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It has been previously reported that Polifat KA-02 (fatty acids derived from safflower oil) prevents the pigment cholelithiasis produced by vitamin A in the golden hamster. In order to establish whether the saturation or the unsaturation of Polifat is directly related with its preventive action, in the present study the effect of the hydrogenation of the derivative on this preventive action was tested. Two experiments were carried out in which the animals received the different experimental diets ad libitum during 70 days. In the 1st. experiment the effect of the additions to the lithogenic diet (Rodents Chow + 25,000 UI% of retinol acetate) of 18% of crude safflower oil, or 15% Polifat, or 15% hydrogenated Polifat (approx. 80% saturation) were assayed. In the 2nd. experiment the effect of a more hydrogenated Polifat KA-02 (greater than 99%) was tested. The results of the 1st. experiment showed that the lithogenic diet produced a high incidence (90.5%) of animals with gallstones, which was very similar (100%) to that produced by the crude safflower oil, whereas the additions of normal and hydrogenated Polifat completely prevented the formation of gallstones. The 2 forms of Polifat produced a considerable hepatomegaly. The absorption of vitamin A, measured as total hepatic vitamin A, was higher in the 3 groups that received extra lipids in their diets. The results of the 2nd. experiment fully confirmed the findings related to the hydrogenated Polifat. It is concluded that hydrogenated Polifat KA-02 prevents, as normal Polifat does it, the pigment cholelithiasis in the golden hamster produced by vitamin A.
 
Results of screening tests for the detection of inborn errors of metabolism in 1,117 consecutive patients are reported in this work; patients came for a second consultation to the Departamento de Genética, Centro Médico de Occidente, IMSS. Simple qualitative test were made that revealed the presence of abnormal metabolites (amino-acids, sugars, organic acids and mucopolysaccharides) in urine and blood as well as identification tests for variant proteins. Results were positive in 138 patients and test for confirmation and/or specificity were made in all patients; in 35 the following diagnosis and incidence were established: classic galactosemia, 2; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, 20; essential pentosuria, 1; hyperphenylalaninemia, 5; blue diaper syndrome, 1; cistinuria 1, and type 1 mucopolysaccharidosis, 5.
 
The concentration of lactic dehydrogenase C4 (LDHC4) in human seminal fluid and its correlation with the number of total, viable and dead spermatozoa per ml was estimated in 2 or 3 different samples of the ejaculate of 55 clinically healthy males. The samples were obtained after an abstinence period of at least 3 days and with intervals of one month. A significant correlation between LDH-C4 and the number of total and viable cells (r = 0.3668, p<0.01 and r = 0.3729, p<0.01, respectively) was observed; however, it was non-significant when the number of dead cells were considered (r = 0.2065, p = n.s.). The 99 per cent confidence interval for the linear regression equation of the number of total and viable cells versus LDH-C4 was estimated and showed the exclusion of 51 per cent of individuals, thus suggesting that the concentration of LDH-C4 in the seminal fluid depends on factors other than sperm density and viability.
 
The usefulness of routine EEG in the diagnosis of 10,000 adult patients with neurologic and psychiatric symptoms was analyzed. EEG abnormalities were found in 39.31%. Nonparoxysmal signs were 5 times more frequent than paroxysmal EEG abnormalities. Theta waves were found mainly with a diffuse distribution, while delta activity was mainly focalized or lateralized. Spikes and sharp waves were predominantly localized over the left and right temporal regions, while rhythmical spike wave complexes were found affecting the frontal regions bilaterally. Nonparoxysmal EEG abnormalities were only occasionally found over the parieto occipital regions. In the total group, the EEG showed unequivocal signs of hemispherical or cortical lesions in 11.74% and epileptiform signs in 6.18%. In addition, subcortically projected EEG discharges were found in 3.40% and EEG showed either nonspecific or questionable abnormalities in 18% of cases. The occurrence and diagnostic significance of EEG abnormalities varied according to the symptoms and age of the patients. A high incidence of hemispherical or cortical EEG abnormalities was found in patients with cerebrovascular accidents (CVA), while a high incidence of paroxysmal EEG discharges was found in patients with epilepsy. Furthermore, both lesion EEG abnormalities and CVA symptoms increased with age, with a correlation coefficient (r) = 0.895 and a P < 0.01. In contrast, both paroxysmal EEG abnormalities and epilepsy decreased with age, with an r = 0.925 and a P < 0.001. Comparative analysis of the present series of adult cases, with other series including both adults and children, showed striking differences in the number of cortical or hemispherical EEG signs (adults greater than children) and in the number of epileptiform EEG signs (children greater than adults). These results suggest that epilepsy and epileptiform EEG discharges may be partly due to the convulsive properties of the young brain.
 
109 deaf children were studied prospectively, in a special school, with an interdisciplinary focus. Clinical and audiologic studies were performed on several members of the family, in the first degree, of outstanding cases. 48 cases (44%) were identified as being of genetic etiology, 20 were acquired cases of deafness and 41 cases lacked sufficient data to reach an etiologic diagnosis.
 
A multivariate analysis of clinical, biochemical and hematologic data was performed in 138 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) in order to evaluate their prognostic significance. The most important individual variables, isolated in a previous univariate analysis, were placed in a multiple regression modeling procedure to identify major prognostic factors. Multivariate analysis tends to identify prognostic variables containing significant predictive information. Characteristics were examined on both continuous and binary bases. The FAB classification was the first parameter entered in regression equations of both models, followed by platelet count, systemic symptoms, bone marrow blast and infection. Our analysis confirms FAB classification as the best prognostic factor in MDS. It supports the previously predictive value of platelet count, hemoglobin level and bone marrow blast and recognizes the importance of systemic symptoms and infection as prognostic characteristics in MDS.
 
Human skin biotransform naturally occurring steroid hormones. 4-14C progesterone skin fate might involve C-19 derivates formation. In vitro incubation of 4-14C-progesterone with defammation. human abdominal skin minces for 5 days periods, predominantly yield: 1) Metabolites reduced at C-20 and C-5 positions of 4-14C progesterone. 2) 4-pregnen-17 01-20-one (0.85%). 3) 4-Androsten-17-01-3-one isolated as an acetylated derivative (0.29%). 4) A metabolite that behaves like 4-androsten-3, 17-diol. The metabolites identity was established through repeated cocrystallizations with known purified carriers in different organic solvents 17 -hydroxy-progesterone was found at greater concentrations in the group of polar metabolites. These metabolites are of biochemical interest but can not be assessed until the effects of these compounds on human skin are known.
 
Using genetic engineering and molecular biology techniques, we have examined sixteen human carcinomas in the uterine-cervix tumors (the most frequent tumor in México, representing 34% of malignant tumors in women), for the presence of Human Papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) DNA sequences and possible alterations of the cellular myc (c-myc) proto-oncogene. In this study we have analyzed cervical carcinomas from patient with clinical stage II. We detected in 31% of these samples, the presence of HPV-16 sequences (2-100 copies). In addition, an elevated amplification (up to 80-fold in one tumor) and/or rearrangement of the c-myc oncogene was detected in most tumors (more than 90% of the samples). These results suggest that either c-myc oncogene and/or HPV-16 could play an important role in the development of uterine-cervix carcinoma.
 
Our knowledge about temporal relationships between reproductive processes and defined changes in the plasmatic concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol, Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH) and progesterone (P) is still incomplete. Is known that in periovulatory phase the chance of fertilization increases to its maximum. The results obtained using different concentration of P have shown that at high concentration a fast liberation or/and exposure of the BANA-hydrolytic (B-H) activity is present. However, with low concentrations of P the enzymatic activity keeps a relation with the exposure time. In similar experimental conditions and using 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone it has been no change in the B-H activity. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the P possibly acts upon the sperm stimulating its hydrolytic activity, allowing its penetration through the zona pellucida of the ovum.
 
The frequency of silver stain of the nucleolus organizer regions (NOR's) an indicator of the transcriptional activity of the DNAr, and the frequency of the association between acrocentric chromosomes (A.A.C.), possible indicator of the non-disjunction risk, were studied in the chromosomes in metaphase of eight married couples with regular 21 trisomy children, five couples that have had consecutive miscarriages and fifteen control normal persons, eight men and seven women. In this three groups the mean age was 30 years and they were compared according to sex. Another seven couples, with a mean age of 52 years also parents of 21 trisomic were compared against the group of young parents of 21 trisomics in order to analyze the age effect. Moreover there were studied the trisomic children of eight of the above couples in order to find out the effect of the supernumerary 21 chromosome. In all the groups the correlation coefficients between the frequency of NOR's-Ag+ and the A.A.C. were determined. It was found that the young group of parents of trisomic and the couples with consecutive miscarriages, both men and women, had a significant increased frequencies of NOR's-Ag+ and A.A.C. in comparison to controls. In the parents of trisomic, either men or women it was found a significant diminished level in the frequency of NOR's-Ag+ when the age increased, meanwhile raise in the frequency of A.A.C. with the increase of age was observed only in the women. A positive correlation between the frequencies of NORs-Ag+ and A.A.C. was found in the women of the control group and in the young mothers of trisomic.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
 
Cryptosporidium sp was searched prospectively by means of the Ziehl-Nielsen acid fast staining of stools in 403 samples obtained from patients with diarrhea (n =/152) or other non-gastrointestinal diseases (n =/152) in a six month period. Cryptosporidium was present in 11/304 samples (3.6%), 9 (81%) were taken from patients with diarrhea. Oocysts were detected in 5% of stools form malnourished (II or III) children with diarrhea; 10/11 (91%) with positive-cryptosporidium stools occurred in children less than one year of age. Cryptosporidium was present with increased frequency in malnourished children with diarrhea (p < 0.05).
 
3T3 are murine cells of an established heteroploid cellular line. Some clones of this cellular line, when cultured under adequate conditions differentiate into adipocytes. During the process of differentiation, the cells undergo a change from the elongated fibroblastic shape to a round or oval form and accumulate small drops of lipids within their cytoplasma. These lipid drops fuse into one large drop which displaces the nucleus towards the periphery, giving the cell the aspect of a mature adipocyte of white adipose tissue. The cells not only change their morphology, but they also present important biochemical changes. They show a simultaneous increase in triglyceride synthesis and activity of lipogenic enzymes. There is also an increase in the response of the activity of various hormones and the de novo synthesis of the receptors to such hormones, as insulin and ACTH. During the process of differentiation important changes occur in the synthesis of various proteins, such as actin, tubulin, and other proteins which also make up the cellular cytoskeleton, forming part of the lipid transportation within the adipose cell. The adipocytic differentiation of 3T3 cells depends on adipogenic serum factors used in the supplementary culture medium. These adipogenic factors seem to play an important role in the development of adipose tissue. There are hormones, chemical agents and serum factors which modulate adipocytic differentiation. The clone must be susceptible to adipocytic differentiation, it must reach a quiescent state and find itself in adipogenic conditions for the 3T3 cells to differentiate into adipocytes. It must also carry out an DNA synthesis which is an expression of the new phenotype. The differentiation of 3T3 cells in terminal. The fact that these cells present an adipocytic conversion under physiologic conditions and with adipogenic hormones which exist in the whole animal has been demonstrated. All of these characteristics show that the 3T3 cells may be used as an adequate experimental system to analyze the events which occur during the differentiation and development of adipose tissue.
 
The acidified fetal bovine serum (FBS) produces a factor which inhibits the adipose differentiation of murine fibroblasts 3T3-F442A. In this work, we studied if the inhibitory factor (IF) has any effect on the proliferation of 3T3-F442A cells. Our data showed an increment in the number of cells cultured in the presence of IF. We do not know how the IF maintains the cell proliferation. Furthermore, we investigated if IF acts on the resting state (Go) of the 3T3-F442A. We found that the IF prevented the adipose differentiation in the state (Go), this data suggests that the 3T3-F442A in this state (Go) were not yet compromised to difference to adipocytes. We also showed that bovine serum (BS) had an inhibitory activity too, but this was lower than FBS. This report suggests that the IF may play a role during the development of the adipose tissue.
 
The presence of virus particles and their possible mechanism of excretion was studied in cells of murine lymphoma L 5178Y grown intraperitoneally. Malignant cells obtained from 10 mice bearing this lymphoma were studied with the electron microscope. In 96% of the cells 1 to 30 viroid particles (VP) type C (VP-C) clumped or isolated, averaging six per cell were observed. Isolated VP-C were commonly seen within endoplasmic reticulum or budding off from cell surface. Such a finding was regarded as the mechanism of excretion. However, with the present findings it is not possible to draw any conclusions upon the oncogenic nature of the virus particles described herein.
 
The current work was undertaken in order to assess the role of the monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Salmonella typhi in the induction of passive protection against the challenge with the bacteria in a mice model. BALB/c mice were immunized with the whole bacteria, mice with high anti-LPS antibody titers were killed, the spleens were removed and splenocytes were fused with the mouse plasmocytoma SP2/0. Two IgM monoclonal antibodies against porins were developed. Each one of these Mabs recognized the polysaccharide region of LPS. Passive immunization with supernatant fluid of mice with one of these monoclonal antibodies did not protect against challenged with 20 LD50 and 100 LD50 of Salmonella typhi. The results suggest that LPS is not valuable immunogen for the induction of a protective status against typhoid fever.
 
Peripheral arterial obstructive disease has been treated with ultrasound ablation. Thirty two patients (pts), mean age 67 +/- 10 years underwent angiosonoplasty, with a prototype ultrasonic system, due to severe claudication (31%), rest pain (44%), rest pain and ulceration (25%). Angiosonoplasty was successful in 26/32 (81%) stenoses, (1/2 iliac, 9/2 femorals, 11/12 popliteal, 5/6 tibial). Angiography before and after angiosonoplasty confirmed that the lesions were successfully opened, (81%, p less than 0.05). A mean of 3 +/- 2 passes were required to adequately remove sufficient plaque. Balloon angioplasty was used in combination with angiosonoplasty in 11/32 (34%) occluded vessels. Complications included groin hematoma in 4 pts (12%) and vascular spasm in two patients (6%). Within 24 hours, 27/32 (94%) pts were discharged clinically improved. Reocclusion occurred in 4 pts (12%) immediately after the procedure. Ankle brachial indices significantly increased from 0.52 +/- 0.10 before to 0.70 +/- 0.12 after (p less than 0.05). In conclusion, the use of ultrasound energy to ablate atherosclerotic plaque would appear safe, and has shown no restenosis and a low incidence of complications over a six month period.
 
The present work reports studies carried out in order to prove if prevention of the abnormal, yellow-brown pigment that is present in the seminal vesicles of the castrated hamster was possible by means of vitamin E (from 20 to 500 mg. per cent), methylene blue (126 mg. per cent), selenium dioxide (from 20 to 200 mcg per cent) and Licidril (dimethyl-aminoethyl-p-chlorophenox and acetate 1 per cent) given in the basic diet. Prepuberal hamsters (strain Ch CM) were used; they were fed during 120 experimental days Purina Laboratory Chow as a basic diet and were castrated at the beginning of the experiment. Results allow us to conclude that 100 to 500 mg per cent of vitamin E levels and methylene blue at the administrated level prevent the macroscopic evidence of this pigment whereas selenium dioxide and Licidril do not prevent the formation of this pigment at levels administrated. Further, in this work we discuss different aspects and implications of study results that establish the existence of important interrelations between physiology and pathology of the male hamster reproductive system and metabolism of vitamin E and methylene blue that is another not biological antioxidant.
 
A morphological study was made on muscle biopsies from 15 patients with ankylosing spondylitis. The aim was to obtain a better definition of the type of muscular abnormalities in this disease. The clinical history of the patients showed no date of muscular damage. Histochemical and optical microscopic studies revealed no alterations. With the electronic microscope there was found disorganisation of the myofibrils, and also an accumulation of glucogen in 8 of the patients. There was swelling of the basal membrane of the muscular capillaries in 7 cases. Only one biopsy was considered to be normal. Also there was no correlation between the muscular changes and the clinical manifestations, thus the alterations of the muscle should be considered as part of the pattern of ankylosing spondylitis.
 
Levels of complement fractions of 12 patients with sporadic ankylosing Spondylitis and 6 patients with familial Ankylosing Spondylitis (N. Y. Criteria) were studied by an hemolytic and functional method (microhemolysis in plate. Cordis Lab. Miami, Fla. USA). Abnormal levels were found in 94% of them high levels of C1 and C2 (p 0.002), and C3 (p 0.05) C8 and C9 (p 0.001) deficiencies, mixed or isolated, correlated with the severity of the diseases. C9 deficiency belongs to familial Ankylosing Spondylitis. These functional deficiencies of serum complement can favor the colonization and persistence of germs, which could mediate in the genesis of Ankylosing Spondylitis.
 
Low serum levels of zinc and copper have recently been reported in association with TPN and the fasting state. A prospective study during May 1977 through November 1978 was performed in 28 patients undergoing TPN. Serum and urinary Zn and Cu levels were detected; the patient population was divided in septic and non septic groups and each was subdivided according to plasma administration. In both groups low serum Zn and Cu levels were detected. The urinary losses were greater in the group with sepsis. Three patients had clinical manifestations of Zn deficiency, in two it was reversible with the administration of diet or oral Zn. The third one died of sepsis. The low serum levels found in our patients suggested that plasma administration might be insufficient to cover the daily requirements of such elements. This requirement is augmented by the increased urinary losses seen in septic postoperative stages.
 
ABO and Rho (D) blood groups were studied in 61,023 people receiving medical care at the medical units or blood banks of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in the metropolitan area in the city of Monterrey, Nuevo León, so as to determine the genetical inheritance patterns that control these blood antigens, and that were used in the stimation of ABO and Rho (D) incompatibility in married couples and in births with maternal fetal incompatibility. It was found that IMSS populations, regardless of the medical units, can be considered as part of the same one and are different to those observed in blood banks. From the married couples, 28.58 percent were found to be incompatible with ABO and 7.15 percent with Rho (D); in 2.04 percent of cases, maternal fetal incompatibility had a ratio of 15.63 percent in the ABO group and 5.60 percent in the Rho (D) group. Double incompatibility was found in 0.88 percent of cases. The importance of these facts is stressed, considered as significant data for neonatologists and for those working in maternal fetal isoimmunization clinics.
 
Top-cited authors
Alberto Frati
  • Mexican Institute of Social Security
Raul Ariza
  • Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Valentino Castro
  • Argosy University
Roberto Castro
  • Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Rubén Román-Ramos
  • Metropolitan Autonomous University