Exchange of biochemical substances is essential way in establishing communication between bacterial cells. It is noticeable that all phases of the process are heavily influenced by perturbations of either internal or external parameters. Therefore, instead to develop an accurate quantitative model of substances exchange between bacterial cells, we are interested in formalization of the basic shape of the process, and creating the appropriate strategy that allows further investigation of synchronization. Using a form of coupled difference logistic equations we investigated synchronization of substances exchange between abstract cells and its sensitivity to fluctuations of environmental parameters using methods of nonlinear dynamics. Comment: 23 pages, 5 figures
Examined the effect of parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA), a tryptophan hydroxylation inhibitor, on sleep alterations in 4 male cats. EEG, EMG, and eye movement registrations were made during an 8:16 hr. sleep and waking regime. PCPA reduced sleeping time and increased wakefulness during the 1st 48 hr. after the 150 mg/kg injection. Reduction of slow wave sleep was 32% below control values immediately after injection, and then proceeded to rise both absolutely and as a percentage of total sleeping time. Since PCPA depletes brain serotonin, it seems highly probable that serotonin is involved in the sleep control mechanism. Correlations between amount of sleep and serotonin level should be determined. Rapid normalization of sleep suggests serotonin reduction may be only partial. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The present work cites results of investigating aquatic macroinvertebrates of the Danube River on the sector upstream from the Iron Gate (KM 1083-1071). The investigated part is interesting from the hydrobiological standpoint above all due to differences of faunal composition in relation to higher sections that could be expected in view of differences in overall characteristics of the river. A rich macroinvertebrate community (84 taxa) was observed. The diversity of taxa is primarily a result of habitat diversity within the given stretch. Oligochaeta and Mollusca were the principal components.
We describe two patients with diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in whom interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed trisomy 12 and del(13)(q14.3) occurring in the same clone. These abnormalities are rarely seen together and the prognostic relevance of their coexistence is still unclear. According to some data, a probable adverse prognosis for this group of patients is suggested. Our patients have been in a stable phase of the disease for more than one year since the given abnormalities were documented in their karyotypes. Further study is necessary to determine the prognostic significance of coexistence of these abnormalities in CLL patients.
The effects of chronic treatments with either SRIH-14 or octreotide on the adrenal medulla of male Wistar rats were examined. Adult males received subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of 20 μg/100 g body weight of either SRIH-14 or octreotide twice a day for 28 consecutive days. The absolute weights and the absolute volumes of the adrenal glands significantly (p<0.05) decreased after either treatment. The adrenal medulla was analyzed by histological and stereological methods using newCAST. Compared to the control, the relative volumes of the vascular tissues significantly (p < 0.05) decreased - by 40% and 25% in the SRIH-14- and octreotide-treated groups, respectively. In the SRIH-14- and octreotide-treated groups the relative volumes of chromaffin and interstitial tissue increased by 6% and 5% (p < 0.05), respectively. These findings show that both SRIH-14 and octreotide affect the morphological characteristics of the adrenal zona medullaris in a similar manner.
Brain endothelial cells (BEC) are the major constituents of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the structure that controls entrance of immune cells into CNS parenchyma. Our aim was to investigate the influence of BEC on production of IL-17 and IFN-γ-cytokines that are important for CNS inflammation. To that end, co-cultivations of the bEnd.3 brain endothelial cell line and lymph node cells (LNC) were performed, and gene expression and production of IL-17 and IFN-γ were determined. It was found that bEnd.3 cells inhibited expression and production of IFN-γ, but not of IL-17. Additionally, bEnd.3 cells also reduced production of the major IFN-γ-promoting cytokine - IL-12 - in LNC. The observed variation in modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines by BEC could be of importance for the understanding of CNS inflammation.
The water spider Argyroneta aquatica has been found in different parts of Turkey, and its distribution is presented with a list of new localities. Observations on the ecology of the species are provided, and its habitats are photographed from the collection sites. The data indicate that A. aquatica was usually found in eutrophic ponds, marshes, and small lakes in Turkey.
The helminth fauna of the house mouse (Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758) was studied on the basis of 429 host individuals from the suburban area of Belgrade. Eleven helminth species were recorded: three cestode species - Catenotaenia pusilla, Rodentolepis fraterna, and Cysticercus (= Strobilocercus) fasciolaris [larval stage of Taenia taeniaeformis (Batsch, 1821)]; and eight nematode species - Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Syphacia sp., Aspiculuris tetraptera, Syphacia obvelata, Heterakis spumosa, Trichuris muris, Mastophorus muris, and Gongylonema sp. Within the general helminth fauna, H. polygyrus was found to be the most prevalent species (39.2%) and caused the highest infection intensity. Prevalences of A. tetraptera, C. pusilla, and S. obvelata ranged from 12.8% to 6.1%, while the remaining species showed prevalences ranging from 4.9% (for Syphacia sp.) to 0.2% (for Gongylonema sp.). All the species found in males were also present in females, with the exceptions of M. muris and Gongylonema sp. No significant differences were found between males and females regarding prevalence (P%), mean infection intensity (MI), or mean abundance (MA).
Red mullet, Mullus barbatus Linnaeus, 1758, is an economically very important species in trawl fisheries in the Adriatic Sea. Material for analysis was collected from October 2002 until May 2004 with a bottom trawl net from commercial trawlers on the Montenegrin shelf. Mortality of this species was analyzed for the first time in this area, separately for males and females and for both sexes together. Until now, only the spatial distribution and catch per unit of effort (CPUE) of Mullus barbatus have been studied in Montenegrin waters. Estimated total mortality rates were Zmales = 0.653 and Zfemales = 0.712. The average mortality rate for both sexes was Z m+f = 0.749, while the natural mortality rate was Mm+f = 0.342. Values of Z in the Montenegrin shelf area are considerably lower than Z values for the Croatian and Italian parts of the Adriatic Sea, indicating that on the Montenegrin shelf fishing of this species is significantly less intensive than in other trawl-fishing areas of the Adriatic Sea.
Helminths of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.) from the Danube River were studied as a part of ichthyoparasitological research in Serbia. The fish were collected during the period of 2002 - 2003 along the Danube's course through the Belgrade region. A total of 517 specimens of sterlet of different ages (0+ to 1+) were examined. Helminths were found in 342 or 66.15% of the collected specimens. The examined fish yielded a total of 13 helminth species: four species of Trematoda, one species of Cestoda, four species of Nematoda, and four species of Acanthocephala.
Widely distributed in Europe, the genus Branchipus is found only at several localities in the Balkans. One locality in Western Macedonia is inhabited by B. intermedius (the only known locality of this species known other than the type locality in Romania), the others by B. schaefferi.
Basic parameters of spleen immune activity (spleen weight, histomorphology of splenic compartments, and mitogen-induced splenocyte proliferative capacity in vitro) were evaluated in adult individuals of wild Norway rats from urban habitats and compared to the same data obtained in laboratory rat strains. A wider range of relative spleen mass and differential histomorphological characteristics, together with differences in the level and pattern of responsiveness of splenocytes to exogenous stimulation, were noted in spleens of wild Norway rats. Evidence of both enhanced and low-level immune-relevant spleen activity in wild rats demonstrates the complexity of changes in spleen immune activity in rats from natural populations.
Basic immune-related health-relevant changes (total and differential white blood cell counts and activity, leukocyte tissue infiltration, and related pathohistology) were assessed in wild Norway rats from urban habitats. Comparative measurements were conducted in individuals of several laboratory strains of Norway rat in order to gain insight into environmental effects on the health of wild rats. Changes in leukocyte counts and activity along with tissue infiltration were noted only in wild rats, indicating systemic as well as tissue inflammation in these animals. Coincidence of these changes with chronic inflammatory pulmonary and kidney disease was observed in the majority of affected rats.
The nematofauna of bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) was analyzed for the first time from samples collected in our country. The specimens were collected in Fruška Gora National Park (locality of Brankovac). The number of collected specimens was 138, and infestation with seven nematode species was determined: Heligmosomum mixtum (Schulz, 1954), Heligmosomoides glareoli (Baylis, 1928), Syphacia petrusewiczi (Bernard, 1966), S. stroma (Linstow, 1884), Capillaria murissylvatici (Dieseng, 1851), Trichocephalus muris Schrank, 1788, and Aspiculuris tetraptera (Nitzsch, 1821). The species Heligmosomum mixtum, Heligmosomoides glareoli, and Syphacia petrusewiczi represent the first records for the territory of our country. The species best represented in the sample were H. glareoli and S. petrusewiczi. There were no statistically significant differences between the sexes of host species regarding the prevalence, mean intensity, or mean abundance of parasite invasion.
The present article represents a complete review of all published data (with corrections) on bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus distribution in Serbia and Montenegro. On the other hand, data of 63 unpublished records stored in the period from 1956 to 1983 in the Mammal Study Collection of the Natural History Museum, Belgrade had not been processed until now. In the period from 1992 to 2004, 29 new findings were recorded, 12 of them outside the currently known area of distribution. New data reveal a wider distribution of bank vole than was known until now, completing and partly modifying previous knowledge about this rodent's bionomy and ecology in Serbia and Montenegro. The occurrence of bank vole in the Prokletije Mountains, Kosovo and Metohija represents its highest known altitude in Europe (2500 m). On the basis of these new data and observations, we can conclude that bank vole is continuously present in small and linear fragments of autochthonous woodlands on plains and hills, and that there are no large discontinuities in its distribution in Serbia and Montenegro, as was assumed earlier. In efforts to preserve overall biological diversity, the example of the bank vole underlines the need to intensify protection and management of woodlands especially remaining fragments of forests on plains and in hills.
The variation in some of the morphometric, meristic and qualitative characters of the Common Lizard (Zootoca vivipara) in five population samples from mountains of the Central Balkans was analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistics. The morphological differentiation was greater in males than in females and is more expressed in the morphometric than in the pholidosis and qualitative characters. The largest differences in morphometric traits appeared between the populations from the Šara and Stara Planina mountains. The 'median' pileus pattern generally prevailed, with the appearance of other states in a certain proportion in some of the populations. Further analyses of the possible morphological and ecological distinctions of the population from Mt Tara are proposed. .
The role of membrane-bound estradiol in modulation of mitochondrial Ca2+ flux in nerve endings isolated from rat brain stem was examined. Physiological concentrations of 17β-estradiol bind specifically to isolated mitochondria (Bmax 33.8 ± 2.5 fmoles estradiol/mg of protein, Km 0.185 ± 0.006 nmoles/l free estradiol). At concentrations ranging from 1 x 10-10 to 2 x 10-9 moles/l, estradiol significantly (by 23-28%) decreases mitochondrial Na-dependent calcium efflux. Decreased calcium efflux was associated with increased affinity of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger for Na+ and decreased capacity of the exchanger to extrude Ca2+. Calcium ion efflux modulation and mitochondrial ion retention may be the way that 17β-estradiol exerts its role in nerve cell homeostasis.
Pipistrellus kuhlii is recorded in the Dobrogea District for the first time. On the 16th of July 2006, a nursery colony was discovered on the second floor of a building in Constanţa (2.5 m a. s. l., 44°10.4’N 28°38.3’E). External characters as well as cranial and dental measurements of two specimens are given. .
The species Haplotaxis gordioides (Hartmann, 1821), from the family Haplotaxidae (Oligochaeta), was found for the first time in a lowland, potamon-type river (Sava River, Serbian sector) in 2002. This new record adds to our knowledge of the range and spreading of the given species. .
The age structure of yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis Melchior 1834) has been analyzed in individuals obtained by two methods: Trapping with Sherman live traps and obtainment of skulls from long-eared owl (Asio otus Linnaeus, 1758) pellets (predator diet analysis). One hundred and forty-four mice were analyzed for the degree of wear of the surface of molar crowns, and an additional 74 measurements were performed on captive-born Apodemus flavicollis individuals. We used a refined model of comparison that included seven classes of mouse age, rather than four classes, as suggested by other authors.
Specimens of Pontic shad (Alosa pontica Eichwald, 1838) were collected during April and May of 2006 in the Danube River (rkm 863) just downstream of the Iron Gate (Djerdap) II dam. Twenty-eight scales and 30 vertebrae were prepared and given to five interpreters with fish aging experience of from 3 to 30 years and with shad aging experience of from 0 to 12 years. Interpreters with experience in shad age determination showed lower values for the index of average percent error (IAPE) and an index of coefficient of variation (ICV). In regard to within-interpreter reproducibility, no significant differences were found between scale and vertebrae as structure for age determination. The most experienced reader showed the lowest value for IAPE, while the least experienced reader showed the highest value for IAPE. The results of this work indicate that experience in age determination by particular structure had more impact on age determination precision than specificity of structure, scale or vertebra. More work is needed on adopting standard protocols that must include some sort of common interaction between responsible age readers.
The Hungarian investigator Janos Frivaldszky published results of faunal studies on territories that included some parts of the present Republic of Serbia (Frivaldszky, 1877). This paper reported, among others things, the finding of the species Sympetrum depressiusculum (Sélys, 1841) at the Uljma locality in South Banat. It represents the first data indicating the presence of this species in Serbia. For unknown reasons, this paper was not cited by the majority of workers that performed odonatological investigations in this region. Until the present time, there were no confirmations of the presence of this species either in Banat or in Serbia. The risk of oblivion of the finding published by Frivaldszky was suspended by recent findings of this species.
Zelotes turcicus sp. n. is described and illustrated from Turkey. Differences between the new species and related species are discussed. Z. harmeron Levy, 2009 and Z. segrex (Simon, 1878) are recorded for the first time from Turkey. A description of Z. harmeron Levy, 2009 is presented based on collected materials. Photographs of its palpal organ are also given.
A new endemic epigean species from the Jelašnička Klisura Gorge, near Niš, East Serbia, is erected, described and illustrated. Its main morphometric characters and important diagnostic features are analyzed and compared to those of its two closest congeners, Roncus jarilo Ćurčić and Roncus titilin Ćurčić, from East and Southeastern Serbia, respectively.
Detailed and relevant limnological investigations of Serbian waters were initiated in 1958 and have continued to the present. During the period 1971-2008 we monitored biological elements as a part of working studies/projects, including the distribution of the freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbyi Lankester, 1880. We observed over 500 sampling sites in running and standing waters. Specimens of this hydro-medusa were found in five of them. Throughout the period of investigation, only the medusae stages were observed. Our purpose in this paper was to provide data of the records and distribution of this limnomedusa during the period 1958-2008 in inland waters of Serbia. These observations should contribute to knowledge on the limnofauna not only of the Balkan Peninsula but Europe as a whole.
Sexual differences in size and shape of the Mosor rock lizard, Dinarolacerta mosorensis (Kolombatović, 1886), from Lovćen Mountain (Montenegro) were examined on the basis of the intersex variation pattern of nine morphometric, eight pholidotic, and four qualitative traits. Sexual dimorphism was apparent for all morphometric characters except snout-vent length, while scalation and dorsal pattern exhibited small differences between sexes. The value of the sexual size difference (SSD) index based on snout-vent length was 1.028. The sex-specific allometric slopes for head dimensions and interlimb distance significantly diverged. Head dimensions, especially head height, showed strong positive allometry in males, while interlimb distance was the only character which showed positive allometry in females. Generally, males had significantly greater body size than females. This was true of all body measurements except interlimb distance. The influence of sexual and natural selection on the examined traits is discussed.
During 2004 conchostracans Imnadia and Leptestheria were recorded near the Serbian-Bulgarian border, in the foothills of the Western Stara Planina Mountains. Leptestheria occurred in relatively large density and was presented by adults of both sexes. Imnadia was identified only by resting eggs separated from the pond sediment. This is the first report of genus Imnadia in the Balkans, and also a first record of the second genus in the limnological area of the "Eastern Balkans".
Our paper presents a survay of Oniscidea and the Diplopoda from the Retezat Massif in Romania. The first records in Romania of the species Porcellium productum and Porcellium recurvatum have been presented. .
Laboratory investigations of the biology of the sand fly, Phlebotomus neglectus, including bionomic factors collected on the life history, behavior and feeding preferences of this species and the characteristics of its developmental biology are presented. In addition, we quantified the parameters of the population dynamics and life history of this species under laboratory conditions which are crucial for a better understanding of its role as a vector of Leishmania parasites in the eastern Mediterranean area.
The present communication reports the finding of Cryphia amasina (Draudt 1931) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Bryophilinae), a species for the fauna of Serbia. Specimens of Cryphia amasina were found in the Fruška Gora National Park, which is located in the North Serbian province Vojvodina. This finding is a result of the more comprehensive entomological research conducted by the author in this area since 2001. different collecting methods (including bulb traps, malaise traps, butterfly nets, and caterpillar breeding) were used in the research. The specimens of Cryphia amasina were caught using a light trap with a 150W bulb in the morning hours.
Two "subspecies" of the diplopod genus Macrochaetosoma Absolon & Lang, M. troglomontanum biokovense Mršić & M. troglomontanum deleemanorum Gulička are synonymized and attributed to M. troglomontanum Absolon & Lang. Abundant material from Montenegro and Herzegovina led us to reanalyze taxonomic relationships of member of the genus Macrochaetosoma (as well as these of some related taxa); some biogeographic and phylogenetic details are also briefly discussed.
In a phytocenosis of sessile oak and hornbeam with butcher’s broom (Querco-Carpinetum serbicum aculeatetosum Jovanović 1951) on the territory of Mt. Avala, 42 species of sawflies belonging to the families Argidae Pamphiliidae and Tenthredinidae have been registered. The 42 species that were found, as many as 19 (or 45.23%) are new for the entomofauna of Serbia and Montenegro. Of these 19 species, one belongs to a genus newly recorded on our territory (the genus Cephaleia). The dominant family is the family Tenthredinidae, to which 38 of the registered species belong. The family Tenthredinidae is also dominant in this community with respect to the number of specimens caught, as only a few specimens of species of the other two families were present. The subfamily Tenthredininae is the most numerous subfamily of the family Tenthredinidae inasmuch as 19 of its species were registered in the course of two-year sampling. The most abundant species in the observed phytocenosis are species of the genus Macrophya, while the majority of species of sawflies during the research were present in the field in only small numbers.
The presence of Ruteria graeca (Caldara, 1973) and R. hypocrita (Boheman, 1837) (93 and 215 specimens respectively) was confirmed among other adult soil weevil material collected at 24 localities on the territory of Serbia between 1995 and 2003 for the most part using pitfall traps. Ruteria hypocrita was much more frequent. In both species, males were dominant (36.55 and 37.21%, respectively). Biogeographically, the new Ruteria graeca findings are an impor- tant supplement completing the picture of the mosaic distribution of this species, endemic to the Balkan Peninsula. Until now, the given species was completely unknown in Serbia, i.e., in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula. Our data show a new northern boundary of its distribution. In addition, we provide ecological details about the finding places of both species. Briefly, different deciduous and mixed deciduous-coniferous woods at various altitudes and on different geological substrates are host ecosystems for Ruteria.