We report a computational investigation of electron scattering by anthracene (C(14)H(10)) in the gas phase. Integral and differential cross sections have been calculated by employing two distinct ab-initio quantum scattering methods: the symmetry adapted-single centre expansion method (ePOLYSCAT) and a screening corrected form of the independent atom model (IAM-SCAR) at low and high energies, respectively. After a detailed evaluation of the current results, we present a complete set of integral scattering cross sections from 0.00001 to 10,000eV.
In this study, the stopping power for electrons in toluene is reported for incident energies ranging from 10 to 10,000 eV. The present results have been obtained by combining the calculated inelastic electron scattering cross-sections with an experimental energy loss procedure. Calculations have been carried out by means of a quasifree absorption model whose reliability has been checked by comparison with empirical electron scattering total cross section data. Results have been compared with the high-energy stopping power data available in the literature. For energies below 1 keV these are the first results of the stopping power for electrons in toluene.
The thermal neutron-induced activation cross section for the (186)W(n,gamma)(187)W reaction was measured at 0.0536eV neutron energy using TRIGA Mark-II research reactor, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The (197)Au(n,gamma)(198)Au monitor reaction induced in a high-purity gold foil was used to determine the effective neutron beam intensity. The activities induced in sample and monitor foils were measured nondestructively by a high-resolution HPGe gamma-ray detector. The present experimental cross-section value is the first one at 0.0536eV. The obtained new cross section that amounts to 26.6+/-1.6b is 2% higher than the recently reported data in ENDF/B-VII and 5% lower than that of JENDL-3.3.
Because of angular-momentum conservation, superallowed β decay between 0(+) analog states involves only the vector part of the weak interaction, so its measured ft value can be used to determine the vector coupling constant, GV. If many such transitions are measured, then the constancy of GV can be established and several important tests made on fundamentals of the electroweak Standard Model. We have developed apparatus that allows us to measure half-lives to ±0.03% and branching ratios to ±0.1% or better, for cyclotron-produced activities with half-lives as short as 100ms. We present an overview of the equipment and a summary of more than 10 years of results.
The cross-sections of (nat)Yb (n,x)(172,173) Tm, (174)Yb(n,p) (174) Tm, (174)Yb (n,α) (171)Er, (176)Yb(n,p) (176) Tm, (176)Yb(n,α)(173) Er, and (176) Yb(n,n')(176m)Yb have been measured at 14.6±0.3MeV neutron energy, among them two cross-sections (nat)Yb (n,x)(172,173)Tm are reported for the first time. These experimental cross-sections are compared with experimental data found in the literature, with evaluated nuclear data in JENDL-4.0 and TENDL-2010 libraries and with theoretically calculated values based on nuclear reaction modular codes EMPIRE-3.0 and TALYS-1.2.
The mass energy absorption, the mass energy transfer and mass absorption coefficients have been widely used for problems and applications involving dose calculations. Direct measurements of the coefficients are difficult, and theoretical computations are usually employed. In this paper, analytical equations are presented for determining the mass energy transfer and mass absorption coefficients for gamma rays with an incident energy range between 0.4 and 10 MeV in nitrogen, silicon, carbon, copper and sodium iodide. The mass absorption and mass energy transfer coefficients for gamma rays were calculated, and the results obtained were compared with the values reported in the literature.
Thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence properties of phosphate glasses doped with BaO and Li(2)O at various concentrations were studied. Lithium-doped glasses show a broad TL peak in the 200-300°C region with poor dosimetric characteristics. Barium-doped glasses feature at least two TL peaks, approximately at 200 and 400°C, which were attributed to Ba(2+) ions. They also produce a fast-decaying OSL signal correlated with the lower-temperature TL peak. Responses of both TL emissions to radiation doses up to 100 Gy are linear (R² >0.99). Due to its encouraging characteristics such as acceptable batch homogeneity, good measurement reproducibility and weak signal fading, the P₂O₅-xBaO glass can be considered as a candidate material for dosimetry in the high-dose range (>10 Gy).
Cross sections of 141Pr(n,gamma) 142Pr reaction are measured at neutron energies of 0.54, 1.09 and 1.59 MeV using the activation method. The activities of the products are counted with a high resolution HPGe detector gamma-ray spectrometer. The neutron fluence is determined by 197Au(n,gamma)198 Au reaction cross sections. The errors of the measured results are +/-6-7%. The neutron capture cross sections for this reaction are also calculated with the NUNF code. Our results are compared with those of other authors. Recommendations for inclusion of data in the energy region 0.05-3.90 MeV are made, these being in good agreement with the ENDF/B-VI data.
The simultaneous effect of detector collimator and sample thickness on 0.662 MeV multiply Compton-scattered gamma photons was studied experimentally. An intense collimated beam, obtained from 6-Ci (137)Cs source, is allowed to impinge on cylindrical aluminium samples of varying diameter and the scattered photons are detected by a 51 mm x 51 mm NaI(Tl) scintillation detector placed at 90 degrees to the incident beam. The full energy peak corresponding to singly scattered events is reconstructed analytically. The thickness at which the multiply scattered events saturate is determined for different detector collimators. The parameters like signal-to-noise ratio and multiply scatter fraction (MSF) have also been deduced and support the work carried out by Shengli et al. [2000. EGS4 simulation of Compton scattering for nondestructive testing. KEK proceedings 200-20, Tsukuba, Japan, pp. 216-223] and Barnea et al. [1995. A study of multiple scattering background in Compton scatter imaging. NDT & E International 28, 155-162] based upon Monte Carlo calculations.
A new calculation of the stopping powers (SP) and inelastic mean free paths (IMFP) for electrons in toluene at energies below 10 keV has been presented. The calculation is based on the dielectric model and on an empirical evaluation approach of optical energy loss function (OELF). The reliability for the evaluated OELFs of several hydrocarbons with available experimental optical data has been systematically checked. For toluene, using the empirical OELF, the evaluated mean ionization potential, is compared with that given by Bragg's rule, and the calculated SP at 10 keV is also compared with the Bethe-Bloch prediction. The present results for SP and IMFP provide an alternative basic data for the study on the energy deposition of low-energy electrons transport through toluene, and also show that the method used in this work may be a good one for evaluating the SP and IMFP for hydrocarbons.
The preparation of no-carrier-added 18F labelled NNC 12-0817 (1-(2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl)-4-[4-oxo-4-(2- thienyl)butyl]piperazine) and NNC 12-0818 (1-(2[bis(4- fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl)-4-]4-hydroxy-4-(2-thienyl)butyl]piperazine) is described. NNC 12-0818 is the designation of the racemic mixture of two enantiomers. Fluorine-18 is introduced into 4-[18F]fluoro-4'-fluorobenzophenone from the corresponding triflate salt by a nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction. A no-carrier-added synthesis was performed in 6 steps starting from N,N-dimethylaniline and 4-fluorobenzoyl chloride giving [18F]NNC 12-0817 and [18F]NNC 12-0818 in good yields and a radiochemical purity after HPLC-purification higher than 99%.
2-(1,1-dicyanopropen-2-yl)-6-(2-[18F]-fluoroethyl)-methylamino-naphthalene ([18F]FDDNP) was synthesized in a single step labeling procedure. The precursor, 2-(1,1-dicyanopropen-2-yl)-6-(2-tosyloxyoethyl)-methylamino-naphthalene, was fluorinated with 18F in acetonitrile. After 15 min the reaction mixture was subjected to preparative HPLC purification. The product was isolated from the HPLC eluent with solid-phase extraction, and formulated in an ascorbic acid solution to prevent formation of side products during formulation. Quantitative sticking to tubing and filters was overcome by the addition of polysorbatum-80. This formulation yielded an isotonic, pyrogen-free and sterile solution of [18F]FDDNP. The overall decay-corrected radiochemical yield was 41+/-11% (n=22). Radiochemical purity was >98% and the specific activity was 102+/-56 GBq/micromol at the end of synthesis.
1,2-Palmitoyl-3-[15-(4-iodophenyl)pentadecan-3-oyl]-rac-glycerol (MIPAG) is a new agent for the clinical evaluation of pancreatic lipase activity and has demonstrated promise in preliminary clinical studies with patients affected with pancreatic insufficiency. Iodine-131-MIPAG was initially prepared via thallium-iodide displacement. Because of the need for a simple method which is amendable for the routine clinical use of MIPAG we have investigated the preparation and radioiodination of MIPAG utilizing the tributyltin precursor, 1,2-palmitoyl-3-[15-(4-tributylstannylphenyl)pentadecan-3-oy l]-rac-glycerol (TBT-MIPAG, 2). Compound 2 was prepared via the condensation of 1,2-palmitoyl-rac-glycerol with 15-(4-tributylstannylphenyl)pentadecanoic acid (TBT-PPA) prepared from 4-bromophenylacetylene. Electrophilic radioiodination using peracetic acid with sodium iodide-125 in ethanol at 80 degrees C for 60 min afforded I-125-MIPAG in 65.9% (+/- 11.5%) yield and radiochemical purity of 94% (+/- 3.0%) after C-18 Sep-Pak purification (n = 6). This improved method for radioiodination utilizing TBT-MIPAG now provides radioiodinated MIPAG for routine clinical evaluation.
Selenium-75 (t1/2 = 120.4d; 100% EC) was prepared in no-carrier-added form by 22MeV proton-bombardment of natural arsenic(III) oxide powder held in a copper-aluminum drawer target (highest yield, 35 microCi/microAh; maximum current, 6 microA), followed by oxidation to [75Se]selenium(IV) oxide. No-carrier-added [75Se]5-ethoxycarbonyl-4-methyl-1,2,3-selenadiazole was prepared in one step from ethylacetoacetate semicarbazone with [75Se]selenium(IV) oxide in glacial acetic acid at 50 degrees C. Column chromatography of the final solution afforded the desired labeled compound in 30% yield and greater than 98% radiochemical purity.
Two 1,2,3-triazole anticonvulsants, 1-(4-methylsulfone-phenyl)-5-(4-methyl-phenyl)-1,2,3-triazole and 1-(4-methylsulfone-phenyl)-5-phenyl-1,2,3-triazole, both labeled with carbon-14 in the 5-position were prepared from para-tolunitrile-[cyano-14C] and benzonitrile-[cyano-14C], respectively.
Carbon-11 labeled biaryl 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives and conformationally flexible analogues, 2-(2-(biphenyl-4-yl)ethyl)-6-[(11)C]methoxy-7-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline ([(11)C]3); 1-(biphenyl-4-yl)methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-2-[(11)C]methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (N-[(11)C]7) and 1-(biphenyl-4-yl)methyl-6-[(11)C]methoxy-7-methoxy-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (O-[(11)C]7); and 2-(biphenyl-4-yl)-N-(3,4-dimethoxy-phenethyl)-N-[(11)C]methyl-ethanamine (N-[(11)C]10) and 2-(biphenyl-4-yl)-N-(3-methoxy-4-[(11)C]methoxy-phenethyl)-N-methyl-ethanamine (O-[(11)C]10), have been synthesized as new potential positron emission tomography (PET) glioma tumor imaging agents, either by O-[(11)C]methylation or by N-[(11)C]methylation of the appropriate precursors using [(11)C]CH(3)OTf and isolated either by a simplified solid-phase extraction (SPE) purification procedure or by HPLC method in 30-55% radiochemical yields decay corrected to EOB, 15-25 min overall synthesis time, and 4.0-6.0 Ci/mumol specific activity at EOB.
We synthesized a novel (18)F-labeled dopamine D(4) receptor antagonist (Ki=4.3 nM), 3-(4-[(18)F]fluorobenzyl)-8-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrochromeno[3,4-c]pyridin-5-one ([(18)F]FMTP), which has exhibited high affinity and selectivity. Radiosyntheses were accomplished by the reaction of fluorine-18-labeled intermediate with 8-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrochromeno[3,4-c]pyridin-5-one (1) followed by HPLC purification. The overall radiochemical yield of the radiosynthesis was 19.5% (decay corrected), the specific radioactivity was about 110 GBq/micromol and the radiochemical purity was greater than 99%, the time of synthesis and purification was approximately 110 min. Tissue distribution studies of the [(18)F]FMTP in rats showed that the radioactivity in the brain was concentrated in frontal cortex and medulla, the region that has a high density of D(4) receptors. Pre-treatment with nonradioactive FMTP (1.0mg/kg) produced a significant reduction of radioactivity in all the regions. About 40% of total radioactivity in plasma and 100% in rat brain extract represented unchanged radioligand at 60 min after injection as determined by HPLC. These results indicate that [(18)F]FMTP have some specific binding to the D(4) receptor.
Small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SKCa) channels play an important role in many functions such as neuronal communication and behavioral plasticity, secretion, and cell proliferation. SKCa channel modulation is associated with various brain, heart, and cancer diseases. N-methyl-laudanosine and its structurally related derivatives, substituted 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoliniums, are reversible and selective SKCa channel blockers. Carbon-11 labeled N-methyl-laudanosine and its tetrahydroisoquinolinium derivatives may serve as new probes for positron emission tomography (PET) to image SKCa channels in the brain, heart, and cancer. The key intermediates, substituted isoquinolines (3a-c), were synthesized using a modification of the Pomeranz-Fritsch procedure. The precursors, substituted 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines (8a-c), and their corresponding reference standards, substituted 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoliniums (9a-c), were synthesized from compounds 3a-c with 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl chloride (2) in multiple steps with moderate to excellent chemical yields. The precursor 6,7-dimethoxy-1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (10) was commercially available, and the methylation of compound 10 with methyl iodide provided N-methyl-laudanosine (11). The target quaternary ammonium tracers, carbon-11 labeled 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoliniums ([11C]9a-c and [11C]11), were prepared by N-[11C]methylation of the tertiary amine precursors (8a-c and 10) with [11C]methyl triflate and isolated by a simplified solid-phase extraction (SPE) purification using a SiO2 or cation-exchange CM Sep-Pak cartridge in 40-65% radiochemical yields.
The synthesis of two novel radiolabelled estrogen derivatives, [125I](E)-3-methoxy-17alpha-iodovinylestra-1,3,5(10),6-tetraen-17beta-ol (E[125I]IVDE) and [125I](Z)-3-methoxy-17alpha-iodovinylestra-1,3,5(10),6-tetraen-17beta-ol (Z[125I]IVDE), was carried out aiming to study the influence of the introduction of a C6-C7 double bond on the biological properties of the estradiol molecule. 3-Methoxyestra-1,3,5(10),6-tetraen-17-one was synthesised starting from a suitably protected estrone and subsequently converted into the 17alpha-ethynyl derivative. The radioiodinated derivatives were stereoselectively formed by radioiododestannylation of the corresponding tributylstannyl precursors. The biodistribution of the novel [125I]iodovinylestradiol derivatives was evaluated in immature female mice. Biological data indicated that the Z-isomer, owing to its higher in vivo uptake by the target tissue, has the preferable configuration for further development of similar compounds for estrogen receptor detection.
As a possible radioligand for SPECT visualization of the NMDA receptors in the central nervous system, 7-chloro-5-[123I]iodokynurenic acid was prepared. This paper presents the synthesis of both the radioactive and the non-radioactive product, starting from 5-bromo-7-chlorokynurenic acid and using a non-isotopic nucleophilic halogen exchange reaction in the presence of iodide (Na123I or KI). Under the best labelling conditions, the radiochemical yield was 85%. The specific activity based on UV detection was found to be higher than 1 Ci/mumol (= 37 GBq/mumol) and the chemical and radiochemical (> 95%) purity of the tracer was checked by RP-HPLC.
A radiation-sensitive compound 2,4-hexadiyn-1,6-bis(n-butyl urethane) (HDDBU) was synthesized, characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, and introduced into a thin polyvinyl butyral film to form a radiation dosimeter for industrial irradiation facilities. The monomer polymerizes under gamma radiation, inducing change in the film spectrum in the range of 200-400nm. According to XRD spectroscopy, the film contains monomeric HDDBU in a non-crystalline state. The dose response function, radiation sensitivity, and dependences of the response on environmental factors were studied. Uncertainty of dose measurements with the proposed dosimetry system was analyzed in detail.
The relative intensities of different gamma emissions produced after the reaction (115)In(n,gamma)(116)In were analyzed for the particular case of incident neutron energies around the 1.45 eV indium absorption resonance. For this purpose, a pulsed neutron source in combination with the time-of-flight method for selecting the incident neutron energy range was employed. For neutrons around the mentioned absorption resonance the prompt gamma spectrum was extended to energies below 273 keV, and the intensities of gamma emissions not reported in the literature for epithermal neutrons were determined.
The response functions of a 7.62 x 7.62 cm NaI(Tl) scintillation detector to photons from point gamma-ray sources, 10 cm from the scintillator surface, in the energy up to 1.5 MeV, were calculated using the Monte Carlo method, applying simple approximations based on the peak to total ratio and the detector resolution. The Compton continuum of the detector response function was assumed as an isotropic (rectangular) region for the photon energies up to 1 MeV. In the energies between 1 and 1.5 MeV, the Compton continuum was obtained assuming a single Compton scattering with free electrons. The photopeak of the detector response function was assumed as a line. Each determined channel of the response function was distributed to Gaussian functions. The obtained response functions were compared with the experimental values and a good agreement was found.