Pb(In(12)Nb(12))O(3)-Pb(Mg(13)Nb(23))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PIN-PMN-PT) single crystals have been developed recently, which can increase the operating temperature by at least 20 degrees C compared to PMN-PT crystals. We have measured a complete set of material properties of single domain PIN-PMN-PT crystal, which is urgently needed in theoretical studies and electromechanical device designs using this crystal. Because the rotated values of d33*=1122 pCN and k33*=89% along (c) calculated using the single domain data obtained here are in good agreement with the (c) poled multidomain PIN-PMN-PT crystals, one may conclude that the physical origin of the ultrahigh piezoelectric properties mainly come from orientation effect.
Complete sets of elastic, piezoelectric, and dielectric constants of 0.72Pb(Mg(1∕3)Nb(2∕3))O(3)-0.28PbTiO(3) single crystal poled along (c) (single domain) as well as non-polar axes (c) and (c) (multidomain) have been measured under natural conditions. These data allowed us to evaluate accurately the extrinsic contributions to the superior piezoelectric properties. Very large extrinsic contributions to the unusual anisotropies in multidomain crystals are confirmed. We found that the instability of domain structures is the origin of the low mechanical quality factor Q for the multidomain relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals. Our results can provide useful guidance in future design of domain engineered materials.
Rhombohedral phase relaxor-PbTiO(3) solid solution single crystals poled along (c) exhibits superior lateral extensional piezoelectric response, which enables the excitation of a pure low frequency flexural mode with a bridge-type electrode configuration. For the ternary 0.24Pb(In(1/2)Nb(1/2)) O(3)-0.46Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-0.30PbTiO(3) single crystal poled along (c), the electromechanical coupling factor of the flexural mode reached as high as 0.66, and the resonance frequency of this mode can be easily made in kHz range, making it possible to fabricate very small size low frequency sensors and actuators. We have delineated theoretically the coupling between flexural mode and other modes and realized a strong pure flexure mode.
The hydrostatic piezoelectric properties of  poled Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) crystals and corresponding 2-2 crystal/epoxy composites were investigated. The crystal volume ratio and compositional dependencies of the hydrostatic charge and voltage coefficients (dh and gh ) and hydrostatic figure of merit (FOM) dh × gh were determined, where large FOM value of 3.2 pm(2)/N with high stability as a function of hydrostatic pressure was achieved for rhombohedral crystal composites. In addition, the stress amplification effects of the face-plate and different epoxy matrixes were investigated, with maximum FOM value being on the order of 92 pm(2)/N, indicating that 2-2 crystal/epoxy composites are promising materials for hydrostatic applications.
We have studied the dynamic behavior of nanoparticles in ferrofluids consisting of single-domain, biogenic magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) isolated from Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum (MS-1). Although dipolar chains form in magnetic colloids in zero applied field, when dried upon substrates, the solvent front disorders nanoparticle aggregation. Using avidin-biotin functionalization of the particles and substrate, we generated self-assembled, linear chain motifs that resist solvent front disruption in zero-field. The engineered self-assembly process we describe here provides an approach for the creation of ordered magnetic structures that could impact fields ranging from micro-electro-mechanical systems development to magnetic imaging of biological structures.
The high efficient tandem blue fluorescent organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with the transparent interconnection layer (ICL) of fullerence (C60)/Molybdenum oxide (MoO3)-doped N,N'-bis(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPB) were presented. A stack consisting of 0.5 nm of LiF and 1 nm of Ca, which is located from C60 to adjacent electron transporting layer is used as an electron injection layer. The experiment results indicate that the luminance of the tandem device is basically equal to that of the traditional single-unit device, but the current density of the tandem device is much less than that of the single-unit device under a same luminance. The current efficiency and the maximal power efficiency of tandem device with LiF/Ca/C60/NPB:MoO3/MoO3-based interconnection layer have been approximately enhanced by 250% and 126%, respectively. In addition, we also analyze that the mechanism of the efficiency enhancement is ascribed to the effective charge separation and transport of the ICL in tandem OLEDs.
We report the finding of a monoclinic M(B) phase in Pb(Zn(13)Nb(23))O(3)-4.5%PbTiO(3) single crystals. High precision x-ray diffraction investigations of  field cooled crystals have shown a transformation sequence of cubic(C)-->tetragonal(T)-->orthorhombic(O)-->monoclinic(M(B)), which is different from that previously reported [A.-E. Renault et al., J. Appl. Phys. 97, 044105 (2005)]. Beginning in the zero-field-cooled condition at 383 K, a rhombohedral (R)-->M(B)-->O sequence was observed with increasing field. Coexisting M(B) and O phases were then found upon removal of field, which fully transformed to M(B) on cooling to room temperature.
The massively parallel arrays of highly periodic Gd-doped Si nanowires (SiNWs) self-organized on Si(110)-16 × 2 surface were investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. These periodic Gd-doped SiNWs are atomically precise and show equal size, periodic positions, and high-integration densities. Surprisingly, the scanning tunneling spectroscopy results show that each metallic-like, Gd-doped SiNW exhibits room-temperature negative differential resistance (RT-NDR) behavior, which can be reproducible with various Gd dopings and is independent of the tips. Such massively parallel arrays of highly ordered and atomically identical Gd-doped SiNWs with one-dimensional laterally confined RT-NDR can be exploited in Si-based RT-NDR nanodevices.
Epitaxial graphene films grown on silicon carbide (SiC) substrate by solid state graphitization is of great interest for electronic and optoelectronic applications. In this paper, we explore the properties of epitaxial graphene films on 3C-SiC(111)Si(111) substrate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy were extensively used to characterize the quality of the few-layer graphene (FLG) surface. The Raman spectroscopy studies were useful in confirming the graphitic composition and measuring the thickness of the FLG samples.
We report on controlling the spontaneous emission (SE) rate of a molybdenum
disulfide (MoS$_2$) monolayer coupled with a planar photonic crystal (PPC)
nanocavity. Spatially resolved photoluminescence (PL) mapping shows strong
variations of emission when the MoS$_2$ monolayer is on the PPC cavity, on the
PPC lattice, on the air gap, and on the unpatterned gallium phosphide
substrate. Polarization dependences of the cavity-coupled MoS$_2$ emission show
a more than 5 times stronger extracted PL intensity than the un-coupled
emission, which indicates an underlying cavity mode Purcell enhancement of
MoS$_2$ SE rate exceeding a factor of 70.
Adsorbed species and its diffusion behaviors in GeO(2)∕Ge stacks, which are future alternative metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) materials, have been investigated using various physical analyses. We clarified that GeO(2) rapidly absorbs moisture in air just after its exposure. After the absorbed moisture in GeO(2) reaches a certain limit, the GeO(2) starts to absorb some organic molecules, which is accompanied by a structural change in GeO(2) to form a partial carbonate or hydroxide. We also found that the hydrogen distribution in GeO(2) shows intrinsic characteristics, indicative of different diffusion behaviors at the surface and at the GeO(2)∕Ge interface. Because the impurity absorbability of GeO(2) has a great influence on the electrical properties in Ge-MOS devices, these results provide valuable information in realizing high quality GeO(2)∕Ge stacks for the actual use of Ge-MOS technologies.
The authors demonstrate an optical manipulation mechanism of gas bubbles for microfluidic applications. Air bubbles in a silicone oil medium are manipulated via thermocapillary forces generated by the absorption of a laser in an amorphous silicon thin film. In contrast to previous demonstrations of optically controlled thermally driven bubble movement, transparent liquids can be used, as the thermal gradient is formed from laser absorption in the amorphous silicon substrate, and not in the liquid. A variety of bubbles with volumes ranging from 19 pl to 23 nl was transported at measured velocities of up to 1.5 mm/s.
We report a method for characterization of the efficiency of radio-frequency (rf) heating of nanoparticles (NPs) suspended in an aqueous medium. Measurements were carried out for water suspended 5 nm superparamagnetic iron-oxide NPs with 30 nm dextran matrix for three different configurations of rf electric and magnetic fields. A 30 MHz high-Q resonator was designed to measure samples placed inside a parallel plate capacitor and solenoid coil with or without an rf electric field shield. All components of rf losses were analyzed and rf electric and magnetic field induced heating of NPs and the dispersion medium was determined and discussed.
We combine the characterization techniques of scanning AC nanocalorimetry and x-ray diffraction to study phase transformations in complex materials system. Micromachined nanocalorimeters have excellent performance for high-temperature and high-scanning-rate calorimetry measurements. Time-resolved X-ray diffraction measurements during in-situ operation of these devices using synchrotron radiation provide unprecedented characterization of thermal and structural material properties. We apply this technique to a Fe0.84Ni0.16 thin-film sample that exhibits a martensitic transformation with over 350 K hysteresis, using an average heating rate of 85 K/s and cooling rate of 275 K/s. The apparatus includes an array of nanocalorimeters in an architecture designed for combinatorial studies.
Water is a persistent background in virtually all biosensors, yet is difficult to quantify. We apply an interferometric optical balance to measure water film accumulation from air onto several types of prepared silica surfaces. The optical balance uses in-line common-path interferometry with balanced quadratures to measure the real-time accumulation of molecular films. The accumulated water thickness is sensitive to ambient conditions, with thicknesses that vary from picometers up to nanometers, even on hydrophobic silanized surfaces. These results demonstrate that water adsorption contributes an excess signal in dry label-free protein microarray optical biosensors and presents a fundamental limit to assay sensitivity.
Tools that are capable of manipulating micro-sized objects have been widely used in such fields as physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine. Several devices, including optical tweezers, atomic force microscope, micro-pipette aspirator, and standing surface wave type acoustic tweezers have been studied to satisfy this need. However, none of them has been demonstrated to be suitable for in vivo and clinical studies. Single beam acoustic tweezers (SBAT) is a technology that uses highly focused acoustic beam to trap particles toward the beam focus. Its feasibility was first theoretically and experimentally demonstrated by Lee and Shung several years ago. Since then, much effort has been devoted to improving this technology. At present, the tool is capable of trapping a microparticle as small as 1 μm, as well as a single red blood cell. Although in comparing to other microparticles manipulating technologies, SBAT has advantages of providing stronger trapping force and deeper penetration depth in tissues, and producing less tissue damage, its potential for in vivo applications has yet been explored. It is worth noting that ultrasound has been used as a diagnostic tool for over 50 years and no known major adverse effects have been observed at the diagnostic energy level. This paper reports the results of an initial attempt to assess the feasibility of single beam acoustic tweezers to trap microparticles in vivo inside of a blood vessel. The acoustic intensity of SBAT under the trapping conditions that were utilized was measured. The mechanical index and thermal index at the focus of acoustic beam were found to be 0.48 and 0.044, respectively, which meet the standard of commercial diagnostic ultrasound system.
Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (CMUTs) operating in immersion support dispersive evanescent waves due to the subwavelength periodic structure of electrostatically actuated membranes in the array. Evanescent wave characteristics also depend on the membrane resonance which is modified by the externally applied bias voltage, offering a mechanism to tune the CMUT array as an acoustic metamaterial. The dispersion and tunability characteristics are examined using a computationally efficient, mutual radiation impedance based approach to model a finite-size array and realistic parameters of variation. The simulations are verified, and tunability is demonstrated by experiments on a linear CMUT array operating in 2-12 MHz range.
Our recently developed ultrasound-switchable fluorescence (USF) imaging technique showed that it was feasible to conduct high-resolution fluorescence imaging in a centimeter-deep turbid medium. Because the spatial resolution of this technique highly depends on the ultrasound-induced temperature focal size (UTFS), minimization of UTFS becomes important for further improving the spatial resolution USF technique. In this study, we found that UTFS can be significantly reduced below the diffraction-limited acoustic intensity focal size via nonlinear acoustic effects and thermal confinement by appropriately controlling ultrasound power and exposure time, which can be potentially used for deep-tissue high-resolution imaging.
The purpose of this paper is to present a rapid and simple method to evaluate the trapping performance of high frequency focused ultrasonic transducers for acoustic tweezer applications. The method takes into consideration the friction between the particle to be trapped and the surface that it resides on. As a result it should be more reliable and accurate than the methods proposed previously. The trapping force produced by a 70-MHz press-focused transducer was measured to evaluate the performance of this approach. This method demonstrates its potential in optimizing the excitation conditions for acoustic tweezer applications and the design of acoustic tweezers.
Acoustic droplet vaporization is investigated in a theoretical model. This work is motivated by gas embolotherapy, a developmental cancer treatment involving tumor infarction with gas microbubbles that are selectively formed from liquid droplets. The results indicate that there exists a threshold value for initial droplet size below which the bubble evolution is oscillatory and above which it is smooth and asymptotic, and show that the vaporization process affects the subsequent microbubble expansion. Dampening of the bubble expansion is observed for higher viscosity and surface tension, with effects more pronounced for droplet size less than 6 mum in radius.
Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) is the selective vaporization of liquid microdroplets using ultrasound to produce stable gas bubbles. ADV is the primary mechanism in an ultrasound based cancer therapy, called gas embolotherapy, where the resulting bubbles are used to create localized occlusions leading to tumor necrosis. In this investigation, early time scale events including phase change are directly visualized using ultra-high speed imaging. Modulating elevated acoustic pressure or pulse length resulted in toroidal bubbles. For sufficiently short pulses (4 cycles at 7.5 MHz), toroidal bubble formation could be avoided, regardless of acoustic pressures tested.
A high frequency ultrasonic phased array is shown to be capable of trapping and translating microparticles precisely and efficiently, made possible due to the fact that the acoustic beam produced by a phased array can be both focused and steered. Acoustic manipulation of microparticles by a phased array is advantageous over a single element transducer since there is no mechanical movement required for the array. Experimental results show that 45 μm diameter polystyrene microspheres can be easily and accurately trapped and moved to desired positions by a 64-element 26 MHz phased array.
A single beam acoustic device, with its relatively simple scheme and low intensity, can trap a single lipid droplet in a manner similar to optical tweezers. Forces in the order of hundreds of nanonewtons direct the droplet toward the beam focus, within the range of hundreds of micrometers. This trapping method, therefore, can be a useful tool for particle manipulation in areas where larger particles or forces are involved.
Merging acoustofluidic mixing with optofluidic integration, we have demonstrated a single-layer, planar, optofluidic switch that is driven by acoustically excited oscillating microbubbles. The device was found to have a switching speed of 5 Hz, an insertion loss of 6.02 dB, and an extinction ratio of 28.48 dB. With its simplicity, low fluid consumption, and compatibility with other microfluidic devices, our design could lead to a line of inexpensive, yet effective optical switches for many lab-on-a-chip applications.
Acoustophoretic separation in microchannels offers a promising avenue for high-throughput, label-free, cell and particle separation for many applications. However, previous acoustophoretic separation approaches have been limited to a single size separation threshold, analogous to a binary filter, (i.e., high-pass or low-pass). Here, we describe a tunable acoustophoretic separation architecture capable of sorting cells and particles based on a range of sizes, analogous to a band-pass filter. The device is capable of sorting an arbitrary range of particle sizes between 3 and 10 mum in diameter with high efficiency (transfer fraction=0.98+/-0.02) at a throughput of approximately 10(8) particleshmicrochannel.
Ultrasound-activated microbubbles were used as actuators to deform microvessels for quantifying microvessel relaxation timescales at megahertz frequencies. Venules containing ultrasound contrast microbubbles were insonified by short 1 MHz ultrasound pulses. Vessel wall forced-deformations were on the same microsecond timescale as microbubble oscillations. The subsequent relaxation of the vessel was recorded by high-speed photomicrography. The tissue was modeled as a simple Voigt solid. Relaxation time constants were measured to be on the order of ∼10 μs. The correlation coefficients between the model and 38 data sets were never lower than 0.85, suggesting this model is sufficient for modeling tissue relaxation at these frequencies. The results place a bound on potential numerical values for viscosity and elasticity of venules.
A new method to achieve real information recording with a density above 1 Tbit∕in.(2) in ferroelectric data storage systems is proposed. In this system, data bits were written in the form of the polarization direction, and the data were read by scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy technique. The domain-switching characteristics of the virgin and inversely prepolarized media were compared, and the conditions of the pulse voltage for writing were optimized. As a result, actual data containing 64×64 bits were recorded at an areal density of 4 Tbit∕in.(2). The bit error rate was evaluated to be 1.2×10(-2).
The bullfrog sacculus contains mechanically sensitive hair cells whose stereociliary bundles oscillate spontaneously when decoupled from the overlying membrane. Steady-state offsets on the resting position of a hair bundle can suppress or modulate this native motility. To probe the dynamics of spontaneous oscillation in the proximity of the critical point, we describe here a method for mechanical actuation that avoids loading the bundles or contributing to the viscous drag. Magnetite beads were attached to the tips of the stereocilia, and a magnetic probe was used to impose deflections. This technique allowed us to observe the transition from multi-mode to single-mode state in freely oscillating bundles, as well as the crossover from the oscillatory to the quiescent state.
We present a method for the numerical correction of optical aberrations based on indirect sensing of the scattered wavefront from point-like scatterers ("guide stars") within a three-dimensional broadband interferometric tomogram. This method enables the correction of high-order monochromatic and chromatic aberrations utilizing guide stars that are revealed after numerical compensation of defocus and low-order aberrations of the optical system. Guide-star-based aberration correction in a silicone phantom with sparse sub-resolution-sized scatterers demonstrates improvement of resolution and signal-to-noise ratio over a large isotome. Results in highly scattering muscle tissue showed improved resolution of fine structure over an extended volume. Guide-star-based computational adaptive optics expands upon the use of image metrics for numerically optimizing the aberration correction in broadband interferometric tomography, and is analogous to phase-conjugation and time-reversal methods for focusing in turbid media.
A polymer composite was prepared by embedding fillers made of self-passivated aluminum particles in two kind of sizes, micrometer size and nanometer size with different volume proportions into polyvinylidene fluoride matrix. The thermal conductivity and dielectric properties of the composite were studied. The results showed that the thermal conductivity of composites was significantly increased to 3.258 W∕mK when the volume proportion of micrometer size Al particles to nanometer size Al particles is at 20:1, also the relative permittivity was about 75.8 at 1 MHz. The effective simulation model values were in good accordance with experimental results.
Nanomechanical motion of bacteria adhered to a chemically functionalized silicon surface is studied by means of a microcantilever. A non-specific binding agent is used to attach Escherichia coli (E. coli) to the surface of a silicon microcantilever. The microcantilever is kept in a liquid medium, and its nanomechanical fluctuations are monitored using an optical displacement transducer. The motion of the bacteria couples efficiently to the microcantilever well below its resonance frequency, causing a measurable increase in the microcantilever fluctuations. In the time domain, the fluctuations exhibit large-amplitude low-frequency oscillations. In corresponding frequency-domain measurements, it is observed that the mechanical energy is focused at low frequencies with a 1/f(α) -type power law. A basic physical model is used for explaining the observed spectral distribution of the mechanical energy. These results lay the groundwork for understanding the motion of microorganisms adhered to surfaces and for developing micromechanical sensors for bacteria.
With a lipid shell containing biotin, micron-sized bubbles bound to avidin on a porous and flexible cellulose boundary were insonified by ultrasound. The oscillation of these targeted microbubbles was observed by high-speed photography and compared to the oscillation of free-floating microbubbles. Adherent microbubbles were observed to oscillate asymmetrically in the plane normal to the boundary, and nearly symmetrically in the plane parallel to the boundary, with a significantly smaller maximum expansion in each dimension for bound than free bubbles. With sufficient transmitted pressure, a jet was produced traveling toward the boundary.
In the present study we engineered a micro-machined polyimide cantilever with an embedded sensing element to investigate cellular adhesion, in terms of its relative ability to stick to a cross-linker, 3,3'-dithiobis[sulfosuccinimidylpropionate], coated on the cantilever surface. To achieve this objective, we investigated adhesive properties of three human prostate cancer cell lines, namely, a bone metastasis derived human prostate cancer cell line (PC3), a brain metastasis derived human prostate cancer cell line (DU145), and a subclone of PC3 (PC3-EMT14). We found that PC3-EMT14, which displays a mesenchymal phenotype, has the least adhesion compared to PC3 and DU145, which exhibit an epithelial phenotype.
Measurements of specific-absorption-rate (SAR) of silica 30, 50, and 100 nm nanoparticles (NP) suspended in water were carried out at 30 MHz in 7 kV/m radio-frequency (rf) electric field. Size dependent, NP-suspension interface related heating of silica NP was observed. To investigate a possible mechanism of heating, bovine serum albumin was adsorbed on the surface of silica NPs in suspension. It resulted in significant enhancement of SAR when compared to bare silica NPs. A calorimetric and rf loss model was used to calculate effective conductivity of silica NP with/without adsorbed albumin as a function of silica size and albumin concentration.
We study the adsorption of gold nanospheres onto cylindrical and spherical glass surfaces from quiescent particle suspensions. The surfaces consist of tapers and microspheres fabricated from optical fibers and were coated with a polycation, enabling irreversible nanosphere adsorption. Our results fit well with theory, which predicts that particle adsorption rates depend strongly on surface geometry and can exceed the planar surface deposition rate by over two orders of magnitude when particle diffusion length is large compared to surface curvature. This is particularly important for plasmonic sensors and other devices fabricated by depositing nanoparticles from suspensions onto surfaces with non-trivial geometries.
This letter describes an experimental test of a simple argument that predicts the scaling of chaotic mixing in a droplet moving through a winding microfluidic channel. Previously, scaling arguments for chaotic mixing have been described for a flow that reduces striation length by stretching, folding, and reorienting the fluid in a manner similar to that of the baker's transformation. The experimentally observed flow patterns within droplets (or plugs) resembled the baker's transformation. Therefore, the ideas described in the literature could be applied to mixing in droplets to obtain the scaling argument for the dependence of the mixing time, t~(aw/U)log(Pe), where w [m] is the cross-sectional dimension of the microchannel, a is the dimensionless length of the plug measured relative to w, U [m s(-1)] is the flow velocity, Pe is the Péclet number (Pe=wU/D), and D [m(2)s(-1)] is the diffusion coefficient of the reagent being mixed. Experiments were performed to confirm the scaling argument by varying the parameters w, U, and D. Under favorable conditions, submillisecond mixing has been demonstrated in this system.
Comprehensive analysis of fluorescence of albumin shows a weak fluorescence band at 430 nm, whose intensity exhibits a remarkable sensitivity to the presence of heavy ions in water. Using this fluorescence as a marker, as low as 10 pM concentration of lead can be routinely detected. Such a great sensitivity is explained in terms of electrostatic interactions in solution, which promote protein agglomeration. The latter is independently confirmed using dynamic light scattering measurements. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3246792]
AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to measure electrical characteristics of physisorbed gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) functionalized with alkanethiols with a terminal methyl, amine, or carboxyl functional group. Additional alkanethiol was physisorbed onto the NP treated devices to distinguish between the effects of the Au NPs and alkanethiols on HEMT operation. Scanning Kelvin probe microscopy and electrical measurements were used to characterize the treatment effects. The HEMTs were operated near threshold voltage due to the greatest sensitivity in this region. The Au NP/HEMT system electrically detected functional group differences on adsorbed NPs which is pertinent to biosensor applications.
Axonal growth and the formation of synaptic connections are key steps in the
development of the nervous system. Here we present experimental and theoretical
results on axonal growth and interconnectivity in order to elucidate some of
the basic rules that neuronal cells use for functional connections with one
another. We demonstrate that a unidirectional nanotextured surface can bias
axonal growth. We perform a systematic investigation of neuronal processes on
asymmetric surfaces and quantify the role that biomechanical surface cues play
in neuronal growth. These results represent an important step towards
engineering directed axonal growth for neuro-regeneration studies.
An aluminum bow-tie nano-antenna is combined with the resonance Raman effect in the deep ultraviolet to dramatically increase the sensitivity of Raman spectra to a small volume of material, such as benzene used here. We further demonstrate gradient-field Raman peaks for several strong infrared modes. We achieve a gain of [Formula: see text] in signal intensity from the near field enhancement due to the surface plasmon resonance in the aluminum nanostructure. The on-line resonance enhancement contributes another factor of several thousands, limited by the laser line width. Thus, an overall gain of hundreds of million is achieved.
This paper reveals a critical limitation in the electro-hydraulic analogy between a microfluidic membrane-valve (μMV) and an electronic transistor. Unlike typical transistors that have similar on and off threshold voltages, in hydraulic μMVs, the threshold pressures for opening and closing are significantly different and can change, even for the same μMVs depending on overall circuit design and operation conditions. We explain, in particular, how the negative values of the closing threshold pressures significantly constrain operation of even simple hydraulic μMV circuits such as autonomously switching two-valve microfluidic oscillators. These understandings have significant implications in designing self-regulated microfluidic devices.
The electronic and optical properties of Eu/Si-codoped anatase TiO(2) are investigated using the density functional theory. The calculated results show that the synergistic effects of Eu/Si codoping can effectively extend the optical absorption edge, which can lead to higher visible-light photocatalytic activities than pure anatase TiO(2). To verify the reliability of our calculated results, nanocrystalline Eu/Si-codoped TiO(2) is prepared by a sol-gel-solvothermal method, and the experimental results also indicate that the codoping sample exhibits better absorption performance and higher photocatalytic activities than pure TiO(2).
A Talbot-Lau interferometer is demonstrated using micro-periodic gratings inclined at a glancing angle along the light propagation direction. Due to the increase in the effective thickness of the absorption gratings, the device enables differential phase contrast imaging at high x-ray energy, with improved fringe visibility (contrast). For instance, at 28° glancing angle, we obtain up to ∼35% overall interferometer contrast with a spectrum having ∼43 keV mean energy, suitable for medical applications. In addition, glancing angle interferometers could provide high contrast at energies above 100 keV, enabling industrial and security applications of phase contrast imaging.
Two types of periodic nanostructures, self-organized nanodots and nanolines, were fabricated on the surfaces of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films using femtosecond laser pulse irradiation. Multiple periodicities (approximately 800 nm and 400 nm) were clearly observed on the ITO films with nanodot and nanoline structures and were identified using two-dimensional Fourier transformation patterns. Both nanostructures show the anisotropic transmission characteristics in the visible range, which are strongly correlated with the geometry and the metallic content of the laser-induced nanostructures.