigation into American executives’ perceptions of business climates in India and China. Addresses six distinct issues cocnerning economy, management, marketing, government, labour and finance. Attempts to establish the homogeneity of internal consistency of the shortened version of Buntzman’s 31 item scale used in the study. Surveyed 110 US businessmen working in these countries. Suggests that findings show India to possess a more favourable business climate but perceive China’s economy to be better.
 
Article
The Thirty-six Chinese Classical Strategies is a renowned ancient book of warfare circulated among Chinese army commanders for a long time. Apart from its focus on warfare, this ancient treatise also holds valuable lessons for international marketing in the construction industry. This paper presents the general principles espoused in the Thirty-six Chinese Classical Strategies and how these principles have been applied for strategic planning and marketing in the international construction arena. Using anecdotal evident, it provides an insight into strategic planning and intelligence gathering in the international construction market.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of 51 sponsorship announcements upon the stock prices of firms sponsoring in Australia. The research examines the broader question of whether sponsorship has the potential to transcend cultural boundaries and contribute to financial performance in regional markets. Design/methodology/approach – The methodology is based on the event study technique which is applied to the estimation of excess returns that arise in response to announcements of corporate sponsorship made by leading industrial stocks trading on the Australian Stock Exchange. Regressions examine whether the cost and duration of sponsorship signal information of importance to investors regarding the financial prospects of sponsoring firms. Findings – A small, fleeting positive increase in wealth effects is observed indicating that economically, sponsorship expenditure in Australia is more or less value neutral. While investors appear indifferent to sponsorship cost, they value short-term sponsorships of less than two years in particular. Research limitations/implications – Future research needs to examine the role of associated variables such as contract size and length, and the type and level of sponsorship investment. Originality/value – For firms, the study indicates that sponsorship in smaller regional markets should be valued by investors especially when firms keep the duration of the sponsorship as short. As stock prices tend to rise briefly following sponsorship announcements, marketers should leverage sponsorships immediately to gain the attention of investors. For a regional market, short and sharp sponsorships appear to be the optimal approach.
 
Article
Data from 295 salespersons of a life insurance company in Hong Kong were used to test the relationships among organizational variables, role stress variables, job satisfaction, and propensity to leave. Based on previous conceptual and empirical work on role stress, an integrative method was estimated and analyzed by using a confirmatory methodology. Findings showed the data fitted the proposed model well. The results suggest that an awareness of the antecedents and consequences of role stress among life insurance salespersons can be of value to both marketing academicians and professionals.
 
Article
Gives an in depth view of the strategies pursued by the world’s leading chief executive officers in an attempt to provide guidance to new chief executives of today. Considers the marketing strategies employed, together with the organizational structures used and looks at the universal concepts that can be applied to any product. Uses anecdotal evidence to formulate a number of theories which can be used to compare your company with the best in the world. Presents initial survival strategies and then looks at ways companies can broaden their boundaries through manipulation and choice. Covers a huge variety of case studies and examples together with a substantial question and answer section.
 
Article
Confirms the empirical test of Hunt and Vitell’s general theory of marketing ethics by Mayo and Marks across four cultures. Uses path analysis to show the core relationships of the general theory of marketing ethics were successfully replicated using over 1,500 students from seven universities in the USA, Canada, the Netherlands, and Australia. States that tomorrow’s managers appeared to use a more deontological approach to making ethical judgements about personal selling. Extends its original research by confirming the positive relationship between the probability and the desirability of consequences. Concludes that, although the model was originally intended to explain management ethical decision making, the study shows that it may be possible to generalize as to how individuals make ethical life decisions.
 
Article
Can Lean Manufacturing principles, that are suitable for capital-intensive manufacturing in the U.S., be applied to a labor-intensive textile firm in China? Data were collected from a family-owned manufacturing plant, Orient Hand bag Ltd., in Fujian, China, and an Arena™ simulation model was developed to answer this question. The results indicate that, by applying Lean principles, Orient’s production efficiency for one of its most troublesome textile products could be im proved. Similarly, are these Lean principles suitable for other labor-intensive industries in developing countries?
 
Article
A new integrated method based on the means-end chain (MEC) analysis and factor analysis is proposed for developing intangible product-mix strategies for convenience store (CVS) chains. With variables obtained from a survey on CVS service items, both analyses were used to derive the hierarchical value factor map (HVFM). The new map can handle and develop strategies for product differentiation, advertising and market segmentation. The purpose of this article is two-fold: to propose improvements for the traditional MEC method of constructing the service hierarchical value map (HVM) and to formulate effective intangible-product strategies.
 
Article
APEC represents the world's most powerful economies. Although much trade related research has been undertaken on APEC countries, investment in the region is still not well understood. This paper provides an overview of FDI of selected APEC economies. Three main themes emerge from this review. First, APEC economies have experienced phenomenal growth in FDI over the last twenty years although such growth is uneven among countries. Second, FDI appears to shift from the primary sector into the manufacturing and tertiary sectors of the economy as economies grow further. Thus, future FDI in APEC economies will likely be relatively higher in the tertiary sector as the poorer members of APEC continue to grow. Third, FDI is found to contribute positively to economic growth in all economies considered although results show that FDI in the tertiary sector generally leads to higher economic growth.
 
Article
The marketing literature has emphasised the importance of marketing orientation as a means of achieving organisational objectives. A number of studies that have examined the marketing orientation and business performance relationship have found mixed results culminating in inconclusive evidence. This paper examines the marketing practices and investigates the marketing strategy-business performance relationship across logistics companies in the Asia-Pacific region. The exploratory analysis suggests a positive relationship between market segmentation and performance. Differentiation and market orientation do not seem to be significantly associated with improved performance, although cross-functional customer focus shows a significant relationship. Further discriminant analysis of the significant predictor variables suggests that two variables, viz. market segmentation and positioning, and cross-functional customer focus are useful in differentiating between high and low performers. Managerial and further research implications for this increasingly important industry in the Asia-Pacific region are discussed.
 
Article
This paper attempts to provide an understanding of gift-giving for a more systematic assessment of relationship building to succeed in an Asian realm. This study proposes to examine the underlying linkage between the intensity of gift-giving and constructing relationships. The goal is to provide both researchers and businesses an insight into how to successfully manage profitable relationships in a culture-rich environment that is growing ever more demanding and complicated. Gift-giving is seen as an act of reciprocity, and often misconstrued as bribery by Westerners, yet it appears to be an important constituent of the Asian culture and can be seen as a form of relationship investment, that if cultivated well, can uplift interactions between businesses.
 
Article
In the discount store area, foreign large retailers such as Wal-mart, Carrefour, and Costco fight hard with domestic retailers in Korea. The Korean customer is a judge in the centre of such a difficult fight. Therefore, foreign retailers who are willing to win the game should pay attention to what Koreans say and respond to the complaint as fast as they can. This study monitored e-complaints of customers towards Korea Carrefour through analysing contents of the bulletin board in an anti-Carrefour site. Upon examining e-complaints by category and retail attributes, there were found to be more complaints in electrical goods and food and groceries by product category, and in employee attitudes and store atmosphere by retail attributes. The implications for successful retail strategies of foreign discount stores in Korea are discussed and further research is suggested.
 
Article
Posits Asian countries have to redefine their competitive strategies and adjust their industries to the new situation that is happening in Europe. States Asian companies in the European climate require a new brand management approach, whereas in the USA 60 per cent of imported consumer hard goods come from China, but reckons this over-dependence is dangerous and this is why Chinese companies are targeting Europe.
 
Article
The Institute for Supply Management recently declared that the cost savings and efficiencies to be gained through e-Sourcing can provide benefits not only to individual entities that use them for the acquisition of goods and services, but in the aggregate, to the economy as a whole (Davies, 2002). This study examines the potential impact of strategic implementation of e-Sourcing in public procurement in Southeast Asia. The results of the study demonstrate that the use of competitive bidding events, popularly known as reverse auctions, when used as part of an overall e-Sourcing program, can have demonstrable economic and budgetary benefits. Using governmental data supplied by the Asian Development Bank and the World Bank and employing proven econometric methodologies, the study shows that their would be vast differences in Asian economies as a result of the effective use of competitive bidding events as part of an overall e-Sourcing strategy. We conclude by presenting an action plan for implementing an e-Sourcing strategy for acquisition practices.
 
Article
In the last decade, the scope of consumer research has been expanded beyond choice and decision-making to include various behaviour parameters like the meanings of possession and materialism but that should be studied in the background of cultural differences. Consumer behaviour has been found to be affected by regional differences that come out of various geographic, topological and cultural factors including values, motives and lifestyle. These give rise to distinct subcultures and can be an important determinant of both consumption and non-consumption behaviours. India being highly diversified, the differences in geographic subculture are hypothesised to be significant. Accordingly this present study extends the current literature and explores the interaction among cultural adherence, materialism, preacquisition dream propensity and pre-purchase “wish list” all of which are hypothesised to be actually reflecting the influence of regional differences. The degree of materialism was found to be significantly correlated with the intensity of cultural adherence. Regional differences and cultural adherence, as a whole, was also found to be significantly related to materialism and prepurchase dreaming propensity. An interesting perspective was revealed from the content analysis of wish list. Implications of the findings for the study of materialism are also discussed.
 
Marseilles-Danang-Vientiane (Route 1) 
Average time required for import clearance and release of goods 
Cost of freight by km/TEU by modes of transport with reliability index 
Article
Lao PDR, as the sole land-locked country in South East Asia, is dependent upon available infrastructure in neighbouring countries for fast and efficient import of goods. The validity of a cost model for multimodal transport, which was originally proposed by Beresford and Dubey (1990) and developed by Beresford (1999), is tested against a real case in international logistics, namely the import of wine from Marseilles in France to Vientiane in Lao PDR. The main elements of the model are as follows: cost, time, distance, transport mode and intermodal transfer. The model is tested using real data over a series of alternative routes between Marseilles and Vientiane. The selection of appropriate international logistics system will have a direct impact on the efficiency of Lao PDR import channels. The research findings clearly demonstrate that the “sea-road” combination via Danang Port in Vietnam is the most competitive in terms of costs while the “sea-rail-road” option via port Klang in Malaysia and through Thailand offers the fastest transit time.
 
Article
This paper discusses a qualitative study of university service, the Student Focus Project, as it relates to the concept of service culture as defined by McCormack, Neil, & Triplett (1994). The study paneled twenty four focus groups of undergraduate students to assess their beliefs about a pre-tested set of questions concerning positive and negative aspects of university life, successes and frustrations with university service, and their attempts to overcome the obstacles of university life. Results show that this approach reveals reliable themes regarding students’ perceptions of the favourable and unfavourable aspects of the university’s service culture.
 
Article
It is well-accepted that effective strategy is founded on continuous and diagnostic monitoring of one's competitive position. Evidence revealing the skills and resources affording the greatest leverage on future cost and differentiation advantages is particularly critical. Businesses that succeed are those which develop distinctive competences and manage for lowest delivered cost or differentiation through superior customer value.
 
Article
Attempts to assess the performance of five selected private banking institutions in the Philippines in order to determine how these perform at their vital functions, and to what extent they implement their savings consciousness programme, marketing campaign programme, technological innovation and outreach programmes. Findings reveal that all the banking functions perform well except for insurance. Suggests the banks are implementing the programmes as a gesture of sensitivity to the needs of their customers. Discusses how they use a variety of marketing tools such as posters, brochures, leaflets, product kits and media exposure through broadcast and print media, which are considered by the research as the most effective means of promoting the bank’s products and services.
 
Article
Purpose – Although Australian franchising sector regulation promotes system disclosure and provides for mandatory conflict mediation, there is some concern that inequities exist within the conflict management process. From 2006 to 2008 no less than four government inquiries into franchising took place in Australia in an attempt to resolve problems occurring in the sector. A major issue was that of the perceived imbalance of power in the franchisor-franchisee relationship, which often results in conflict between the two parties. The purpose of this paper is to extend the conflict literature in dyadic exchange relationships through investigating the causes of conflict from the franchisor and franchisee perspectives. Design/methodology/approach – Exploratory research is undertaken to identify the major causes of franchising conflict. Face-to-face interviews are conducted with 24 franchising experts, such as lawyers and mediators, to draw upon their considerable experience in the sector. Findings – The key findings suggest that a lack of due diligence is associated with the formation of unrealistic expectations which increases the potential for future relational conflict. Although franchising experience impacts upon operational approaches and conflict, the role played by third parties and market conditions both appear to exacerbate dissatisfaction in franchise systems. Research limitations/implications – This research is exploratory and therefore the findings are tentative. The preliminary conceptual models will be tested in a large quantitative survey of key franchising stakeholders in the near future. Originality/value – With the Australian franchising sector presently under intense scrutiny by regulators this research is timely and important. It is expected that the findings will provide government and industry representatives with a more balanced understanding of the causes of franchising conflict so that preventative action may be taken. Yes Yes
 
Article
Cites the existence of information framing effects as an interesting phenomenon in the area of human judgements and decision-making. Uses three distinct types of framing effect and the hypothesis identified by Leven et al (1998). Studies the reliability of these effects across samples of subjects in the USA and Australia. Shows that, for two of the three types, attribute framing and risky choice framing, the effects were strong and almost identical in the two samples. Highlights a significant effect for the US sample, but not the Australian sample, for the third type, goal framing. Discusses results in terms of the reliability of the effects and their potential for revealing cross-cultural differences in values.
 
Article
Attempts to consider how a founder has reduced equivocality in relation to support networks and reducing risks, especially in an international environment. Presents the case studies of five Danish and Australian born global companies. Considers different global models and their limitations. Presents the findings of recent surveys in this area. Concludes that internationalization has not been the primary objective in the founding process and gives direction for further research.
 
Article
The paper examines the perceptions of overseas' students of the service quality delivered by 10 educational institutions in Western Australia. Their expectations in relation to service quality are also measured using the SERVQUAL model. Groups of students with distinct expectations are identified and these groups are plotted on a perceptual space diagram together with the 10 institutions. This provides a useful tool for market segmentation and diagnostic work to improve service quality dimensions.
 
Article
Interest in the ethical issues pertaining to international business has grown enormously over the past 15 years or so. At one level this has probably developed out of a more general concern with ethics and business ethics brought on by a number of well-publicised incidents or events in which ethics was a central issue: such “incidents” would include Watergate, the Vietnam War, and the insider trading scandals on Wall Street. Specifically in the international business field, too, the infant-formula controversy, a variety of cases related to the marketing of drugs in third world countries, and the Bhopal disaster, come immediately to mind as issues which have focused more attention on ethics.
 
Article
Purpose – Marron growing is practiced in some regions of Western Australia where this crustacean is a native species, and offers potential opportunities to be marketed as a delicacy and also to blend with other industries, including tourism, contributing to the marketing of a region. While these opportunities exist, to date little is known about the extent to which marron growing is meaningful to local entrepreneurs in commercial terms, their level of involvement with this industry, or constraints they may face. This paper aims to examine these dimensions to illustrate marron's importance for the areas where they are grown. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 26 small marron growers accepted the invitation to participate in semi-structured face-to-face and telephone interviews. Findings – Operators' comments illustrate the significant potential for marron to become both a niche market product as well as a rural niche market that helps promote the area where they are grown. However, growing marron as a full-time activity is still very limited; in fact, many respondents grow marron marginally and as an extra income stream because of the crustacean's current high commercial value, thus suggesting the industry's current developmental stage. Research limitations/implications – With some 200 marron growers in Western Australia, the number of participating operations is limited to make generalisations of the industry. Practical implications – With growing consumer sophistication, knowledge and interest in gourmet foods, the findings not only have implications for the marron growing industry, but also for hospitality and tourism, particularly in view of marron growing's potential to blend with these industries. Originality/value – The study provides several insights into an unexplored area, marron growing and provides several areas for future research.
 
Article
Since 1965 Japan has been a significant market for Australian “wild‐caught” shrimp taken from fisheries off northern Australia. Recent developments in shrimp culture, however, have resulted in the entry of high‐quality, lower‐priced shrimp into the Japanese market from North‐east and South‐east Asia, displacing the Australian product from its previously competitive position. Australian (and other) “wild” shrimp producers now face a situation of falling prices, rising costs, and dramatically different shrimp consumption and distribution patterns in Japan. The response of Australian producers has been to divert the product elsewhere to less “difficult” markets (e.g. the USA) and to form the Australian Prawn Promotion Association (APPA). The aim of this association is to implement a costly ($A1,000,000) promotional campaign in Japan aimed at Japanese consumers with the hope that it will reduce the price elasticity of demand for Australian product and allow producers to raise prices. Here, information gained from a review of the literature on primary product promotion, and primary data gained from interviews with “key informants” in the Japanese shrimp trade are used to assess the prospects of the proposal.
 
Article
Explores the reliability of Webster’s (1990) instrument for measuring the marketing culture of an organization. Uses data from 1,400 western Australian employees of a large public sector service organisation to create a detailed analysis of Webster’s six dimensions, service quality, interpersonal relationships, selling task, organisation internal communication and innovation. Highlights methodological concerns that in the present study some items on Webster’s (1990) battery moved to different factors, resulting in a lower alpha reliability for the service quality dimension. Suggests that some items require rewording to make their intended meaning more explicit.
 
Article
Examines the effects of financial resource availability and system size on ownership redirection patterns – the argument that successful franchisors will acquire less successful franchisee units, resulting in corporate ownership – in 12 franchising business sectors. Discusses the theory of ownership redirection in more depth. Hypothesizes that: as franchise systems gain increased financial resources, there is a greater likelihood of ownership redirection favouring the franchisors; and that, as the size of the franchise system increases, there is a greater likelihood of ownership redirection favouring the franchisors. Draws on data from the US “Franchising in the economy”, over the period 1977-1986. Conducts a LISREL-based path analytic approach. Finds a more complex interplay of effects than anticipated, particularly that differences occur depending on the business sector – uniform effect patterns occur in educational products and services, laundry and dry cleaning services, and rental equipment; conversion orientation patterns occur in hotels, motels and campsites; cautious redirection patterns occur in the automotive products and services industry; and, finally, strategic dilemma patterns occur in food retailing. Concludes that further research is required to substantiate (or not) the theory on ownership redirection.
 
Top-cited authors
Norizan Mohd Kassim
  • University of Nizwa
Nor Asiah Abdullah
Lingling Gao
  • University of Tasmania
Xuesong Bai
  • University of Tasmania
S G Deshmukh
  • Indian Institute of Technology Delhi