Archiv fur Tierzucht

The objective of the study was to compare BLUP and traditional index selection over 40 generations for a typical egg-laying poultry breeding program A multi-trait model was simulated assuming only additive genetics effects, three sex-limited traits and non-overlapping generations. Populations of 570, 1140 and 2280 were investigated using 150, 100 and 50 replicates, respectively. The male-female ratio was 1:3.75. To avoid inbreeding the simulated population was divided in 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 , 32 and 64 sire families (pens) in which 64, 32, 16, 8, 4, 2 and 1 sire was used per generation, respectively. Criterium for comparing the methods was the cumulative response to selection and the average inbreeding coeffcient after 40 generations. The selection was based on an index containing performance and full- and half-sib performances was simulated by application of BLUP by using only data and pedigree of the last generation, i.e. sires and dams were assumed as known but unrelated. BLUP had a clear advantage over index selection after 40 generations for all population sizes and number of pens greater than 2.. Depending on the number of pens the estimated advantage was 1.3 to 4.9% for N=570, 1.2 to 4.3% for N=1140 and 1.1 to 4.0% for N=2280. Without a restriction of inbreeding the cumulative selection response was not significantly improved using BLUP. This study shows that the structure of the breeding program and the mating strategy affect the advantage of BLUP over selection index.
Ovarian follicle growth in cattle culminating in the ovulation of a single follicle at the end of the oestrous cycle is strictly regulated and has proven to be very difficult to manipulate. This review will describe in detail antral follicle waves and in particular the first follicle wave of the cycle, indicating the specific gonadotrophin dependencies of cohort and dominant follicles, and relating follicle health to steroidogenesis. As intrafollicular growth factors such as proteins belonging to the inhibin family and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system have important roles in modifying gonadotrophin response of growing antral follicles, characteristics of healthy or atretic first wave follicles in relation to inhibins, IGFs and IGF-binding proteins will be summarised. Finally, a model for dominant follicle selection will be proposed including very recent data on proteases possibly affecting IGF bioavailability.
Profile of mean expression levels per group of genes each developmental age. Black line: differentiation stimulating genes; gray line: differentiation inhibiting genes; broken line: Structural genes; dotted line: proliferation stimulating genes; thick line: glycolysis genes.  
Activation of genes: analysis of numbers of spots with differential expression of each prenatal developmental age. Black line: differentiation stimulating genes; gray line: differentiation inhibiting genes; broken line: glycolysis genes.  
Mammalian myogenesis is an exclusive prenatal process regulated by the muscle regulatory factor gene family, which itself is regulated by numerous other genes. We developed a microarray consisting of the clones of two muscle-specific cDNA libraries with the addition of 500 genes with known function in myogenesis and energy metabolism. Tissue samples were collected of Duroc and Pietrain prenatal litters of 14 and 21 days of age (complete embryos) and 35, 49, 63, 77, and 91 days of age (longissimus muscle tissue) and RNA was isolated. Microarrays were hybridised with pools of six RNA samples. For each age comparisons between Duroc and Pietrain breeds were made, and transcriptome profile changes in time were made for Duroc pigs. Comparison of Duroc and Pietrain prenatal muscle transcriptome expression profiles revealed differences in myogenesis regulating genes, suggesting differential timing of myogenesis between the two pig breeds. The differential development of the expression of the muscle structural genes strengthens this conclusion. Furthermore, differences in the expression of the energy metabolism genes were found. The results also suggest that the differential fat content between the Duroc and Pietrain pig breeds already starts to develop during early prenatal development. The changes in the muscle transcriptome expression profiles during Duroc prenatal muscle development shows a profile of waves of expression of (i) myoblast proliferation stimulating genes,(ii) followed by myoblast proliferation inhibiting and differentiation stimulating genes during the primary muscle fibre development, which is repeated with lower magnitude during secondary muscle fibre development. Furthermore, expression of energy metabolism genes reaches a nadir when differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes takes place. Microarray expression profiles were validated with five genes showing differential expression in the Duroc ¿ Pietrain comparison, and in the Duroc development in time studies using 18S rRNA for normalisation. The real time PCR confirmed the microarray results
In this experiment two commercial broiler chicken lines were used, line E1 and line E4, to find variation between the lines in their natural resistance against Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infections. At various time points after oral infection with SE the macrophage functions, the cellular and humoral immune responses were determined Further more, the number of SE that was carried by the chicken in the caeca liver and spleen were determined. The macrophage functions of both lines differed per test day, the nitric oxide production significant and phagocytose assay non-significantly. Finally the cellular and the humoral immune response of E1 chicken was significantly higher compared to E4 chicken. The amount of SE in the caeca was significantly higher in line E1 compared to line E4 for each test day. In contrast the amount of SE in liver and spleen was higher in line E4 compared to E1. These results suggest that a strong cellular immune response as seen in El line chicken may be able to prevent systemic SE infection.
At term pregnancy in cattle and pigs progesterone is from luteal origin. Like in other domestic animal species, parturition in the cow and pig is preceeded by a sudden drop in the maternal plasma progesterone concentration. An increased output of prostaglandin from the pregnant uterus is most likely responsible for prepartum luteolysis. The withdrawal of progesterone is not immediately followed by activation of the myometrium; rather a period of (relative) myometrial quiescence allows for functional changes to take place in the cervix and myometrium, before parturient uterine contractions develop (between 12 and 14 hours, and between 6 and 9 hours before onset of the expulsive stage, in cows and pigs respectively). These will only subsequently cause a widening of the cervix. Maintenance of progesterone dominance, by treatment with exogenous progesterone/ progestagens or by induction of a new set of corpora lutea (pigs), at the time that parturition is initiated, will postpone delivery. However, uterine prostaglandin output (cows) still increases under these conditions (cows) and many of the calves and piglets are born dead when (prolonged) expulsion finally takes place after relief from progesteron. This indicates that progesterone is not able to counteract completely the parturition promoting signals generated by the pregnant uterus.
An outline of procedures to synchronise oestrus and ovulation in pigs is described. The oestrus cycle of pigs can be synchronised depending on the stage of the reproductive cycle of these animals. Non-cyclic gilts shortly before puberty, can easily be synchronised by treatments with a mixture of 400 i.u. eCG and 200 i.u. hCG. A more accurate timing of ovulation can be obtained by starting the follicular phase with eCG and inducing ovulation 3 day later with hCG or GnRH. Reproductive disturbances might be induced if animals in reality are cyclic. A similar treatment is possible for sows at weaning (especially in primiparous sows, which may otherwise show extended weaning to oestrus intervals). Cyclic gilts can be synchronised by synchronisation of the luteal phase by means of a progestagen (Regumate?) treatment during approximately 18 days. This permits spontaneous luteal regression but prevents follicular development until end of treatment. In weaned sows the follicular phase can be postponed by Regumate? treatment for 3 or more days, offering time to recover from lactational stress. An alternative, but still experimental, procedure may be induction of luteolysis in pregnant animals after Day 12 of insemination (breed and abort) or induction of pseudo-pregnancy followed by induced luteolysis. In general the oestrus of non-cyclic animals can be regulated effectively with gonadotropins, inducing the follicular phase, while the oestrus of cyclic animals can be regulated by progestagen treatment to postpone the follicular phase.
Mean drip loss of longissimus and ham muscles of five Duroc and five Yorkshire carcasses from slaughter to ten days post mortem. 
Post mortem enzymatic proteolysis changes tough intact muscle tissue into tender meat. The extend of muscle protein proteolysis greatly determines the quality of the meat: inadequate proteolysis produces tough meat, too much proteolysis is associated with increased drip loss which also reduces tenderness and juiciness of the meat. While information on the proteolysis of several specific proteins is available, knowledge regarding the progress of proteolysis on the entire proteome of muscle tissue is limited. Furthermore, breed-specific differences have received little attention. Therefore, this study we investigated breakdown profiles of the longissimus proteome of Yorkshire and Duroc pigs. Multiple samples of longissimus muscle tissue of five pigs of each breed were collected and drip loss, cooking loss, shear force, as well as proteome profiles, using SELDI-TOF technology, were determined after 1, 2, 3, 7, and 10 days. Drip loss increased with ageing and was slightly higher in Yorkshire than in Duroc longissimus while cooking loss was unchanged during ageing and similar in both breeds. Shear force decreased with ageing time. Shear force decreased more in Yorkshire compared to Duroc, but profiles differed between animals. The number of peptides detected with SELDI-TOF was higher in York than in Duroc. It suggests a relationship between ageing-related levels of proteolysis and meat quality traits
In this contribution two microarray experiments are reviewed aiming to describe (1) the differences in the expression profiles of Duroc and Pietrain pigs during prenatal muscle tissue development, and (2) The changes in the expression profiles of genes related to myogenesis in Duroc pigs. Furthermore, we describe bioinformatics and pathway analyses methods to extract biological meaningful knowledge.
78 three-year-old stallions of warm blooded Polish breeds and foreign breeds, kept at the training Centres, were investigated during the period 1998-2001. Stallions had to qualify for a 100-days training, after they passed it, they had to perform an 8-month training program in a central station. To estimate the degree of nervous balance of horses 'timidity' a (optical) test was used. Stallions were putt to the tests three times: after qualifying to Training Centre, after completion 100-days training, after completion 8-month training. Stereotypes of stallions maintenance were graded from points 1 to 10. Stallions were divided onto three groups: hyper excitable (1.0-4.0 p), medium excitable (4.1-6.0 p), calm (6.1-10.0 p). Applied 'timidity' test showed considerable usefulness to fast and evident opinion of equilibration of nervous system. Rising score in 'timidity' test after 100-days as well as 8-months shows the training process had a modifying influence on stallions' nervous excitability in this period. Largest nervous equilibration was observed at the offspring's of Holstein breed sires', most excitable after the whole training period were offspring's of noble half bred sires. The highest score of nervous balance after 8-month training was observed at offspring of English thoroughbred sires.
The effect of the chromosomal region containing the growth hormone gene on the differentiated growth performances was examined by linkage analysis between body weight performances and the genetic marker D11Mit125 in reference families which were derived from crosses between two growth differentiated mouse lines. Linkage analysis established high LOD scores of total 7.611 for marker D11Mit125 and the body weight performance. Marker alleles derived from the selected mouse line were associated with increased body weight. Although the growth hormone gene was assumed to be the main putative candidate gene in the detected chromosomal region sequence analysis, RFLP and SSCP studies did not show any polymorphism in the examined gene structure. That led to the assumption that the growth hormone gene locus itself is not the detected QTL, but a locus which either regulates the growth hormone gene or take effect independently of it.
Fatness traits are important economically traits in meat producing animals including duck (WU et al. 2008a, b). In human, the α-Adducin (ADD1) gene polymorphism was associated with blood pressure and other subsequent negative effects related to obesity, cardiovascular and renal failure. In fact, there was some relationship between obesity and hypertension. Thus the ADD1 gene is a candidate gene for fatness traits and the study aims to invest the relationship between the polymorphism of the ADD1 gene and fatness and growth traits.
Longterm treatment effects of porcine somatotropin (pST) on cellular aspects of skeletal muscle and backfat growth, growth performance, carcass composition, fat characteristics and meat quality were investigated in pigs growing up to 150 kg live weight. Landrace castrates received daily intramuscular injections of a placebo, 2 changing to 4 mg pST or 4 mg pST for 102 days (initial weight 50 kg). Muscle and fat cell development were studied by sequential biopsy of backfat and longissimus muscle of live pigs. pST-treatment improved growth performance and carcass composition with regard to leanness without adversely affecting pork quality. As compared to the controls pST-treatment accelerated muscle fibre growth but did not elevate the plateau level of fibre growth. In the longissimus muscle of treated pigs 3.7 % more fast-twitch-glycolytic (FTG) fibres developed from fast-twitch-oxidative (FTO) fibres (p<0.01). Backfat growth was considerably decreased by pST (to 61% ; p<0.001) which was based on lower fat cell number (80% ; p<0.01) and fat cell diameter (82%; p<0.001). Backfat was softer and contained an increased amount of unsaturated fatty acids. The results suggest that pST is as effective in heavy weight pigs as it is in normal weight pigs in improving growth performance and carcass composition. Limits of pST action were apparent in stimulating muscle fibre growth but not in inhibiting fat cell growth.
Non-invasive computerized tomography was performed on commercial broiler chickens, in both sexes, between 4 to 18 weeks of age, with the aim of body composition measurement. On the basis of 16-32 scans gathered from each bird during the scanning procedure, volumetric measurement of the breast muscle was performed. These values were at the 259; 493; 786 cm 3 and 195; 460; 668 cm 3 in male and female birds at the age of 6, 12 and 18 weeks, respectively. The total body fat content was characterized by the so called "fat index", a value independent of the live weight. This indices were 7,3; 7,14; 9,48 and 8,8; 13,3; 21,6 following the above order. Total body fat and crude protein was determined both by CT and chemical analysis. The variables of the prediction equations were taken from the density values of the Hounsfield scale between -140 and +150, by summarizing the frequencies within each interval of 10 values. Several models were developed with Principal Component Analysis. The R² values of the estimations were high (R² = 0,89; 0,88) for total body fat but moderate (R² = 0,39; 0,44) in the prediction of crude protein content. The investigation of the tissue development in the body was carried out by means of 3D histograms.
Assignment of IL4I1 to cattle chromosome 18q25-q26 Kartierung des Gens IL4I1 auf Rinderchromosom 18q25-q26 
The interleukin 4 induced 1 (IL4I1) gene, also known as FIG1, encodes a lysosomal protein in B cells with L-amino oxidase (EC property and a high preference for aromatic amino acid substrates implicating a fundamental role in antigene processing and presentation (MANSON et al. 2004). In human, IL4I1 has been assigned to chromosome 19q13.3-19q13.4, a hot spot for susceptibility to several autoimmune diseases (CHAVAN et al. 2002). Based on comparative genome data between human and cattle (GOLDAMMER et al. 2002), an assignment of IL4I1 to Bos taurus chromosome 18 (BTA18) has been predicted within a quantitative trait locus for somatic cell score (KÜHN et al. 2003). This prediction is supported by the putative bovine sequence for IL4I1, LOC520692, which has been assigned to BTA18 close to 56.1 megabases within the annotated bovine sequence (NCBI build Btau-4.0). Therefore, we started positional cloning of bovine IL4I1, as a candidate gene related to adaptive immunity, i.e. during udder infections in cattle. Here we present the physical assignment of the bovine IL4I1 gene by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and radiation hybrid (RH) mapping.
The caspase recruitment domain family, member 4 gene (CARD4) is a member of the CATERPILLER (caspase recruitment domain, transcription enhancer, r (purine)-binding, pyrin, lots of leucine repeats) family. In humans, CARD4 has been shown to be involved in the innate immune system responsible for cytosolic recognition of bacteria. This gene also contributes to the inflammation processes seen in asthma (HYSI et al., 2005) and intestinal bacterial infections (KIM et al., 2004). The human CARD4 gene is located on chromosome 7. It contains 14 exons and spans approximately 4.4 kb. The objective of this study was to determine the chromosomal location of CARD4 in the pig by linkage and RH mapping.
The research aimed at analysing the slaughter value and physicochemical attributes of goat kids slaughtered at 90 and 180 days of age. After weaning at 60 days of age, a balanced mixture containing 18.2% of protein and 5.63 MJ of net energy was applied as a feed. Some traits of live and slaughtered animal weight attributes were analysed. Moreover, tissue composition of the half carcass and meat physicochemical properties of meat were determined. The carcass of older male kid goats was by 5.08 kg (P≤0.05) heavier and the weight of primal cuts (P≤0.05) including high-priced cuts was by 0.87 kg higher than the young kids. Half carcass tissue composition of older and younger kids was similar: 60.13-60.50% of meat, 25.48-25.37% of bones, and 14.39-14.13% of fat. Significant differences (P≤0.05) in fat and bone contents were only found in the leg. Furthermore, physiochemical properties indicated that the meat of older animals was darker and had higher values of chemical parameters.
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of age and breed of goat kids on the lipid profile of muscle tissue. Longissimus dorsi muscles of 72 Saanen kids and F1 crosses with Anglo-Nubian bucks slaughtered at 60, 90 and 180 days of age were investigated. Cholesterol content of muscle tissue and fatty acid profile, including the level of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in intramuscular fat (IMF), were analysed Cholesterol content was similar in kids slaughtered at 60 and 90 days (72.5 mg/100 g on average) and lower in 180-day-old kids (66.2 mg). Age did not result in differences in the total content of saturated fatty acids (SFA), with a significantly lowest C12:0 and C14:0 content in the IMF of 180-day-old kids. As the kids grew older, the content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), especially the dominant C18:1, increased significantly, while the content of all polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) decreased. The content of Ω3 PUFA and the PUFA:SFA ratio decreased with age, with no marked differences in the other health parameters based on the fatty acid profile (DFA:OFA, Ω6:Ω3 PUFA, IA and IT). CLA was the most abundant in the muscles of 90-day-old kids (0.66 g/100 g tissue), being an average of 39% more than in the other age groups. The crossbreeding scheme studied did not affect the cholesterol content of muscle tissue and total SFA in IMF. Compared to Saanen kids, the fat of crossbreds was found to contain more MUFA and CLA, and less PUFA. Overall, the IMF of the crossbreds was characterized by an unfavourably lower Ω3 PUFA content and a lower PUFA:SFA ratio, with a favourably lower Ω6:Ω3 PUFA ratio. From the viewpoint of health-promoting quality, the meat of kids representing lower age and weight standards (60 and 90 days) had a generally more favourable lipid profile, while the effect of the analysed commercial crossbreeding scheme was fairly obvious but inconsistent.
The following steps were performed to analyse heterosis and QTL effects in litter size of mice: intercross of mouse inbred strains C57BL/6J and Balb/cJ in order to produce a F2 generation with 948 female animals; selection of trait groups with extreme high ((13 offspring) and extreme low litter size (5 offspring)); typing of 56 microsatellites with an average distance of 32 cM; detection of different chromosome regions with associations to heterosis in litter size. Chromosome 19 was associated to heterosis in litter size. Additional animals with extreme high and low litter sizes were then typed for four DNA markers on chromosome 19 and used for QTL mapping. A QTL was identified for litter size in segment D19Mit28 - D19Mit99 with a maximum at 15 cM (p≤0.05). The QTL explains about 11 % of the phenotypic variance in the F2 generation. With a degree of dominance of 4.09 the QTL shows that superdominance can explain heterosis in litter size.
The introduction of automatic single animal recognition possible with a simultaneous weighing of the animals can help during the practice transfer of results from growth investigations. Differing live weights at the end of fattening represent a problem, that only let consider and solve with growth investigations. In this connection were realized already 1989 investigations (I st communication). The results should be matched in this communication with that newer date. In the investigation of 2005 in the farms IIa/ IIb, masculine and feminine pigs were weighed six times. These data records were provided separated to a estimation procedure for determination the parameters (growth function of Lehman) for each animal. Among other things, the values of the theoretical possible end weight could be determined by means of the mentioned function from the weighing data. According to these values became ascendingly sorted and subsequent the data records of the animals in nine groups divide. Consequently group 1 contained those animals with small possible end weights and group 9 for example with the highest ones. The following statements can be hit: In the group arrangement of the nine groups can be confirmed in direction the statement in year 1989, that a low growth intenseness go along with one high possible end weight and a high growth intenseness with a small one, that however this state of affairs can not be supported in single animal arrangement in this consequence. Further, the statement can be confirmed that a high growth intenseness is be compared with a more rapid cycling the growth relevant dates and/or a low one with a slower one. The respective statements can not be confirmed with the single animal arrangements of years 1989 and 2005 from the group arrangements, that a high growth intenseness always agree with an early attaining of the maximum of daily increase in live weight and/or a low with a late attaining.
In this attempt the relaxation times using 1H-NMR spectroscopy from three different (subcutaneous, perinephric and internal fat) fat depots of Hungarian Grey and Holstein Friesian extensive or intensive fattened young bulls were measured. The relaxation properties were compared with the analysis of fatty acid compostion. The different diets and the sample location have a higher influence on the relaxation times than the breed. In fat samples from extensive groups the T1-relaxation time was longer, while the T 2-relaxation time was significantly shorter in intensive fed groups. The T2-relaxation time, as well as the relaxation time of T 21,-und T22-components were the shortest in extensive fed animals, while the proportion of T21-component was the highest in kidney fat, furthermore the difference was statistics proved. The T 2-relaxation time showed a close negative relationship with the ratio of saturated fatty acids (SFA). The ratio of v21 and v22 depends on chemical composition of fat samples. In fat tissues with a high SFA percentage caused a higher proportion of v21. It is suggested that differences in fatty acid compositon of fat samples caused also alteration in the relaxation time.
In the test stations "Grub" (Bavaria) and "Schöndorf' (Thuringia) data were collected on lambs of the breeds Merinolandschaf and Merino Longwool. Feed intake during the whole test period (FAP), feed efficiency (FAW), daily feed intake (TFM), the number of daily visits (TBH) and eating time (TBD) of lambs were measured. In total, data from 1,608 lambs with 37,161 daily records in "Grub" and 1,424 lambs with 35,356 daily records in "Schöndorf' were included. The aim of the present study was to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations for different traits of feed intake and eating behaviour. In "Schöndorf' the heritability of FAP and FAW was 0.29 and 0.32, respectively. In the test station "Grub" the heritability of the same traits was 0.58 and 0.57, respectively. The heritability of TBH, TBD and TFM were 0.33, 0.25 and 0.05, respectively, in "Schöndorf' and 0.49, 0.36 and 0.10, respectively, in "Grub". The genetic correlations between the eating behaviour traits TBH and TBD on one hand and feed intake (FAP, FAW, TFM) on the other hand were low. It could be concluded that feed intake as well as eating behaviour showed considerable variances and heritabilities. Further, eating behaviour was not a good indicator of feed intake.
This study was conducted to investigate the reproductive performance, milk yield, hair production, fleece characteristics and body weight after shearing of Hair goats (Anatolian Black Goats), bred under extensive conditions in Turkey. The material of the study was formed a total data of 456 Hair goats, which were between 2 and 7 years of age bred in the period of two years. Conception rate, infertility rate, abortion rate, kidding rate, single birth rate, twin birth rate, the percentage of kids born according to mated does and litter size were 97.81 %, 2.19%, 3.59%, 94.30%, 97.91 %, 2.09%, 96.27% and 1.02, respectively. Lactation length, milk yield in lactation period, milking period and milk yield in milking period of goats were determined as 232.29 days, 100.92 kg, 132.09 days and 43.14 kg, respectively. Hair production, fibre diameter and staple length of Hair goats in the study were determined as 381.00 g, 76.70 micrones and 13.63 cm, respectively. It was found that the effects of production year and farm on the reproductive traits given by percentage weren't statistically significant, whereas the difference among production years for litter size was significant. It was found that the effect of production year on milk production traits except for lactation length and on the hair production; the effect of farm factor on the hair production, staple length and live weigth after shearing; the effect of age on the milk production traits, hair production traits and live weight after shearing; the effect of live weight on the hair production were statistically significant (p<0.05).
Statistical characteristics of the jumping measurements and traits evaluated by judges
The effect of the judge on the jumping traits
Correlations between notes of six judges for every evaluated trait
The presented research investigates the effect of the judge on scores for horse free jumping skills, the agreement of judge's scores and relations of these scores with measured jumping parameters received by video image analysis in order to recognise judging preferences and trait definition. The investigation was based on a group of 32 warm-blooded stallions that were judged in free jumping by six experienced judges in five routinely evaluated jumping traits. Simultaneously horses were filmed during jumping and linear jumping parameters were measured. Additional jumping parameters were calculated to describe the jumping style in a more detailed way. The influence of the effect of the judge was estimated by analysis of variance, the relationships between judges' notes and jumping parameters by analysis of correlations. The effect of the judge was statistically significant for all traits. The correlations between individual judges' notes were not equal. The notes for particular traits were in some cases more correlated with other traits like with notes for the same trait. Mean notes for evaluated traits were correlated above 0.6 between each other. Correlations between judges' notes and measured jumping parameters were low and medium. Some jumping parameters were correlated with all traits whereas some parameters were not correlated at all. Received results showed that the definition of the traits evaluated by judges is not the same for all of them. However, for all judges the distance of landing, elevation of the body and lifting of front limbs were the most important parameters of the jump.
Changes in number of gastrointestinal nematode eggs in 1 gram of faeces of Zelaznienska and Wrzosówka Sheep. EPG = Eggs Per Gram.
was observed.
Gastrointestinal nematodes from family Trichostrongylidae are probably the most important parasites of small ruminants world-wide, causing significant morbidity and loss of production. Also in Poland these parasites cause important health problems of sheep. The immune response of two breeds of sheep - Wrzosówka (Polish Heath Sheep) and Żelaźnieńska (Polish Lowland Sheep) to somatic antigens of gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus were compared. Female sheep of both breeds were kept in the same conditions. Faecal probes were collected four times during the grazing season, and then examined using flotation and sedimentation methods. Serum and saliva samples were collected at the beginning and the end of grazing season. The levels of both serum and saliva IgA, IgG and IgM antibodies reacting with antigens of H. contenus were estimated using ELISA method. The Wrzosówka Sheep have shown lower prevalence of infection and lower number of nematode eggs in faeces than the Żelaźnieńska Sheep. Negative correlations between the level of all isotypes of serum and saliva antibodies and prevalence of invasion (also with a number of eggs in faeces) have been found in both breeds of sheep.
The distribution of 205-day weaning weight of different breeds HG: Hungarian Grey, HS: Hungarian Simmental, AA: Angus, HE: Hereford, CH: Charolais, BD: Blonde d'Aquitaine, LI: Limousin, The vertical top points in the figure are the mean values (kg) by breeds, while the horizontal ranges are mean values ± s (kg) of breeds. 
The genetic trend for 205-day weaning weight of different breeds After 1996 genetic trends were almost positive, but the magnitudes varied considerably among breeds. Hungarian Simmental, Charolais and Blonde d' Aquitaine had faster genetic trends than the other breeds. These results are different from findings of Cundiff & Van Vleck (1995) and Sullivan et al. 1999 who found that lighter breeds generally had faster genetic trends than heavier ones in pre weaning weight gain and weaning weight. In conclusion, the findings of this study correspond to some other research results that sire, herd, age of dam at calving, birth year, season and sex of calf all have significant effect on 205-day weaning weight of calves in the studied breeds. These effects have to be taken into consideration when evaluating weaning results, doing genetic analyses and breeding value estimation for this trait. Adjustment of weaning weight according to these effects can decrease the bias and may increase the reliability of the genetic analysis. 
Statistics of 205-day weight data of calves 
The aim of the study was to do genetic evaluation of the 205-day weaning weight of pure bred herds of different beef cattle breeds kept in Hungary and supply results for genetic programmes of different breeds. Population genetic analysis was performed on data from 42695 purebred beef calves from seven breeds born from 1981 to 2005 in Hungary. Animal model was used for the estimations. Sire, herd, age of dam at calving, birth year, season of birth and sex of calf had significant effects on 205-day calf weaning weight for each breed. Significant breed differences and breed overlaps were found. Direct heritability value estimates were 0.18 to 0.61, the maternal heritability values from 0.07 to 0.38, and the total heritability values were between 0.09 and 0.35. The direct-maternal genetic correlations were high and negative for all the breeds varying from −0.63 to −0.88.
Investigations with 102 litters and 715 alive born and 581 individually controlled up to 20th day of age dog pups have shown a highly significant influence of birth weight (x) on weight at the end of third week of age (y) (r = .457; y = 299.9 + 1.99x; p < 0.01). Birth weight of pups died (281 g) was highly significant lower compared to pups who were not lost up to 20th day of age (328 g). Pups with birth weight of more than 451 g reached without losses live weight at day 20 of age which was appr. twice higher compared to pups with birth weight of less than 200 g. Those pups with low birth weight (< 200 g) had a percentage of losses of 83.3 %. Increasing litter size leads to highly significant reduce both in birth weight from 361 to 396 g (litter size = 2 to 5) to 286 g (litter size = 12) and live weight at day 20 of age from 1292 g (litter size = 3) to 748 g (litter size =11). Male dog pups had a less higher live weight compared to female siblings at all points.
Mean values of reproduction traits in reference to CYP21/NciI genotypes of sows (Mittelwerte der Reproduktionsmerkmale in Abhängigkeit vom CYP21/NciI-Genotyp der Sauen)
Mean values of reproduction traits in reference to CYP21/HaeIII genotypes of sows (Mittelwerte der Reproduktionsmerkmale in Abhängigkeit vom CYP21/HaeIII-Genotyp der Sauen)
The identification of genes or markers associated with reproductive traits in swine is an important area of research because of the large economic impact these discoveries could have on the swine industry. The steroid 21-hydroxylase (CYP21) gene is located on chromosome 7 in the middle of the swine leukocyte antigen class (SLA) is regarded as a "candidate - gene" reproduction traits. Associations between polymorphism of the steroid 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21) and litter size of Polish Large White × Polish Landrace sows were analysed. The 21-hydroxylase genotypes of all 286 animals were determined using a PCR-RFLP procedure. The frequencies of genotypes and alleles of CYP21/NciI and CYP21/HaeIII were follows: 0.077 - AA, 0.308 - AB, 0.615 - BB and 0.231 for CYP21/NciIA, 0.769 for CYP21/NciIB; 0.010 - AA, 0.420 - AB, 0.570 - BB and 0.221 for CYP21/HaeIIIA and 0.779 for CYP21/HaeIIIB. The CYP21/NciI genotype was significantly associated with the total number of piglets born, born alive and alive at weaning in the 5th-10th parities. The sows with BB genotype had significantly (P≤0.01) higher level of traits than the animals with AB genotype. Analysis of reproductive traits in dependence on CYP21/NciI genotypes showed the statistically significant differences (P≤0.05) in number of piglets died before the day of weaned in 2-4 parities. The lowest value of this trait was found for the sows with the AB genotype (2.05%), while the highest - for the pigs with BB genotype (3.54%). Associations between CYP21/HaeIII and reproduction traits were not observed.
Trypanosomiasis is one of the most important diseases in African cattle. About 3 million cattle die every year by this disease. However, about 5% of the total African cattle have a natural resistance against trypanosomiasis. In a preliminary study markers linked to trypanotolerance have been identified on different chromosomes. The use of these information in breeding programs needs a close linkage of DNA markers to the trait. Therefore, a goal of the research on domestic cattle in Africa is the generation of a high resolution marker map for QTL regions significantly affecting trypanotolerance. An experimental approach for the direct analysis of chromosome regions correlated to economically important traits is microdissection.. The chromosome fragment BTA7q14-q22 which corresponds to the QTL linked to parasitaemia was isolated several times and used for the generation of chromosomal libraries. Primers designed from chromosome fragment specific sequences were used for the isolation of bovine specific BACs (bacterial artificial chromosomes) which now serve as starting material for the identification of informative markers within the QTL region.
Interval mapping using maximum likelihood was carried out to map quantitative trait loci on chromosome 23 of the German Holstein breed using a granddaughter design. Ten paternal half-sib families comprising 527 bulls were genotyped with seven microsatellite markers covering 81 cM of BTA 23. Breeding values of the bulls were based on national evaluations for 12 traits related to milk yield, fertility, and calving, these breeding values were used as quantitative trait data in the linkage analysis. Results of linkage analyses indicated that quantitative trait loci affecting paternal and maternal components of stillbirth and calving difficulties on the central region of chromosome 23 were closely linked to the major histocompatibility complex. Locus BoLADRB3 accounts for about 5.0 and 3.0 % of the additive genetic variance of both paternal and maternal components of stillbirth and calving difficulties, respectively. In one family, quantitative trait loci affecting milk fat content and milk yield were found on the telomeric region of chromosome 23. Quantitative trait loci effects were estimated at about 4.5 and 1.2 % for milk fat content and milk yield, respectively.
The aim of the present research was to evaluate the growth rate of the weight and body measurements of pheasants reared up to the 24th week of life, fed with all-mash mixtures. In the 3rd, 8th, 12th , 16th, 20th and 24th week of life the birds were weighed individually and their body measurements were measured based on which the growth rate indices of the traits researched were calculated. It was found that the body weight of pheasants of both sexes was increasing with the bird age, however there were noted no significant differences of that trait between the 16th and the 20th and the 20th and the 24th week of rearing. As for all the evaluation dates, except or the 3rd week of rearing, sexual dimorphism of the body weight was clearly seen, which was significant (P≤0.05). Similarly as the weight, also the pheasant body measurements were increasing on successive rearing dates. Between the 20th and the 24th week of rearing no significant differences were recorded in most of the traits evaluated. Sexual dimorphism concerning the body measurements was found in birds starting from the 12th or the 16th week of life. The highest growth rate of the body weight and measurements was observed in pheasants up to the 8th week of rearing. The growth rate of all the body measurements was decreasing after the 16th week of rearing, which shows that the pheasant growth was completed.
In the present study genetic correlations between feed intake, feed efficiency and daily feed intake on one hand and fattening performance, carcass quality and fertility on the other hand were estimated. Data were collected in the test stations "Schöndorf'/Thuringia and in "Grub"/ Bavaria as well as in stud book farms in Thuringia and Bavaria. Fattening performance and carcass quality were measured on 4,397 and 2,264 lambs, respectively, in Schöndorf and 1,292 lambs in Grub. The genetic correlation between feed efficiency and the number of lambs bom alive (LGL) was in Thuringia rA =-0.35, but in Bavaria -0.03 only. Further, the genetic correlations between daily feed intake and LGL were different with 0.29 in Thuringia and -0.20 in Bavaria. But the standard errors of the estimates were high due to an insufficient genetic linkage between data from station testing (fattening performance, carcass quality) and from field testing (fertility). Therefore, the results have to be considered as tendencies. A high feed intake during the whole test period led to better daily gain. The genetic relationships between feed intake and carcass quality were indifferent. When using feed intake or efficiency for breeding value estimation and selection no basically problems have to be expected.
The increasing expenses of the dairy farmers and control association force's reduction of costs caused by estimating milk yield. As well considerable losses of accuracy are not to accept. Milk yield and contest are tested separate for morning and afternoon in two dairy farms with about 500 milking cows each 14 days. This allows the Simulation of different methods for estimating the lactation yield. By these several simulations of Methods for Estimating milk yields and contests are possible. This second Communication shows various variants of estimating total lactation yields (305 days) and their standard error by 168 lactations in two farms.
31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy was applied to study in vivo changes of muscle phosphorous metabolites (inorganic phosphate - Pis Creatinphosphate - PCr and Adenosintriphosphate - ATP) and pH values during halothane exposure in pigs of different MHS genotype weighing from 19 to 55 kg. MHS genotypes were differentiated by ryanodine receptor gene test. Homozygous stress susceptible (Piétrain, n=7), heterozygous (German Landrace, n=16) and homozygous stress resistant (German Landrace, n=12) pigs were included in this study. The nn genotypes showed dramatic changes in their muscle metabolism after administration of halothane (2 Vol.%). Differences between Nn and NN pigs were significant (P<0.05) in initial PCr/Pi and PCr/ATP values, but disappeared after administration of halothane. After slaughter (average slaughter weight 66.3 kg for NN and 58.4 kg for Nn genotypes) significant differences (P<0.05) in kinetic parameters for time course changes of PCr and Pi and rate of pH fall occurred. NN pigs had a 6.2 min longer half time breakdown of PCr. Nn genotypes showed a more distinct decline of pH (8.5-10-3units per min) than NN pigs (3.6 10-3 units per min).
LSMeans and standard errors of the birth weight for the three NCAPG (Ile-442-Met)-genotypes
The optimal birth weight (BW) of a calf is important and an indicator of the chance to survive and performing later in life (Maltecca et al. 2009). The search for the genetic background of BW in cattle on BTA6 is in the focus of many studies. One QTL at 1 cM was described in an Angus × Brahman cross population (Kim et al. 2003). Three QTL for BW had been identified at BTA6 at 10 cM, 35-49 cM and 83-86 cM in a commercial line of Bos taurus (Kneeland et al. 2004). One of these was confirmed in a Jersey × Holstein cross population as a putative QTL at 41 cM (Maltecca et al. 2009). In a Holstein × Charolais cross cattle population a highly significant QTL for BW was detected on BTA6 in the same region between BM1329 and DIK1054 (Gutierrez-GIL et al. 2009). In another study with Holstein × Charolais the QTL was confirmed and the SNP in this QTL with the strongest effect on BW was in non-SMC condensing I complex, subunit G (NCAPG 1326T/G) (Eberlein et al. 2009). This SNP induced a Ile-442-Met substitution in the amino acid sequence. It was the aim of this study to validate this SNP by analysing the effect of the Ile-442-Met substitution in NCAPG on birth weight in two important beef cattle breeds in Germany.
Laboratory animal populations are characterised among other things by traits of their breeding performance. The value of information of these traits is increasing with the amount per breeder of proofed litter performances and is maximum, when it is possible to keep the animals over the time of reproduction-and lactation end until their natural end of lifetime. The result of a comparison of generations that is each done with 100 female breeders is that it was not possible to keep the mouse outbred stock on the same level of performance (constitution) within its meanwhile more than 40 years of breeding-history. The obviously all deciding trait is the animals' body weight (composition?), that has been increasing over more than 20% from a more intensive young animals' development up to over all steps of old animals' ages. Higher fertility (litter size, litter interval with homogeneous first mating age in 49 days) and higher lactation performance (litter weight development) are linked with such a shortened productive time that live performance of the G 8/9 are not reached anymore. The age of live has decreased as well (78 in comparison to 100%). The breeding strategy has moreover stayed the same over the years. Therefore the supposed "improvements" in the environment, especially the mouse's nutrition, and the out of this following genotype-environment-interaction have to be seen as the main cause of the change of traits of the population. These common valid and therefore also for the agricultural productive livestock applying results emphasize, that by intensifying the especially growing and younger animals' nutrition, a shortening effect of the productive time and the lifetime has to be accepted.
The complex pattern of action for cell viability makes the heat shock protein (HSP) loci to potential candidate genes for stress susceptibility. The promoter region of the porcine heat inducible hsp70.2 gene was analysed to define the transcription start point and to identify DNA polymorphisms within potential transcription control elements. Two polymorphisms - a C/A-tranversion within the (-45) inverted SP1 recognition motif and a (-29) deletion of an adenosine nucleotide - show a significantly deviating distribution between trait differentiated breeds, affect significantly heat induced hsp70.2 gene expression and seem to be related to stress susceptibility in swine. Both polymorphisms affected significantly meat quality traits.
Fig.: Chromosomal assignment of the equine BAC containing TYK2 by FISH analysis. G-banded metaphase spread before (left) and after (right) hybridization. Double signals indicated by arrows are visible on both equine chromosomes. (Chromosomale Zuordnung des Pferde BAC mit dem TYK2 Gen mittels FISH. G-gebänderte Metaphase-Chromosomen vor (links) und nach (rechts) der Hybridisierung. Doppelsignale sind mit Pfeilen gezeichnet und auf beiden Chromosomen sichtbar). 
Tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) is a member of the janus kinase gene family and encodes an 1187 amino acid protein. All four members of the janus kinase family JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, and TYK2 associate with various cytokine receptors and mediate the signal transduction by tyrosine phosphorylation of downstream targets (YAMOAKA et al., 2004). Studies with tyk2 deficient mice demonstrated impairment of interferon α/β signaling (KARAGHIOSOFF et al., 2003). Mutations in the murine tyk2 gene are associated with increased susceptibility to infectious and autoimmune diseases (SHAW et al., 2003). The human TYK2 gene consists of 25 exons spanning 30,003 bp on human chromosome 19p13.2 starting at 10,322,209 bp. The objective of this study was to determine the chromosomal location of TYK2 in the horse by FISH and RH mapping.
In vitro development of porcine oocytes after treatment with ionophore (In vitro Entwicklung von Schweine- Oozyten nach Behandlung mit Ionophor)
This study was designated to clarify the influence of activation of porcine matured oocytes by calcium ionophore on in vitro development of the parthenotes. The follicular oocytes were matured, activated and cultured in North Carolina State University-23 (NCSU-23) medium supplemented with 10% porcine follicular fluid (pFF). The in vitro-matured oocytes were exposed to calcium ionophore at concentrations of 12.5, 25 or 50 μM for 3, 5, 7 or 9 min. The activation rate of the oocytes increased as concentration of ionophore decreased, being at 27-33 and 68-77 % for the oocytes treated with 50 and 12.5 μM ionophore, respectively. Almost all activated oocytes were haploid. The highest cleavage rate (76%) and developmental rate to morula (41%) were observed in the oocytes treated with 12.5 μM ionophore for 5 min. However, development to blastocyst was observed only in the oocytes treated with 25 μM ionophore for 3 and 5 min (3 and 4% of treated oocytes, respectively). We concluded that the activation treatment of the porcine oocytes with 12.5 μM ionophore for 5 min provided the highest developmental rate to morula, but this treatment is not sufficient to overcome a developmental block at the morula stage.
This study attempts to classify domestic cattle within the hider-follower dichotomy. We observed several aspects concerning the time and space pattern of cow and calf at pasture during the first five days p.p. Decreasing daily lying time of the calves was accompanied by an increase in activity. Behavioural budgets of cows did not change during that period. The mean distance between the cow and her calf decreased form day one to day five p.p. The majority of calves chose places to lie down within strips of high vegetation behind the fence line. Time spent there by the calves decreased from the first to the fifth day. The duration of single lying periods of the calves was three times longer within the high vegetation outside the pasture than inside. The results allow us to classify the domestic cattle as a hider species. Areas of high vegetation seemed to be an important requisite for the calves to realise behavioural needs in different functional cycles. Moreover, from an ecological point of view such areas could serve as temporary elements for enriching the monotonous pasture landscape.
New methods for the measurement of the body composition in vivo (or post mortem) like DXA need to be evaluated before routine use in livestock research or performance testing. Two body weight groups of pigs I) 30 - 50 kg (n=61) and II) 70 - 90 kg (n=62) were studied in this analysis. The whole bodies of the pigs were analyzed by a GE Lunar DPX-IQ scanner in vivo for the amount and percentage of fat, lean tissue, bone mineral, and the bone mineral density as well. Three days later, pigs were slaughtered and after a 24 h cooling period, the reference parts (shoulder, loin, side, and ham) of the left carcass half were dissected into lean meat, fat, bone, tendons, connective tissue and skin according to the EU reference method. Generally, DXA variables explained a high proportion of variation (R2>0.8; √MSE=70 - 784 g) in the tissue masses of the reference parts (fat, muscle, bone) in both weight groups. The fat percentage of the reference parts and the DXA whole body results (in vivo) showed a very high relationship with a maximum R2=0.82 (√MSE=1.47%) for group II. Slightly lower was the relationship between the lean meat content (%) of the reference parts and DXA results in vivo (R 2=0.72; √MSE=1.75) for group II. The bone percentage was predicted with R2=0.3 (√MSE=0.64), caused by the very different analysis methods. Generally, DXA is a suitable method for growth studies in the above body weight range. In order to predict the percentage of muscle (lean meat) or fat tissue accurately by DXA, pigs should weigh >50 kg, since the soft tissue percentages of group I resulted in R2≤0.38 (√MSE≤2.55).
This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between body composition and reproduction traits in gilts. A number of 176 gilts of different genotypes were categorized in three different groups. Group 0 consists of gilts that were disqualified for breeding according performance test results or showed no occurrence of oestrus. Group 1 consists of all gilts, which farrowed after an artificially insemination. Group 2 was composed of gilts that were artificially inseminated but did not give birth to a litter. Body composition was determined in vivo using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at a live weight of about 90 kg. Initial reproduction data from group 1 were also evaluated. Results of the performance test showed considerable variation among the different groups. Group 1 was significantly heavier and the daily gain was significantly higher than in group 0. However, results of breeding index and value were clearly below the results of the other two groups. The body fat content was significantly higher in gilts with a litter (> 1.65 absolutely) than in gilts without a litter (group 2) and in disqualified gilts (group 0). Group 2 gilts showed the smallest body fat mass. However, the relation between DXA fat percentage and litter size for group 1 showed in tendency that the litter size might decrease with an increasing fat content of gilts. Therefore, an optimum body fat content for conventional breeding gilts of European or American origin needs to be determined for a maximum fertility.
In vivo body composition and growth of 214 calves (6-50 days old) of different genetic origin were analyzed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A whole body scan was performed. Looking at body composition there were differences among calf genotypes and parent genotypes. Purebred German-Holstein calves showed lower bone mineral density, bone mineral content, bone mineral percentage, fat tissue percentage and weight than the other genotypes. Opposite conditions existed for lean tissue percentage. Daily feed intake and tissue growth rates (lean tissue, fat tissue, bone mineral) were recorded from day 0 to day 50 of age. Further effects of birth type and lactation number of dam became obvious. Twins showed a significant higher daily gain than calves of single births. Heifer calves had highest daily gain between Scan 2 and Scan 3 in contrary to calves of cows of fourth or fifth lactation number. Within the study two scan modes were compared. A comparison between two scan modes 'normal' and 'pediatric large' showed a high correlation of selected values (r ≥ 0,90) except for lean tissue percentage (r = 0,62), fat tissue percentage (r = 0,70) and R-value (r = 0,69). In conclusion DXA is a very suitable method for examination of body composition and growth of calves.
Ultrasonic and live measurements were taken on 143 young bulls of the genotypes Blond d'Aquitaine x Braunvieh, Limousin x German black pied and German black pied by end of fattening period at days 375 and 470 of age. By means of ultrasound the area of the M long, dorsi on the 1st and 4th lumbar vertebrae, the depth of the M. biceps femoris and fat measures over the rump were measured. From 45 bulls the left carcass side was dissected according to commercial guidelines and the tissue composition was determined. Ultrasound imaging instruments are accurate. The accuracy of the ultrasound instruments increases with an higher age of the bulls, because of improved experience of the operators and the enlargement of the measured areas and depths. The additional information gained by ultrasonic measurements to estimate the percentage of carcass composition is limited and does not justify the expenditure and effords. Ultrasonic measurements at a later date with more accurate recording of the subcutaneous fat depth and the construction of specific regression equitation's might improve the results.
The increasing expenses of the dairy farmers and control association force's reduction of costs caused by estimating milk yield. As well considerable losses of accuracy are not to accept. Milk yield and contest are tested separate for morning and afternoon in two dairy farms with about 500 milking cows each 14 days. This allows the Simulation of different methods for estimating the lactation yield. By these several simulations of Methods for Estimating milk yields and contests are possible. This first Communication shows various variants of determining Test day results and their standard error by 15858 test day records.
One important question about genomic evaluation is how the distance between generations of individuals in reference populations and selection candidates would affect the accuracy of the genomic estimated breeding value of selection candidates. There were two schemes in the present study. In the first scheme, a genome consisting of 30 chromosomes each with 100 equally-spaced single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for each individual and in the second scheme a genome consisting of 3 chromosomes each with 1 000 equally-spaced SNPs was simulated. To generate enough linkage disequilibrium between loci, random mating for 50 generations was done in a finite population. In generation 51, the population size was expanded to 250 individuals. This structure was continued until generation 55. Individuals in generation 55 were juvenile and did not have phenotypic records and were selection candidates. Heritability was assumed to be 0.3. Our results showed that using information from more distant generations would decrease the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values of selection candidates but in the scheme in which the marker distance was 1 cM, an increasing generation number between reference population and selection candidates would decrease the accuracy more than in the scheme in which the marker distance was 0.1 cM. According to our results using estimated breeding values of a reference population instead of phenotypic records would increase accuracy extremely.
In humans, the Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) gene is located on the q arm of chromosome 17. It contains 16 exons and 15 introns. The deletion (D) allele of the insertion/deletion polymorphism of the ACE gene has been shown to be associated with a higher risk of coronary artery disease (TANIQUCHI et al., 2001) and hypertension (MORSHED et al., 2002), whereas the insertion (I) allele has been found to be associated with a higher risk of Alzheimer’s disease (ELKINS et al., 2004). Furthermore, a study (LUFT, 1999) associated ACE with longevity. Our hypothesis is that these same genes or regulatory pathways are also important for sow productive life. The objective of this study was to determine the chromosomal location of ACE in the pig by linkage and RH mapping.
The percentage changes of vitamin C in serum after NAC supplementation in experimental groups
The per cent changes of MDA in blood plasma after NAC administration in SCC groups
Means and standard errors (SEM) for the level of MDA (µmol/l) of blood plasma in goats before and after 7 days of the NAC daily administration
The aim of this study was to estimate an influence of supplementation of exogenous N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the somatic cell count (SCC, quantified as cells per ml) and chemical composition of goat milk. The study was carried out on 15 goats, in the last part of lactation (220-250 days). The animals were divided into 3 groups according to SCC in their milk: 1st – up to 2×10⁶, 2nd – from 2 to 4×10⁶ and 3rd – above 4×10⁶. The animals were clinically healthy. They were given NAC in the amount of 12 mg/ kg of live body weight per os for 7 days, once a day, during evening milking. Milk yield, as well as fat, protein and lactose contents and SCC were studied three times: 1st – just before starting the experiment, 2nd – after 7 days of NAC application and 3rd – a week after the end of NAC application. The analysis of variance with General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of SAS® package was used. There was observed the significant decrease of SCC after one-week supplementation of NAC and stagnation of SCC after next week in all three groups. The changes of chemical composition of milk were not significant. The significant decrease of SCC may indicate improvement of health of mammary gland. The oxidation processes might be decreased and probably the increase of immune defence of organism took place. One can suggest that the supplementation of NAC may lead to improvement of goat udder health.
Top-cited authors
Andrzej Dybus
  • West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin
Ernst Kalm
  • Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
Wilhelm Grzesiak
  • Agricultural University of Szczecin
Christa Kuehn
  • Research Institute for Farm Animal Biology
Armin M Scholz
  • Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich