Antipode

Published by Wiley
Online ISSN: 1467-8330
Publications
Article
"Malthusians maintain that rapid population growth aggravates poverty, while Marxists contend that social formations determine its nature and extent. Each perspective is incomplete, however, since it ignores the insights of the other. Latin American states, characterized by dependent capitalism formations and dominated by ruling elites, are generally incapable of solving the problems of population and poverty. Since population growth under dependent capitalism weakens labor's bargaining position against capital, reduced population growth is emphasized as a labor empowerment strategy the poor can implement on their own to improve their socioeconomic conditions."
 
Article
PIP Urbanization trends in Greece since the 1950s are reviewed, with particular reference to the problems that arose in the 1970s. The authors examine the two major attempts at state intervention in urban planning during this period. They conclude with an overview of possible policy interventions that could resolve some of the problems related to urbanization.
 
Article
In Ciudad Juárez, a group of feminist activists has established the city's first sexual assault center, called Casa Amiga. They accomplished this feat after launching a social movement on several fronts against the notion that Juarense women are cheap, promiscuous, and not worth efforts to provide them a safe refuge from domestic violence, incest, and rape. The essay explores their efforts as a means for asserting the value of women in Ciudad Juárez, an assertion with reverberating effects in the maquiladora industry that has prospered based on this image of Juarense women. By combining a Marxist critique of value with post-structuralist analyses of the subject, the essay argues that projects such as Casa Amiga represent plausible sites for the organizing of alliances whose objective is to reverse the depreciation of laborers.
 
Article
  Post 9/11, debates about borders, immigration, and belonging have reached a new intensity in the US South. The temporal overlap of growing immigration to the South since the late 1990s and growing nativist sentiment across the US since 9/11 has led southern communities to fuse new regional racial demographics to new national border anxieties. This convergence enables southern political elites to address the changing contours of local communities through recourse to national imperatives of border security, all the while avoiding an explicit language of race in a thoroughly racialized debate. In an analysis of recent political maneuvers in the South, this article examines what happens when debates about nation, community, and borders are relocated to southern spaces heretofore absent in discussions of immigration. It argues that legislative actions against immigrant populations in southern states are virulent and multi-scalar border policings in which concerns about the social and cultural boundaries of southern communities, new racial projects across the South, and post-9/11 immigrant anxieties across the US become inseparable. To conclude, it discusses the theoretical insight that this critical assessment of the South's new border projects offers vis-à-vis understandings of, and struggles against, exclusion, racism, and social injustice.
 
Article
This paper examines the drought that hit Athens between 1989 and 1991 and analyses the role of this natural phenomenon as the “ferment” for ongoing political-economic transformations in the direction of liberalisation and privatisation of water management and allocation in Greece. The paper analyses how the drought was marshalled as an effective discursive vehicle to facilitate and expedite the state-led neoliberal political-economic agenda. It shows how the social consensus around a number of “emergency measures” that the state adopted to deal with a “natural” crisis was grounded in a particular discourse on water and in the political-economic “positioning” of “nature” as a source of crisis. In turn, this change in the “discursive” production of nature fused with the rhetoric and practice of market-led development and privatisation and, ultimately, facilitated important transformations in the social and political-economic (material) production of nature.
 
Algeria, showing the Kabylie as the principal area of emigration, and other regions of emigration
The sectoral division of Algerian immigrants in France, 1946-1968
Article
The extensive literature on migration within a Marxist framework tends to focus on the difficulties migrants face in labor markets of “receiving countries.” This paper adopts a different approach, arguing that more attention should be paid to the historical production of diaspora, rather than the continued analysis of the problems of “integration.” It suggests that articulation of modes of production theory set within the transition from colonialism to neo-colonialism offers an appropriate means to reverse this analytical lens; further, that to understand contemporary “post-colonial” concerns such as hybridity or migrancy, we need an economic approach which is itself hybrid. An historical narrative exploring the processes of emigration and immigration between Algeria and France shows the emergence of an industrial, and more particularly an automobile diaspora.
 
Article
The era of US capitalist development between 1865 and 1920 offers a good opportunity to analyze the relational nature of social change at multiple scales precisely because it was a time of transition, for US and world capitalism alike. Existing accounts of the transition to monopoly capitalism in the US have focused on one or two geographical scales, such as the national economy or the shop floor. In this literature, scales are essentially treated as “containers” within which social change occurs. The possibility that the containers themselves may be fundamentally altered is not addressed. In contrast, this paper views labor process transformations, and transformations of the social division of labor, as dialectically bound. In particular, I seek to explain how the American transition to monopoly capitalism shaped, and was shaped by, class conflict and competitive pressures at multiple scales—the shop floor, the region, and the national and global divisions of labor.
 
Article
This paper uses a combination of Marxist sociological perspectives and models of diffusionism in the analysis of the distribution of the telephone in central Canada from 1876 to 1920. It suggests that the development of the telephone entails the contradictions involved in capitalist production between private interests of the individual capitalist and public interest of the society. The paper shows that the specific political and economic conditions within which the telephone developed in central Canada produced a class biased distribution of the telephone system. However, although developers were responsible for a discriminatory distribution of the telephone in Canada, the study reveals that innovations are not passively adopted as suggested by Brown's model of diffusionism. Consumers' initiatives are important in determining the diffusion of an innovation and the uses to which it is put. Moreover, although the paper supports Blaut's claim of "equality of inventiveness', it suggests that innovation is not limited to technological modifications, but extends to uses. The article shows that specific changes in social and cultural practices produced by the telephone system developed in central Canada were not only influenced by the technology itself, but by its particular pattern of distribution and uses proposed by the developers and often contested by the consumers. -Author
 
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In the late-nineteenth century, open-range cattle ranching in the American West became popular among the British upper classes both as an investment and as a vocation. However, after a severe winter in 1886–1887, many of these enterprises failed and foreign investment in the American range cattle industry waned. This paper examines the experiences of British ranchers in Wyoming and in particular the career of Moreton Frewen (1857–1924) in order to explore the dialectical relationship between culturally constructed nature, shaped by discourses of class and gender, and material nature, itself transformed by capitalist production. Although from an élite family, Frewen lacked the financial resources necessary to sustain the kind of life to which he felt he was entitled. The great profits and excellent big-game hunting supposedly available to ranchers attracted him to the Powder River region of Wyoming, where he began a ranch that failed in the crisis of 1886–1887. British images of a bountiful American nature spurred investment, but also led to ranching practices that were ultimately harmful to the ranges upon which cattle depended. A detailed study of the élite British ranchers provides insight into the specific cultural, historical, environmental, and local contexts within which global capital expansion takes place.
 
Article
This paper builds upon labor geography's contributions to our understanding of the role of workers in the production of scale. In addition to examining exactly how a particular group of workers controlled the scale of their labor market, this paper theorizes the connections between that process and struggles over monopoly power. The 1890–1891 Chicago carpenters’ strike, a work stoppage of significance to both the direction of labor politics within Chicago and to the broader 8 h movement in North America at the end of the nineteenth century, serves as a case study.
 
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This essay is a detailed account of the activities and repression of a late 19th century Italian anarchist community in Paterson, New Jersey.- after Editor
 
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Firm-level industrial data, little utilized previously in industrial history or geography, is analyzed to depict spatial and sectoral reorientation within the United States' most concentrated textile manufacturing complex, the city of Philadelphia, and its adjacent suburban counties in the period 1916-1931. -Author
 
Article
By 1910, Los Angeles was already notorious as national capital of the open shop. During World War I, the Chamber of Commerce launched an ambitious campaign to attract eastern investment to new manufacturing districts southeast of downtown. With the arrival of hundreds of branch plants in the 1920s, Los Angeles' business leaders—quoting Ford and vulgarizing Darwin—embraced a sweeping vision of Urban Eugenics based on scientific factory planning, proprietary industrial suburbs, mass-produced bungalows, and a racially selected workforce. Even Mother Nature was a scab.
 
Article
In the late 1930's, Hungarian nationalists initiated a variety of group activities intended to foster a profound sense of personal connection to territories lost to the Hungarian state after World War I. Many involved collecting or performing folk songs, as folk music science was central to the Hungarian nationalist belief in an enduring “folk soul.” The Boy Scout Ethnography Program was a prime example, encouraging children to experience themselves, the territories and their peoples as “deeply Hungarian.” But nationalist ideologues did not “create” experiences of deepened nationality; the scouts actively worked to make sensible a highly contradictory ideology. Thus ideologues and their targets worked together to build nationalist hegemony.
 
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A description of voluntary rural collectivisation and the formation of regional collective networks which anarchists formed during the 1936 and 1939 period in Spain.- Joe Doherty
 
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The paper measures the rate of profit and its components in Canadian manufacturing for 1950 - 1981. The rate of profit has been reduced by rises in the real wage and the technical composition of capital, partially offset by a devaluation in the means of production and a reduction in turnover times. The value of labour power and therefore the rate of exploitation have not changed. The rate of profit has consistently fallen throughout the period. These results are consistent with a theory that the falling rate of profit is endogenous to capitalism.
 
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This paper studies the farm worker unionization experience and the historical development of Mexican-American women's activism in South Texas to elaborate more precisely the relationship among socio-spatial practices, political activism and labor's geography. Drawing upon archival documents and interviews, the paper describes how Mexican-American farm workers used public space for political activity; however, radical unionization efforts also domesticized other spaces for women's activities. The paper chronicles how Mexican-American women in South Texas transformed the farm worker center from a “domesticated space” into one of empowerment. In short, women in the union made the farm worker center into a space that challenged both the class-based structure of larger South Texas society and masculinist practices within the larger farm worker movement. The analysis advances the imperative to better understand how workers “make space” to ensure their own survival. The paper advances the study of labor geography by arguing that working class mobilization reconstitutes dynamic social geographies within laboring communities themselves. In arguing this point, the paper illustrates the limitations of activism based solely on the use of public space and argues for more attention to the significance of other socio-political spaces for labor mobilization.
 
Article
  In 2008 the 40th anniversary of that iconic year, 1968, was celebrated in the media in relation to student uprisings and cultural revolts, largely neglecting the very significant movements of workers and peasants who were challenging power structures around the world at that time. This omission reflects the failures of socialism in the twentieth century, which are explored in this essay. Beginning from a more complete picture of 1968, the essay examines the history of socialism, identifying the main sources of failure in its theory and practice, in particular that of the revolutionary left. If the failure lies in the elite character of socialist politics and its focus on distribution rather than production, it is to be remedied by a firm focus on the politics of the workplace and the goal of substantive equality. The concluding section reviews the prospects for such an alternative in the current circumstances of global crisis.
 
Article
This paper explores the third-world left in Los Angeles, from 1968–1978. In it I examine the political ideology and foci of one organization for each of the major racial/ethnic groups of the time: African Americans (Black Panther Party), Chicanas/os (El Centro de Accion Social y Autonomo [CASA]), and Japanese Americans (East Wind). In addition to reclaiming this relatively unknown history, I seek to explain the differences in the various organizations by analyzing them within the context of differential racialization. I argue that the distinct nature of each organization is at least partly due to the particular racial position of each racial/ethnic group within the local racial order.
 
Article
In the early 1970s the Women's Liberation Movement in Britain set out to unionize night cleaners. A long and intensive campaign resulted in two strikes and a greater awareness in the trade union movement about this neglected group of workers. But though the publicity generated by newspaper articles, meetings, and the making of two documentary films on cleaners focused attention on their conditions, organization proved very difficult. This was compounded by the economic and political climate from the late 1970s and the impact of privatization, which contributed to the growth in inequality in British society. This article outlines a disregarded history of attempts to organize cleaners, a history which is gaining a new-found relevance in the wake of the “Justice for Janitors” campaign in the US and the awareness that low-paid service work plays a key part in the global economy.
 
Article
There have been several calls in recent years for a revival of regional geography, focusing on the individuality of places and their roles as contexts within which social structuration occurs. As yet, little has been written about the ways in which such work can be undertaken, providing a framework for the study of places that both emphasises their individuality and sets them in the context of social theory. Using the example of a particular event, the 1984–85 National Union of Mineworkers' strike in Great Britain, and the individuality of one place during that event, this essay provides an initial framework for defining the nature of a place.
 
Article
  I take as a point of departure for a discussion of the idea of nature the John Muir Trust's much publicised Journey for the Wild which took place in the UK during the summer of 2006. My objective is to explore how, at the same time that the “wild” was performed as a political category through the Journey, replicating the binary nature/society, prevalent norms of nature that depend on that binary, including, ironically, those of John Muir himself, were “undone”. I work with Judith Butler's (2004, Undoing Gender) ideas of “doing” and “undoing” gender and what counts as human, and her link between the articulation of gender and the human on the one hand and, on the other, a politics of new possibilities. Taking her argument “elsewhere”—unravelling what is performed as “wild” and what counts as “nature”—and using as evidence the art of Eoin Cox, the actions of journeyers, extracts from their diaries and from Messages for the Wild delivered to the Scottish Parliament, I suggest that the idea of a working wild points towards more socially just political possibilities than a politics of nature defined through a binary.
 
Article
  In the war between Israel and Hizbullah in 2006, 10,000 displaced Lebanese citizens were granted shelter and hospitality by Palestinian refugees in the camps of southern Lebanon. For the duration of the war, the Palestinian guests became hosts to their own hosts, and this temporary reversal of the usual relations of refuge set the scene for the rebuilding and renegotiation of relations between Palestinian refugees and their host country and its citizens. This paper addresses these events through a focus on the nature, politics and ethics of Palestinian hospitality and argues that hospitality was not simply a selfless act of giving, but also an instrumental act that had the potential to transform Palestinian–Lebanese relations in lasting ways.
 
Article
  Drawing upon insights from the field of urban political ecology, this article extends the critical hazards concept of marginalization by incorporating a relational focus on facilitation. Facilitation connotes the institutionally mediated process that enables powerful geographical groups of people to minimize negative environmental externalities and appropriate positive environmental externalities in particular places, with unjust socioenvironmental consequences. The article demonstrates the utility of a marginalization/facilitation frame for understanding the production of unequal risk based on a case study of the 2006 El Paso (USA)-Ciudad Juárez (Mexico) flood disaster. The case study reveals how uneven developments have produced complex sociospatial patterns of exposure to flood hazards and how processes of facilitation and marginalization have created socially disparate flood-prone landscapes characterized by unequal risks. The paper concludes by outlining how the frame presented helps clarify understanding of the production of unequal risk.
 
Article
As Africa's foremost “emerging market” Angola is receiving increasing recognition for its oil wealth, leading to attempts to engage it as a strategic partner, especially amongst the “rising powers”. In particular, there has been considerable escalation in development cooperation between Angola and China recently, though relatively little is known about the precise terms of this “partnership” despite China's key role in Angola's post-conflict reconstruction. The growing importance of Chinese credit lines and increasing presence of Chinese corporate agencies across Angolan territory raise important questions about development, poverty reduction and inequality; governance and labour relations; and Angola's institutional capacity and the social structure of its cities. This paper critically examines the specific outcomes of Angola's “partnership” with China along with the hybrid conceptions and tangled geographies of “development” produced as a result. In particular, it seeks to interrogate the visions of Angola's future articulated by the Angolan state and the reference points and “models” of development that they draw upon.
 
Article
I consider two cases of legal abandonment in Vancouver—of murdered sex workers and live-in caregivers on temporary work visas—in light of Agamben’s claim that the generalized suspension of the law has become a dominant paradigm of government. I bring to Agamben’s theory a concern to specify both the gendering and racialisation of these processes, and the many geographies that are integral to legal abandonment and the reduction of categories of people to ‘bare life’. The case studies also allow me to explore two limit-concepts that Agamben offers as a means to re-envision political community: the refugee who refuses assimilation in the nation-state, and the human so degraded as to exist beyond conventional humanist ethics of respect, dignity and responsibility.
 
Article
Attempts to show that the situation that urban Aborigines find themselves in has been seen to be an inevitable consequence of the evolution of Australian capitalist society. Nowadays Aborigines are necessary to the evolution of Australian society in that they are now part of urban capitalism's need for marginal employment. Institutionalized discriminatory practices are created by the system for its own ends. Urban Aboringies will continue to find themselves restricted to substandard inner city housing, uncertain employment and inadequate welfare services. -after Author
 
Top-cited authors
Jamie Peck
  • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
Neil Brenner
  • University of Chicago
Nik Theodore
  • University of Illinois at Chicago
Erik Swyngedouw
  • The University of Manchester
Arantxa Rodriguez
  • Universidad del País Vasco / Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea