This article seeks to advance an understanding of the spatial dynamics of one of the great emergent viral diseases of the twentieth century-poliomyelitis. From an apparently rare clinical condition occurring only sporadically or in small outbreaks before the late nineteenth century, poliomyelitis had, by the early 1950s, developed into a globally distributed epidemic disease. But, from 1955, continued growth was suddenly and dramatically reversed by the mass administration of inactivated (killed) and live (attenuated) poliovirus vaccines. After almost half a century of vaccine control, the world now stands on the brink of the global eradication of the disease. Against this background, the article draws upon information included in the U.S. Public Health Service's Public Health Reports and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report to examine the spatial dynamics of poliomyelitis during the phases of epidemic emergence (1910-1955) and vaccine-induced retreat (1955-1971) in the United States. It is shown that epidemic emergence was accompanied by shifts in the spatial center of activity from early diffusion poles in the northeastern states, to the western seaboard, and then finally to cover all the states of the Union. This was accompanied by accelerating epidemic propagation. The introduction of mass vaccination from the mid-1950s realigned spatial transmission of the disease, producing increased spatial volatility in the geographical center of activity and heightened dependence of epidemic outbreaks upon endemic reservoirs in the most populous states. Finally, the empirical results are generalized to suggest that the emergence and reemergence of many infectious diseases is a distinctively geographical process.
In many countries worldwide, the logic of the tragedy of the commons model underlies policies concerning the development and conservation of natural resources. In this paper, I use the case of fisheries in Baja California Sur, Mexico to critique the tragedy of the commons model as a metaphor for understanding increasingly abusive patterns of marine resource use. I show how past fishery policies have fomented a tragedy of incursion in two key fishing grounds in Baja California Sur, Laguna San Ignacio and Bahía Magdalena, by encouraging outside encroachment and increasingly widespread resource poaching. Although contemporary efforts to encourage greater private sector involvement in fishery development have exacerbated problems of outside encroachment, they have also opened up new opportunities for inshore fishing communities to reassert control over local resources and promote marine stewardship.
Migrant flows are generally accompanied by extensive social, economic, and cultural links between origins and destinations, transforming the former's community life, livelihoods, and local practices. Previous studies have found a positive association between these translocal ties and better child health and nutrition. We contend that focusing on children only provides a partial view of a larger process affecting community health, accelerating the nutrition transition in particular. We use a Mexican nationally-representative survey with socioeconomic, anthropometric, and biomarker measures, matched to municipal-level migration intensity and marginalization measures from the Mexican 2000 Census to study the association between adult body mass and community migration intensity. Our findings from multi-level models suggest a significant and positive relationship between community-level migration intensity and the individual risk of being overweight and obese, with significant differences by gender and with remittance intensity playing a preponderant role.
Despite spending more than any other nation on medical care per person, the United States ranks behind other industrialized nations in key health performance measures. A main cause is the deep disparities in access to care and health outcomes. Federal programs such as the designations of Medically Underserved Areas/Populations and Health Professional Shortage Areas are designed to boost the number of health professionals serving these areas and to help alleviate the access problem. Their effectiveness relies first and foremost on an accurate measure of accessibility so that resources can be allocated to truly needy areas. Various measures of accessibility need to be integrated into one framework for comparison and evaluation. Optimization methods can be used to improve the distribution and supply of health care providers to maximize service coverage, minimize travel needs of patients, limit the number of facilities, and maximize health or access equality. Inequality in health care access comes at a personal and societal price, evidenced in disparities in health outcomes, including late-stage cancer diagnosis. This review surveys recent literature on the three named issues with emphasis on methodological advancements and implications for public policy.
Fertility levels remain high in most of sub-Saharan Africa, despite recent declines, and even in a large capital city such as Accra, Ghana, women are having children at a pace that is well above replacement level and this will contribute to significant levels of future population growth in the city. Our purpose in this paper is to evaluate the way in which neighborhood context may shape reproductive behavior in Accra. In the process, we introduce several important innovations to the understanding of intra-urban fertility levels in a sub-Saharan African city: (1) despite the near explosion of work on neighborhoods as a spatial unit of analysis, very little of this research has been conducted outside of the richer countries; (2) we characterize neighborhoods on the basis of local knowledge of what we call "vernacular neighborhoods"; (3) we then define what we call "organic neighborhoods" using a new clustering tool-the AMOEBA algorithm-to create these neighborhoods; and then (4) we evaluate and explain which of the neighborhood concepts has the largest measurable contextual effect on an individual woman's reproductive behavior. Multi-level regression analysis suggests that vernacular neighborhoods are more influential on a woman's decision to delay marriage, whereas the organic neighborhoods based on socioeconomic status better capture the factors that shape fertility decisions after marriage.
Baltimore, Maryland consistently ranks highest nationally in rates of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV infection. Prior studies have identified geographic areas where STI and HIV infection in the city is most prevalent. It is well established that sex exchange behavior is associated with HIV and STIs, yet it is not well understood how sex exchangers are spatially distributed within the high-risk areas. We sought to examine the spatial distribution of individuals who report sex exchange compared to those who do not exchange. Additionally we examined the spatial context of perceived norms about sex exchange. Data for the study came from a baseline sample of predominately injection drug users (n=842). Of these, 21% reported sex exchange in the prior 90 days. All valid baseline residential addresses of participants living within Baltimore city boundaries were geocoded. The Multi-Distance Spatial Cluster Analysis (Ripley's K-function) was used to separately calculate the K-functions for the addresses of participants reporting sex exchange or non-sex exchange, relative to the recruited population. Evidence of spatial clustering of sex exchangers was observed and norms aligned with these clusters. Of particular interest was the high density of sex exchangers in one specific housing complex of East Baltimore, which happens to be the oldest in Baltimore. These findings can inform targeted efforts for screening and testing for HIV and STIs and placement of both individual and structural level interventions that focus on increasing access to risk reduction materials and changing norms about risk behaviors.
Neighborhoods are about local territory, but what territory? This paper offers one approach to this question through a novel application of "local" spatial statistics. We conceptualize a neighborhood in terms of both space and social composition; it is a contiguous territory defined by a bundle of social attributes that distinguish it from surrounding areas. Our method does not impose either a specific social characteristic or a predetermined spatial scale to define a neighborhood. Rather we infer neighborhoods from detailed information about individual residents and their locations. The analysis is based on geocoded complete-count census data from the late 19(th) Century in four cities: Albany, NY, Buffalo, NY, Cincinnati, OH, and Newark, NJ. We find striking regularities (and some anomalies) in the spatial structure of the cities studied. Our approach illustrates the "spatialization" of an important social scientific concept.
In 1901 the British decided upon a policy of racial residential segregation in their tropical colonies. This policy was ostensibly based upon the discovery three years earlier, by Ronald Ross of the Indian Medical Service, that the anopheles mosquito was the vector for malaria. “Native peoples” were already infected with malaria, colonial officials from Britain were not. Thus, if one could separate residential zones of the two by a distance too great for a mosquito to traverse, then one could protect the health of one's colonial officers. As mosquitos were believed to bite only at night, the officer could safely work among “colonial subjects” by day; only nocturnal segregation was necessary. Reputedly the most malarious place in the British Empire, Sierra Leone was chosen as the test locale for two malaria control expeditions in 1899 and in 1900. The expeditions' conclusions pointed to a range of preventive measures. The fact that residential segregation was the primary method of prophylaxis chosen is considered significant. Unlike other courses of action, any health benefits were extended only to British colonial officers and not to the general populace. Overlooking Freetown, a segregated “Hill Station” was constructed in 1904; it was connected by a custom-built “mountain railway.” A close reading of the confidential British colonial archives reveals that the decision in favor of Hill Station was not purely medical, but that segregation was conditioned by the pervasive racial thinking of the time.
The Spanish conquest of the New World resulted in a rapid and drastic reduction of the native population. This demographic collapse was caused by the battles of conquest, the severe disruption of native economies, and the devastating impact of Old World diseases on an immunologically virgin population. In the case of Totonicapán in the western highlands of Guatemala, population decline was initiated by lethal epidemics introduced via Mexico which immediately preceded the arrival of the Spaniards. Spanish and native eyewitness testimony indicate that the western highlands of Guatemala were densely settled at the time of contact. Native and Spanish colonial documents clearly show that Old World epidemic diseases were the major killers. These eyewitness accounts and documentary materials permit a tentative estimate of the contact-time population of Totonicapán as being of the same magnitude as the mid-twentieth century population. Thus, approximately four centuries were required for the native demographic recovery of Totonicapán following the collapse brought about by the Spanish conquest in the sixteenth century.
Understanding the pattern-process relations of land use/land cover change is an important area of research that provides key insights into human-environment interactions. The suitability or likelihood of occurrence of land use such as agricultural crop types across a human-managed landscape is a central consideration. Recent advances in niche-based, geographic species distribution modeling (SDM) offer a novel approach to understanding land suitability and land use decisions. SDM links species presence-location data with geospatial information and uses machine learning algorithms to develop non-linear and discontinuous species-environment relationships. Here, we apply the MaxEnt (Maximum Entropy) model for land suitability modeling by adapting niche theory to a human-managed landscape. In this article, we use data from an agricultural district in Northeastern Thailand as a case study for examining the relationships between the natural, built, and social environments and the likelihood of crop choice for the commonly grown crops that occur in the Nang Rong District - cassava, heavy rice, and jasmine rice, as well as an emerging crop, fruit trees. Our results indicate that while the natural environment (e.g., elevation and soils) is often the dominant factor in crop likelihood, the likelihood is also influenced by household characteristics, such as household assets and conditions of the neighborhood or built environment. Furthermore, the shape of the land use-environment curves illustrates the non-continuous and non-linear nature of these relationships. This approach demonstrates a novel method of understanding non-linear relationships between land and people. The article concludes with a proposed method for integrating the niche-based rules of land use allocation into a dynamic land use model that can address both allocation and quantity of agricultural crops.
A rich history of research documents the effects of neighborhood-level socioeconomic status (SES) conditions on health outcomes. Recent criticism of the neighborhoods and health literature, however, has stressed several conceptual and methodological challenges not adequately addressed in previous research. Critics suggest that early work on neighborhoods and health gave little thought to the spatial scale at which SES factors influence a specific health outcome. This article discusses the concept of neighborhoods and health, reviews recent criticisms of existing work, and provides a case study that exemplifies how geographic methods can address one such criticism. Using data on birth defects in North Carolina, the case study examines the relation of SES to orofacial clefts (cleft lip and cleft palate) at different spatial scales. The Brown-Forsythe test is used to select optimal neighborhood size. Results are evaluated using logistic regression models to examine the relationship between SES measures and orofacial clefts, controlling for individual-level risk factors. Results indicate modest associations between neighborhood-level measures of poverty and cleft palate but no associations with cleft lip with or without cleft palate.
The emergence and re-emergence of human pathogens resistant to medical treatment will present a challenge to the international public health community in the coming decades. Geography is uniquely positioned to examine the progressive evolution of pathogens across space and through time, and to link molecular change to interactions between population and environmental drivers. Landscape as an organizing principle for the integration of natural and cultural forces has a long history in geography, and, more specifically, in medical geography. Here, we explore the role of landscape in medical geography, the emergent field of landscape genetics, and the great potential that exists in the combination of these two disciplines. We argue that landscape genetics can enhance medical geographic studies of local-level disease environments with quantitative tests of how human-environment interactions influence pathogenic characteristics. In turn, such analyses can expand theories of disease diffusion to the molecular scale and distinguish the important factors in ecologies of disease that drive genetic change of pathogens.
Space-time integration has long been the topic of study and speculation in geography. However, in recent years an entirely new form of space-time integration has become possible in GIS and GIScience: real-time space-time integration and interaction. While real-time spatiotemporal data is now being generated almost ubiquitously, and its applications in research and commerce are widespread and rapidly accelerating, the ability to continuously create and interact with fused space-time data in geography and GIScience is a recent phenomenon, made possible by the invention and development of real-time interactive (RTI) GPS/GIS technology and functionality in the late 1980s and early 1990s. This innovation has since functioned as a core change agent in geography, cartography, GIScience and many related fields, profoundly realigning traditional relationships and structures, expanding research horizons, and transforming the ways geographic data is now collected, mapped, modeled, and used, both in geography and in science and society more broadly. Real-time space-time interactive functionality remains today the underlying process generating the current explosion of fused spatiotemporal data, new geographic research initiatives, and myriad geospatial applications in governments, businesses, and society. This essay addresses briefly the development of these real-time space-time functions and capabilities; their impact on geography, cartography, and GIScience; and some implications for how discovery and change can occur in geography and GIScience, and how we might foster continued innovation in these fields.
This study presents a case study of how social network and spatial analytical methods can be used simultaneously for disease transmission modeling. The paper first reviews strategies employed in previous studies and then offers the example of transmission of two bacterial diarrheal diseases in rural Bangladesh. The goal is to understand how diseases vary socially above and beyond the effects of the local neighborhood context. Patterns of cholera and shigellosis incidence are analyzed in space and within kinship-based social networks in Matlab, Bangladesh. Data include a spatially referenced longitudinal demographic database which consists of approximately 200,000 people and laboratory-confirmed cholera and shigellosis cases from 1983 to 2003. Matrices are created of kinship ties between households using a complete network design and distance matrices are also created to model spatial relationships. Moran's I statistics are calculated to measure clustering within both social and spatial matrices. Combined spatial effects-spatial disturbance models are built to simultaneously analyze spatial and social effects while controlling for local environmental context. Results indicate that cholera and shigellosis always clusters in space and only sometimes within social networks. This suggests that the local environment is most important for understanding transmission of both diseases however kinship-based social networks also influence their transmission. Simultaneous spatial and social network analysis can help us better understand disease transmission and this study has offered several strategies on how.
Over the past twenty-five years, earnings inequality has risen dramatically in the US, reversing trends of the preceding half-century. Growing inequality is closely tied to globalization and trade through the arguments of Heckscher-Ohlin. However, with only few exceptions, empirical studies fail to show that trade is the primary determinant of shifts in relative wages. We argue that lack of empirical support for the trade-inequality connection results from the use of poor proxies for worker skill and the failure to control for other worker characteristics and plant characteristics that impact wages. We remedy these problems by developing a matched employer-employee database linking the Decennial Household Census (individual worker records) and the Longitudinal Research Database (individual manufacturing establishment records) for the Los Angeles CMSA in 1990 and 2000. Our results show that trade has a significant impact on wage inequality, pushing down the wages of the less-skilled while allowing more highly skilled workers to benefit from exports. That impact has increased through the 1990s, swamping the influence of skill-biased technical change in 2000. Further, the negative effect of trade on the wages of the less-skilled has moved up the skill distribution over time. This suggests that over the long-run, increasing levels of education may not insulate more skilled workers within developed economies from the impacts of trade.
Two fundamental issues surrounding research on the image of the city respectively focus on the city's external and internal representations. The external representation in the context of this paper refers to the city itself, external to human minds, while the internal representation concerns how the city is represented in human minds internally. This paper deals with the first issue, i.e., what trait the city has that make it imageable? We develop an argument that the image of the city arises from the underlying scaling of city artifacts or locations. This scaling refers to the fact that, in an imageable city (a city that can easily be imaged in human minds), small city artifacts are far more common than large ones; or alternatively low dense locations are far more common than high dense locations. The sizes of city artifacts in a rank-size plot exhibit a heavy tailed distribution consisting of the head, which is composed of a minority of unique artifacts (vital and very important), and the tail, which is composed of redundant other artifacts (trivial and less important). Eventually, those extremely unique and vital artifacts in the top head, i.e., what Lynch called city elements, make up the image of the city. We argue that the ever-increasing amount of geographic information on cities, in particular obtained from social media such as Flickr and Twitter, can turn research on the image of the city, or cognitive mapping in general, into a quantitative manner. The scaling property might be formulated as a law of geography.
Keywords: Scaling of geographic space, face of the city, cognitive maps, power law, and heavy tailed distributions.
In the context of continuing influxes of large numbers of immigrants to the United States, urban labor market segmentation along the lines of race/ethnicity, gender, and class has drawn considerable growing attention. Using a confidential dataset extracted from the United States Decennial Long Form Data 2000 and a multilevel regression modeling strategy, this paper presents a case study of Chinese immigrants in the San Francisco metropolitan area. Correspondent with the highly segregated nature of the labor market as between Chinese immigrant men and women, different socioeconomic characteristics at the census tract level are significantly related to their occupational segregation. This suggests the social process of labor market segmentation is contingent on the immigrant geography of residence and workplace. With different direction and magnitude of the spatial contingency between men and women in the labor market, residency in Chinese immigrant concentrated areas is perpetuating the gender occupational segregation by skill level. Whereas abundant ethnic resources may exist in ethnic neighborhoods and enclaves for certain types of employment opportunities, these resources do not necessarily help Chinese immigrant workers, especially women, to move upward along the labor market hierarchy.
ABSTRACT The objective of this paper is to investigate changes in offence patterns in Stockholm City using methods from spatial statistics. The paper has two parts. The first is a brief description of methodological procedures to obtain robust geographical units for spatial statistical analysis. The second part focuses on a discussion of the results of different types of spatial statistical analyses of offence patterns for Stockholm City. Standardised offence rates (SOR) are calculated and mapped using GIS for three offences: residential burglary, theft of and from cars and vandalism. The Getis-Ord statistic is used to identify crime clusters or hot spots and finally offence patterns are analysed as a function of socio-economic variables using the linear regression model. The findings of previous Swedish studies on crime patterns, mostly by Wikstr�m (1991), and the insights provided by North American and British theories on crime patterns provide a background for this study. Results suggest that whilst there have been no dramatic changes in the geographies of these offences in Stockholm City during the last decade, there have been some shifts both in terms of geographical patterns and in their association with underlying socio-economic conditions.
Although geographic features, such as mountains and coastlines, are fractal, some studies have claimed that the fractal property is not universal. This claim, which is false, is mainly attributed to the strict definition of fractal dimension as a measure or index for characterizing the complexity of fractals. In this paper, we propose an alternative, the ht-index, to quantify the fractal or scaling structure of geographic features. A geographic feature has ht-index h if the pattern of far more small things than large ones recurs (h-1) times at different scales. The higher the ht-index, the more complex the geographic feature. We conduct three case studies to illustrate how the computed ht-indices capture the complexity of different geographic features. We further discuss how the ht-index is complementary to fractal dimension, and elaborate on a dynamic view behind the ht-index that enables better understanding of geographic forms and processes.
Keywords: Scaling of geographic space, fractal dimension, Richardson plot, nested rank-size plots, and head/tail breaks
Map generalization is a process of producing maps at different levels of detail by retaining essential properties of the underlying geographic space. In this paper, we explore how the map generalization process can be guided by the underlying scaling of geographic space. The scaling of geographic space refers to the fact that in a geographic space small things are far more common than large ones. In the corresponding rank-size distribution, this scaling property is characterized by a heavy tailed distribution such as a power law, lognormal, or exponential function. In essence, any heavy tailed distribution consists of the head of the distribution (with a low percentage of vital or large things) and the tail of the distribution (with a high percentage of trivial or small things). Importantly, the low and high percentages constitute an imbalanced contrast, e.g., 20 versus 80. We suggest that map generalization is to retain the objects in the head and to eliminate or aggregate those in the tail. We applied this selection rule or principle to three generalization experiments, and found that the scaling of geographic space indeed underlies map generalization. We further relate the universal rule to T\"opfer's radical law (or trained cartographers' decision making in general), and illustrate several advantages of the universal rule.
Keywords: Head/tail division rule, head/tail breaks, heavy tailed distributions, power law, and principles of selection
The fundamentally geographic issue of the amounts and spatial patterns of erosion necessary to produce classic glacial landforms such as U-shaped valleys has been debated by scientists for over a century. Terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) measurements in glacially abraded bedrock were used to determine patterns of glacial erosion and to quantify the amount of rock removed during the last glaciation along valley-side transects in Sinks Canyon, Wind River Range, Wyoming, and the South Yuba River, Sierra Nevada, California. Surface exposure ages from bedrock and erratic samples obtained during this study indicate last deglaciation between 13–18 ka in the South Yuba River and 15–17 ka in Sinks Canyon. These ages are in agreement with previously published glacial chronologies. In both areas, samples from valley cross sections revealed a pattern of erosion during the last glaciation that decreased toward the lateral limit of ice extent, as predicted by numerical models, while transects further upstream recorded >1.4 meters of bedrock removal throughout. The effects of varying interglacial erosion and surface exposure histories on modeled glacial erosion depths were tested, validating the methodology used. The results demonstrate that the TCN technique, applied at the valley scale, provides useful insight into the spatial pattern of glacial erosion. Extensive sampling in areas with limited erosional loss may provide detailed records of erosion patterns with which to test predictions generated by models of ice dynamics and erosion processes.
Abstract The English colonization of North America has always seemed providential for the legatees of that process, and for good reason. Awakened at last to the potentialities of the New World by the profits of privateering and emboldened by the daring actions of Elizabeth and Francis Drake, the English shook off their profound disinterest in the Americas and embarked on a colonial venture of immense and improbable proportion. During the ensuing two centuries, they entered into the imperial scramble for the New World; established hegemony over the Atlantic Seaboard of North America; implanted (not always wittingly) a profuse variety of sturdy regional societies and economies committed more or less to ethnocultural pluralism, capitalist institutions, and exponential demographic and economic growth; and, in the end, capitulated to the colonies’ revolutionary insistence on independence from the Crown. When, soon after, the new nation was propelled forward by an industrial revolution, her citizens were prepared to believe that indeed they were pioneers of providence—all of which has been of small comfort to their less fortunate co-colonials around the globe.
Abstract The myth persists that in 1492 the Americas were a sparsely populated wilderness, “a world of barely perceptible human disturbance’ There is substantial evidence, however, that the Native American landscape of the early sixteenth century was a humanized landscape almost everywhere. Populations were large. Forest composition had been modified, grasslands had been created, wildlife disrupted, and erosion was severe in places. Earthworks, roads, fields, and settlements were ubiquitous. With Indian depopulation in the wake of Old World disease, the environment recovered in many areas. A good argument can be made that the human presence was less visible in 1750 than it was in 1492.
Abstract Initial European responses to the Columbian discovery included an exploratory process that, in the space of a half-century, delineated the basic geographical features of North America's Atlantic coast. This exploratory process was conditioned by pre-Columbian European “geosophy’ or images of lands in the western Atlantic and by the desire to locate a water route to Asia. The first European explorers to make contact with North America did so far to the north of the area contacted by Columbus, and their voyages would almost certainly have taken place regardless of the success or failure of Columbus. John Cabot and the Corte-Real brothers explored the Labrador-Newfoundland region as early as 1497, searching for a sea-level strait through what they believed was an island archipelago off Asia's eastern shores. Subsequent explorations by Giovanni da Verrazzano and Jacques Cartier added to the growing store of geographical information and developing geographical images about North America. Verrazzano's coastal voyage from Florida to Canada and Cartier's entry into the St. Lawrence helped define the key features of the Atlantic coast of the continent. Information derived from both voyages also helped perpetuate the belief in a sea-level route to Asia. Although the first half-century of European exploration of eastern North America resulted in a relatively accurate depiction of that region, the exploratory process also contributed to a growing body of theoretical and speculative geography of the Northwest Passage upon which much European exploration up to the mid-seventeenth century would be based.
ABSTRACT Cebu has long been one of the most heavily populated Philippine islands. Prior to 1900 the population growth rate on Cebu was higher than that of the whole Philippines because of a relative absene of malaria and the presence of a good harbor at Cebu City. The island experienced its most rapid population growth as an agricultural area during the nineteenth century. Since Cebu has become relatively so heavily populated, the major factors which affected population patterns there during several periods prior to 1900 were probably somewhat different from those effective on other islands during the same periods. Between 1500 and 1800, the dominant factor affecting population growth and distribution patterns was accessibility to the major trade and administrative center on the island. Thereafter, as population pressures on the land became rather great, land quality became the most significant factor. Other factors were probably minor in importance by comparison.
Abstract The American sugar industry evolved between 1500 and 1800 as planters adopted innovations in land use and in the mills. Planters were more innovative in some colonies than in others so that marked regional differences in the management of the industry emerged. The literature describes these innovations but does not explain their pattern of diffusion. This paper provides such an explanation in the form of a model in which the key variables are the net benefits of innovation, resources, and markets. The model shows that high net benefits, scarce or depleting resources, and competitive markets encouraged innovation; low net benefits, abundant resources, and uncompetitive markets encouraged traditionalism. The model also contributes to two important debates in plantation historiography and suggests further avenues of research.
After the conquest of Mexico (1519-21), the Spaniards coopted Indian administrative structures, allowing the King and the new colonial government to exploit traditional regional revenues. Key participants of the military campaigns were rewarded with rights to the tribute and limited labor conscription (encomienda) required of the indigenous population in a particular district. As the encomienda system was gradually reformed and phased out, agriculture and stockraising became the major source of rural income for increasing numbers of Spanish settlers. Following the failure of the Puebla experiment (1531-34), designed to create a new class of farmers with small holdings, agricultural work was relegated to Indian labor. Property became the focus of competition between Spaniard and Indian, ending with partial dispossession of Indian lands by the early 1600s. The granting of lands (mercedes) is explicated by three examples: the Basin of Mexico, the district northwest of Puebla, and the Valley of Toluca. Archival documentation of land grants provides a powerful tool to decipher regional settlement histories and to examine the degree to which the Spanish legal system safeguarded Indian property rights. Spanish agricultural expansion was made possible by the Indian demographic collapse, as a result of recurrent epidemics, and was facilitated by Indian settlement amalgamation (congregacion). -from Author
ABSTRACT Wisconsin's Native Americans (1634–1836) hunted for subsistence and for the fur trade. Major river valleys within the broad forest-oak savanna ecotone were preferred hunting destinations. Locations of specific family or tribal hunting grounds often changed, however, because of population migrations or opportunism of individual hunters. Indian use of wildlife for the fur trade reflected the price of pelts, species'fertility, and the varying distributions of wildlife habitats. The Menominee tribe altered their early dependence on migratory fish runs in favor of long migrations to productive hunting grounds, or fall hunting and winter ice fishing, in response to fur trade demands.
ABSTRACT Ch'ing China's salt supply was widely dispersed, although more than four-fifths of the salt produced came from the seacoast. There were six sources of salt: seawater, salt lakes, brine wells, saline rock, gypsum mines and salty earth. Boiling and solar evaporation were the major production methods. The simplicity of the boiling method favored its wide use. Nevertheless, the solar evaporation eventually took the place of the boiling method, as fuels became scarcer in most salt-producing areas. A better natural resource base stimulated the production of salt along the North China seacoast to a greater extent than elsewhere in the nation. The increasing trend of salt production paralleled China's population growth. Geographical changes in salt production also reflected regional differences in this growth.
Abstract During the colonial period, maps of the New World were important sources of information to Europeans, providing graphic depictions of the resources and inhabitants of new lands as well as of the progress being made by colonists. Today these historic maps are intriguing to scholars, yet they are rarely used to the fullest extent possible as sources of historical data. The 1673 map of the eastern Caribbean island of Montserrat is used to demonstrate how cartometry, documentary research, and field study can be used to reap valuable information from a supposed unreliable source. After I corrected the map for spatial distortion, I checked the data it contained against contemporary documents and the results of archaeological and geographical field research. My conclusion is the map is so accurate that it may serve as a freeze frame of seventeenth-century colonial agency.
Long-term records of precipitation variation for three regions within the Pacific Northwest are reconstructed based on ring-width data from drought-sensitive conifers. Precipitation reconstructions are derived using multiple regression models that predict variation in annual precipitation as a function of standardized and prewhitened tree-ring chronologies. The precipitation reconstructions indicate that droughts similar in magnitude and duration to those observed in the 1920s and 1930s have occurred frequently, at least once per century, in the past. The timing of drought episodes varies spatially, most notably during the nineteenth century. During the first half of the nineteenth century, precipitation was above average in Washington and northern Oregon but below average in southern Oregon and northern California. During the latter half of the nineteenth century, southern Oregon and northern California experienced above average precipitation while Washington and northern Oregon experienced repeated droughts. In contrast, severe, single-year drought events (1973, 1929, 1899, 1839, 1739, 1721, 1717) have affected the Pacific Northwest as a whole, reflecting the scale and persistence of the circulation features that cause such extreme events.
ABSTRACT The urban street pattern is a potential culture indicator which has not been utilized previously in the United States. This survey of the early street patterns of Pennsylvania establishes four principal morphological types: Irregular, Linear, Rectilinear, and Linear-R. Examination of the introduction and diffusion of the individual plans showed that their distributions were determined by cultural rather than economic or physical considerations. Analysis of the national origins of town founders indicated that the four plans cannot be correlated with individual national cultural groups. When the distribution of street pattern types is mapped, four regions emerge: the southeastern corner, the southwestern corner, the northern border region, and central and western Pennsylvania. These subareas correspond well with previously established culture areas, although some variations exist. An internal classification of culture areas modified after Meinig is proposed to explain the organization of the regions and subregions indicated by the study.
ABSTRACT Estimates of both Colonial Period population sizes and densities as of about 1689 for areas of eight to eighty square miles in Plymouth and Rhode Island colonies are possible by coordinating local records and by recognizing that the Bristol County towns of similar ages had very similar ratios of families to adult men. The estimates suggest 1) smaller populations for Rhode Island and especially its chief Colonial center, Newport, than have been assumed, and 2) a kind of mathematical ordering of population densities in the region as a whole. Should the ratios prove to be applicable outside the Narragansett region, it may be possible to estimate populations of the many other places whose size of militia and date of settlement are known.
Abstract This paper examines the nature of the French discipline of geography through the research and writings of the eighteenth century geographer, d'Anville, the geographers on the Napoleonic expedition to Egypt (1798–1801), and those involved in the exploration of Algeria (1839–42), and illuminates a major paradigm shift which transformed geography from a science barely recognizable to modern geographers into a social science with many of the dimensions of the modern discipline. In the eighteenth century, French geographers were primarily concerned with locational determination and representation: locating and mapping towns, major natural or human-made features, and provincial and national borders. By the early nineteenth century, there is evidence that geographers were beginning to broaden their interests to include problems that were not strictly locational. In this period of transition, instead of radically reforming their approach, French geographers clung to their traditional methodologies and stretched them to solve non-locational problems. By the mid-nineteenth century, they had substantially refocused their attention on the general nature of the terrain, description of major landscape features, “man'’as a being interacting with the environment to produce race and culture, the movement of populations, hegemonic boundaries and territoriality, the history of exploration, and commercial geography. Geography retained an anachronistic and increasingly peculiar concern with the determination of location. This paper represents the first step in an attempt to explore geography's ambiguous role in the intellectual revolution that took place between 1750–1850 and which gave birth to the modern social sciences.
ABSTRACT During the American Revolution, white settlers entered the Niagara Peninsula by way of the four entry points previously established by the Indians. The aboriginal trails served as the avenues of penetration, but with fuller settlement these trails were improved, abandoned, or extended according to the needs of the settlers. The river road became the most prevalent type of route because of the felt need for a juxtaposition of land and water transport. New roads were cut across the inherited network to tie remote areas to the administrative centers. With full settlement of the land the survey roads came to dominate. The analysis leads to the conclusions that the Indian trails did not predetermine the road alignments, that towns create roads rather than vice versa, that the true urban centers were the foci for six or more through routes, and that the sequence of development has been strongly at variance with the model suggested by Taaffe, Morrill, and Gould.
Salt, available at natural springs, seasonally attracted great herds of bison which through years of repetitious movement carved an extensive system of buffalo traces: avenues used by Anglo-Americans in settling portions of the Ohio Valley. Frontier settlement concentrated in areas of salt availability as the vital dietary element proved necessary to sustain livestock and to prepare meats, thus providing the frontier farmer with an export commodity. Salt was used as a medium of exchange enabling merchants to pursue a diversified commerce centered in urban places; indeed, the salt trade, more than any other commercial activity, sustained the Valley's early urban structure.
Abstract Before the opening of the first artificial harbor at Takoradi in 1928. Ghana possessed numerous surf ports, most of which originated early through European trade contacts with the coast. Subsequent disappearance or survival of ports depended on the changes in speed and direction of the country's economic development. Finally, the flourishing economy of the 1920′s made the construction of a modern port imperative, and most surf ports disappeared after the construction of Takoradi harbor.
For southeastern Australia, arrival of the First Fleet in 1788 raises similar issues in environmental history as the 1492 landing of Columbus in the Americas. But Anglo-Australian settlement is younger and better documented, both in terms of scientific proxy data and historical sources, which include data on stocking rates that generally were light. Environmental concerns were voiced early, and a lively debate continues both among professionals and the lay public, with Australian geographers playing a major academic and applied role. This article addresses environmental degradation often attributed to early pastoralism (and implicit clearance) in the Tablelands of New South Wales. Methods include: (1) comparison of well-reported travel itineraries of 1817–1833 with modern land cover and stream channels; (2) critical reviews of high-resolution pollen profiles and the issues of Aboriginal vs. Anglo-Australian fire ecology; and (3) identification of soil erosion and gullying both before and after Anglo-Australian intrusion. The results indicate that (a) land cover of the Tablelands is little changed since prior to Contact, although some species are less common, while invasive genera of legumes have modified the ground cover; (b) the charcoal trace in pollen profiles prior to Contact supports an ecological impact of regular Aboriginal burning and rare, catastrophic fires; and (c) most stream channels were already entrenched (“gullied”) well before 1840, with repeated cut-and-fill cycles during the late Holocene, but before Contact. Land impairment has not been a major problem on the Tablelands, although the last two centuries have experienced cumulative and complex environmental change. This unexpected empirical picture suggests that, until high-technology intervention, increasing periodicity/magnitude of extreme drought/precipitation events had been the overriding trend in interior New South Wales, perhaps reinforced by burning. There is no support for an apocalyptic model of colonial environmental history.
Abstract Data sets are provided that measure the volume of transnational urbanward immigration and yield estimates of the contributions of transnational migrants to urban growth for an expanding panel of countries from 1830–1980. Urbanward immigration is found to be cyclical, pulsating with long-wave rhythmicity. This cyclicality is the source of long-term surges and sags of urban growth in both receiving and sending countries. Since World War II, variations in the relationship have emerged across levels of development. The historical association of transnational migration and urban growth is still to be seen in low- and middle-income countries, but among higher-income countries, transnational urbanward immigration now is inversely related to urban growth: the countries with the lowest rates of urban growth are those with the greatest foreign inflows, which speeds the globalization of urban populations in the world's most developed regions.
Models of the spatial evolution of firms and accounts of the history of capitalism concentrate on ownership pattern and ignore linkages among firms. Often cited as a paragon of spatial and corporate concentration, the North American harvesting-machinery industry in 1860 displayed licensing agreements, strategic alliances, subcontracting relationships, international unions, branch plants, flexible production practices, and production for export markets. From 1860 to the mid-1880s production remained dispersed across the manufacturing belt. These findings are incongruent with evolutionary models of firm growth through vertical integration. By analyzing the origins, extent, structure, and implications of the licensing regime, the paper presents a revised model of firm growth and reinterprets the factors giving rise to industrial corporations. Corporations arose in this industry partly as a response to the problems inherent in licensing, and partly because mass production in the 1880s rendered licensing obsolete. The paper adds to our understanding of the North American industrial belt by describing business linkages which made a belt out of a series of fragmented industrial districts.
ABSTRACT Analysis of bank correspondent linkages reveals that the urban system of the United States achieved maturity between 1880 and 1910. The shift from a primate financial flow system to a modified four-level hierarchy with highlevel interdependencies was based on initial advantage, cumulative concentration, inertia, regional specialization, and hinterland competition among rising regional centers. Extension of the banking fields of individual cities was related to the changing efficiency of the correspondent system, reserve city status, urban specialization in wholesaling or manufacturing, and changing comparative advantage. Hierarchical nesting of bank hinterlands under New York's general influence developed simultaneously with nonhierarchical linkages that tied subsystems laterally to each other. This banking integration of the urban network paralleled the more general economic reorientation of the late nineteenth century.
ABSTRACT The emergence of concentrations of foreign immigrants on the edge of the expanding central business district was one of the most characteristic manifestations of American urban growth between 1840 and 1920. The settlement of newly arrived immigrants in central urban locations has been closely related to the blighting effects of commercial encroachment into adjacent residential quarters. The concept of blight, however, obscures both the diverse social and physical attributes of central residential districts and the different effects of particular types and periods of business expansion upon central immigrant settlement. The selective adoption, subsequent longevity, and diverse characteristics of immigrant residential locations were primarily determined by the timing and dimensions of the expansion of different segments of the central business district during the second half of the nineteenth century.
ABSTRACT The Mormons, a distinctive American subculture, have long dominated a large area of the Far West, but the extent of the region and the geographic relationships between Mormons and Gentiles (non-Mormons) have never been satisfactorily presented. Historical analysis of expansions, contractions, and reexpansions from the original Utah nucleus and of concurrent Gentile movements into and around Mormon colonies provides the basis for a refined definition of the Mormon culture region. That region is interpreted as having a core in the Wasatch Oasis, a domain over much of Utah and southeastern Idaho, and a sphere extending from eastern Oregon to Mexico. The most recent and important movement has been to the Pacific Coast cities, producing modifications in theology as well as geography, and suggesting the emergence of a Salt Lake City-Los Angeles axis as a pattern of profound influence in the present and future of Mormondom.
California presents an important case of regional capitalism grounded in the wealth of nature. It belies the received wisdom that natural resource extraction is an anachronistic and inferior road to economic development. Prior to World War II, California’s economy rested squarely on minerals, agriculture, timber, and fisheries, yet this was consonant with high income, capital accumulation, development of manufacturing, and a high rate of technical innovation. Indeed, the latter were crucial to an extraordinarily rapid rate of discovery and plunder of resources for over a century. With due regard to the gifts of nature, the secret of California’s success is to be found in its social relations of production, especially open property rights and a syncretic class system, rapid capital accumulation, and a redoubtable state based firmly on the capitalist society that crafted it.
Economic geographers insist that a broad definition of foreign direct investment (FDI) is needed to interpret the myriad organizational forms that have appeared in the global economy over the past three decades. Through webs of enterprise, firms today can exercise various forms of control over distant enterprises without direct ownership, but before 1914 few firms directly controlled international subsidiaries so most firms were unable to manage enterprises abroad effectively. This representation of pre-1914 transnational corporate activity rests on a narrow definition of FDI. This article reviews debate within business history over the organizational characteristics of transnational business networks for the period 1850–1914 in the context of a broad definition of FDI. Using examples from among service sector enterprises, the analysis highlights the ways in which pre-1914 enterprises operated internationally with and without direct ownership of subsidiaries. It argues that accounts by economic geographers of the origins of transnational corporations (TNCs) and the world economy underestimate the extent and character of early transnational integration and in fact cast early forms of long distance business networks aside. Consistent adoption of a broad definition of FDI and a reworking of representations of early TNCs are required.