Archives of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery

Published by American Medical Association
Print ISSN: 0886-4470
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The case report has been an important means of transmitting information about a single clinical observation since the American medical literature began in the first part of this century. At the turn of the century, we did not have the collective body of information that now exists to perform comprehensive evaluations, statistical analyses, and put together a physiologic understanding of disease processes. Despite the lack of definitive analyses, the case report still provides the opportunity for new or novel observations about diseases and, therefore, continues to be of value to the readership. We do, however, feel that the case report needs to have its own identifiable criteria to maintain its position of importance. The case report by its nature should be short. For the Archives, it would be no more than six double-spaced typed pages of completed text. It should be concise, focused on one topic that would result in
 
Anticholinergic agents, specifically the quaternary salt of atropine, are currently being recommended for chronic rhinitis and the common cold. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 50- and 75-microg doses of atropine sulfate as a nasal spray in perennial allergic rhinitis. A placebo-controlled, double-blind study compared 2 doses of atropine nasal spray given 4 times daily for 2 weeks to 45 patients with perennial allergic rhinitis after a 2-week baseline period. Both concentrations of atropine nasal spray improved the severity of rhinorrhea and postnasal drip (P<.001) as reported by patients and physicians. The duration of action in reducing rhinorrhea and postnasal drip for atropine was 2 to 3 hours, compared with less than 1 hour for placebo (P<.01). No difference was noted in efficacy between the 2 atropine doses nor in frequency of adverse events with atropine nasal spray and placebo. Atropine sulfate, 50 or 75 microg 4 times daily, is effective in reducing rhinorrhea and postnasal drip within 2 weeks and may be an alternative therapy for the rhinorrhea component of rhinitis.
 
Objective: Few tumor-associated, immunogenic epitopes are available for antitumor vaccinations in SCCHN. Our antigen discovery program identified an aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member A1 (ALDH1A1) as a source of a CD8+ T-cell–defined HLA-A2–restricted peptide ALDH1A188-96 (LLYKL ADLI).Methods: In vitro sensitization (IVS) of HLA-A2+ normal or patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with peptide-pulsed dendritic cells was used to generate T-cell lines that were specific for ALDH1A1 peptides. We studied peptide messenger RNA expression, tumor specificity, and localization in tissues of the source protein using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Cytolytic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity against squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) was tested in ELISPOT and cytotoxicity assays. Tetramers were used to assess the frequency of peptide-specific T cells in patients' PBMCs. Enzymatic activity was measured using Aldefluor by flow cytometry.
 
• The measurement of quality of medical care has always been a topic of concern to physicians and other health care professionals. During an age of increasing competitiveness in the health care environment, the ability to assess accurately the quality of the care delivered has become increasingly important. The head and neck surgeons within the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group have examined this problem and have developed an evaluation tool that was then applied retrospectively in an attempt to evaluate the quality of surgery performed in a randomized study. The analysis of the results suggested that the retrospective approach to surgical quality control is fraught with hazards and is unlikely to fulfill the goals set for it. (Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1989;115:489-493)
 
A significant proportion of burn patients with inhalation injuries incur difficulties with airway protection, dysphagia, and aspiration. In assessing the need for intubation in burn patients, the efficacy of fiberoptic laryngoscopy was compared with clinical findings and the findings of diagnostic tests, such as arterial blood gas analysis, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin levels, pulmonary function tests, and radiography of the lateral aspect of the neck. To determine if these patients were at risk for aspiration or dysphagia, barium-enhanced fluoroscopic swallowing studies were performed. Prospective study. Burn intensive care unit in an academic tertiary referral center. Need for endotracheal intubation and potential for aspiration. Six (55%) of 11 patients had clinical findings and symptoms that indicated, under traditional criteria, endotracheal intubation for airway protection. Visualization of the upper airway with fiberoptic laryngoscopy obviated the need for endotracheal intubation in all 11 patients. These patients also failed to evidence an increased risk of aspiration or other swallowing dysfunction. In comparison with other diagnostic criteria, fiberoptic laryngoscopy allows differentiation of those patients with inhalation injuries who, while at risk for upper airway obstruction, do not require intubation. These patients may be safely observed in a monitored setting with serial fiberoptic examinations, thus avoiding the possible complications associated with intubation of an airway with a compromised mucosalized surface. In these patients, swallowing abnormalities do not manifest.
 
One hundred one cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the upper respiratory and digestive tracts were analyzed for distant metastases. In all cases, autopsies were performed. Forty (40%) of the 101 patients had presented with one or more distant metastases. The most common sites of distant metastases were the lungs (70%), the liver (42%), and the bones (15%). There was a correlation between initial cervical lymph node involvement and development of distant metastases. In five cases of distant metastases, no tumor was found in the site of the primary lesion or in the cervical lymph nodes.
 
A 47-year-old man with a history of a benign papilloma of the tongue 5 years earlier was treated for a squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue with surgical resection. An analysis of the tumor DNA using several methods showed the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 11 sequences that migrated with the high molecular weight cellular DNA, suggesting integration of viral DNA into the cellular genome. A segment of the HPV DNA was cloned from the lesion and shown to be similar to prototype HPV 11 DNA, except for some variability in the viral long control region. The proviral DNA contained part of the L1 region, all of the viral long control region, the entire E6 and E7 open-reading frames, and at least a portion of the E1 region; the E4 region appeared to be deleted. The integration sites of the HPV DNA could not be specifically identified. An analysis of the p53 tumor suppressor gene region of the tumor DNA showed no evidence of mutation. These results suggest that the HPV 11 DNA may have had a role in the origin of the cancer in this patient. Arch Otololaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1996;122:1404-1408
 
To investigate the prognostic significance of chromosomal aberrations of chromosomes X and 11 in relation to disease-specific survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. University hospital. A 10-year retrospective clinical study. Information about clinical findings, treatment, and follow-up has been recorded prospectively. By means of the fluorescence in situ hybridization technique with centromeric probes for chromosomes X and 11, we analyzed 40 randomly selected patients before treatment for T1 to T4 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Numerical aberrations were scored and evaluated in frozen sections. The significance of prognostic parameters was tested by the log-rank and Kaplan-Meier methods for the univariate analysis. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used for multivariate analysis. Numerical aberrations of chromosome 11 correlated positively with T and N classification (P = .03 and P = .02, respectively) and with clinical stage (P = .02). Patients with higher frequencies of numerical aberrations for both chromosome X (>48%, mean) and chromosome 11 (>57%, mean) had shortened disease-specific survival compared with those with lower frequencies of numerical aberrations (P = .008 and P<.001, respectively). Of patients who died from disease within 3 years, 7 (50%) had a trisomic value of chromosome 11 of 35% or higher of nuclei (P<.001). Moreover, patients with a higher value (>or=8%) of amplification of chromosome 11 (>4 signals) were associated with having poor prognosis compared with those with a lower value (P = .02). Numerical aberrations of chromosomes X and 11 had prognostic value in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and higher frequencies of numerical aberrations correlated with poor prognosis.
 
To evaluate the incidence of morbidity, mortality, and disease control for patients requiring salvage total laryngectomy (TL) following organ preservation therapy. Patients entered into a 3-arm randomized prospective multi-institutional trial for laryngeal preservation who required TL following initial treatment. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 91-11 trial for laryngeal preservation. From 1992 to 2000, 517 evaluable patients were randomized to receive chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy (arm 1), concomitant chemotherapy and radiation therapy (arm 2), or radiation therapy alone (arm 3). Overall, TL was required in 129 patients. The incidence was 28%, 16%, and 31% in arms 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P =.002). Of these, 7 patients (5%) required TL for aspiration or necrosis. Following TL, the incidence of major and minor complications ranged from 52% to 59% and did not differ significantly among the 3 arms. Pharyngocutaneous fistula was lowest in arm 3 (15%) and highest in arm 2 (30%) (P>.05). There was 1 perioperative death. Local-regional control following salvage TL was 74% for arms 1 and 2 and 90% for arm 3. At 24 months, the overall survival was 69% (arm 1), 71% (arm 2), and 76% (arm 3) (P>.73). Laryngectomy following organ preservation treatment is associated with acceptable morbidity. Perioperative mortality is low but up to one third of patients will develop a pharyngocutaneous fistula. Local-regional control is excellent for this group of patients. Survival following salvage TL was not influenced by the initial organ preservation treatment.
 
To measure human papillomavirus (HPV) 6 and 11 viral load and antibody response in longitudinal specimens obtained from children with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis and to examine the association of type-specific viral load with clinical severity of disease. Longitudinal pilot study with a median follow-up of 5.4 months. The study included 15 children undergoing therapy for recurrent respiratory papillomatosis at the Egleston Children's Hospital, Atlanta, GA, between January 22, 1999, and June 13, 2000. The kinetics of HPV-6 and HPV-11 viral load and antibody level were examined over time. Longitudinal HPV-6 and HPV-11 viral loads were analyzed for associations with clinical indicators of disease severity. Four children were infected with HPV-11, 4 were infected with HPV-6, and 7 had mixed infections. The HPV-6 and HPV-11 viral loads were stable over time in most of the children. Among children with mixed infections, HPV-6 viral loads were inversely correlated with those of HPV-11 (r = -0.80, P<.001). The HPV-11 infection was significantly associated with more annual surgical procedures (P=.02). Neither HPV-6 nor HPV-11 viral loads were associated with demographic factors or markers of clinical severity. None of the children had detectable antibodies against HPV-6, and only 3 had detectable antibodies against HPV-11 virallike particles. Our data support the association of HPV-11 infection with clinical severity. Measures of HPV-6 and HPV-11 viral loads are relatively stable over time in most children with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, suggesting that multiple samples may not be necessary. Cytobrush samples may substitute for tissue biopsy specimens in HPV detection and typing, but not for absolute viral load determination.
 
In replyAs one of the authors of the article referenced in the Notice of Duplicate Publication, I would like to take this opportunity to provide an explanation about the reported duplicate submission discussed herein.Any reported duplicate submission that occurred was an oversight and by no means intentional. During the revision process of the original manuscript submission to the International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, some of the content was added and/or deleted. These additions and/or deletions altered the content of the original manuscript sent to the International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology.
 
• The localization of occult infection is often a difficult clinical problem. In 1975, labeling of leukocytes with indium In 111 became technically feasible, and subsequent clinical experience with 111In-labeled leukocyte scanning demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for acute infection. To our knowledge, experience with white blood cell scanning in the head and neck has not been previously reported. The University of California, San Francisco, experience with 111In-labeled white blood cell scanning was reviewed. Between 1982 and 1987, 520 whole-body 111In-labeled leukocyte studies were performed, of which 60% were interpreted as abnormal. Eighteen studies were abnormal in the head and neck region, and the medical records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. Abnormal findings correlated with other evidence of disease that involved mucosal surfaces, the neck, and the mediastinum. Sites in the nasopharynx with nasogastric tubes and tracheotomy sites were abnormal without associated clinical evidence of infection. Further clinical experience is needed to correlate white blood cell scan findings with disease in the head and neck and to define the role of the scan in diagnosis and management of otolaryngological disorders. (Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1991;117:1138-1143)
 
As rhinoplasty becomes an increasingly popular procedure, the aesthetic expectations of both the facial plastic surgeon and the patient become more discriminating. Thus, the number of revision rhinoplasties increases. Of 697 rhinoplasties performed by the senior author (F.M.K.) during a three-year period, 18% of those procedures were revision surgeries. The senior author was the primary surgeon in 53% of those revision cases. This article presents an analysis of 126 consecutive revision rhinoplasty cases from that period, outlining the major deformities in a clinically meaningful system. Treatment of each problem category is discussed and representative cases are shown. The senior author's own revision rate and observations are discussed and compared with those in the medical literature.
 
• Based on the anatomic differences in female and male cervicofacial skin, a retrospective study of 115 male facelifts was undertaken to identify those factors that contributed to a satisfactory esthetic result and the avoidance of complications. Incision modifications are reported, as well as the need for ancillary procedures (in 37% of the patients) to obtain facial rejuvenation. An increased incidence of hematomas (9.6%) was noted. (Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1993;119:535-539)
 
Hearing loss with age (presbycusis) is a substantial problem for the elderly. To investigate the possible relation of presbycusis to cardiovascular disease (CVD), the hearing status of a cohort of 1662 elderly men and women was determined and compared with their 30-year prevalence of cardiovascular disease. Age-adjusted multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) to describe the relation of hearing to cardiovascular disease events, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and both events and risk factors separately for the 676 men and for the 996 women. Cardiovascular disease events were the sum of coronary heart disease, stroke, and intermittent claudication. Five groups of risk factors were studied: hypertension and blood pressure; diabetes, glucose intolerance, and blood glucose level; smoking status and number of pack-years of cigarettes; relative weight; and serum lipid levels, including cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein fractions. Low-frequency hearing (low pure-tone average, 0.25 to 1.0 kHz) was related to cardiovascular disease events in both genders but more in the women. For women, the OR of having any cardiovascular disease event for a low pure-tone average of 40 dB hearing level was 3.06 (95% CI, 1.84 to 5.10); for a high pure-tone average (average of 4 to 8 kHz) of 40-dB hearing level, the OR for any cardiovascular disease event was 1.75 (95% CI, 1.28 to 2.40). In men with a low pure tone average of 40-dB hearing level, the OR for stroke was 3.46 (95% CI, 1.60 to 7.45) and for coronary heart disease the OR was 1.68 (95% CI, 1.10 to 2.57).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
 
To establish the frequency and clinicopathologic correlates of 11q13 amplification in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Retrospective clinicopathologic analysis. University and private cancer centers. Eighty-five patients with pathologically confirmed head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The degree of DNA amplification in each tumor was determined using chromosome 11q13 probes for the bcl-1 major translocation cluster, PRAD1/cyclin D1 (CCND1), the fibroblast growth factor gene HST1, EMS1, and glutathione S transferase, pi-1. The presence or absence of amplification was correlated with anatomic site, tumor stage, cytologic grade, histologic pattern, and mitotic activity. Thirty-one patients (36%) showed a twofold to 10-fold amplification of 11q13 loci compared with the chromosome 11q23 ETS1 control probe. Twenty-nine of these encompassed bcl-1 through EMS1 loci; one sample showed only bcl-1 and PRAD1/cyclin D1 plus HST1 amplification, with another amplified at HST1 and EMS1 with minimal or no bcl-1 and PRAD1/cyclin D1 amplification. Amplification was significantly correlated with high cytologic grade, a diffusely infiltrative growth pattern, and with a hypopharyngeal primary site. Chromosome 11q13 amplification in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is correlated with an aggressive histologic appearance and hypopharyngeal primary site and should be assessed in prospective clinical trials to determine its utility for treatment stratification and prognosis. Although PRAD1/cyclin D1 and EMS1 have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neoplasms with 11q13 amplification, rare cases with more limited amplicon size suggest that another relevant gene or genes may exist between these loci.
 
To determine the clinical and prognostic significance of chromosome 11q13 amplification in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Retrospective clinical analysis. University and private cancer centers. Fifty-six patients with pathologically confirmed head and neck squamous cell carcinoma whose tumors had been assayed for the presence or absence of chromosome 11q13 amplification. The degree of DNA amplification in each tumor was determined using chromosome 11q13 probes for the bcl-1 major translocation cluster, PRAD1/cyclin D1 (CCND1), the fibroblast growth factor gene HST1, EMS1, and glutathione-S-transferase-pi-1. The presence or absence of amplification in each patient was correlated with primary site, tumor stage, nodal status, presence or absence of distant metastasis, disease recurrence, time to recurrence, clinical outcome (disease status), and overall survival. Amplification of chromosome 11q13 was identified in 39% (22/56) of patients. Recurrent or persistent disease was identified in 82% (18/22) of cases with amplification and 50% (14/28) of nonamplified cases (P = .04). Mean time to recurrence was shorter in cases with amplification (6.2 months) than those without amplification (10.1 months) (P = .01). Eighteen patients (82%) with amplification and 10 patients (38%) without amplification died of disease or are alive with disease (P = .001). The mean follow-up period was 15.8 months for patients with amplification and 18.6 months for patients without amplification. Overall survival was significantly diminished in patients with amplification (P = .002). Amplification was not related to nodal status, distant metastases, or initial disease stage. Amplification of chromosome 11q13 loci may be an important biologic marker indicating poor prognosis, independent of clinical stage in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and it should be assessed in prospective trials to determine its utility for stratifying treatment and determining prognosis.
 
Objective To determine whether the initial step in 11q13 amplification, loss of distal 11q, including 3 critical genes involved in the DNA damage response pathway, MRE11A, ATM, and H2AFX, is associated with chromosomal instability. Design Eleven head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for copy number of MRE11A, ATM, and H2AFX; by quantitative reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunoblotting for RNA and protein expression; by quantitation of gamma-H2AX foci (a measure of the DNA damage response); and for survival and chromosomal instability after treatment with ionizing radiation (IR).
 
The 11th nerve syndrome classically involves the majority of patients undergoing neck dissections even when the accessory nerve is preserved. A preliminary analysis of our data of 31 of 44 patients who underwent neck dissections from a prospective study showed numerous findings of shoulder disability that are not attributable to accessory nerve palsy but are well described by the syndrome of adhesive capsulitis of the glenohumeral joint. At 1 month postoperatively, although accessory nerve palsy symptoms were common, adhesive capsulitis symptoms were significant. At 6 months, the frequency of accessory nerve palsy symptoms was less as the accessory nerve had begun to recover. At 12 and 18 months, when most of the accessory nerves had recovered, the accessory nerve palsy symptoms were comparatively uncommon while the adhesive capsulitis symptoms predominated as the remaining symptoms of the 11th nerve syndrome. We propose that adhesive capsulitis is a principal component of the 11th nerve syndrome that can significantly compound the morbidity of a neck dissection even when the accessory nerve recovers. We also propose that adhesive capsulitis accounts for the persistence and variability of shoulder symptoms after neck dissection that cannot be attributed to trapezius muscle dysfunction.
 
• Rhodamine 123 (Rh 123), a mitochondrial-specific dye with an absorption maxima at 511 nm, was tested as a new chemosensitizing agent for argon laser treatment of P3 human squamous carcinoma cells. After exposure of P3 cells in vitro to Rh 123 at doses of 1, 3, 6, and 10 μg/mL for one hour, we observed significant inhibition of DNA synthesis, except at the lowest dose. Rhodamine 123 at 1 μg/mL was selected to sensitize P3 tumor cells for treatment with the monochromatic argon laser at 514.5 nm. Exposure of P3 cells to laser energy levels of 700 to 950 J/cm2 (36°C to 40°C after sensitization with Rh 123 completely inhibited tumor development of the P3 cells transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice. Control P3 cells treated with the laser alone at 36°C to 40°C or only with Rh 123 formed visible tumors by one week and continued to grow for the entire-week observation period. These results show that Rh 123 is a highly sensitive new fluorochrome for argon laser phototherapy of human squamous carcinoma cells. (Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1987;113:1176-1182)
 
To determine if survival and recurrence rates for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue correlate with the degree of dendritic cell (DC) infiltration of the primary tumor or adjacent tongue tissue and if there is an association between tumor or nodal stage and DC infiltration. Hospital and office medical records were reviewed to obtain 5-year follow-up data. Original pathology specimens were recut and stained for the cell surface markers S100 and CD 1a. The number of DCs present in the specimens was quantified microscopically and compared statistically with patient outcome and staging. A university hospital. All patients who underwent resection of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue from January 1, 1987, through December 31, 1990, for whom 5-year follow-up data and original pathology specimens were available (N=43). Time to recurrence, death, or both. Patients who had greater numbers of CD1a-positive DCs adjacent to tumor had improved survival (P=.02) and decreased recurrence rates (P=.06). The other subpopulations of DCs examined were not associated with survival or recurrence. In addition, the number of CD 1a-positive DCs in peritumoral epithelium decreased as the tumor stage increased (P=.01) and if nodal metastases were present (P=.05). Dendritic cells are antigen-presenting cells that are thought to play a major role in the antitumor immune response. The CD1a surface antigen has been shown to mediate T-cell interactions. The association between CD1a-positive peritumoral DCs and patient outcome suggests an important function for this cell population.
 
Pediatric Patients With Lymphatic Malformation of Oral Cavity
To determine long-term outcome of radiofrequency (RF) ablation of microcystic lymphatic malformation (LM) of the oral cavity for control of recurrent infection and bleeding. Institutional review board-approved retrospective study, Tertiary pediatric medical center, Twenty-six patients with intraoral microcystic LM were treated with RF ablation from August 2002 through August 2010. Radiofrequency ablation of intraoral LM. Postoperative stay, diet, pain; control of bleeding and/or infection; recurrence; and indication for retreatment. The most common complaints necessitating initial RF ablation were recurrent infection (n=10 [37%]) and bleeding (n=9 [33%]). The most common problems requiring further ablation were bleeding (n=11 [41%]) and cosmetic deformity not affecting function (n=8 [31%]). Fourteen patients (55%) were discharged home on postoperative day (POD) 3; the remaining 11 (45%) were discharged home on POD 4. Thirteen patients (52%) resumed oral diet immediately on the day of the procedure. Ten patients (38%) began eating on POD 1, and virtually every patient was on full oral intake at discharge. Fourteen patients (55%) required only acetaminophen for pain control, 11 (41%) required acetaminophen with codeine, and 1 (4%) required oxycodone. The mean follow-up time was 47 months after treatment. At the most recent clinic evaluation, 13 patients (50%) were symptom free, 8 (31%) were stable and improved without need for future treatment, and 5 (19%) required further treatment. One-half of patients in the study group underwent more than 1 RF procedure for recurrence. The number of RF ablations in this series were 1 procedure (n = 13), 2 procedures (n = 7), 3 procedures (n = 2), 4 procedures (n = 2), and 6 or 7 procedures (n = 2). Radiofrequency ablation is an effective treatment for localized, superficial microcystic LM in the oral cavity. Pediatric patients tolerate the treatment with rapid postoperative recovery and minimal complications. The majority of patients required a short hospital stay for observation of the airway. Virtually every patient resumed oral diet by the time of discharge. Radiofrequency ablation is the treatment of choice at Children's Hospital Boston (CHB) for patients who present with symptomatic, superficial, and localized intraoral microcystic LM. For lesions involving deeper structures, multimodal treatments including surgical and sclerotherapy may be necessary.
 
• An ideal tumor marker should be sensitive in tumor-bearing patients while having adequate specificity so that controls do not demonstrate the marker. To date, a single circulating marker has not been identified for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. This study evaluates a panel including squamous cell carcinoma radioimmunoassay, lipid-associated sialic acid, carcinoembryonic antigen, and CA-125. In this population of patients with cancer, serum samples from 101 patients and 88 controls were evaluated. The squamous cell carcinoma radioimmunoassay was the most sensitive marker identified (47.5%), while carcinoembryonic antigen level was elevated in 40.6%, lipid-associated sialic acid level in only 16.8%, and CA-125 level in 7.9%. False-positive results were found with all markers, including squamous cell carcinoma radioimmunoassay (18.2%), carcinoembryonic antigen (18.2%), lipid-associated sialic acid (10.2%), and CA-125 (15.9%). Various combinations of markers did not significantly improve either specificity or sensitivity. Available tumor markers are inadequate for diagnostic purposes in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. (Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1992;118:802-805)
 
• Cervical exploration was performed in 106 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and in 19 patients with chronic renal failure. Initial exploration for primary hyperparathyroidism was successful in 97% of the cases. Single adenomas were found in 84, double adenomas in six, and multiplegland hyperplasia in 12 patients. Two of the four patients in whom cervical exploration failed were ultimately given the diagnosis of benign familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia. Thirteen adenomas were ectopic. Preoperative thallium-technetium scans and ultrasound correctly localized only 63% of the adenomas. Only 45% of the ectopic adenomas were correctly localized. All four glands should be examined at initial exploration. Because of the occurrence of double adenomas, contralateral exploration is always indicated regardless of whether an enlarged gland and a normal one are found on the first side. All enlarged parathyroids should be removed when dealing with single or multiple adenomas; subtotal parathyroidectomy (3½ glands) should be performed in multiple-gland hyperplasia. Frozen section confirmation of excised parathyroid tissue is essential. If exploration is unsuccessful, ectopic locations such as the retroesophageal areas, thymus, anterior and posterior mediastinum, carotid sheath, and thyroid lobe must be searched carefully. Preoperative localization studies are not as reliable as an experienced parathyroid surgeon. (Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1991;117:1237-1241)
 
The article published in the January 2001 issue of the Archives of Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery titled “Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting With Antiemetics in Patients Undergoing Middle Ear Surgery: Comparison of a Small Dose of Propofol With Droperidol or Metoclopramide” by Fujii et al1 is hereby retracted. Allegations have been raised about the scientific integrity and ethical oversight of research conducted by Fujii.2 Our investigation revealed that Fujii and coauthors had not applied to the ethics committee for institutional review board approval regarding this study published in Archives of Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery, and therefore we are retracting this article.
 
Stimulation of proliferative activity by urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) has been demonstrated in vitro for cultured primary and carcinoma cells. To examine the effect of uPA stimulation on cultured squamous cell carcinoma cell lines of the head and neck in vitro and to compare the results with the situation in tumor tissue specimens. The uPA-mediated growth stimulation of 2 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines after suppression of endogenous uPA production was monitored by measuring (3)H-thymidine uptake into cellular DNA. Alternatively, applications of antibodies against the uPA-binding domain of the urokinase receptor were used to suppress autostimulation. To analyze the situation in situ we performed Western blot and zymographic studies on tissue homogenates of 25 squamous cell carcinoma specimens. We tested the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a marker for proliferative activity, and uPA in tissue lysates and correlated uPA and PCNA expression by regression analysis. High-molecular-weight urokinase had a proliferation stimulative effect on both cell lines in vitro. The uPA autostimulation was decreased by blocking the uPA-binding domain of urokinase receptor with antibodies. Regression analysis of zymographic and Western blot data of tumor tissue lysates revealed no significant coherency between PCNA and uPA expression. Immunohistochemical stainings frequently showed different sublocalization of uPA and PCNA within tumors. In vitro uPA-mediated growth stimulation is not necessarily transferable to the in situ situation.
 
• Ulceroglandular, glandular, and oropharyngeal forms of tularemia may occur in otolaryngologic patients, frequently causing diagnostic difficulties. A retrospective analysis of 127 patients with serologically proved tularemia in the head and neck region is presented with special reference to diagnostic difficulties. Short case reports of six patients are included. Difficulties seemed to appear especially in the diagnosis of glandular tularemia. Oropharyngeal tularemia is easily confused with infectious mononucleosis. A high degree of suspicion of tularemia is recommended in endemic areas. (Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1986;112:77-80)
 
To investigate the postoperative auditory and facial nerve function results after cerebellopontine angle meningioma removal. Retrospective chart review. Tertiary care referral center. Twenty-one patients undergoing surgical removal of cerebellopontine angle meningiomas by the senior author (R.J.W.). Translabyrinthine or retrosigmoid approach for tumor extirpation. Postoperative auditory (pure-tone average and speech discrimination score) and facial (House-Brackmann scale) function within 1 year of follow-up. Twenty-three operations were performed on 21 patients. Hearing preservation through the retrosigmoid approach was attempted in 11 patients (48%). Normal hearing (class A) was preserved in 9 of 10 patients. Normal postoperative facial nerve function (House-Brackmann grade I) was conserved in 11 (65%) of 17 patients. This review demonstrates that successful hearing preservation is possible with meningiomas. Therefore, the retrosigmoid approach should be used whenever serviceable hearing is present preoperatively. Normal facial nerve function can also be preserved in the majority of patients.
 
Hypothesis: Genetic markers are not currently useful in the clinical care of patients with head and neck cancer.1 +Parkin DMLaara EMuir CS Estimates of the worldwide frequency of sixteen major cancers in 1980. Int J Cancer.1988;41:184-197.2 +Swango PA Cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx in the United States: an epidemiologic overview. J Public Health Dent.1996;56:309-318.3 +Quon HLiu FFCummings BJ Potential molecular prognostic markers in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Head Neck.2001;23:147-159.4 +Smith BDHaffty BGSasaki CT Molecular markers in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: their biological function and prognostic significance. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol.2001;110:221-228.5 +Sakai ETsuchida N Most human squamous cell carcinomas in the oral cavity contain mutated p53 tumor-suppressor genes. Oncogene.1992;7:927-933.6 +Greenblatt MSBennett WPHollstein MHarris CC Mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene: clues to cancer etiology and molecular pathogenesis. Cancer Res.1994;54:4855-4878.7 +Klagsbrun MD'Amore PA Regulators of angiogenesis. Annu Rev Physiol.1991;53:217-239.8 +Salesiotis ANCullen KJ Molecular markers predictive of response and prognosis in the patient with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: evolution of a model beyond TNM staging. Curr Opin Oncol.2000;12:229-239.9 +Rowley H The molecular genetics of head and neck cancer. J Laryngol Otol.1998;112:607-612.10 +Keene SADemeure MJ The clinical significance of micrometastases and molecular metastases. Surgery.2001;129:1-5.11 +Koch WM Clinical implications of biomarkers in head and neck cancer. Curr Oncol Rep.1999;1:129-137.12 +de Bree RDeurloo EESnow GBLeemans CR Screening for distant metastases in patients with head and neck cancer. Laryngoscope.2000;110:397-401.13 +Dolan RWVaughan CWFuleihan N Symptoms in early head and neck cancer: an inadequate indicator. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg.1998;119:463-467.14 +Spafford MFKoch WMReed AL et al Detection of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma among exfoliated oral mucosal cells by microsatellite analysis. Clin Cancer Res.2001;7:607-612.15 +Fliss MSUsadel HCaballero OL et al Facile detection of mitochondrial DNA mutations in tumors and bodily fluids. Science.2000;287:2017-2019.16 +van Houten VMTabor MPvan den Brekel MW et al Molecular assays for the diagnosis of minimal residual head-and-neck cancer: methods, reliability, pitfalls, and solutions. Clin Cancer Res.2000;6:3803-3816.17 +Nawroz HKoch WAnker PStroun MSidransky D Microsatellite alterations in serum DNA of head and neck cancer patients. Nat Med.1996;2:1035-1037.18 +van Houten VMvan den Brekel MWDenkers F et al Molecular diagnosis of head and neck cancer. Recent Results Cancer Res.2000;157:90-106.19 +Brennan JAMao LHruban RH et al Molecular assessment of histopathological staging in squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. N Engl J Med.1995;332:429-435.20 +Sturgis EMMiller RH Second primary malignancies in the head and neck cancer patient. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol.1995;104:946-954.21 +Hong WKLippman SMItri LM et al Prevention of second primary tumors with isotretinoin in squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. N Engl J Med.1990;323:795-801.22 +Papadimitrakopoulou VAClayman GLShin DM et al Biochemoprevention for dysplastic lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg.1999;125:1083-1089.23 +Clayman GLFrank DKBruso PAGoepfert H Adenovirus-mediated wild-type p53 gene transfer as a surgical adjuvant in advanced head and neck cancers. Clin Cancer Res.1999;5:1715-1722.24 +Nemunaitis JKhuri FGanly I et al Phase II trial of intratumoral administration of ONYX-015, a replication-selective adenovirus, in patients with refractory head and neck cancer. J Clin Oncol.2001;19:289-298.25 +Gleich LLGluckman JLNemunaitis J et al Clinical experience with HLA-B7 plasmid DNA/lipid complex in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg.2001;127:775-779.26 +Dassonville OFormento JLFrancoual M et al Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and survival in upper aerodigestive tract cancer. J Clin Oncol.1993;11:1873-1878.27 +Robert FEzekiel MPSpencer SA et al Phase I study of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody cetuximab in combination with radiation therapy in patients with advanced head and neck cancer. J Clin Oncol.2001;19:3234-3243.28 +Shin DMDonato NJPerez-Soler R et al Epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted therapy with C225 and cisplatin in patients with head and neck cancer. Clin Cancer Res.2001;7:1204-1213.
 
To (1) provide definitions for the different forms of pediatric rhinosinusitis, with an enumeration of the main symptoms and signs; (2) provide indications for microbiological, allergic, and immunologic assessment as well as for imaging studies; (3) suggest standard medical management with judicious use of antimicrobial agents; and (4) discuss indications for surgery. Clinical studies and literature data relevant to the different topics of pediatric rhinosinusitis. Rhinosinusitis in children is a multifactorial disease in which the importance of several predisposing factors changes with increasing age. Continued study to obtain a better understanding of the disease and carefully controlled comparative evaluations of medical and surgical therapies are suggested.
 
• The clinical and pathological features of 13 carotid body paragangliomas from 12 patients were examined and correlated with the DNA ploidy pattern as determined by image analysis. These tumors occurred in 7 women and 5 men aged 19 to 62 years (average, 42 years). All presented with a slowly enlarging, usually asymptomatic mass of 2 weeks' to 25 years' duration. Two patients were related and had a family history of paragangliomas. The tumors ranged from 2 to 6 cm. All contained scattered chief cells with pleomorphic nuclei, two exhibited mitoses, and three showed perineural and three vascular invasion. Follow-up was available in all 12 patients and ranged from 15 months to 28 years (average, 7.3 years). None of the tumors recurred locally, but one did metastasize to a single cervical lymph node that was apparent at the time of diagnosis. Of 13 carotid body paragangliomas examined for DNA, 4 were diploid, 3 diploid-tetraploid, 3 tetraploid, 2 aneuploid, and 1 polyploid. The only malignant tumor was polyploid. From these observations, we conclude that abnormalities in DNA content of carotid body paragangliomas are common and that tumor ploidy cannot be used to assess malignant potential. We also found no apparent relationship among nuclear pleomorphism, mitotic activity, perineural invasion, or vascular invasion and clinical behavior. Perineural and vascular invasion, however, were observed only in tumors with abnormal DNA histograms. (Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1990;116:447-453)
 
Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in childhood, the majority of which are of the embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ER) variety. Present day treatment protocols involve a combination of aggressive surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the larynx is rare and unlike ER of other regions exhibits excellent response to multimodality treatment without the need for extensive surgery. We report a case of cervical metastases in a 29-year-old man 13 years after treatment of his laryngeal ER. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of late neck metastases in ER of the larynx and the second reported case of delayed presentation of recurrent disease. A 25-year review of all published reports of ER of the larynx was conducted that highlights the move toward organ preservation with the multimodality treatment protocols. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the larynx is highly responsive to combination chemoradiotherapy, allowing for excellent cure rates without the need for extensive surgery. Late relapses warrant long-term follow-up.
 
A procedure for temporalis muscle transposition was used to reanimate the paralyzed face in 219 patients. In most cases, facial paralysis had followed an operation to remove an acoustic tumor. Analysis of the results showed this procedure to be highly successful and the method of choice, alone in cases of long-standing facial paralysis or to augment the effects of facial nerve grafting or hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis, in reanimating the mouth. It was successful in restoring a smile to 80% of the 219 patients and provided overall improvement in mouth function in 96%. Complications occurred in 21% of patients, with the most common being infection (12% of patients). Since one of us began to use the procedure to reanimate the eye and mouth, results of temporalis muscle transposition have been improved by the following: (1) using the procedure to reanimate the mouth only; (2) performing revision surgery, most often tightening the corner of the mouth (25% of patients), as indicated; (3) transposing only the midsection of the muscle; (4) implanting a prefabricated Silastic prosthesis to fill the muscle defect; (5) when indicated, lengthening the muscle with polytef (Gore-Tex+); and (6) placing the muscle in a tunnel lateral to the superficial musculoaponeurotic system to avoid injuring the underlying facial nerve should some spontaneous recovery of facial nerve function be possible.
 
A 59-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of daily pain and swelling in the left submandibular region. The swelling occurred with meals and would last 30 minutes before gradually resolving. Over the previous 3 weeks, the pain and swelling had steadily increased. The patient's history was remarkable for papillary thyroid carcinoma that had been treated with a lobectomy and a completion thyroidectomy followed by iodine 131 (131I) ablation (145.9 mCi), which had ended 1 year earlier.
 
Objective: To determine the optimal detection and management of recurrent/persistent radioactive iodine–resistant papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in the neck without distant metastases.Design: Retrospective clinical study with institutional review board approval. Median follow-up was 31 months.Setting: University-based tertiary cancer hospital.Patients: Between 1999 and 2005, 97 consecutive patients with recurrent/persistent PTC in the neck underwent exploration. Stimulated thyroglobulin (Tg) levels and high-resolution ultrasound were used to identify recurrent disease. All patients had previously undergone thyroidectomy (with or without lymph node dissection) and received radioactive iodine. Twenty-five patients with antithyroglobulin antibodies were excluded.
 
To address the efficacy of botulinum toxin and the duration of its effect when used on a large scale for the treatment of drooling in children with neurological disorders. Prospective cohort study. Academic multidisciplinary drooling clinic. A total of 131 children diagnosed as having cerebral palsy or another nonprogressive neurological disorder and who also have moderate to severe drooling. Injection of botulinum toxin to the submandibular glands. Direct observational drooling quotient (DQ) (0-100) and caretaker visual analog scale (VAS) scores (0-100). A clinically notable response was found in 46.6% of children, reflected in a significant mean reduction in DQ from a baseline of 29 to 15 after 2 months and 19 after 8 months (P < .001). The mean VAS score decreased from 80 at baseline to 53 after 2 months and increased to 66 after 8 months (P < .001). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients who initially responded to treatment experienced relapse after a median of 22 weeks (interquartile range, 20-33 weeks). Our study provides further support for botulinum toxin's efficacy for treatment of drooling in approximately half of patients for a median of 22 weeks. Further optimization of patient selection should be an area of attention in future studies.
 
To compare the cost-effectiveness of fine-needle aspiration biopsy, iodine 131 scintigraphy, and ultrasonography for the initial diagnostic workup of a solitary palpable thyroid nodule. A deterministic cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted using a decision tree to model the diagnostic strategies. A single, mid-Atlantic academic medical center. Expected costs, expected number of cases correctly diagnosed, and incremental cost per additional case correctly diagnosed. Relative to the routine use of fine-needle aspiration biopsy, the incremental cost per case correctly diagnosed is 24,554 dollars for the iodine 131 scintigraphy strategy and 1212 dollars for the ultrasound strategy. A diagnostic strategy using initial fine-needle aspiration biopsy for palpable thyroid nodules was found to be cost-effective compared with the other approaches as long as a payor's willingness to pay for an additional correct diagnosis is less than 1212 dollars. Prospective studies are needed to validate these finding in clinical practice.
 
Responses of Participants in the Study*
To explore whether there is an increased prevalence of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in known cystic fibrosis (CF) carriers. Self-reported CRS affects 13% to 14% of the US population and clusters in families, which suggests that genetic factors may play an etiologic role. Cystic fibrosis is an inherited recessive disorder that invariably affects the sinuses. The frequency of CF mutations has been reported to be higher in patients with CRS than in unaffected controls. Obligate CF carriers (parents of patients with CF) were recruited from the Johns Hopkins CF clinic. The presence of signs and symptoms of CRS was assessed by a sinus disease questionnaire. A subgroup of participants was evaluated by a physician experienced in the diagnosis of CRS. Fifty-three (36%) of 147 obligate CF carriers who returned a completed questionnaire had self-reported CRS. Twenty-three CF carriers (14 with and 9 without CRS based on self-reporting in the questionnaire) were clinically evaluated. Seven were diagnosed as having CRS (all 7 with self-reported CRS), while another 6 had allergic rhinitis or recurrent acute rhinosinusitis (all 6 with self-reported CRS), and 10 had no evidence of active sinus disease (1 with self-reported CRS). The sensitivity (100%) and specificity (56%) of the questionnaire for physician-diagnosed CRS was similar to that of other survey instruments used to estimate the prevalence of self-reported CRS in the general population. Carriers of a single CF mutation have a higher prevalence of CRS than the general population.
 
Objective: The human monoclonal antibody L19-SIP is directed against the extra domain B of fibronectin (ED-B), a marker of tumor angiogenesis. The potential of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with L19-SIP was evaluated, either alone or in combination with the anti–epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody cetuximab, for treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).Design, Subjects, and Interventions: The HNSCC xenograft lines FaDu and HNX-OE were evaluated for ED-B and EGFR expression. L19-SIP was radiolabeled with 2 candidate radionuclides for RIT, 177Lu and 131I (or 125I as substitute). Biodistribution of coinjected 177Lu-L19-SIP and 125I-L19-SIP was assessed in FaDu-bearing nude mice, while 131I-L19-SIP was evaluated in both xenograft lines. The efficacy of RIT with i.p. injected 131I-L19-SIP, either alone or in combination with unlabeled cetuximab (1 mg 2 times a week intraperitoneally for 4 weeks), was evaluated in both xenograft lines.
 
Equal numbers of cells from three HNSCC cell lines were infected with OncoVEX GFP at MOI 1. Progressively increasing percentages of GFP expression were observed under fluorescent microscopy (100X) over a time course. By 48 hours, 100% of remaining viable cells were fluorescent for all three cell lines, demonstrating efficient viral infection and gene expression by OncoVEX GFP . Viral cytotoxic effects also caused significant declines in viable cell number by 48 hours, most pronounced for SCC15, followed by QLL1.  
To determine if prodrug conversion of fluorocytosine to fluorouracil by an engineered herpes virus, OncoVEX(GALV/CD), enhances oncolytic therapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. We assessed the ability of OncoVEX(GALV/CD) and OncoVEX(GFP) to infect, replicate within, and lyse 4 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma lines in vitro. The effects of adding fluorocytosine with OncoVEX(GALV/CD) were evaluated. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma was permissive to green fluorescent protein expression in100% of cells by OncoVEX(GFP) at a multiplicity of infection of 1 after 48 hours and supported logarithmic viral replication. Virus caused more than 60% cell death 6 days after exposure to virus at a multiplicity of infection of 0.1 in 3 of the 4 cell lines. Fluorocytosine did not enhance cytotoxicity induced by OncoVEX(GALV/CD) at a multiplicity of infection of 0.1. However, for the least-sensitive SCC25 cell line, virus at a multiplicity of infection of 0.01 was cytotoxic to only 4% of cells after 6 days but was cytotoxic to 35% of cells with fluorocytosine. OncoVEX(GALV/CD) efficiently infects, replicates within, and lyses head and neck squamous cell carcinoma at relatively low viral doses. Prodrug conversion by cytosine deaminase did not enhance therapy at viral doses that cause efficient cytotoxicity but may have beneficial effects in less-sensitive cell lines at low viral doses.
 
To compare the survival rate of people with papillary thyroid cancer limited to the thyroid gland who have not had immediate, definitive treatment for their thyroid cancer with the survival rate of those who have had such treatment. Cohort study of incident cancer cases and initial treatment data from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. Data on cause of death was taken from the National Vital Statistics System. Patients with papillary thyroid cancer limited to the thyroid gland. Cancer-specific survival. Of all eligible people in the data (n = 35,663), 1.2% did not undergo immediate, definitive treatment (n = 440). The life table estimate of their 20-year cancer-specific survival rate was 97% (95% confidence interval [CI], 96%-100%). The corresponding estimate for the patients who did receive treatment was 99% (95% CI, 93%-100%). Among those who did not receive immediate, definitive treatment, 6 died from their cancer. This number is not statistically different from the number of thyroid cancer deaths in the treated group over the same period (n = 161) (P = .09). Papillary thyroid cancers of any size that are limited to the thyroid gland (no extraglandular extension or lymph node metastases at presentation) have favorable outcomes whether or not they are treated in the first year after diagnosis and whether they are treated by hemithyroidectomy or total thyroidectomy.
 
To assess the relationship and incidence of cervical spine injuries in patients with mandibular fractures and to recommend an organized approach to cervical spine evaluation in these patients. A retrospective review of medical records of all patients with mandibular fractures at a level I trauma hospital from 1984 through 1993. Patient demographics, injury, mechanism of injury, associated symptoms, physical presentation, and adjuvant radiographic evaluations were recorded. Level I, 1000-bed, urban trauma center in Atlanta, Ga. A total of 1382 patients with mandibular fractures were examined during the 10-year period of review. Cervical spine radiographs were obtained on 501 (36.3%) of these patients. From these radiographs, only 8 cervical spine fractures were found. All of the patients with cervical spine injuries (n = 8) had other associated maxillofacial injuries (n = 4), were involved in a motor vehicle accident (n = 7), or sustained gunshot wounds (n = 1). Judicious use of cervical spine radiographs in the appropriate setting of mandibular trauma is beneficial. However, clinical criteria should dictate rational use of radiographs, since the association between cervical spine injuries and mandibular trauma is rare and predictable.
 
To confirm the expression of 14-3-3 sigma in oral malignant lesions and in adjacent nonmalignant oral epithelium to provide a clue to the involvement in the cell cycle progression and note any association with human papillomavirus (HPV) status. 14-3-3 Sigma plays important roles in a wide range of vital regulatory processes, including signal transduction, apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and DNA replication. 14-3-3 Sigma is an exclusive epithelial marker, and data on its expression in different malignancies are very scarce. Western blotting, immunohistochemical analysis, and polymerase chain reaction were performed. An academic university laboratory. Adults with known oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) that were surgically resected. The DNA of HPV-16 E6 was detected by polymerase chain reaction, and protein expression of 14-3-3 sigma was evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. The immunoreactive 14-3-3 sigma protein was detected mainly in the cytoplasm of differentiated squamous cells of oral SCC lesions as well as adjacent nonmalignant squamous mucosa. Immunoreactivity for 14-3-3 sigma was observed in 93% of SCC lesions (27 of 29), including HPV-negative cases. No significant association was observed between 14-3-3 sigma expression and clinicopathologic parameters. A statistically significant correlation was found between 14-3-3 sigma protein expression and the Ki-67 labeling index. 14-3-3 Sigma expression was correlated inversely with HPV-16 E6. These findings suggest that 14-3-3 sigma may act as a negative regulator of the cell cycle progression in oral SCC.
 
To determine hearing outcomes in young children receiving early and repeated tympanostomy tube insertion for recurrent acute otitis media or otitis media with effusion. Prospective 14-year follow-up. Central Hospital of Central Finland, a tertiary care hospital. Patients Three hundred five consecutive infants and young children with otitis media received initial tympanostomy tube insertion at the age of 5 to 16 months. The final study group comprised 237 patients (77.7%) attending the 14-year checkups. At the 14-year checkups, children received clinical examinations and audiometric testing for the determination of bone and air conduction pure-tone thresholds. The mean pure-tone average of 177 healed ears was 4.3 dB. The mean pure-tone average of all ears was 5.8 dB, with significantly poorer results in ears with abnormal outcomes such as grade II or higher pars tensa retraction, otitis media with effusion, and tympanic membrane perforation. Thirteen (5.5%) of 237 ears had a hearing level worse than 15 dB, and the better ear hearing level was poorer than 15 dB in 3 patients. The hearing level of healed ears was comparable to that of age-matched normal ears. Hearing losses were infrequent, of slight grade, and, when present, almost exclusively conductive and related to unsuccessful otological outcomes. From the hearing point of view, repeated tympanostomy tube insertion for recurrent acute otitis media or otitis media with effusion early in life is a safe treatment.
 
To determine 14-year otological outcomes in young children treated with early insertion of ventilation tubes (VTs) for recurrent acute otitis media or otitis media with effusion (OME). Prospective 14-year follow-up. Central Hospital of Central Finland, a tertiary care hospital. Patients Three hundred five consecutive infants and young children aged 5 to 16 months with otitis media were enrolled for early initial tympanostomy tube insertion. The final study group comprised 237 patients (77.7%) attending the 14-year checkup. At the 14-year checkups, abnormal otological findings were recorded and results compared with those of the 5-year checkups. From 5 to 14 years' follow-up, the number of healed ears increased from 156 (65.8%) to 177 (74.7%), while the number healed of ears with abnormal outcomes decreased from 81 (34.2%) to 60 (25.3%). Of 156 healed ears, 142 (91.0%) remained healed, and 35 (43.2%) of 81 ears with abnormal outcomes healed. The proportion of abnormal outcomes was higher among ears with OME (P = .02) and with 3 or more VT insertions (P<.001). Repeated tympanostomy tube insertion was performed in 141 ears (59.5%), more often in those with OME (P = .003), and ear surgery was performed in 9 ears (3.8%), 8 with OME. Early VT treatment is recommended for young children with recurrent acute otitis media or persistent OME. Parents should be informed of the long follow-up, of the possible need for repeated VT insertion, and of potential sequelae that sometimes necessitate surgical intervention. Patients healed after 5 years do not need further follow-up.
 
To determine the effects of upper-eyelid surgery (limited myectomy, blepharoplasty, and levator aponeurotic advancement) on patients who demonstrated a suboptimal response or residual heaviness of the upper eyelids after botulinum toxin eyelid injections for facial dyskinesia. Retrospective study. Charts of 358 patients with a diagnosis of benign essential blepharospasm, Meige syndrome (with eyelid involvement), and hemifacial spasm were reviewed. Data were retrospectively analyzed and included subjective and objective responses about botulinum toxin injections (number and duration of effect of injections before and after eyelid surgery). Of 358 patients with facial dyskinesias, 14 (3.91%) underwent upper-eyelid limited myectomy with or without upper-lid blepharoplasty (n = 5), upper-lid blepharoplasty alone (n = 6), or levator advancement with or without blepharoplasty (n = 3). Mean subjective improvement was 68.75% after limited myectomy combined with blepharoplasty and 58.33% after levator and/or blepharoplasty surgery. Average duration of effect of injections increased from 122.1 days in the patients prior to undergoing eyelid surgery to 210.5 days after surgery. Upper-eyelid surgery, including limited myectomy, enhanced the effect of the botulinum toxin in this small group of patients. Patients with a suboptimal response to injections in terms or moderate to marked dermatochalasis with subjective heaviness of the eyelids, upper-eyelid blepharoplasty, and/or limited myectomy should be considered.
 
To assess the audiometric profile and speech recognition characteristics in affected members of 2 families with DFNA6/14 harboring heterozygous mutations in the WFS1 gene that cause an autosomal dominant nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing impairment trait. Family study. Tertiary referral center. Patients Thirteen patients from 2 recently identified Dutch families with DFNA6/14 (Dutch III and IV). Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of pure-tone thresholds at octave frequencies of 0.25 to 8 kHz were performed, and speech phoneme recognition scores were assessed. Progression was evaluated by linear regression analysis with and without correction for presbycusis. All individuals showed low-frequency hearing impairment. The 2-kHz frequency was more affected in the Dutch III family than in the Dutch IV family. Progressive hearing loss beyond presbycusis was found in the Dutch IV family and in 3 individuals in the Dutch III family. Annual threshold deterioration was between 0.6 and 1 dB per year at all frequencies. The speech recognition scores in the Dutch III family showed significantly more deterioration at increasing levels of hearing impairment compared with those in the Dutch IV family. Both families showed an autosomal dominant, progressive, low-frequency sensorineural hearing impairment caused by heterozygous WFS1 mutations.
 
To determine the role of transoral laser resection of supraglottic carcinomas. Retrospective unicenter study of the oncologic results of transoral carbon dioxide laser microsurgery for supraglottic carcinomas performed between February 1979 and December 1993. Median follow-up was 37 months. University hospital academic tertiary referral center. We reviewed the medical records of 141 patients (a consecutive sample of 131 men and 10 women; mean age, 60 years) with histologically proven supraglottic carcinomas undergoing transoral laser surgery, possibly in combination with neck dissection or radiotherapy. Stage distribution of patients was as follows: stage I, 23.4%; stage II, 25.5%; stage III, 16.3%; and stage IV, 34.8% (according to the Union Internationale Contre le Cancer staging system). Recurrence-free survival rates and local and regional recurrence rates. Five-year recurrence-free survival rates were as follows: the whole case load, 65.7%; stage I, 85.0%; stage II, 62.6%; stage III, 74.2%; and stage IV, 45.3%, according to the Union Internationale Contre le Cancer staging system. The local and regional recurrence rates were 16.3% and 9.9%, respectively. The oncologic results of transoral carbon dioxide laser surgery are satisfying if clean surgical margins (R0 resection) can be reached. In patients in whom tumor-free margins are not achieved (R1 and R2 resection) and transoral revision is not possible, transcervical procedures (partial or total laryngectomy) should be performed. The indication for transoral supraglottic laryngectomy in T3 lesions should be considered with restraint.
 
Top-cited authors
Helmuth Goepfert
  • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
Mark L Urken
  • Beth Israel Medical Center
Kevin Thomas Robbins
  • Southern Illinois University School of Medicine
Daniel Buchbinder
  • Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Carol R Bradford
  • University of Michigan