Annual Review of Sociology

Published by Annual Reviews
Online ISSN: 1545-2115
Publications
Article
"This article examines significant demographic trends that illustrate the advances of many black Americans from 1954 to 1984. We also examine trends which indicate deterioration in the socioeconomic circumstances and life chances of a significant portion of the black population. The two competing trends in the status of black Americans (at one extreme an emerging black elite, at the other a growing black underclass) have been central in provocative debates about economics and race over the past decade. This article locates the debate in historical context, summarizing the work of early theorists on this issue." The authors use U.S. census data "to document changes from 1950-1980 in occupational distribution, labor force participation, educational attainment, income and earnings, fertility and mortality rates, and family organizational patterns for blacks and whites. Using the political economy perspective, we argue that race and economic status are inexorably linked in this society. Shifts in the society's economic base coupled with historical (and contemporary) patterns of racial oppression explain the disproportionate concentration of blacks in the underclass."
 
Article
The literature on father absence is frequently criticized for its use of cross-sectional data and methods that fail to take account of possible omitted variable bias and reverse causality. We review studies that have responded to this critique by employing a variety of innovative research designs to identify the causal effect of father absence, including studies using lagged dependent variable models, growth curve models, individual fixed effects models, sibling fixed effects models, natural experiments, and propensity score matching models. Our assessment is that studies using more rigorous designs continue to find negative effects of father absence on offspring well-being, although the magnitude of these effects is smaller than what is found using traditional cross-sectional designs. The evidence is strongest and most consistent for outcomes such as high school graduation, children's social-emotional adjustment, and adult mental health.
 
Article
Sociological theory and research point to the importance of social relationships in affecting health behavior. This work tends to focus on specific stages of the life course, with a division between research on childhood/adolescent and adult populations. Yet recent advances demonstrate that early life course experiences shape health outcomes well into adulthood. We synthesize disparate bodies of research on social ties and health behavior throughout the life course, with attention to explaining how various social ties influence health behaviors at different life stages and how these processes accumulate and reverberate throughout the life course.
 
Article
The author examines current demographic trends in developed countries and finds that they may force us to challenge the existing arrangement in which pre-retirement adults entirely support the aged. "Not only is the ratio of the older to younger adults increasing, but also an increasing proportion of adults entering old age have the ability to make significant contributions (i.e. they are well educated, healthy, economically secure, and politically astute). Concern over this growing mismatch between older people's abilities and the roles they are expected to fill leads to a discussion of social policy. How might social policy increase the productivity of the elderly and/or reduce the burden of supporting a growing dependent older population. Three major categories of policies responsive to this question are considered. The outcome of these policy debates will significantly shape the future of aging in the United States."
 
Article
Past reviews of American family history, while providing useful information about certain aspects of family life in the past, have inadequately addressed the conceptual framework informing the discipline. Juster begins by reviewing 4 approaches developed by social scientists for studying the family: household composition, generations, family cycle, and life-course. The life-course perspective seems the most promising for a dynamic, complex view of families that links changes in the domestic sphere to wider societal trends and concerns. Using the analytical perspective of the life-course, he then examines significant historiographical contributions in 4 areas of family life - childbearing, early child development, adolescence, and old age.
 
Article
Since 1960, the liberalisation of immigration laws, and developments in other countries, have led to a large and growing stream of immigrants. Most come from Asia and the Western Hemisphere. Unlike those of the years before 1920, they resemble the US population more closely in terms of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Immigration is also more geographically dispersed, causing all parts of the country to experience an influx of foreigners. -J.Sheail
 
Article
"We review the literature on the economic consequences of marital dissolution for women. Longitudinal studies of the effects of divorce and widowhood indicate that both types of dissolutions have negative and prolonged consequences for women's economic well-being. This is not the case for men, where marital dissolution often leads to an improved economic standard of living. Following an examination of empirical studies and measurement issues in the divorce and widowhood literatures, we describe preexisting and direct sources of women's postdissolution economic insecurity." The primary geographical focus is on the United States.
 
Odds ratios from logistic regression of health behaviors on SES variables (Ns range from 14,129 to 14,608) a 
Article
The inverse relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and unhealthy behaviors such as tobacco use, physical inactivity, and poor nutrition have been well demonstrated empirically but encompass diverse underlying causal mechanisms. These mechanisms have special theoretical importance because disparities in health behaviors, unlike disparities in many other components of health, involve something more than the ability to use income to purchase good health. Based on a review of broad literatures in sociology, economics, and public health, we classify explanations of higher smoking, lower exercise, poorer diet, and excess weight among low-SES persons into nine broad groups that specify related but conceptually distinct mechanisms. The lack of clear support for any one explanation suggests that the literature on SES disparities in health and health behaviors can do more to design studies that better test for the importance of the varied mechanisms.
 
Article
Social scientists have long been concerned about how the fortunes of parents affect their children, with acute interest in the most marginalized children. Yet little sociological research considers children in foster care. In this review, we take a three-pronged approach to show why this inattention is problematic. First, we provide overviews of the history of the foster care system and how children end up in foster care, as well as an estimate of how many children ever enter foster care. Second, we review research on the factors that shape the risk of foster care placement and foster care caseloads and how foster care affects children. We close by discussing how a sociological perspective and methodological orientation-ranging from ethnographic observation to longitudinal mixed methods research, demographic methods, and experimental studies-can foster new knowledge around the foster care system and the families it affects.
 
Article
This review of the comparative study of health care delivery systems is limited by the idiosyncratic data base available. As with comparative research in other areas the definition and measurement of comparable units within varying sociocultural and historical circumstances are difficult. Samples of complex entities such as delivery systems are only obtained with much effort and cost. In this review attention is directed to the following: theoretical considerations; the international knowledge technology and manpower marketplace; patterns of mortality and morbidity and national development; health care delivery systems in modern countries; the social functions of health care; population selection and health care; the comparative effects of health care delivery systems; comparative study of prepayment and capitation systems; professionalism in medicine and the organization of roles; and convergence of health care delivery systems in postindustrial society. From a sociological perspective the locus of control of medical decision making is a critical variable in examining the implications of medical care for social life more generally. Mostly sociologists have failed to carefully examine varying approaches to regulation in different countries the extent to which physicians in different countries have extramedical responsibilities and the resulting implications for society. With the growing bureaucratization of medicine and increased regulation sociologists will increasingly direct their efforts to such issues. A major problem in the sociological investigation of comparative medical organization is the inadequacy of traditional concepts describing emerging structural arrangements and ongoing organizational processes. The conceptual approaches that fit centralized bureaucratized organizations are poorly adapted for studying intraorganizational networks. Almost all of the research effort among sociologists has focused on the organization of the health professions and occupations and with access to and distribution of medical care. The issue of why people seek help and where they choose to bring their problems is an area where sociologists can make a distinctive contribution.
 
Article
"Although many characteristics play a role in the choice of a spouse, sociologists have most often examined endogamy and homogamy with respect to race/ethnicity, religion, and socioeconomic status.... I summarize empirical research by answering four questions: (a) To what extent are groups endogamous and how do groups differ in this respect? (b) How has endogamy changed over time? (c) Which factors are related to endogamy? (d) How do various dimensions of partner choice coincide? [I then] discuss strengths and weaknesses of past research."
 
Article
In the past few decades, demographic concerns have shifted from rapid population growth fueled by high fertility to concerns of population decline produced by very low, sub-replacement fertility levels. Once considered a problem unique to Europe or developed nations, concerns now center on the global spread of low fertility. Nearly half of the world's population now lives in countries with fertility at or below replacement levels. Further, by the mid-twenty-first century three of four countries now described as developing are projected to reach or slip below replacement fertility. We review the research on low fertility through the predominant frameworks and theories used to explain it. These explanations range from decomposition and proximate determinant frameworks to grand theories on the fundamental causes underlying the pervasiveness and spread of low fertility. We focus on the ability of theory to situate previous and future findings and conclude with directions for furthur research.
 
Article
"This essay examines the recent historical research on the family with the objective of identifying useful lessons for students of the contemporary family. The following themes in the historical research are discussed: household and family structure, production and reproduction, life course transitions, the emotional content of family life, and the distinctiveness of the 1950s. The essay concludes with a discussion of theoretical and methodological issues in historical research on the family." The primary geographic focus is on the United States and other developed countries.
 
Article
Different patterns of fertilty transition are apparent in developing countries. Theories of fertility decline are appropriate because demographic analysis has become situation specific rather than general. Pretransition fertility patterns and the onset of decline are provided. Fertility transition patterns are also supplied, including a regional overview for Latin America, east and Southeast Asia, South Asia, West Asia and North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa. The specialized cases of China, India, Bangladesh, Thailand and Indonesia, and Brazil are also presented. The fertility determinant models of Bongaarts, Davis and Blake, Hobcraft and Little, Ryder, and Henry are used as examples of proximate determinant models. Data collection was possible on a grand scale with contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) surveys and the World Fertility Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys. Criticism has focused on the scope of these surveys which provide at best proximate determinants and differentiate fertility by standard socioeconomic factors. Data are also obtained on small populations from piecing together records and from quasi-anthropological fieldwork. Historical demography relies on family reconstitution. Longitudinal studies are few in number. The largest and most effective fieldwork station is at Matlab in Bangladesh. Caldwell has provided anthropological methods applicable to fertility study and makes use of teamwork. In Latin America, fertility has fallen by 40% since the 1960s. Bolivia, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Haiti have changed very little. Taiwan and South Korea provide examples of economic growth with equity in East and Southeast Asia. In heterogenous South Asia, decline has been slow and uneven. West Asia and North Africa have high fertility with the exception of Egypt which is in the early stages of transition. The smallest declines are found in sub-Saharan Africa, and are complicated by the AIDS epidemic.
 
Article
The evidence for impaired fertility of U.S. women after their mid-30s is reviewed in the context of historical studies on age-related fertility, and the factors determining subfecundity, particularly coital inability, conceptive failure and pregnancy loss. For comparison, early American women produced 7 children, falling to a low of 1.74 children in 1976. The factors affecting fertility are known as the Davis-Blake intermediate variables. Those in the 2nd category, mate exposure, affect middle-aged women because most childbearing is done by married women, and educated women over 30-34 begin to have difficulty finding husbands. Fecundity ranges from 0-30 children, and averages 15 in optimal conditions. Fecundity falls with age, but subfecundity may occur in addition due to factors such as pelvic inflammatory disease or complications of childbirth. The 1982 National Survey of Family Growth, and other studies find fecundity falling moderately with time but significantly after age 35. Historical studies show that fecundity falls as marital duration lengthens, owing to subfecundity and also to decreased coital frequency. Recent work suggests a high rate of sexual dysfunction, often underreported, ranging from 4% permanent impotence in men 40 to 40% of men and 63% of women. Conceptive failure is estimated at 8.5% of married women aged 15-44, rising sharply after age 35. Pregnancy loss is thought to be the most common cause of subfecundity due to aging. Sensitive tests show that 75% of all fertilized ova and 31% of all implanted embryos are lost, but only 25% of women are aware of pregnancy loss. The bottom line is that U.S. women who postpone childbearing until their 30s will have fewer children than they originally desired, due to a wide variety of factors.
 
Article
This article reviews the emerging sociodemographic literature on the relationships linking children and their families, by focusing on four topics: (a) the short-term implications for children of parents' family behavior, (b) the short-term implications for parents of the number and ages, or spacing, of their children, (c) the long-term implications of childhood family experiences for subsequent adult behavior, and (d) the probable family circumstances of children in the future. Studies of how parents influence children found (a) that increases in illegitimate fertility and divorce led to a large rise in the proportion of children living in one-parent families, usually with the mother, and in stepfamilies, (b) that children in families maintained by mothers, but not in stepfamilies, experience numerous social, economic, and psychological disadvantages, (c) that, contrary to the popular stereotype, white children in families maintained by mothers are more likely than black children in such families either to be living with or to receive financial assistance from extended family members, and (d) declining fertility and birth cohort size may have led to reductions in the welfare of children compared to the welfare of the elderly during the last 20 years. Studies of how children influence parents found that the presence of at least one child probably reduced marital satisfaction; the presence of a small number of children, especially preschool children, deters parental divorce; children reduce remarriage probabilities for young mothers, but increase them for older mothers; and at least the first and second child probably reduce family income and savings. Studies of how childhood experiences affect individuals in adulthood find that divorce of one's parents reduces one's own marriage probabilities and increases one's own divorce probabilities; childhood stepfamilies have little effect on adult circumstances; contrary to the popular stereotype, children without siblings are not disadvantaged compared to other children; an increasing number of siblings leads to reduced educational attainments, and increasing educational mobility among men with small or medium numbers of siblings accounts for the increase observed for all men during this century. Recent projections suggest that 50-75% of the 1980 birth cohort may live in a one-parent family during childhood, with a range of 40-70% for whites and a range of 85-95% for blacks.
 
Article
The increasing prevalence of divorce in the US has had profound implications for the social, economic, and emotional needs of children. Central are the varying commitments to childrearing of divorced mothers and fathers. Women consider themselves responsible for their children's care regardless of marital status, whereas men tend to disengage from their offspring once a marriage is dissolved. At present, about 25% of US children will spend some time in a single-parent household as a result of divorce, while another 25% will live with a single mother due to nonmarital childbearing. Although children whose parents separate suffer disadvantages compared to those whose parents remain together, there is a lack of consensus on the magnitude and source of these differences and the profile of children at greatest risk of social and emotional problems. When the father moves out, household income declines by an average of 37% and child support transfers are too low to reduce the hardships of living in a single-mother family. Even when responsibility for children is shared with grandparents or the state (through welfare), the disparities between one- and two-parent households persist. The conflict between parents, loss of daily contact with one parent, and disruption of routines and place of residence associated with divorce jeopardize children's emotional security and deprive them of essential socialization experiences. To minimize the harmful effects of divorce on children, single mothers need institutional support, particularly to mitigate the economic liabilities associated with divorce and to ensure high-quality childcare when mothers are working.
 
Article
"This paper reviews the literature on the nature and extent of interrelations among cities in advanced industrial societies. It summarizes contemporary population distribution and redistribution trends in these societies and their causes. Finally, it attempts to identify some of the most important issues for the development of a comparative theory of urbanization."
 
Article
Since the mid-1970s the United States has experienced an enormous rise in incarceration and accompanying increases in returning prisoners and in post-release community correctional supervision. Poor urban communities are disproportionately impacted by these phenomena. This review focuses on two complementary questions regarding incarceration, prisoner reentry, and communities:(1) whether and how mass incarceration has affected the social and economic structure of American communities, and (2) how residential neighborhoods affect the social and economic reintegration of returning prisoners. These two questions can be seen as part of a dynamic process involving a pernicious "feedback" loop, in which mass incarceration undermines the structure and social organization of some communities, thus creating more criminogenic environments for returning prisoners and further diminishing their prospects for successful reentry and reintegration.
 
Article
"This paper reviews the literature on the neglected role of women in migration. It argues that focusing on gender and the family can provide the necessary linkage of micro and macro levels of analyses. Striving to contribute to a gendered understanding of the social process of migration, the review organizes the literature along these major issues: How is gender related to the decision to migrate--i.e. what are the causes and consequences of female or male-dominated flows of migration? What are the patterns of labor market incorporation of women immigrants--i.e. what accounts for their participation in the labor force and their occupational concentration? What is the relationship of the public and the private--i.e. what is the impact of work roles on family roles and of the experience of migration on the immigrants themselves? Throughout, the necessity to understand how ethnicity, class, and gender interact in the process of migration and settlement is stressed."
 
Article
Persistent racial inequality in employment, housing, and a wide range of other social domains has renewed interest in the possible role of discrimination. And yet, unlike in the pre-civil rights era, when racial prejudice and discrimination were overt and widespread, today discrimination is less readily identifiable, posing problems for social scientific conceptualization and measurement. This article reviews the relevant literature on discrimination, with an emphasis on racial discrimination in employment, housing, credit markets, and consumer interactions. We begin by defining discrimination and discussing relevant methods of measurement. We then provide an overview of major findings from studies of discrimination in each of the four domains; and, finally, we turn to a discussion of the individual, organizational, and structural mechanisms that may underlie contemporary forms of discrimination. This discussion seeks to orient readers to some of the key debates in the study of discrimination and to provide a roadmap for those interested in building upon this long and important line of research.
 
Article
This is a review of the literature concerning organizational demography, with a focus on intraorganizational demography. The author concludes that "the potential for organizational demography appears great, especially for yielding new insights into organizational behavior. There are also current linkages with internal labor market theory, and linkages with ecological and network theories that are beginning to emerge. New implications stratification theory and national opportunity structures, the dynamics of labor markets, and for research in aging are also indicated. From this review, we conclude that there is much to be gained from theoretical development at the interface of organizations and demography."
 
Article
"Few aspects of international social change have generated as much scholarship as patterns of urbanization in the Third World. In this review of interdisciplinary research, we first trace the trends and dimensions of urbanization in developing countries and then discuss major theories guiding global urban studies. Second, we review and critique recent cross-national investigations of the determinants of urbanization and its dimensions, concluding that severe underspecification, the dearth of comparative statistics on critical dimensions, and the ambiguity of proxy variables hinder research in this area. Finally, we discuss issues that warrant additional investigation in the near future."
 
Article
Infant mortality has long been viewed as a synoptic indicator of the health and social condition of a population. In this article we examine critically the structure of this reflective capacity with a particular emphasis on how new health care technologies may have altered traditional pathways of social influence. The infant mortality rate is a composite of a series of component rates, each with its own relationship to social factors. Advances in health care have reduced dramatically the risk of mortality for the critically ill newborn, thereby elevating the importance of access to this care in shaping absolute and disparate infant mortality rates. These advances in health services technology have also had the effect of concentrating infant mortality among extremely premature and low birth-weight infants, a group tied directly to social factors operating through maternal influences and the general well-being of women. In this manner, current patterns of infant mortality in the United States provide a useful illustration of the dynamic interaction of underlying social forces and technological innovation in determining trends in health outcomes. We review the implications of this perspective for sociological research into disparate infant mortality, including the social and economic structure of societies, access to health services, the potential for prenatal intervention, women's health status, and racial and ethnic disparities.
 
Article
The Easterlin effect posits cyclical changes in demographic and social behavior as the result of fluctuations in birth rates and cohort size during the post-World War II period. Large cohort size reduces the economic opportunities of its members and reduces income relative to smaller parental generations. Low relative economic status in turn leads to lower fertility, higher rates of female labor force participation, later marriage, higher divorce and illegitimacy, and increasing homicide, suicide, and alienation. Cycles in birth rates and cohort size suggest that the small baby bust cohorts entering adulthood in the 1990s will enjoy higher relative income, more traditional family structures, and lower levels of social disorganization. Of interest to economists and sociologists, the Easterlin effect has generated a large literature in the several decades since it was first proposed. Our review of the empirical studies notes the diversity of support across behaviors, time periods, and nations. Up to 1980, changes in wages, fertility, and social disorganization closely matched cohort size, but individual-level studies found little influence of relative income within cohorts. Further, the correspondence of the trends ends in the 1980s and appears in few countries other than the United States. Our review emphasizes both the contingent nature of the Easterlin effect and the way in which conditions have changed in recent decades to reduce the salience of cohort size for social and demographic behavior.
 
Article
"This chapter critically examines the hypothesis that women's rising employment levels have increased their economic independence and hence have greatly reduced the desirability of marriage. Little firm empirical support for this hypothesis is found. The apparent congruence in time-series data of women's rising employment with declining marriage rates and increasing marital instability is partly a result of using the historically atypical early postwar behavior of the baby boom era as the benchmark for comparisons and partly due to confounding trends in delayed marriage with those of nonmarriage."
 
Article
This article critically reviews the literature on fertility and female labor force behavior in the United States, with particular emphasis on recent quantitative research by economists, demographers, and sociologists. We first examine the empirical evidence regarding the influence on fertility and female employment of certain key variables: the value of female time, husband's income, and relative economic status. Then the issue of whether there is direct causality between fertility and female labor supply is addressed. We review simultaneous equations models and a new approach to the study of causality. Sequential decision-making models are also discussed. Factors that may mediate the fertility-labor supply nexus are examined. These include childcare arrangements, husband's income, wife's education, and the convenience of employment. Differentials in the relationship between fertility and labor supply among racial and religious groups are noted. The article concludes with a discussion of changes over time in the association between fertility and female employment.
 
Article
This review examines 4 possible causal links between social mobility and fertility: 1) fertility affects social mobility; 2) social mobility affects fertility; 3) fertility and social mobility simultaneously affect each other; and 4) social mobility and fertility are unrelated. Due to the lack of systematic theory guiding the research, conceptualizations and measures of social mobility and fertility vary markedly from study to study, leading to inconsistent findings. The review focuses on theoretical perspectives underpinning the research, causal operators proposed to interpret observed associations, and analytical methods used. The selectivity perspective is based on the contention that a family must be small in order to rise on the social scale. This has found little support, however. In fact, studies suggest that children induce slightly higher levels of status achievement and family responsibilities may stimulate the energy and ambition of some so that they achieve more than they would have done without a family. Most studies have concerned the hypothesis that social mobility affects fertility. 4 theoretical perspectives have emerged: status enhancement; relative economic status; social isolation; and stress and disorientation. At any time in a couple's reproductive life cycle the decision or actual experience of either social mobility or fertility may influence the decision or actual experience of the other variable. Mobility-fertility research has defined an individual's or couple's position in terms of income, education, or occupation with occupation used most often as a single index of social class and indexes of social mobility developed by comparing persons' changes in occupational position. A common theme in much of the research literature is that the existence of an effect of social mobility on fertility depends on the societal conditions of a given population. Most studies through the mid-60s used a common measurement method to assess whether a mobility effect existed. This method compared the reproductive behavior of the upwardly and/or downwardly mobile with that of the nonmobile at origin and/or destination.
 
Article
There is considerable controversy over the causes of the completed fertility transitions that occurred in most industrial countries from 1870 to 1930 and the “new” fertility transitions that are currently underway in the developing world. New data and empirical analyses of both historical and contemporary fertility declines have weakened the standard theory of the demographic transition, but none of the plethora of new theories of fertility change have emerged as hegemonie or as alternative guides to empirical research. The vast body of empirical evidence on the origins, speed, and correlates of fertility declines in different historical and geographical settings shows more diversity than a simple theory of fertility change would predict. The challenge for the field is to develop a common theoretical framework that will accommodate the diversity of historical paths from high to low fertility.
 
Article
The effect of women's labor force participation on income distribution in the United States is reviewed. "Because the wives of highly paid men participate less in the labor force, the earnings of working wives make the distribution of pretax, money income more equal for families than it might otherwise be. Although there is considerable speculation that future developments in women's labor force participation may foster greater inequality, the empirical results are mixed." The factors that need to be considered in future research are outlined.
 
Article
This paper defines the concepts of gender and social reproduction as developed in feminist theory and discusses their utility for synthesizing recent historical research on women. We review literature on the emergence, institutionalization, and reorganization of “separate spheres” in nineteenth and early twentieth century Europe and North America. Focusing on social class differences in family strategies, procreation, sexuality, consumerism, professionalization, and state policy, we argue that the organization of gender relations and social reproduction crucially shaped macrohistorical processes, as well as being shaped by them.
 
Article
"This paper surveys research on the size of the undocumented immigrant population in the United States, the causes and consequences of illegal migrant flows, public attitudes toward unauthorized migrants, and the history of attempts to control the volume of undocumented migration. It concludes that there are powerful push and pull factors that create and sustain the volume of unauthorized migration, that there is little evidence that undocumented migrants have negative labor market consequences despite what the general public thinks, that U.S. policy has been largely powerless to make a permanent dent in undocumented immigration, and that the current level of clandestine U.S. immigration may not be far from what society might view as socially optimal."
 
Article
This article discusses the relationship between the new immigration (migrants who have arrived in the US since 1965) and the changing economic and ecological characteristics of the cities in which they have settled. The author concentrates on New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, San Francisco, and Miami, which together contain 46% of all 1965-1980 immigrants. The new immigration began with the Hart-Cellar Act in 1965, which abolished the old country of origins quota, affirmed family connections as the principal basis for admission to permanent residence in the US, and increased the total numbers of immigrants to be admitted to the US. The undocumented immigrant population also has grown, to an estimated 2-4 million. Recent migrants 1) are overwhelmingly found in metropolitan areas (and disproportionately in central cities), and 2) only occasionally significantly alter the demography of an area. Almost half of the undocumented population counted in 1980 lived in California. The recent wave of newcomers converged on cities just when the cities appeared to be undergoing their period of most severe decline. The new immigrants have converged on those cities that are both post-industrial and heavily oriented toward international business services. The author develops a framework that emphasizes the interaction between supply-side developments that create vacancies for immigrants and those demand-side consequences of their arrival that make immigration a self feeding process. As with labor market developments, compositional changes are likely to have had an important effect on the linkage between the changing internal geography of the immigrant-receiving areas and the settlement patterns of the newcomers. A supply-side account may be the best explanation for why housing vacancies opened for immigrants and gentrifiers simultaneously during the slack housing markets of the 1970s.
 
Article
New technologies and multilevel data sets that include geographic identifiers have heightened sociologists' interest in spatial analysis. I review several of the key concepts, measures, and methods that are brought into play in this work, and offer examples of their application in a variety of substantive fields. I argue that the most effective use of the new tools requires greater emphasis on spatial thinking. A device as simple as an illustrative map requires some understanding of how people respond to visual cues; models as complex as HLM with spatial lags require thoughtful measurement decisions and raise questions about what a spatial effect represents.
 
Article
"Patterns of sex differences in mortality in developed and developing countries are briefly described, and the range of explanatory approaches that have been used to account for these differences are reviewed. Attention is primarily focused on the higher male than female mortality rate in developed countries. Biological and behavioral/environmental perspectives on these differences are considered in some detail. It is concluded that a specifically sociological approach to sex differences in mortality requires both greater attention to the spectrum of variation within and across societies and a more complex model of causality that takes account of gender differences in the nature of mortality risks."
 
Article
"The article provides a nontechnical description of multistate population models, useful analytical tools that can reflect changes over time in the characteristics of a closed group of persons. The multistate life table literature is reviewed, emphasizing applications of the models to studies of marital status, family and household status, interregional migration, and labor force participation and concluding with a discussion of the relationship between multistate and event history models." excerpt
 
Article
From 1970-1980, US nonmetropolitan areas grew more rapidly than previously, achieving overall a faster growth rate than metropolitan areas, with more migrants going from metropolitan to nonmetropolian areas than in the opposite direction. This paper reviews the literature that has emerged in seeking to understand this new trend, which was contrary to expectations and became known as the nonmetropolitan turnaround. Work includes macroanalyses of changes in nonmetropolitan settlement structure, changes in the distribution of employment, migration streams and differentials, as well as research on residential preferences and migration decison making. This is a new trend in terms of population distribution processes, although evidence that it reflects a greater importance of noneconomic factors in migration is mixed. Nonmetropolitan growth slowed in the latter part of the 1970s and overall the turnaround reversed in the early 1980s, but a return to a generally concentrated settlement pattern appears unlikely. The amount of research accomplished over a short span of time as a consequence of the turnaround is noteworthy, and the findings have contributed to increased understanding of US population change.
 
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Sheffield, 1981.
 
Article
Visualizing data is central to social scientific work. Despite a promising early beginning, sociology has lagged in the use of visual tools. We review the history and current state of visualization in sociology. Using examples throughout, we discuss recent developments in ways of seeing raw data and presenting the results of statistical modeling. We make a general distinction between those methods and tools designed to help explore datasets, and those designed to help present results to others. We argue that recent advances should be seen as part of a broader shift towards easier sharing of the code and data both between researchers and with wider publics, and encourage practitioners and publishers to work toward a higher and more consistent standard for the graphical display of sociological insights.
 
Chapter
In the 1970s, two major studies established the systematic study of doctor–patient interaction as a viable research domain. The first, conducted by Korsch and Negrete (1972) at the Children’s Hospital of Los Angeles was based on observations of 800 pediatric acute care visits and used a modifield version of Bales’ (1950) Interaction Process Analysis to code the data. The results were striking. Nearly a fifth of the parents left the clinic without a clear statement of what was wrong with their child, and nearly half were left wondering what had caused their child’s illness. A quarter of the parents reported that they had not mentioned their greatest concern because of lack of opportunity or encouragement. The study uncovered a strong relationship between these and other communication failures and nonadherence with medical recommendations, showing that 56% of parents who felt that the physicians had not met their expectations were “grossly noncompliant.”
 
Article
Globalization is transforming the relationship between states and markets. Even as some authors predict the demise of the state in the face of increasingly global markets, others focus on the role states play in constructing markets themselves and making sustainable market interactions possible. As the times change so do our theories, generating new concepts which can be used to better understand the previous period. This paper undertakes such a project. I argue that state, market and society are embedded in each other and constructed by their interactions with one another . The paper briefly reviews world-systems and comparative political economy analyses of the relation between states and markets. This review provides the framework for a discussion of the variety of models of state-market interaction in the postwar 'Golden Age' of capitalism. Finally I review the challenges which globalization poses to these models and consider contemporary experiments with state-market relations in a transformed international order.
 
Unemployment rates (3-year moving averages) 1955-2000 in the United States and in six European countries-Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom.
Article
In interdisciplinary research on welfare state regress in Western Europe, interest has focused on the causes and extent of retrenchment. Causal debates have concerned the role of globalization, post-industrialism, European integration, and partisan politics. The "new politics" perspective views pressures towards retrenchment as basically generated by post-industrial changes causing government budget deficits and permanent austerity, developments pressing all governments to attempt to cut welfare state programs. These attempts are resisted by powerful interest groups consisting of welfare state benefit recipients, and therefore retrenchment is likely to be a limited phenomenon. Such recipient-based interest groups generated by welfare states are seen as largely replacing left parties and unions once driving welfare state expansion, thus marginalizing the role of class-related politics in the retrenchment process. Conclusions pointing to only limited retrenchment and a minor role for partisan politics have been criticized because of the non-theoretical definition of the welfare state and because of the concentration on social expenditures. The power resources approach, focusing on the role of distributive conflicts between major interest groups for welfare states development, widens the theoretical definition of the welfare state to include full employment as well as social transfers and expenditures. In Western Europe full employment was one of the cornerstones of the postwar "Keynesian welfare state," entailing a social contract which markedly differed from the one in the United States. The return of mass unemployment in Europe since the mid-1970s constitutes a major welfare state regress, and at the same time generates government budget deficits and austerity. Analyses based on citizenship rights in social insurance programs indicate major retrenchment in some West European countries, with political parties and welfare state institutions in sign
 
Article
Gender relations, as embodied in the sexual division of labor, compulsory heterosexuality, discourses and ideologies of citizenship, motherhood, masculinity and femininity, and the like, profoundly shape the character of welfare states. Likewise, the institutions of social provision the set of social assistance and social insurance programs, universal citizenship entitlements, and public services to which we refer as "the welfare state" affect gender relations in various ways. Although many recent studies of the welfare state use a comparative analysis to study the factors shaping the welfare state, few of these studies have paid systematic attention to gender. Similarly, most feminist work has not been systematically comparative. This paper summarizes the current state of understanding of the varying effects of welfare states on gender relations, and vice versa.
 
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The Internet is a critically important research site for sociologists testing theories of technology diffusion and media effects, particularly because it is a medium uniquely capable of integrating modes of communication and forms of content. Current research tends to focus on the Internet’s implications in five domains: 1) inequality (the “digital divide”); 2) community and social capital; 3) political participation; 4) organizations and other economic institutions; and 5) cultural participation and cultural diversity. A recurrent theme across domains is that the Internet tends to complement rather than displace existing media and patterns of behavior. Thus in each domain, utopian claims and dystopic warnings based on extrapolations from technical possibilities have given way to more nuanced and circumscribed understandings of how Internet use adapts to existing patterns, permits certain innovations, and reinforces particular kinds of change. Moreover, in each domain the ultimate social implications of this new technology depend on economic, legal, and policy decisions that are shaping the Internet as it becomes institutionalized. Sociologists need to study the Internet more actively and, particularly, to synthesize research findings on individual user behavior with macroscopic analyses of institutional and political-economic factors that constrain that behavior.
 
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Focusing on the past decade, this review considers advances in the qualitative study of working poverty, welfare reform, patterns of family formation, neighborhood effects, class-based patterns of childhood socialization, and the growing European literature on social exclusion. We highlight the increasing importance of qualitative research embedded in large-scale quantitative studies of poverty. Within each of these areas, we suggest new directions for research that take into account the changing contours of poverty, including the increasing diversity of poor neighborhoods (reflecting the in-migration of the foreign born) and the growth of poverty in the older suburbs surrounding the city centers. The reintroduction of the language of class has been a hallmark of the past decade, drawing it closer to some of the original concerns of sociologists in the 1940s, contrasted with a nearly universal emphasis on race and ethnicity characteristic of more recent decades.
 
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In this essay, I draw on a professional life history to suggest how sociological knowledge is generated by encounters with changing research opportunities, here called targets of opportunity. In my case, a study of rural communities led to unanticipated conclusions concerning buffering mechanisms that protected authorities by absorbing dissatisfactions and rebellions. Wartime research in a military setting identified sources of group solidarity and effective performance under stress. Major societal changes in racial/ethnic relations provided opportunities to develop new concepts and empirical findings. Synoptic studies of post-World War II American society led to extensive research on values and institutions. These macrosociological analyses of ethnicity and social systems, in turn, led me to a new sociology of war and interstate relations. I also offer here some critical reflections on recurrent issues and chronic controversies in American sociology. Final sections of the review deal with the continuing search for conceptual clarity and cumulative knowledge. I note the obstacles of disciplinary fragmentation, but my closing judgment is that sociology now has the base of substantial scientific knowledge and methodological expertise necessary for investigating crucial twenty-first century problems.
 
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To what extent are the social bases of political divisions in former communist societies consistent with those observed in Western democracies? This review critically examines theoretical and empirical work on social cleavages in East European, post-communist societies. It considers the initial wave of hypotheses concerning the structuring of party support in the region and examines empirical evidence on the patterning of the social bases of political preferences that have accrued subsequently, as well as the somewhat sparser attempts at explaining the processes through which these patterns emerge and change. It points to the omissions and weaknesses of the analyses so far conducted and concludes that the post-communist era has seen the emergence of social bases to politics that are like those in the West and that help shape variations in patterns of party competition in these societies.
 
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While much has been written about the effects of outsourcing on the location of jobs and on the wages of workers, the effects of outsourcing on the experience of work and on the design of work and organizations have received limited research attention. A full understanding of the consequences of outsourcing requires examining the effects of outsourcing on the nature of both work and the organizations that define and delimit work. In this review, we define outsourcing and describe the key dimensions of outsourcing arrangements that are likely to affect the nature of work. We then review existing research on the effects of outsourcing on individuals’ attitudes and behaviors, work group dynamics, job design, and organizational structure and culture. We conclude with a discussion of the critical research issues that must be addressed to fully understand the effects of outsourcing on the nature of work.
 
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Elections matter for democratic polities, creating linkages between voters, elected officials, and policymaking. These linkages have often been challenging to study empirically owing to the limited availability of suitable data with which to link individual-level voting to aggregate-level policymaking, and also to enduring controversies in the study of mass political behavior. I discuss several new research programs that have begun to advance scholarly understanding of these political linkages. Underlying this work is progress in understanding the microfoundations of voting behavior, coupled with new analytical models of aggregate preferences. Following a discussion of these issues, I consider several innovative strains of research on opinion-policy linkages. This scholarship has significant potential for advancing empirical democratic theory and the study of linkages between voting behavior and other political processes.
 
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Spurred in part by the rapid growth of the Hispanic population, considerable progress has been made over the past several decades in documenting the family behavior of Hispanics. Scholars increasingly recognize the importance of disaggregating the Hispanic population by national origin and generation, but the literature remains inconsistent in this regard. With an emphasis on demographic indicators of family behavior, this review summarizes trends in marriage, fertility, and family/household structure among the major Hispanic subgroups and identifies key issues in the literature that attempts to explain existing patterns. The role of generation is systematically addressed, as are the shortcomings of the standard practice of using cross-sectional data on generation to draw inferences about assimilation. We conclude that new research designs are needed to address the complexities of the migration process and their links to family patterns. In addition, future research should push toward greater integration of cultural and structural perspectives on how Hispanic families are shaped.
 
Top-cited authors
Alejandro Portes
  • University of Miami School of Law
David Snow
  • University of California, Irvine
Robert D Benford
  • University of South Florida
Bruce G Link
  • Columbia University
Lynne Zucker
  • University of California, Los Angeles