Art Education

Online ISSN: 0004-3125
Publications
Article
When displayed in museums and classrooms, Renaissance-era (1420-1600) painting, architecture, and drawing masterworks are often decontextualized from the social reality of the Academy system under which they were produced. For centuries, the artworks of the Italian Renaissance have seduced viewers with technical mastery, exquisite pigments, and engaging narratives, yet reveal little to non-experts about the cultural context of their production. Contemporary research methodologies and critical thinking, however, can help to deepen one's understanding of the art of the Renaissance period. Through dialogue, content analysis, and digital-based research, one can form more complete stories behind visual artworks that helped to shape a rebirth of Western culture. In this article, the author presents a small portrait of the Academy with ideas for artmaking or critical culture-based dialogue. The Academy system may be perceived as outmoded, but captivating cultural histories of the apprenticeship systems, artists' philosophies, and workshop rivalries enliven the period. Often, the story behind the art is hidden behind the art itself. The art object reveals an aesthetic and a somewhat understandable narrative, but the social context of production is a story the layers of glaze and the gilded frames cannot tell. For art educators who seek to better integrate inherited traditions in the visual arts into art education, the best method may be 21st-century thinking applied to 16th-century worlds. (Contains 1 figure and 4 endnotes.)
 
Article
Examines women's position in the art world as it was reflected in the Victoria School of Art and Design (Halifax, Nova Scotia) during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Concludes that women played a decisive role in shaping the art school, overcoming gender bias to become serious art students, instructors, and school managers. (GEA)
 
Article
Presents an instructional resource consisting of 4 18th-century Japanese prints combined with discussion questions and related activities for grades 6-12. The prints illustrate various aspects of a society in transition. Includes background material on 18th-century Japan and the prints. (MJP)
 
Article
In this article, the author takes a look back at several scholars of the 1960s (Vincent Lanier, June King McFee, and Corita Kent) and their contributions to the discussion of visual culture in art education. He asserts that, though these scholars were not successful in implementing changes within their own time, their ideas provide powerful rationales that are still relevant, and art educators today should hear their voices and translate these theories into practice.
 
Article
Focuses on a video series showing elementary students discovering new approaches to painting. Describes performances and questions that expand children's views on painting, including painting objects, seeing different ideas for the canvas, and exploring new paint brush forms. (CMK)
 
Article
Presents a prospective view of art education by examining the literature of past events. Outlines the three stages of the art education evolutionary process: (1) establishing guidelines for discipline-based art education (DBAE); (2) questioning the assumptions of DBAE by critics; and (3) resolving previously raised issues. (KM)
 
Article
The elements and principles of art are enshrined in most art education textbooks today (Crystal Productions, 2000; Hobbs & Salome, 1995; Ragans, 2000; Wachowiak and Clements, 2000). They are presented as the essence of artmaking. If not literally engraved in stone, the big seven (elements) + seven (principles) are reified in print, achieving theoretical unity, not through persuasive argument, but through seemingly endless repetition in formally oriented textbooks or, during the last decade, as government-mandated standards. In this article, the author identified 15 categories or principles that described the students' artwork and related contemporary art practices. Noticing the criss-crossing and overlapping similarities of some of the categories, she has since edited and consolidated the list to highlight eight important postmodern artmaking practices. These "newly discovered" postmodern principles are often the fusion of a visual form and a conceptual artmaking strategy. They are hybrids of the visual and the conceptual. This hybridization is itself a hallmark of many postmodern cultural productions, eschewing the boundaries imposed by outmoded discipline-based structures. (Contains 5 notes.)
 
Article
The emerging three-dimensional (3D) virtual world (VW) technology offers great potential for teaching contemporary digital art and growing digital visual culture in 21st-century art education. Such online virtual worlds are built and conceptualized based on information visualization and visual metaphors. Recently, an increasing number of researchers have investigated the educational potential and applications of 3D VWs such as Second Life (SL) that target not only adult learners but also children and teens. Many school districts, colleges, and universities are building virtual classrooms and campuses; they offer courses and events for student learning and teacher professional development. Because of this pervasive phenomenon, Gartner Group (2007) predicts that 80% of active online users by 2011 will have a "Second Life" in the form of virtual worlds. Art teachers and educators of the digital age cannot ignore this new "virtual" trend and overlook the educational potential of such 3D virtual learning environments (VLE). In this article, the author shares her research and examples of the value and uses of building 3D virtual learning environments to enrich creative learning approaches for college students. She addresses the potential benefits of applying a 3D VLE in an educational setting, and explains how it can enhance and enrich teaching and learning for art education. She identifies some useful design principles for creating a VLE and developing a virtual pedagogy. She uses her research grant project, "Art Cafe @ Second Life," as an example of what a VLE looks like and how it is implemented in her teaching practice. At the end, she addresses her reflections and challenges, and offers suggestions for future practice. (Contains 2 figures and 3 endnotes.)
 
Article
Discusses the role of industrial design in the twenty-first century. Explains that technology has widened the gap between rich and poor societies. Argues that future designers must concern themselves with the quality of life. Includes a description of the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Industrial Design Program. (KM)
 
Article
Compares and contrasts discipline-based art education with Viktor Lowenfeld's creative self-expression approach, using growth, medical, and molding metaphors. Maintains that these two approaches are similar because the views of the child, the teacher's role, and the relationship between them has not changed. (KM)
 
Article
The visual arts can play an important role in the adolescent's struggle to link the inner world of thoughts and feelings with the outer world of expressive form. The Summer Visual Arts Institute, organized by Boston University for adolescents, is described. (RM)
 
Article
Offers a rebuttal to the article "Does Experience in the Arts Boost Academic Achievement?" by Elliot Eisner in which Eisner wants to restore the arts-based and arts-related ends of art education. Reviews Eisner's research, evidence, and theoretical foundations in order to assert the influence of arts education on students' academic success. (CMK)
 
Article
Examines Duxberry Park Arts IMPACT (Interdisciplinary Model Program in the Arts for Children and Teachers) Alternative School (Columbus, Ohio) that includes the arts in all aspects of the traditional curriculum. Discusses the IMPACT model, Duxberry's interdisciplinary approach, the factors that contribute to the school's success, and the challenges the school faces. (CMK)
 
Article
The Vermont Department of Education defines a Career Academy as a small learning community that serves a full range of students; that entails a college preparatory curriculum developed in the context of a career cluster; that integrates academic and technical instruction with work-based learning; that involves partnerships with employers, the community, and higher education; and that teaches to state academic and industry standards (VT DOE, 2002). At Peoples Academy, a public comprehensive high school in the Morristown School District located in north central Vermont, students, teachers, and administrators launched the Peoples Academy Career Academy of the Arts (PACAA). Through interviews with PACAA parents, students, administrators, and community members, the authors learned that four key elements of PACAA have been developed since its inception. These key elements work in concert with one another to support student learning, engagement, and empowerment. These elements are: (1) Rigorous Arts-Integrated Academic Courses; (2) Teacher Advisory; (3) Community Arts Festival; and (4) School-Community Collaboration. In this article, the authors briefly describes each element to create an impression for the reader as to how PACAA, or any arts-based career academy, might provide an alternative and more holistic way to deliver secondary schooling and engage adolescent learners. (Contains 2 figures and 1 endnote.)
 
Article
Analyzes the case narratives of preservice teachers about linking the visual arts with literacy education. States that 11 themes were uncovered by examining the case narratives. Presents excerpts from four narratives and addresses the implications for both teacher education and the elementary school curriculum. (CMK)
 
Article
Contends that the evaluation of student achievement is the most important function of educational assessment. Proposes a balanced evaluation approach based on four dimensions: (1) cognitive learnings; (2) affective learnings; (3) psychomotor learnings; and (4) behavioral performance. Recommends the use of checklists and evaluation forms. (CFR)
 
Article
Discusses folk and outsider art and the relationship between the two art forms. Considers the inclusion of folk and outsider art in the curriculum, focusing on issues such as multiculturalism and social reconstructionism. Explores applications of folk and outsider art in the classroom. (CMK)
 
Article
Maintains that before any real teaching can take place, art teachers must combat "visual fatigue,""media bombardment," and "sensory overload." Describes each of these phenomena and offers practical advice for overcoming their effects. (JDH)
 
Article
Critical media literacy art education teaches students to: (1) appreciate the aesthetic qualities of media; (2) critically negotiate meanings and analyze media culture as products of social struggle; and (3) use media technologies as instruments of creative expression and social activism. In concert with art education practices oriented toward critical media literacy, this article explores the power of logos in visual/media communication and the concepts of "subvertising," "culture jamming," and "media activism." It also describes a media literacy art project developed and implemented in a middle school art classroom. This project allowed public school youngsters to question the domination of corporate America over media advertising and programming and how it plays a central role in influencing what people consume, experience, and believe in their everyday lives. The project further involved them in deconstructing media constructs through logo design, subvertising, and culture jamming. The students applied what they learned to create subvertisements that raise public awareness of important social issues ranging from global warming to cyber safety, consumption and obesity, to child abuse and homelessness. (Contains 7 figures and 6 endnotes.)
 
Article
Visual images are not simply embodiments of social reality; they are indeed ideological sites embedded with powerful discursive sociopolitical meanings that exert strong influences on the ways in which people live their lives. The author of this paper describes the Ad-Deconstruction Project, which challenged students to integrate aesthetic sensitivity and social awareness and equipped them with critical knowledge necessary to live in a world of commercial image-saturated consumerism within which they are profit-motivated targets. Through the dialogic, writing, and production activities in the Ad-Deconstruction project, the students explored connections between activist art and advertising, experienced basic creative processes and techniques used for cigarette advertising, and learned about critical messages concerned with smoking. At the end of the workshop, the students' redesigned cigarette ads were publicly displayed at a university-based art gallery. The Ad-Deconstruction Project has allowed both the public and students to experience the power of visual imagery and how art can be utilized as a sociopolitical instrument to promote an awareness of unethical social practices. (Contains 2 notes and 2 figures.)
 
Article
Author attempted to clarify the issues and to provide the background needed to understand the roots and assumptions of the movement towards accountability as well as the movement to technologize curriculum planning and teaching. (Author/RK) Aspect of National Assessment (NAEP) dealt with in this document: Procedures (Evaluation).
 
Article
This article describes a successful project that demonstrates the effective practice of two important trends in art education today: (1) creating space for art education that is informed by scholarship on community-based pedagogy and environmental design; and (2) collaborating to achieve more comprehensive learning outcomes. The project was a 6-month collaboration between students in the Architecture Department and the Arts and Administration Program at the University of Oregon. I believe that this collaboration experiment, while rather small in scope, can serve as a model for more complex interdisciplinary and multi-disciplinary projects. (Contains 2 endnotes.)
 
Article
Explores reasons why adolescents lose interest in art by focusing on the internal and external disruptions in their artistic development. Discusses the influence of manga, or comics, on the artistic development of children in Japan and relates the characteristics of manga. Addresses the use of manga within the Japanese art curriculum. (CMK)
 
Article
Describes the different types of graffiti: (1) private forms of graffiti (doodling and latrinalia); and (2 public forms (gang graffiti, tags, and pieces). Uses teenage psychology to interpret adolescents' involvement in graffiti. Examines graffiti art in relation to its educational implications for secondary art education. (CMK)
 
Article
The experiences of 11 gifted and talented adolescents who participated in a two-week summer microcomputer graphics course at Indiana University are described based on course observations by the author. Focus is on technical and aesthetic course expectations and on psychological and contextual considerations of the teacher and the students. (RM)
 
Article
Presents the findings from a study in which children acted as art museum tour guides for their adult pre- and in-service teachers. Focuses on the children's conceptions of museums, art museum rules, and tour guides; the children's interpretations of artworks; and the learning outcomes. (CMK)
 
Article
Article sought the sources and manifestations of parent interference with children's artistic development and described some educational techniques that the teacher of art at the adult level can use to cope with blocks to artistic development. (Author/RK)
 
Article
Discusses how older people respond to art, examining mental abilities developed in advanced age which would be helpful in developing art appreciation. Considers the cultural experience of older people and its implications for how they respond to art. Explores how older people's mental abilities and cultural experience can be considered in their appreciation of art. (GEA)
 
Article
Points out health hazards in some art materials, which may pollute the air, contaminate food and utensils, produce flammable vapors, cause chemical burns or allergic reactions, or damage the eyes. Suggests how these hazards may be compounded in nursing homes or senior citizens' agencies. Lists safety tips. (SJL)
 
Article
The Advanced Placement Program (AP) has gone through many changes. The AP Program was initiated in the 1950s in response to colleges and public schools that wished to establish and assess college level curricula for academically advanced high school students. From inception, the AP Program has remained focused on and committed to the education of all students. To this point, educators can receive curricular guidelines, assessment rubrics, publications, and training in AP procedures. The overarching belief is that no qualified student should be denied an opportunity to take an AP examination, and, moreover, an AP candidate does not necessarily need to be taught in AP courses by AP instructors. In this paper, the author presents an overview of the AP program, with particular emphasis on the AP Studio Art Program and its portfolios. (Contains 4 figures.)
 
Article
Provides a series of recommendations to prospective and current art teachers. Contends that studying art of prehistoric and preliterate cultures helps teachers understand art produced by their students. Encourages art teachers to resist temptations to change their career path toward counseling or administration. (CFR)
 
Article
Argues that the primary responsibility of professional art education associations to their members is advocacy. Explains four areas of advocacy: (1) public awareness; (2) professional development; (3) policymaking; and (4) patronage. Concludes that art educators must join together to advance the cause of ethical art advocacy. (CFR)
 
Article
Described briefly is a course on arts advocacy designed so that guest speakers representing a broad base of organizations and/or legislative oriented groups could create action and movement to enhance arts education through networking and other sophisticated strategies. The course became a consciousness-raising event. (KC)
 
Article
The view of aesthetic responding presented herein has grown out of a theory of contextual aesthetics as explicated by John Dewey and Stephen Pepper and a phenomenological inquiry into art by John Anderson. The method for entry into the responsive domain has evolved from a direction elaborated by Kenneth Beittel. (Author)
 
Article
This article compares the messages contained in the physical environments of early childhood classrooms in Reggio Emilia, Italy, with typical early childhood settings in Canada and the United States. The article examines the classroom's "aesthetic code"; i.e., the social construction created, consciously or unconsciously, by the classroom's environment and its impact on student feelings and social perception. The author discusses how these "codes" reflect each culture's image of the child, cultural values in general, and broad educational goals. Concluding comments explore the implications that these classroom codes have for art educators. (Contains 13 references.) (GR)
 
Article
Contends that, as rapid social change and new technology change society, aesthetic considerations become more important. Discusses issues related to using computers and other educational technology in art education programs. Concludes that the overall importance of art education will increase with the expansion of the information age. (CFR)
 
Article
In this article, the author highlights theoretical positions from the field of contemporary art that articulate the dialogical and relational aesthetic of contemporary socially-engaged art practices. To illustrate and examine the dimensions of such a social aesthetic in practice, the author shares the practice of Canadian artist, Julie Fiala, through a community project entitled "Lounging on Red Couches". Then, following a discussion of currents in art education that espouse elements of a dialogical and relational aesthetic, the author proposes that the social aesthetic emanating from the realm of contemporary art provides a useful theoretical framework for art education. The author concludes by highlighting key elements of a post-formal social aesthetic for art education. (Contains 2 figures.)
 
Article
Art educators often have difficulty communicating because of assumptions people hold about art. Six metaphors identified in discussions about the Treasures of Tutankhamen exhibit--dealing with the themes of art as entertainment, wealth, volume, antiquity, superlative, and technique--are discussed in hopes that teachers will consider carefully each metaphor's implications. (IS)
 
Article
Described is a college-level art activity that teaches aesthetic literacy to entry-level art education majors. Students are asked to bring to class and to discuss two objects--one, an art object, and the other a nonart object. The article also presents thematic categories for the generation of aesthetic concepts. (RM)
 
Article
Reports research which distinguished five types of museum visitors by their levels of aesthetic judgment and determined that these types follow different paths and seek different information while in the museum. Based on these findings, a participatory tour format was designed for adolescent Type I and II (naive) visitors. (SJL)
 
Article
A model for the teaching of aesthetic dialogue to intermediate grade students is presented. One outcome of children discussing the aesthetic structure of art is that they transfer this learning and structure to other areas of their life. (Author/RM)
 
Article
One of the most challenging concepts for preservice and experienced art teachers is to comprehend the difference between aesthetics and art criticism. In this article, the author discusses aesthetics from a historical perspective and reflects on how it can be defined and used in the art classroom. Gardner's (1983) intrapersonal and interpersonal proclivities can be further compared to aesthetics and criticism. This article further suggests teaching aesthetics and art criticism in a sociocultural setting elevates cognition. By creating and studying how art relationships are formed with other people in the classroom, in the places where others live, at their work and play, and with the things that are important to those people, students begin to know both themselves and others in more powerful and meaningful ways. Their world becomes one of interpersonal and intrapersonal interaction--a place where aesthetic understanding can be authentic understanding. In this type of sociocultural learning, aesthetics enables students to engage deeply in both their personal and interactive learning.
 
Article
Results of a summer training seminar for elementary art teachers showed that students taught by teachers trained in aesthetic education demonstrate a measurable increase in their sensitivity to aesthetic stimuli. The seminar is described and the evaluation results are discussed. (RM)
 
Article
Kevin Tavin has boldly gone where few would dare--to challenge the usefulness of one of the most cherished ideas in art education, that of aesthetics. The author believes that three of Tavin's arguments are completely sound: What is often offered as an entirely unproblematic idea is deeply implicated in historical repression, art education's contemporary use of aesthetic discourse is utterly confused, and the discourse is often reduced to mere formalism. Many art educators see aesthetics as a moral or ethical issue as much as a description of perceptual and felt experience; they equate, or closely associate, aesthetics with goodness. In this article, the author argues for a different kind of discourse about aesthetics. He sees aesthetics in morally neutral terms, as amoral, as neither inherently commendable nor damnable. What makes the aesthetic a moral issue are the purposes to which it is put, the ideas, values, and beliefs it is employed to offer. Tavin argues that aesthetic discourse should primarily give way to the language of representation, seeing this alternative as preferable to the baggage that "aesthetics" carries. By contrast, the author argues that the language of representation, though an important corrective to a solely sensory and elevated view of cultural sites, is not in itself adequate. Here, the author offers nine reasons why the continuing use of aesthetic discourse in art education is important, even critical.
 
Article
Reprint of the 1966 article as a representative example of thinking about art education during the 1960s. Reiterates the need for aesthetic judgement in art education and discusses those characteristics and approaches that render a judgement valid. Maintains that justification or an aesthetic opinion should be descriptive rather than explanatory. (MJP)
 
Article
Artifacts, notes Julia Marshall (2002) represent direct entryways into cultural inquiry and criticism for they are often ordinary, familiar, multiple, and integrated into everyday life. Associations of food with family conversations, interactions and gatherings in homes and/or cafes are often activities and routines that build continuity and close relationships. For example,"comfort food" is often a flavor or smell of individual families' home cooked dishes as well as the pace and mood of mealtime. In addition, the transitional stages of cultural identity that may be due to displacement, economic hardship, social unrest, and political instability illustrate important conceptual ideas that may bridge various ethnic groups. In this article, theoretical and pedagogical issues related to cultural diversity are integrated with technical art education issues of rubrics, museum/school partnerships, and questioning strategies through the presentation of a thematic district-wide visual arts project entitled "Sabor Latino: Bodegas of Aesthetic Ideas." The district-wide artmaking project involved 13 schools in Plainfield, New Jersey, (one high school, two middle schools, and ten elementary schools) during the 2003-04 school year. The goal of the project was to depict readily accessible foods associated with Latino culture as representative imagery/artifacts indicative of a retelling of living in the Latino diaspora. The visual arts project was created so as to work with the state-wide initiative, Transcultural New Jersey: Diverse Artists Shaping Cultures and Communities, which showcased art in museums and galleries from professional artists and students from underrepresented ethnic communities. (Contains 4 endnotes.)
 
Article
The importance of multicultural art education has been addressed by art educators over the past 15 years. Art educators maintain that art is capable of empowering mutual respect and appreciation for people, objects, and ideas among diverse groups. Although many educators/teachers use non-Western artworks or artifacts to enrich their art programs, they are often challenged to seek contextual information about these foreign objects in order to appropriately present them in the classroom. As in most societies, East Asian art has been created in the name of aesthetic enjoyment, religious faith, utilitarian necessity, and spiritual enlightenment (Chung, 2003; Suzuki, 1957). In addition to satisfying the aesthetic senses, a number of East Asian cultural and aesthetic traditions have been influenced by spiritual philosophies developed in or introduced to early China and Japan, including Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism. Deriving from Daoism, the chi concept has exerted a significant influence on sociopolitical, economic, cultural, and aesthetic practices in East Asian societies for many centuries. A contextual approach to understanding traditional East Asian brushwork (calligraphy and ink paintings) should explore the spiritual nature involved in their creation and appreciation. Specifically, students need to be shown how the relationship between aesthetic practice and spirituality has guided many generations of traditional calligraphers and ink painters in East Asian. This article illuminates the relationship between aesthetic practice and spirituality by exploring the significance of chi in traditional East Asian brushwork. Understanding the significance of chi in traditional East Asian brushwork and the chi-based concepts of preparation ritual, living bone structure, harmony and balance, body-mind unification, and the aesthetics of simplicity and the ordinary will assist art educators in their classroom discussions. (Contains 4 figures and 6 endnotes.)
 
Article
Offers a description of the work done by local artists in the small southern Indiana rural community of Orleans. Discusses the differences between the adults and the youth in the community and addresses the art education received by the rural Orleans students. Considers the implications for art education. (CMK)
 
Article
Considers the modes of education that will enable people to choose themselves as open to works of art and the responsibility of art teachers to enhance qualitative awareness, to release imagination, to free people to see, shape, and transform. (Author/RK)
 
Top-cited authors
Marshall H. Segall
  • Syracuse University
Olivia Gude
  • The Art institute of Chicago
Paul Duncum
  • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
James Haywood Rolling, Jr.
  • Syracuse University
Judith Rubin
  • University of Pittsburgh