Applied Geography

Published by Elsevier
Online ISSN: 0143-6228
Publications
Article
Demographic transition theory sees the transition from high to low fertility as being irreversible. The experience of many countries shows that population policies can have a role in promoting this transition. Singapore is unique, however, in instituting pro-natalist policies in an effort to reverse the decline in fertility, itself brought about by strong policy intervention. Singapore is thus treated as a case study to address the more general question of whether population policies can reverse the demographic transition. Official demographic statistics only reveal aggregate trends, however, and a micro-level analysis, based on a sample questionnaire survey of Singapore households undertaken in 1992, is used to assess the impact of government population planning. Evidence of policy success to date is limited and future success is likely to hinge upon the effectiveness of the government's educational campaign. Attention is drawn to the wider significance, both practical and theoretical, of Singapore's experience.
 
Article
Migration-environment models tend to be aspatial within chosen study regions, although associations between temporary outmigration and environmental explanatory variables likely vary across the study space. This research extends current approaches by developing migration models considering spatial non-stationarity and temporal variation - through examination of the migration-environment association at nested geographic scales (i.e. whole-population, village, and subvillage) within a specific study site. Demographic survey data from rural South Africa, combined with indicators of natural resource availability from satellite imagery, are employed in a nested modeling approach that brings out distinct patterns of spatial variation in model associations derived at finer geographic scales. Given recent heightened public and policy concern with the human migratory implications of climate change, we argue that consideration of spatial variability adds important nuance to scientific understanding of the migration-environment association.
 
Article
Formal population policies are now common in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly to directly facilitate fertility decline. They tend to be underpinned more by ideology that by systematic data collection and analysis. A case study of policies to promote fertility decline in Kenya, where fertility has fallen substantially in recent years, illustrates how population data, particularly from the 1989 and 1993 Demographic and Health Surveys, have been used by government and international agencies to validate rather than to inform official policies.
 
Article
"Explicit policies on return migration are of rather recent date in most European countries, including Sweden. During the last few years a number of new policy initiatives have been taken in this field. The purpose of this paper is to examine how official Swedish policies on return migration have changed during the last 20 years. The conclusion is that Sweden has moved from a ¿non-policy' in the 1970s, much in opposition to ¿guestworker' or rotation systems, towards an active and explicit policy promoting return in the mid-1990s. The major trends in the country's immigration, emigration and return flows are also presented."
 
Article
What happens to the land cover within the hinterland's altitudinal belts while Central Andean cities are undergoing globalization and urban restructuring? What conclusions can be drawn about changes in human land use? By incorporating a regional altitudinal zonation model, direct field observations and GIS analyses of remotely sensed long term data, the present study examines these questions using the example of Huancayo Metropolitano – an emerging Peruvian mountain city of 420,000 inhabitants, situated at 3260 m asl in the Mantaro Valley. The study's results indicate that rapid urban growth during the late 1980s and early 1990s was followed by the agricultural intensification and peri-urban condominization at the valley floor (quechua) – since the beginning of Peru's neoliberal era. Moreover, regarding the adjoining steep slopes (suni) and subsequent grassland ecosystems (puna), the research output presents land cover change trajectories that clearly show an expansion of human land use, such as reforestation for wood production and range burning for livestock grazing, even at high altitudes – despite rural–urban migration trends and contrary to several results of extra-Andean studies. Consequently, rural–urban planners and policy makers are challenged to focus on the manifold impacts of globalization on human land use – at all altitudinal belts of the Andean city's hinterland: toward sustainable mountain development that bridges the social and physical gaps – from the bottom up.
 
Article
"Although Australia dismantled its ethnically discriminatory, immigrant-selection policy in the early 1970s, ethnicity remains--implicitly and unofficially--a significant consideration in its immigration policies and practices. The paper outlines the traditional ¿White Australia' policy before describing the operation and impact of the new selection policies and the associated official commitment to multiculturalism. The causes, regional pattern and acceptability of the modern Asianization of immigration are then assessed. The final section indicates how ethnic-origin preferences continue to operate in an apparently non-discriminatory selection policy, largely through the management of demand by placements of Australian migration officers in particular locations overseas."
 
Article
Analysis of cancer data, particularly with a small geographic unit, often suffers from the small population (numbers) problem, which causes unstable rate estimates and data suppression in sparsely populated areas. This research proposes a regionalization approach to mitigate the problem by constructing larger areas in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) that are more coherent than geopolitical areas or arbitrary zip code area and census units in terms of attribute and spatial closeness. The method is applied to analysis of late-stage breast cancer risks in Illinois in 2000. Cancer rates in these newly-constructed areas have sufficiently large base population, and are thus more reliable and also conform to a normal distribution. This permits direct mapping, exploratory spatial data analysis, and even simple OLS regression. The method can be used to effectively mitigate the small population problem commonly encountered in analysis of public health data.
 
Article
"While 'closed-door' immigration policies are adopted by most countries, 'exceptionalist' legislation is often made to permit entry of special immigrant groups. An example is the British Nationality (Hong Kong) Act 1990, which was passed in the run-up to the change in sovereignty of Hong Kong in 1997. Britain's increasingly restrictive immigration policies prior to 1990 [have] resulted in the majority of Hong Kong citizens having British nationality (as British Dependent Territories citizens) but without the right of abode in the U.K. The 1990 Act conferred full British citizenship status on 50,000 heads of households in Hong Kong." The authors conclude that "in a world of marked global inequalities, immigration pressure will become even more extreme and is likely to produce an increasing number of cases of exceptionalist immigration legislation in countries with both ¿open' and 'closed'-door policies.'
 
Article
PIP This study compares the theses of Mamdami, that India's poor have large families as an investment, and Vlassoff, that only a weak connection exists between a child's economic utility and household fertility. Data used in the study were based on a sample of 18 children in Bihar state, India, on 1) expenditures on children, 2) opportunity costs of raising children, 3) child earnings, 4) child earnings given to parents, 5) alternative investments, 6) discount rates appropriate for parents to use, 7) parents' perceptions of the economic value of children, and 8) family size. Costs estimated included food, clothing, schooling, health, other, and opportunity costs in bearing and raising children. Benefits include estimated values for work within and outside the family. 2 balances indicate that 7 or 8 children, aged 6 to 15, provide more labor than they cost to keep. Data suggest that children become valuable to parents at about age 9 or 10. From this age on, benefits increasingly outweigh costs; by the age of 16 or 17, children have repaid their initial costs to parents. Comparing the value of children against local bank interest rates shows that in all cases but one, children provided a better economic investment than savings accounts. The authors suggest that children are an even greater economic investment in poorer households. Doling out condoms and pills is no substitute for child wealth. In Bihar, improving people's economic well-being may be a prerequisite to fertility decline.
 
Article
The paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of two recent conferences concerned with population policies, and in particular contrasts academic research on the topic with the views expressed at the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development. Four main policy conclusions are reached from synthesizing recent applied geographical work on the topic.
 
Article
PIP This paper measures farmland size per capita, fallow index and fragmentation index as indices of land resource depletion and population pressure in the heavily populated southeastern Awka-Nnewi of Nigeria. Population density in the area ranges from 574-2403 persons per square km, increasing annually at 3%. The soils are porous, sandy, with extensive gully erosion. Land is subdivided in each generation such that each male child receives a parcel of his father's land. There are other pressures on land parcels, notably for residential use. Soils have become depleted from intense cropping such that yams can no longer be grown and people subsist on cassava. Data were collected from 290 households in 36 towns and villages. The 3 variables were defined mathematically, and tabulated for each village. Then a correlation matrix was computed between the independent and dependent variables. All 3 variables, land per capita, fallow and land depletion, were significantly inversely correlated with population density (p.01), the fragmentation index to the greatest degree. All dependent variables were significantly and positively correlated. Scatter diagrams suggested that the worst hit areas were the central towns, and the least affected areas were the peripheral zones along the rivers and floodplains. Although federal regulations have been passed to make land redistribution easier, local custom makes it unlikely that people will resettle voluntarily to outlying areas because of traditions of land ownership. Similarly, government measures to encourage conservation and recovery of eroded land have not been successful, and food shortages are beginning to occur.
 
Article
Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) and animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT) are significant health concerns throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa. Funding for tsetse fly control operations has decreased since the 1970s, which has in turn limited the success of campaigns to control the disease vector. To maximize the effectiveness of the limited financial resources available for tsetse control, this study develops and analyzes spatially and temporally dynamic tsetse distribution maps of Glossina subgenus Morsitans populations in Kenya from January 2002 to December 2010, produced using the Tsetse Ecological Distribution Model. These species distribution maps reveal seasonal variations in fly distributions. Such variations allow for the identification of "control reservoirs" where fly distributions are spatially constrained by fluctuations in suitable habitat and tsetse population characteristics. Following identification of the control reservoirs, a tsetse management operation is simulated in the control reservoirs using capital and labor control inputs from previous studies. Finally, a cost analysis, following specific economic guidelines from existing tsetse control analyses, is conducted to calculate the total cost of a nationwide control campaign of the reservoirs compared to the cost of a nationwide campaign conducted at the maximum spatial extent of the fly distributions from January 2002 to December 2010. The total cost of tsetse management within the reservoirs sums to $14,212,647, while the nationwide campaign at the maximum spatial extent amounts to $33,721,516. This savings of $19,508,869 represents the importance of identifying seasonally dynamic control reservoirs when conducting a tsetse management campaign, and, in the process, offers an economical means of fly control and disease management for future program planning.
 
Article
This paper demonstrates the importance of disaggregating population data aggregated by census tracts or other units, for more realistic population distribution/location. A newly-developed mapping method, the Cadastral-based Expert Dasymetric System (CEDS), calculates population in hyper-heterogeneous urban areas better than traditional mapping techniques. A case study estimating population potentially impacted by flood hazard in New York City compares the impacted population determined by CEDS with that derived by centroid-containment method and filtered areal weighting interpolation. Compared to CEDS, 37 percent and 72 percent fewer people are estimated to be at risk from floods city-wide, using conventional areal weighting of census data, and centroid-containment selection, respectively. Undercounting of impacted population could have serious implications for emergency management and disaster planning. Ethnic/racial populations are also spatially disaggregated to determine any environmental justice impacts with flood risk. Minorities are disproportionately undercounted using traditional methods. Underestimating more vulnerable sub-populations impairs preparedness and relief efforts.
 
Article
"The growth of large urban aggregates (megacities) is analogous to the development of self-organized structures known in physics. Using empirical data about changes in the built-up areas of different cities as input, the self-organizing model employed here suggests that megacities evolve towards a hierarchical form of spatial organization, and provides estimates of the size of subclusters that compose the urban aggregate.... The model has been validated by reproducing the evolution of the Berlin area over a period of 35 years (1910-45). Using the same assumptions, the evolution of the built-up area of Daegu (Korea) is simulated up to the year 2010."
 
Article
The HIV/AIDS epidemic remains a major public health issue across the globe, and it is of particular concern in sub-Saharan Africa. Utilization of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services can significantly impact HIV prevention, transmission, and treatment. SRH service utilization may be determined by individual characteristics, such as education and economic status, but also by the location and accessibility of health care facilities. Using population-based survey data, this study applies exploratory spatial analysis techniques to examine spatial patterns of SRH service utilization among rural married women in southern Mozambique. Clustering among those using services is found as are spatial associations, indicating significant spatial variability in the utilization of health services. The findings provide valuable insights for current and future health care program planning and configuration.
 
Article
"In the Netherlands, the sharp recent increase of the number of refugee immigrants (asylum seekers) runs parallel to increased numbers of immigrants of other types. Therefore, at least five types of immigrants should still be distinguished (labour migrants, migrants from former colonies, from EU countries, from other rich countries, and asylum seekers). Their spatial orientation in the Netherlands (urban, suburban, rural), by choice or by constraint, is the main focus of this study. The outcomes of the immigration processes have been confronted with general and spatial characteristics of the labour market and housing market. Matches and mismatches are discussed."
 
Article
PIP The effect of various government policies on migration patterns in Tunisia in the absence of a specific policy on internal migration and spatial distribution is analyzed. A review of possible measures available for altering migration patterns is presented. The author concludes that long-term changes in population distribution can only be achieved by specific migration policies that seek to modify the urban bias in the aspirations of migrant populations or that try to alter fundamentally the structure of national settlement systems.
 
Article
"This paper is concerned with ascertaining the impact of population on the spatial pattern of public service provision in Nigeria.... Using a set of population and revenue variables as explanatory variables, a step-wise multiple regression model was employed to determine the impact of these variables on the provision of selected public services. The results of the analyses show that urban population is generally more important than total population in explaining the spatial pattern of public services. Generally speaking, the revenue variables are even more important in this regard, especially the internal revenue of states.... One implication of these results is that ability to pay, rather than need, is the basis for public service provision in Nigeria. Thus, the richer and more developed states are better off than the less developed ones, irrespective of population size."
 
Article
The southern part of France near the Mediterranean Sea is subject to flash floods generated by heavy rainfalls typical of the Mediterranean climate. In November 1999 (the 12th and 13th) and in September 2002 (the 8th and 9th), 5000 km2 were touched by rainfalls superior to 200 mm in the departments of Aude and Gard. In both cases, maximum precipitation exceeded 500 mm within 24 h. The damage amounted in the hundreds of millions of euros, and there were numerous fatalities: 35 in 1999, and 23 in 2002. Following a survey of available data, this article details the cost of the damage for both flash flood events. The distribution of the damage is quantified by sector of activity (e.g., industry, agriculture). The average ratio “euros of loss per inhabitant” is quite similar in both cases, but this average hides some geographical discrepancies. Losses in industry can locally worsen the overall toll. The mapping of damage on a local scale and the amount of losses per inhabitant demonstrate that rural areas underwent heavy losses. This was mostly due to the destruction of the public infrastructures (e.g., roads, bridges) that represented more than half of the overall loss. In some rural areas, the cost of flash floods can exceed 15,000 euros per inhabitant. Such flood prevention issues as flood warning systems and land use planning must not focus only on the cities. Death, injury and heavy material losses also disadvantage the rural and mountainous areas where populations and activities are concentrated near rivers.
 
Article
The potential for using the artificial radionuclide caesium-137 to estimate rates of ground retreat on mining spoils is introduced. The 137Cs contents of cores from slope transects on a regraded opencast infill at Waunafon, Gwent are compared with long-term erosion pin measurements from adjacent slopes. The data suggest an inverse relationship between 137Cs inventory and measured ground retreat. Additional measurements from an unvegetated slope indicate that 137Cs depletion is partially explained by topographic factors, particularly slope curvature. Anomalies between the 137Cs measurements, erosion pin data and erosion estimates from a mass balance procedure are discussed. The results suggest that 137Cs measurements may provide an efficient means of obtaining data on erosion rates in mining spoil environments but a number of uncertainties remain to be resolved.
 
Article
Redistribution of the globally deposited artificial radionuclide caesium-137 was used to quantify the net sediment flux in two agricultural fields. Accelerated erosion within the near-level field (mean slope 1.3°) was assumed to be primarily controlled by aeolian processes and the net output of sediment was 1.5 t ha−1 yr−1. The sediment delivery ratio of this field was approximately 11 per cent, which indicates significant sediment redistribution and storage within the field. The medium-sloping field (mean slope 3.0°) differed significantly from the near-level site in terms of landform element distribution, gradient, profile curvature and sediment redistribution. Using a digital elevation model erosion was found to be concentrated in divergent shoulder elements in upslope areas of the field. Deposition was primarily concentrated in convergent footslope elements. The net sediment output was 6.6 t ha−1 yr−1, with a sediment delivery ratio of 22 per cent. Rill and interrill erosion were assumed to be the major processes active within the medium-sloping field since 81 per cent of the sample points had slopes in excess of 2°, which is considered to be the lower boundary for rill initiation on loamy soils. Accelerated erosion is ubiquitous on both fields with 54–75 per cent of the sample points experiencing net erosion in excess of the rate of soil formation (1.0 t ha−1yr−1). In addition, 30 per cent of the near-level sites and 64 per cent of the medium-sloping sites exceeded the upper boundary of soil loss tolerance (T-value), which is 11 t ha−1 yr−1. These data have significant implications for soil quality and sustainable agricultural development within the Canadian prairies.
 
Article
There is concern about the rate of sheet erosion in the catchment of one of Sydney's water-supply reservoirs. A survey of net soil loss using the caesium-137 technique was carried out in a 7-ha subcatchment near Goulburn, New South Wales, Australia. Caesium-137, a fallout isotope of atmospheric thermonuclear weapons tests, because of its useful radioactive half-life (30 years), and because it becomes rapidly and firmly attached to surface soils, can be used as a radiotracer of soil movement. A survey of three toposequences within the subcatchment revealed that the 137Cs distribution corresponded with a previously established 137Cs sediment hillslope model. An existing regression equation, relating long-term soil loss from plots to 137Cs loss, was used to calculate net soil loss within the basin. Results indicated that soil losses due to sheet erosion were between zero and 1093kgha−1yr−1.
 
Article
Afforestation in the United Kingdom is largely a twentieth-century phenomenon and water authorities have been one of the major agencies responsible for its appearance in the landscape. This paper traces the development of afforestation by the Derwent Valley Water Board in the Derwent and Ashop valleys, Derbyshire, between 1936 and 1973. Archive material from the Derwent Valley Water Board (now the Severn Trent Water Authority) is used to illustrate the management problems involved with large-scale afforestation schemes. An assessment of the success of the afforestation is made in relation to the financial, employment and access aims of the scheme.
 
Article
The article deals with the development of the legal profession in the former German Democratic Republic after 1949 and in the five new Bundesländer since 3 October 1990, the day of German unification. It shows the transition from the traditional western concept of an independent bar to a profession bound by socialist ideals. The process of change before, and the development after, unification are highlighted from the viewpoints of the East German bar's perception of itself, the financial and social background and of the inequality in the provision of legal services within East Germany and in comparison to the West. The paper concludes that there are still significant differences in the provision of legal services in East and West Germany, and that the legal profession faces a formidable challenge to its self-regulating abilities.
 
Article
During the 1940s and 1950s, massive facilities were built in the United States to design, construct and test nuclear weapons. What has been the impact of these facilities on the employment, income and population of the surrounding areas? Doubt exists about whether the national security mission was good for the regions where the facilities were built. Using four counties adjacent to the 310-square mile Savannah River nuclear weapons site, we apply a method that estimates the impact by comparing the growth of the counties to a set of counties that were similar prior to the construction of the nuclear weapons facilities. This counterfactual method identified large increases in employment, income and population during the 1950s and the mid-1980s in two counties with weapons facilities. But no benefits and perhaps a negative impact appeared for a third county. The DOE and its contractors are dramatically reducing employment and budgets at Savannah River and other weapons sites. Employment at the site has fallen from over 25 000 in 1992 to less than 17 000 in 1996. It may drop to 8000 if no new `missions' are created. Federal policy toward these regions is discussed in light of these intra-regional variations in economic impact.
 
Article
An assessment of the spatial dimension of tropical cyclone hazard potential in the South China Sea is based on an analysis of gridded tropical cyclone frequency data, covering the period 1970–1989. Analysis reveals that the inter-annual variations in the areal extent and spatial dispersion of tropical cyclone activity can be used as an index of tropical cyclone hazard potential in the South China Sea. Perturbations in the tropical ocean-atmosphere system, as manifest by the occurrence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation events through their control on the synoptic atmospheric circulation environment, are also shown to have marked impacts on the spatio-temporal characteristics of tropical cyclones. Implications for the general assessment of the tropical cyclone hazard potential in the South China Sea are discussed.
 
Location of the study area in Central Chile, between 33 51 0 00 00-34 07 0 55 00 S and 71 22 0 00 00-71 00 0 48 00 W. 
Land cover maps of the study area in Central Chile for the years 1975, 1985, 1999 and 2008 and comparison of the respective extents of land cover classes by percentage of study area (study area ¼ 1,265,204 ha). 
Net change (i.e. gains minus losses), gains and losses for each land cover class as a percentage of the study area for the periods 1975-1985, 1985-1999 and 1999-2008 and for the whole study period, 1975-2008. 
Distribution of persistent pixels (i.e. those that never changed land cover type) and of pixels that showed one, two or three changes across the three periods analysed from 1975 to 2008. 
Major change trajectories and their contributions to net change in percentage of the study area (thick lines correspond to net change >3.2%, intermediate lines correspond to net changes between 1.6% and 3.2%, and thin lines correspond to net change <1.6%; only net contributions to change >10,000 ha or 0.8% of the study area are represented). 
Article
Land cover and its configuration in the landscape are crucial components in the provision of biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Mediterranean regions, natural landscapes mostly covered by evergreen vegetation have been to a large extent transformed into cultural landscapes since long time ago. We investigated land cover changes in Central Chile using multi-temporal satellite imagery taken in 1975, 1985, 1999 and 2008. The major trends in this highly dynamic landscape were reduction of dryland forest and conversion of shrubland to intensive land uses such as farmland. The average net annual deforestation rate was −1.7%, and shrubland reduction occurred at an annual rate of −0.7%; agriculture, urban areas and timber plantations increased at annual rates of 1.1%, 2.7% and 3.2%, respectively, during the 1975–2008 period. Total forest and shrubland loss rates were partly offset by passive revegetation. However, most of the areas that were passively revegetated remained as shrubland and did not turn into forests due to a low capacity of forest recovery. This resulted in a progressive loss and degradation of dryland forest over the entire region. Overall, the documented land cover changes increase provisioning services such as crops, cattle, and timber that are characteristic of cultural landscapes in the area but may cause an irreversible loss of biodiversity and a depletion of other ecological services provided by forests and shrubland. The implications for conservation of this area and the need for territorial planning and adapted land-use strategies are discussed.
 
Article
Malawi is critically short of fuelwood, the primary energy source for its poverty-stricken populace. Deforestation from 1981 to 1992 in Mwanza District in southern Malawi was assessed using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values calculated from multitemporal Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images. A control site, where vegetation change was assumed to be minimal, was used to account for the large effect of phenology on NDVI variability between images, and to reveal more subtle differences indicative of changes in percentage woody canopy cover. The average annual deforestation rate was estimated to be 1.8% in Mwanza District between 1981 and 1992.
 
Article
Farmland on the Downs between Lewes and Brighton suffered severe erosion during the autumn of 1982. The erosion was widespread and affected a variety of topographic situations, but it was confined to areas of arable land and recently-sown grass leys. Erosion on the scale recorded during the autumn of 1982 has never previously been recorded from this area. Three major sites of erosion are described and explanations for the erosion are sought through an analysis of rainfall conditions experienced during autumn 1982 and in recent changes in agricultural land use on the Downs. It is concluded that, whilst total rainfall and the intensity of rainstorms were both unusually high, similar events are likely to recur several times a century. Evidence is presented which suggests that the ploughing up of permanent pasture, the removal of field boundaries and the increased adoption of autumn-sown cereals have all contributed to the onset of severe erosion. It appears that a major re-activation of erosion on the Downs may be commencing which threatens the long-term viability of farming in the area.
 
Article
This paper looks at the locations and occupations of jobs taken by residents of socially deprived areas in Belfast using travel-to-work data from the 1991 Census of Population. It also examines the locations and occupations of jobs taken by residents of other parts of Belfast and Northern Ireland as part of the wider context. These data are used as a background for the discussion of the spatial targeting of jobs to areas of social deprivation and high unemployment. Although policies of this kind are increasingly important in Northern Ireland and in other parts of the UK, the analysis highlights two important problems. First, the well-known problem of ‘spatial leakage’ means that not all jobs located in deprived areas, particularly those in professional occupations, go to local residents. Secondly, residents of socially deprived areas have a greater representation in non-professional occupations in comparison with those who live in non-deprived locations. The implications of these findings are twofold. First, spatial units for labour market interventions might be more appropriately delimited to take account of observed travel-to-work flows. Secondly, to maximize job uptake by local residents of deprived areas, the jobs located there might be ‘appropriate’ in terms of existing occupational structures of the residents. However, this second recommendation might reinforce existing spatial and occupational divisions in the labour market since socially deprived areas could become, in a worst-case scenario, ‘sinks’ for low-grade employment. Because of this potential danger, supply-side education and training measures are also appropriate, as a supplement to job location policies, to enable residents of deprived locales to compete for a wider range of jobs wherever they are located.
 
Article
A summer thunderstorm of exceptional severity struck parts of south central England on 26 May 1993; some locations were affected by amounts of precipitation with return periods in excess of 1000 years. Little agricultural land was bare at the time but considerable erosion occurred on fields planted with maize and linseed. In Berkshire and Oxfordshire several villages were flooded. Severe rill and gully erosion in maize fields near Faringdon is described in detail. Rates of erosion exceeded 30 and in some areas 100 m3 ha−1, with mean rates estimated at 66 m3 ha−1 on 18 ha of maize fields. Runoff from the fields caused flooding in the town and the costs of damage were over £100000. The risk of erosion and off-site damage will increase should the area planted to maize and linseed increase in the future.
 
Article
The USA faces major challenges from flooding, with more than 12% of its population (over 30 million people) living in areas of periodic inundation. The National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) has offered flood insurance to renters, homeowners and businesses since the late 1960s, yet only about a quarter of those eligible have purchased policies that would reduce the risks caused by flooding. This research investigated why single-family homeowners do or do not choose to purchase flood insurance. The study was conducted within the context of the 1997 New Year’s Day flood in Reno, Nevada, an area with a long history of flooding. The paper discusses the evolution of the NFIP, focusing on the Reform Act of 1994 whereby the federal government attempted to mandate coverage and transfer decision-making responsibility from individuals to institutional lenders with links to the federal government. The most statistically significant variables in an individual’s decision to purchase flood insurance were found to include: (1) lender compliance; (2) perceptions of personal vulnerability to flooding relative to other hazards; (3) a concern that flooding will be a constant threat; and (4) concern that government assistance will not be adequate or forthcoming during a major flood disaster. While the Reform Act will no doubt increase flood insurance coverage, it has limitations; for example, not all dwellings fall under the purview of the new regulations (especially those outside of Special Flood Hazard Areas). Further, the paper questions whether the new regulations will, in fact, reduce risk, since the shift away from individual responsibility may cause some individuals to develop a ‘false sense of security’ and choose to forego any mitigation or preparation activity. Importantly, because the decision to purchase flood insurance as a form of hazard mitigation is still a voluntary choice for many individuals, it warrants continued study.
 
Article
Modern statistical and spatial statistical methodology—based upon generalized linear, mixed and semivariogram/autoregressive modeling theory—offers modeling techniques that are particularly suitable for analyzing sporting event attendances. Counts of attendees must be non-negative, and should follow a Poisson frequency distribution. The rapid expansion in recent years of US NCAA college football bowl games raises the practical research question of whether or not bowl game attendance (i.e., counts) can be predicted from readily available simple measures, which include: a team's win–loss record, distance separating a team's school from the city hosting its bowl game, and the payout of a bowl game. These three sets of variables are employed as covariates for predicting the geographic variation from city-to-city of college football bowl game attendance for the 2007–2008 season. A principal finding of this study is that bowl game attendance appears to be predictable with a contemporary spatial statistical model that is a special case of a Poisson probability model, whose mean is a linear combination of payoff levels and distance of the closer team to a stadium, two factors over which individual bowl organizing officials have some control. This analysis supplements and extends research findings pertaining to the mapping of intercollegiate sports and the geography of visitor attendance at college football games, and offers insight into factors over which cities hosting bowl games have some control.
 
Article
To date, a method for the cost-effective prediction of venue catchments, and hence the spatial distribution of EGM harm, has not been available at the local level. As a first step in developing such a method, we explore the utility of a gravity modeling approach to predict the spatial distribution of venue catchments in a metropolitan region of the Northern Territory, Australia. Key inputs for the model presented include existing venue and recently released ABS Mesh Block data. We subsequently perform a combinatory analysis that integrates the predicted venue catchments with an Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) measure of social disadvantage to generate a gambling vulnerability surface. The advantages of this approach are that it allows visualization of catchments for effective communication, is based upon existing and current data that is available publicly through the ABS making it cost-effective, and provides a fine-grained local-level assessment of gambling vulnerability for applied policy purposes.
 
Article
Logical framework analysis is an accepted and widely used part of the development practitioner's (including human geographer's) medley of techniques. It has recently been introduced to Papua New Guinea. Although a powerful tool for planning, appraisal and implementation of integrated rural development programmes and projects it has severe limitations, especially when applied to monitoring and evaluation. This is demonstrated in the Smallholder Market Access and Food Supply Programme of the Department of Agriculture and Livestock. The technique's sophistication and apparent holism is beguiling, for it excludes participation of beneficiaries and their logics. Paradoxically its very strength—its appeal to a modernist logic—may also prevent it being used to bring about a meaningful development process.
 
Article
The food desert metaphor has been widely used by academics and politicians alike. While there is general agreement on what a food desert is in a relatively vague sense, strategies to identify food deserts, especially in a rural setting, using a systematic method remain undefined. The purpose of this paper is to contribute towards the development of a method for rural food desert identification strategies using the location of food retailers and residential units. We apply a methodologically innovative GIS approach to the primarily rural state of Vermont, USA. Areas of inadequate geographic food access are identified and some are found to overlap with high poverty locations. Aims for future work are identified including fieldwork to validate these findings.
 
Article
An important methodological issue in accessibility research is how the results are affected by geographical scale. Understanding the scale effect and the associated modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP) is also important for the analysis of land use–travel interaction. Using a distinct type of accessibility measures, namely space–time measures, this study examines whether the relationships among accessibility, land use, and personal and household characteristics vary systematically with geographical scale. Space–time accessibility measures were implemented using an activity–travel diary data set collected in the Portland (Oregon, USA) metropolitan area. Through multilevel models, the study shows that these relationships are scale invariant.
 
Article
The World Health Organisation (WHO) has attempted to achieve ‘Health for All by the Year 2000’. However, this aim has been limited in its success and significant levels of poor health remain. The WHO concede this and have revised their slogan: ‘Health for All in the Twenty-First Century’. One of the central problems has been social and geographical inequity of development and, importantly, that health services are inaccessible to large segments of the population in many developing countries. To this end, the Jordanian government has attempted to improve accessibility in rural communities by providing an extensive network of basic rural health clinics. However, a significant factor impeding this goal has been that much of the population is dispersed and that many practise pastoral nomadism. This paper reviews the extent to which rural clinical services have been made accessible to the nomadic and sedentarizing population of the northeast Jordan Badia.
 
Article
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a leading cause of mortality in the US. Rates of mortality vary spatially and demographically, influenced not only by individual patient characteristics but also by levels of accessibility to hospital services and facilities. In 2000, Kentucky ranked third in the nation for heart-related deaths. The purpose of this paper is to assess geographical accessibility and service utilization related to ambulatory care sensitive CVDs in Kentucky. This study utilizes the Kentucky Hospital Discharge Database to evaluate service utilization and the Compressed Mortality File to examine mortality related to CVDs. A spatial statistical comparison of the geographical distribution of service usage and travel time to hospitals assists in assessing the relationship between accessibility and health. Our findings suggest that the distribution of utilization and mortality is geographically variable. People living in rural areas travel further to services; populations residing more than 45 min from health facilities are more likely to be socially and economically marginalized. Spatial clustering of high rates of hospital utilization occurs in areas with lower accessibility.
 
Article
This paper examines the significance of spatial context for the effective management of an important source of technological risk—major industrial accident hazards. It is argued that regulatory practice has so far failed to fully recognise the importance of the spatiality of risk burdens and that, as a consequence, there has been an inadequate focusing of risk management effort and resources where they are most clearly needed. This argument is developed by drawing on an analysis of the levels of residential population within designated risk zones around a sample of major accident hazard sites in the UK, and on examples of the consequences of ignoring population proximity in the allocation of required safety measures. Having analysed the consequences of regulation to date, the prospects for change and improvement under a forthcoming revision of European legislation are examined.
 
Article
The current level of emergency preparedness and planning for off-site releases of radioactivity from nuclear power plants in the United States and public reactions to it are reviewed. The major assumptions in these plans involving the responses of the public are highlighted and provide the context for a critique of such plans. Five major deficiencies in the planning efforts are discussed in detail. As currently developed, emergency response plans are far short of insuring maximum protection of the public health and safety of residents living around these facilities. More importantly, the plans simply may not work if implemented.
 
Article
The spatial distribution of UK farm-based tourist accommodation is not known in detail, although this type of facility has been an important element in the growth of rural tourism and the most common option for farm diversification. A database of farms in England and Wales offering tourist accommodation has been prepared and the individual entries georeferenced to enable their locations to be determined with respect to selected Scenic Areas (Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty, Heritage Coasts and National Parks). Exploratory analysis of this database indicates a possible ‘neighbourhood effect’ in which the provision of farm-based accommodation within buffer zones immediately surrounding these designated areas has a higher level of penetration in the farming community than in more distant areas. Further research is outlined to examine the interaction between actors in farming and planning communities using the geographical framework presented here.
 
Study area, Tsukuba city, Japan
Impact of classification approaches in spatial extent of land use/cover Approaches (area in %)
Article
The rapid growth of urban space and its environmental challenges require precise mapping techniques to represent complex earth surface features more accurately. In this study, we examined four mapping approaches (unsupervised, supervised, fuzzy supervised and GIS post-processing) using Advanced Land Observing Satellite images to predict urban land use and land cover of Tsukuba city in Japan. Intensive fieldwork was conducted to collect ground truth data. A random stratified sampling method was chosen to generate geographic reference data for each map to assess the accuracy. The accuracies of the maps were measured, producing error matrices and Kappa indices. The GIS post-processing approach proposed in this research improved the mapping results, showing the highest overall accuracy of 89.33% as compared to other approaches. The fuzzy supervised approach yielded a better accuracy (87.67%) than the supervised and unsupervised approaches. The fuzzy supervised approach effectively dealt with the heterogeneous surface features in residential areas. This paper presents the strengths of the mapping approaches and the potentials of the sensor for mapping urban areas, which may help urban planners monitor and interpret complex urban characteristics.
 
Article
The plight of people living on land subject to frequent and severe flooding constitutes the focus of this study. Development in such areas is generally the result of historical necessity or accident, and protection by engineering works is often not feasible. However valid the original reasons for settlement, the areas are now characterized by low property values, and deteriorating public utilities and housing stock. In keeping with the increasing government interest in issues of public safety, recreation and waterfront access, many Australian local authorities are now acting to alleviate the situation in these severely flood-prone areas. Their action is facilitated by recent policy initiatives at the state and federal levels of government.One approach gaining acceptance as a means of providing permanent solutions to otherwise intractable flood problems is the purchase or acquisition of the property by government on a voluntary basis. This approach appears to have the potential to contribute to other community aims; for example, the provision of waterfront recreation and preservation of natural floodplain storage.This paper presents the case for acquisition by establishing where and how the strategy should be implemented. In doing so it attempts to provide an improved basis for floodplain land use decisions.
 
Article
The awareness of water quality issues has never been higher. As part of its continuing strategic diffuse pollution policy support, ADAS recently undertook to identify catchments across England and Wales that could potentially fail recently proposed suspended sediment yield targets under current environmental conditions. The total suspended sediment loads (SSL) delivered to all rivers were assumed to comprise contributions from diffuse sources in the agricultural and urban sectors, as well as from eroding channel banks and point sources represented by sewage treatment works (STWs). Diffuse agricultural sediment loss to rivers was predicted using the PSYCHIC model. Corresponding inputs from diffuse urban sources were estimated on the basis of an Event Mean Concentration (EMC) methodology. Channel bank sediment inputs were calculated using a prototype national scale model, while point source sediment contributions were based on a register of consented effluent discharges. Modelled SSL were validated (r2=68%) against PARCOM data (1999–2003) for the delivery of sediment to different regions of the UK maritime area. The results of the validation were considered to be realistic for a national scale predictor. The modelling exercise suggested that those catchments currently at risk of exceeding proposed suspended sediment yield critical thresholds are largely confined to upland areas across Wales and northwest England and the chalklands of southern and eastern England.
 
Article
In African communities, informal associations are becoming increasingly important in shaping and mediating local adaptation practices. The study suggests that the concept of social innovation is useful for analyzing climate adaptation in the multiscale institutional environments with complex vulnerability contexts. Small-scale local associations have a potential to facilitate collective experimentation and risk management, contributing to the resilience and sustainability of the social-ecological system. Ethnographic focus is on the informal associations of economic cooperation and dispute mediation of Kuria people of northwest Tanzania, and the ways these institutional forms facilitate resource management and the negotiation of difference under income diversification. Organizational features of the groups are examined that facilitate social innovation and alternative patterns of communication, effecting flexible and relational connections between scales. The study examines the features of the local institutions that have a potential to enhance local adaptive capacity, and discusses possible challenges to sustainable climate adaptation.Highlights► Informal institutions in Africa affect local adaptive capacity to climate change. ► Kuria mutual help groups in Tanzania help improve climate resilience of the marginal. ► They facilitate resource management and dispute negotiation under ongoing income diversification. ► Social innovation is an important element in enhancing local adaptive capacity. ► Multiscale institutional involvement enables to address challenges to sustainable adaptation.
 
The irrigation project and landscape of the study area. 
Interviewees in the survey methodology
Farming and climatic seasonality
Examples of networking by aggrieved farmers
Ten year cropping model (first half)
Article
The sustainability of introduced technology in rural contexts is based on the socioenvironmental networking of local stakeholders, a point generally ignored in Ghana. A case study is given of an irrigation project from the coastal savanna of Ghana, a region appraised by contested assessments of drought and social conflict. Using a methodology based on a strand of actor network theory (ANT), including social surveys, meteorological and field data, it is concluded that such analyses of spatial linkages, serve as an effective methodology for assessing technological developments and socio-cultural contexts of various scales, and has applied relevance for environmental and development planning.
 
Article
The problem of disposing of urban waste has been thrown into prominence by the European Union Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive (91/271/EC) banning member states from dumping sewage sludge at sea from the end of 1998. The paper investigates one of the alternative disposal methods available to UK water companies, namely the recycling of sewage sludge on farmland. An `actor-network' interpretation is developed, which focuses on the human actors and non-human intermediaries in the recycling of sewage sludge in agriculture. `Regulation' and `pricing' are shown to be competing `modes of ordering' within the actor network, with scientific knowledge in its material forms as one of the principal actants. The actor network is used to consider the limits to the spreading of sewage sludge on farmland as a form of `sustainable' resource management.
 
Top-cited authors
Gregory Brown
  • California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Yehua Dennis Wei
  • University of Utah
Christopher M. Raymond
  • University of Helsinki
Peter H Verburg
  • Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Yasushi Yamaguchi
  • Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)