The biological activity of two fluorinated analogs of 1,25(OH)2D3 was compared with 1,25(OH)2D3 in various vitamin D assays. The effect of 24,24-F2-1,25(OH)2D3 on plasma calcium, bone weight and duodenal calcium binding protein in chicken, on calcium excretion via egg shell in Japanese quails and on mobilization of calcium from the bone in rats was twice as high as the effect of the most potent naturally occurring vitamin D3 metabolite 1,25(OH)2D3. In contrast, 24R-F-1,25(OH)2D3 has less than 50% of the potency of 1,25(OH)2D3. Due to the wider therapeutic dosage range, this compound might be of clinical value.
We measured body weight, height, and skinfold thickness (SFT) at ulnar, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac regions in 1,656 Japanese children aged 3-11 years. Means of SFT in boys and girls with normal weight exhibited similar changes with age to Caucasian children. However, nadirs of SFT were observed 1 year earlier and means at 11 years were slightly higher in Japanese. Correlation coefficients between SFT and excess weight (EW) were high in boys and girls when EW was more than 10%. Some children with EW of more than 10% had abnormal SFT. Skinfolds in all children with EW of 30% or more were beyond the normal limits. In this study, normal ranges of SFT in Japanese children are demonstrated and their racial characteristics are compared to Caucasians. It is suggested that children with EW of 10-30% are heterogenous and determination of fat volume is essential to confirm the diagnosis of obesity in these subjects.
Validity and reproducibility were evaluated of a new questionnaire to assess fruit and vegetable intakes in 11- to 12-year-old children.
The precoded teacher-assisted self-administered questionnaire included two sections: a 24-hour recall part and a food frequency part. Validity was tested in 4 countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Portugal; n = 43-60 per country) using a 1-day weighed food record and 7-day food records as reference methods. Test-retest (7-12 days apart) reproducibility was assessed in 6 countries (Belgium, Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Portugal, Spain; n = 60-74 per country).
Spearman rank correlations for fruit and vegetable intake according to the frequency part and the 7-day food record ranged between r = 0.40-0.53. Between 25-50% were classified into the same quartile and 70-88% into the same or adjacent quartile. Test-retest Spearman rank correlations for the food frequency part were r = 0.47-0.84. Three countries showed no significant difference between fruit intake as assessed with the 24-hour recall part and the 1-day weighed food record, and 2 countries showed no significant difference for vegetables. In the other countries, the 24-hour recall part resulted in substantially higher mean intake levels.
Validity and reproducibility as to ranking of subjects were regarded to be satisfactory in all countries. Group mean intake, based on the original 24-hour part, was valid for fruit in 3 countries and for vegetables in 2 countries, and this part was subsequently adjusted to avoid overestimation, before the questionnaire was used in the Pro Children study.
For the development of fruit and vegetable promotion interventions, insight is needed into determinants of health behaviour. This study presents results of focus group interviews held with 10- to 11-year-old schoolchildren from Ghent (Belgium-Flanders) and Rotterdam (the Netherlands) to explore personal beliefs and motivations and environmental factors related to schoolchildren's fruit and vegetable intake, to inform the Pro Children intervention development.
Twelve focus groups were held with 92 schoolchildren. The interviews were recorded and transcribed and NVivo was used to analyse the transcripts.
Positive health beliefs, taste preferences, lack of knowledge and practical barriers were identified as personal factors related to fruit and vegetable intake. Home and school availability of fruits and vegetables, as well as parenting practices were identified as important environmental factors.
A fruit and vegetable promotion intervention should aim to increase fruit and vegetable accessibility and should include educational and motivational activities tailored to these personal and environmental factors. These indications should be further evaluated in quantitative research among representative samples.
The prevalence of overweight and obesity in childhood is increasing markedly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between physical activity, energy consumption and weight status in a cohort of Spanish children.
A total of 137 children (11-13 years old) participated in the study voluntarily (with paternal consent). Children were classified into 3 groups according to their physical activity, i.e. sedentary, active and sporty groups. Body composition measures, physical fitness and total caloric and macronutrient intake were determined.
Weight, body mass index, waist circumference, skinfold thickness measures and body fat percentage of children were lower in the active children, whereas body water content increased with activity. Nutritional habits were similar in the 3 studied groups. No significant differences in total energy intake or percentage of carbohydrates, fat and proteins were found. All parameters related to caloric expenditure were higher in children carrying out more physical activity.
Children with higher levels of physical activity presented more favorable anthropometric profiles, but there were no differences in respect to their dietary habits. An increase in weekly energy expenditure through physical activity outside school seems essential to prevent overweight and the risk of childhood obesity.
All-trans-[11-3H]retinyl acetate was injected directly into the testes of young rats and testicular and liver metabolites were analyzed by HPLC at 6, 24 and 72 h post injection. All-trans-retinyl acetate was hydrolyzed to retinol and further metabolized to polar compounds and a trace of retinoic acid, or reesterified to various retinyl esters including retinyl palmitate and retinyl stearate. Thus, retinyl ester hydrolyzing and esterifying enzymes are present in the testes of young rats. Eleven, twelve and ten radioactive peaks were observed at 6, 24 and 72 h, respectively. The amount of radioactivity in retinyl palmitate and retinyl stearate increased with time and reached 24 and 4%, respectively, by 72 h. Although retinol predominated, retinyl palmitate was the major esterified form in testis. The amount of radioactivity in retinol and retinyl acetate decreased with time and increased in unidentified metabolites and retinyl esters. An insignificant amount of radioactivity was found in liver. We conclude from these results that some vitamin A is stored/accumulated in the testes as retinyl esters in order to support the process of spermatogenesis and other physiological functions and that the retinol esterifying enzyme is quite active in the testes of young rats.
An adequate fruit and vegetable intake provides essential nutrients and nutritive compounds and is considered an important part of a healthy lifestyle. No simple instrument has been available for the assessment of fruit and vegetable intake as well as its determinants in school-aged children applicable in different European countries. Within the Pro Children Project, such an instrument has been developed. This paper describes the cross-sectional survey in 11-year-olds in 9 countries.
The cross-sectional survey used nationally, and in 2 countries regionally, representative samples of schools and classes. The questionnaires, including a precoded 24-hour recall component and a food frequency part, were completed in the classroom. Data were treated using common syntax files for portion sizes and for merging of vegetable types into four subgroups.
The results show that the fruit and vegetable intake in amounts and choice were highly diverse in the 9 participating countries. Vegetable intake was in general lower than fruit intake, boys consumed less fruit and vegetables than girls did. The highest total intake according to the 24-hour recall was found in Austria and Portugal, the lowest in Spain and Iceland.
The fruit and vegetable intake in 11-year-old children was in all countries far from reaching population goals and food-based dietary guidelines on national and international levels.
Many epidemiologic studies have reported a link between calcium (Ca) deficiency and metabolic syndrome. In this study, we examine Ca deficiency in rats and whether changes in glucocorticoid metabolism are induced.
Twelve-week-old female Wistar rats were weaned onto a very-low-Ca diet (low-Ca group) or a control diet (control group) for 2 weeks. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to assess mRNA for 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (11β-HSD1), 11β-HSD2, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, and glucocorticoid receptor in the liver. Concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, corticosterone, intact parathyroid hormone, asymmetrical dimethylarginine and insulin in fasting serum were determined using a rat-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Glucose concentrations were measured using a glucose oxidase system. Serum ionized Ca levels were measured with an automatic ion-selective electrode analyzer. Serum nitrite/nitrate levels were measured using a colorimetric assay kit.
After 2 weeks, no differences in serum glucose, corticosterone or insulin levels were observed. The low-Ca group rats showed higher homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance, lower adiponectin and higher intact parathyroid hormone levels. Serum nitrite/nitrate and asymmetrical dimethylarginine were significantly higher in the low-Ca group than in the control group. The expression of hepatic 11β-HSD1 mRNA was upregulated, while hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expression was downregulated in the low-Ca group. Glucocorticoid receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and 11β-HSD2 expression levels showed a similar tendency.
A low-Ca diet alters glucocorticoid metabolism, which leads to hepatic upregulation of 11β-HSD1, and is possibly a key mechanism inducing the metabolic complications of Ca deficiency.
To describe and compare fruit and vegetable intakes of mothers of 11-year-old children across Europe.
Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in 9 European countries in October/November 2003. Self-administered questionnaires assessing fruit and vegetable consumption were used for data collection. The current paper presents dietary intake data obtained by a precoded 24-hour recall and a food frequency questionnaire.
The consumption levels of fruit and vegetables (without fruit juice) were in line with World Health Organization recommendations of > or =400 g/day for only 27% of all participating mothers. Based on both instruments, the Pro Children results showed comparatively high average fruit intake levels in Portugal, Denmark and Sweden (211, 203 and 194 g/day) and the lowest intake in Iceland (97 g/day). High vegetable intake levels were found in Portugal and Belgium (169 and 150 g/day), the lowest in Spain (88 g/day). A south-north gradient could not be observed in the Pro Children study.
Fruit and vegetable intakes are low in mothers of 11-year-olds across Europe. Especially vegetable consumption can be regarded as marginal in most of the studied European countries. A high percentage of mothers indicated to eat fruit and vegetables less than once a day. The results have shown that national and international interventions are necessary to promote fruit and especially vegetable consumption in the European population of mothers.
To compare the consumption of the cow milk proteins A1 and B beta-casein among children and adolescents in Iceland and Scandinavia (Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Finland) as this might explain the lower incidence of type 1 diabetes (per 100,000/year, 0-14 years) in Iceland.
The consumption of A1 beta-casein in each country among 2- and 11- to 14-year-old children was calculated from results on food intake and on cow milk protein concentration. The consumption values were then compared and evaluated against the incidence of type 1 diabetes.
There was a significant difference between the consumption of A1 (p = 0.034) as well as the sum of A1 and B (p = 0.021) beta-casein in Iceland and Scandinavia for 2-year-old children. In the same age group, consumption of A1 beta-casein correlated with the incidence of type 1 diabetes in the countries (r = 0.9; p = 0.037). No significant difference in consumption of A1 or the sum of A1 and B beta-casein was found for 11- to 14-year-old adolescents.
This study supports that lower consumption of A1 beta-casein might be related to the lower incidence of type 1 diabetes in Iceland than in Scandinavia. Additionally it indicates that consumption in young childhood might be of more importance for the development of the disease incidence than consumption in adolescence.
Nutritional status was assessed in 300 geriatric patients aged 75 years or more using clinical, anthropometric, biochemical and immunologic methods. Relations between different assessment methods and their prognostic significance with regard to 18-month mortality were examined. For biochemical variables 10% (prealbumin, vitamin B6) to 37% (vitamins A and C) were below conventional limits. In 44% of the patients lymphocytes were diminished. 44% were anergic. Judgement of nutritional status by clinical impression resulted in 22% being deemed undernourished. Clinical diagnosis of undernutrition was associated with low anthropometric measurements (p less than 0.05 for all parameters) and a high prevalence of low biochemical values (p less than 0.05 for albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, vitamin A, vitamin B1). The mean values of all anthropometric variables, plasma proteins, vitamins A and C were significantly lower in patients who died within the following 18 months compared to survivors. The greatest prognostic significance was related to the clinical diagnosis of malnutrition. We conclude that clinical assessment is useful for the evaluation of nutritional status in geriatric patients and the best of numerous nutritional parameters to estimate risk of long-term mortality.
Changes in lipid profiles have been shown to be associated with diet and apolipoprotein (APO) polymorphisms. Therefore, 2 polymorphisms, i.e. APOA5-1131T>C and APOC3-482C>T, and serum lipids were examined in a Chinese healthy young population with high-carbohydrate/low-fat (HC/LF) diet intervention.
After a wash-out diet for 7 days, 56 young adults (22.89 ± 1.80 years) received the HC/LF diet for 6 days. Body mass index (BMI) and fasting serum lipid profiles at baseline, after the wash-out diet, and after the HC/LF diet were measured.
APOA5-1131C carriers had higher triglyceride (TG) and TG-rich lipoprotein TG (TRL-TG) levels at baseline and after the HC/LF diet, though this mainly corresponded to the female cohort. APOC3-482T carriers had higher TRL-TG levels following the wash-out and HC/LF diets, but these were not directly attributable to a single gender.
Both polymorphisms may play an important role in the elevated TG and TRL-TG levels induced by the HC/LF diet, especially in females, thus indicating a potential dietary prevention of coronary heart disease in this Chinese cohort.
C4 plants (e.g. corn and sugar cane) have greater (13)C enrichment than C3 plants (e.g. wheat and sugar beet).
To assess whether (13)C enrichment of CO2 in the breath and breast milk of women on diets based on C3 and C4 foods changes from one diet to the other.
Materials and methods:
Six breast-feeding women were studied at 5-6 months postpartum. They ate a controlled C4 diet on days 1 and 2 followed by a C3 diet on days 3 and 4. Diet duplicates, breast milk on days 2 and 4 and hourly breath samples were collected over 4 days. (13)C enrichment was measured by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Values of δ(13)C were calculated from the international PDBV standard (δ(13)CPDBV). Differences between means were compared by paired t test or t test for repeated measurements.
δ(13)CPDBV values were significantly higher in the C4 diet than in the C3 diet composites (p < 0.01). In breath CO2, the δ(13)CPDBV value was greater on days 1 and 2 (range -15.4 to -13.2, respectively) and declined on days 3 and 4 (range -20.0 to -21.8, respectively, p < 0.01). The lipid and milk serum fractions of breast milk had significantly higher δ(13)CPDBV on the C3 diet than on the C4 diet (p < 0.01).
Subjects eating a C4 diet have a higher δ(13)CPDBV value in the breath and breast milk fractions, which diminish rapidly on a C3 diet. Further studies focusing on individual nutrients are warranted.
Using gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry, the detection, with a good reproducibility and in a single step, of the 13C content of glycoprotein neutral sugars, glycogen glucose, and ribonucleic acid ribose allowed us to trace incorporation into intestinal macromolecules of sugars derived from dietary glucose, labeled either naturally (as corn starch) or artificially. The 13C enrichment of glycoprotein neutral sugars was strong and rapid and plateaued up to the end of the experiment, whereas the 13C content of ribose increased linearly with time. By contrast, with artificially enriched dietary glucose, no significant 13C enrichment was detected in glycogen, suggesting that this macromolecule does not directly derive from dietary glucose. These results suggest differential control of sugars involved in the synthesis of intestinal macromolecules and demonstrate that this technique would be sensitive and reliable enough to be applied in man for serum glycoprotein sugar determinations.
This study was carried out with three groups of weanling rats. One group was fed a high-protein (20%) diet, another group a low-protein (2.5%) diet, the third group a high-protein diet in restricted amounts. After 4 weeks of feeding, rats were injected simultaneously with L-[G-3H]-tryptophan and [carboxyl-14C]-nicotinic acid. The ratio of incorporation of [3H]-tryptophan to that of [14C]-nicotinic acid into liver NAD and NADP was found to be higher in protein-restricted rats. On the other hand, the ratio was found to be reduced in diet-restricted group of rats compared with ad libitum fed or low-protein diet fed groups. These results suggest that the efficiency of conversion of tryptophan to NAD is increased in protein deficiency, but reduced in the diet restriction. These observations are in line with our earlier findings on the changes in liver quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase (EC 18.104.22.168) activity following feeding of low-protein or restricted diets. It is suggested that this technique of measuring the incorporation of two isotopes from the substrates labelled with two different isotopes can be conveniently used as a tool to measure the relative contribution of tryptophan and nicotinic acid to the synthesis of nicotinamide nucleotides.
Body weight and height of Japanese boys and girls aged 12-14 years were measured to calculate the prevalence of obesity, leanness and anorexia nervosa. In boys, the prevalence of obesity as well as leanness was significantly higher in the areas where population density was lower and among the boys who attended schools with smaller numbers of pupils. In the girls, these findings were similar to the boys. On the other hand, anorexia nervosa was found in girls only more commonly in the areas with higher population density and in the larger schools. These results suggest that higher prevalence of obesity in certain subjects may be associated with increased numbers of leanness but not with anorexia nervosa.
The present study investigates the metabolic disposition of octacosanol in liver and muscle of rats after serial doses administration. Three groups of experimental animals received various doses of (8-14C)-octacosanol (2.0 microCi/dose) orally through a stomach tube. When expressed per organ, the highest amount of radioactivity was found in the liver (9.5% of administered dose), followed by the digestive tracts (8.2%) and the muscle (3.5%) at all doses of administration. The radioactivity in all other tissues examined was insignificant (< 0.9% in each) at any time during this period. The radioactivity in liver disappeared rapidly after 2-dose administration, even when the doses were increased. In contrast, the muscle seemed to be able to store a considerable amount of octacosanol in response to doses of administration. In case of 9-dose serial administration, after 3 and 9 days the accumulation of radioactivity in muscle was higher than that of the liver, possibly due to slow elimination of radioactivity from muscle. By the time when radioactivity in liver and muscle was low (after 6 and 10 doses), the radioactivity of octacosanol in plasma reached a maximum, particularly after administration of 6 doses. The plasma concentration and the fecal excretion of the radioactivity of octacosanol reached a maximum at the third day after the oral 6 doses, which reflected not only the saturation of radioactivity uptake by liver and muscle but also the metabolism and excretion of octacosanol with time at the same period. The results are discussed in the light of the role of octacosanol in increasing muscle endurance in exercise.
Analysis of the respiratory 14CO2 of growing chicks injected intraperitoneally with [1-14C] or [U-14C]glycine or valine has shown the presence of a delayed 'slow 14CO2' exponential component. The half-lives, about 3 h, are independent of the nature of the amino acid and of the age (1-3 weeks) of the animal. As supported by investigations in cycloheximide-treated chicks of the oxidative catabolism of glycine, valine and acetate, slow 14CO2 is significantly associated with the degradation of short-lived proteins.
6-day-old suckling rats, born to females kept on a fat-free diet, were used to determine cholesterol and fatty acid specific radioactivity (SRA) in the liver, kidneys and brain, after injection of 3 microCi uniformly 14C-labeled linoleic acid (ULI) or oleic acid (UOL). 1 h after injection, cholesterol SRA was highest in the liver and kidneys, and then decreased when UOL was injected. Cholesterol SRA peaked 3 h after injection of ULI in liver and kidneys. The delay in appearance of the ULI (over UOL) peak of cholesterol SRA may be due to differences in the rates of oxidation of these two labeled fatty acids into acetyl-CoA ester, according to the structural role of ULI. In the period between 3 and 56 h, cholesterol was more radioactive in the three tissues after injection of ULI than after injection of UOL. The radioactivity of saturated fatty acids was low in the ULI and UOL groups of these very young animals. Therefore, cholesterol synthesis seemed to happen at a faster rate than the other lipid syntheses in liver and kidneys, where the rate of linoleic acid elongation into arachidonic acid was also slower than cholesterol synthesis. Different results were obtained in the brain, where arachidonic acid SRA increased rapidly after ULI injection.
The uptake and distribution in rats of the radiolabelled dipeptide L-alanyl-L-[U-14C]glutamine were investigated by whole-body autoradiography. Rats were killed 5, 30 and 180 min following bolus injection of the peptide via the tail vein and, as a comparison, 180 min after injection of [U-14C]glutamine; 30-microns sections of the animals were autoradiographed against an X-ray film. Tissue specimens from the remainder of the carcass were completely combusted and the 14CO2 formed was analyzed by liquid scintillation counting. Visceral organs especially exocrine glands and the mucosa of the alimentary tract showed an initially high labelling (5 min), whereas skeletal muscle and brain exhibited maximum radioactivity 30 min after peptide bolus. Muscle and intestine (19 and 10% of the dose injected, respectively) showed the highest 14C incorporation of all tissues investigated. The broad conformity in 14C distribution observed after peptide and glutamine bolus strongly indicates similar utilization of free and peptide-bound glutamine.
Young rats fed a diet providing 0.3, 3 or 10% of the energy as essential fatty acids (EFA) were given a single intravenous dose of albumin-bound 1-14C-linoleic acid. 1 animal from each group was killed at 1 and 18 h, respectively, after the injection and submitted to whole-body autoradiography. In general, the activities in the tissues were higher in the 0.3% group than in the other groups, whereas the differences between the 3% and the 10% group were small. In all groups the highest activity occurred in the brown fat. High activities were also noted in the liver, the adrenal cortex, the diaphragm, and the gastric and intestinal mucosa. The higher activities in the tissues of the rats fed 0.3% than in the tissues of those fed 3% or 10% EFA probably reflect a higher incorporation of fatty acids of the linoleic acid series into structural and other lipids in the former group due to the lack of EFA.
A single dose of [1-14C] or [U-14C]glycine or L-[1-14C] or [U-14C]valine was injected intraperitoneally into 1- and 3-week-old chicks. Continuous automatic determination of respiratory 14CO2 and determination of 14C in excreta and uric acid were carried out for 8 h. Computer-aided analysis of the kinetics of respiratory 14CO2 demonstrated two exponentially decreasing components, 'fast 14CO2' and slow 14CO2'. Fast 14CO2 production represents the immediate oxidation and/or decarboxylation of the 14C-labeled amino acid. The half-lives differed according to the nature of the 14C-labeled amino acid but not to the age of the chick. The size of the acetyl-CoA pool labeled by [14C]glycine was between 10 and 15 mmol/100 g of chick. Metabolic partition of a circulating plasma free amino acid between oxidation and retention could be quantified by an isotopic index.
N digestibility and the dietary quality of a Vicia faba protein isolate as well as of two protein fractions from this isolate, acetylated and nonacetylated, were estimated in 15N-labelled adult rats. For reference, whole egg, casein and wheat were studied. The diets were fed at maintenance energy intake level. Daily metabolic fecal nitrogen estimated by an isotopic method was 5 mg/100 g body weight in animals receiving whole egg, casein, or Vicia faba proteins. When wheat was included in the diet metabolic fecal nitrogen was increased to 140% of this value. True N digestibility of reference proteins was 91-92% and of Vicia faba proteins 95-97%. Protein quality for maintenance was high and similar for all proteins. Acetylation affected neither N digestibility nor protein quality under maintenance conditions.
The highest incidence of type 1 diabetes is among 10- to 15-year-old adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible relationship between the dietary intake of this group and the incidence of type 1 diabetes.
Dietary intake data of 10- to 16-year-old adolescents (n = 4,701) from 11 European countries and the incidence rates of type 1 diabetes were used to examine the relation between food and the disease.
The incidence of type 1 diabetes correlated with the consumption of total fat (r = 0.674; p = 0.023), saturated fatty acids (r = 0.714; p = 0.047) and the intake of fruits and vegetables (r = 0.786; p = 0.036). Fruit intake or vegetable intake alone did not correlate with the incidence. Cow's milk and animal product consumption correlated with the incidence when Icelandic data were excluded (r = 0.829; p = 0.042 and r = 0.999; p = 0.001). A negative correlation of borderline significance was found between sugar intake and the incidence of type 1 diabetes (r = -0.721; p = 0.068).
The results indicate for the first time that an adolescent's diet high in fat and fruits and vegetables is associated with an increased risk of type 1 diabetes. Fruit or vegetable intake separately was not associated with type 1 diabetes. It is important to characterize and minimize diabetogenic factors in fruits and vegetables as the general health benefits of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables are well known and such a diet is therefore recommended. This study supports previous research about the importance of cow's milk and animal products in the aetiology of type 1 diabetes.
Fatty acid (FA) composition varies over the course of the day and during lactation. The aim of this study was to evaluate FA composition and its compositional stability in human milk, from day 7 to week 16 of lactation.
Human milk was collected from all feedings over 24 h at day 7 and weeks 4, 8, 12 and 16 of lactation in 31 lactating women. FAs were analyzed through gas chromatography. Comparisons were made with analysis of variance.
Total monounsaturated FAs decreased from 33.04 +/- 2.58% wt/wt at day 7 to 31.48 +/- 3.32% wt/wt at week 16 of lactation, much at the expenses of the decrease in the major monounsaturated FA found in human milk, oleic acid. Main polyunsaturated FAs n-6 and n-3 showed fluctuations from day 7 up to week 16 of lactation, but with no statistical significance. Arachidonic acid significantly decreased from transitional to mature milk.
The FA profile obtained throughout the study time points presented very low levels of oleic acid and very high linoleic acid/alpha-linoleic acid ratios which reflect recent changes in Portuguese women's food patterns. Despite this, the arachidonic acid/docosahexaenoic acid ratio [corrected] remained constant during the study, suggesting a protective metabolic mechanism.
Twenty synchronized Sakiz ewes (aged 3-4 years) were used in this study. Blood samples were taken once in pre-pregnancy and at the 100th day of pregnancy. At the 120th day of pregnancy and the 10th day postpartum, blood samples were collected every 2 h for 24 h from 10 ewes. Plasma progesterone and estradiol-17beta levels were estimated by radioimmunoassay. Plasma cholesterol levels were determined by colorimetric method. Plasma progesterone levels increased during pregnancy and especially late pregnancy and decreased to basal values during lactation. Plasma estradiol-17beta and cholesterol levels were not significantly different between pre-pregnancy, pregnancy and early lactation periods. The insignificant rise in plasma cholesterol during pregnancy showed that pregnancy toxemia may not occur in multiple lambing ewes when fed a balanced diet sufficient in energy and protein levels. The increased plasma progesterone level above normal observed during pregnancy and especially late pregnancy may be interpreted as a feature of multiple lambing breeds.
Variation factors of plasma retinol, carotenoids and vitamin E, and particularly sex and alcohol consumption, were studied on a sample of 271 males and females aged between 18 and 45 years. For analysis needs two subsamples were constituted: I (males and females with alcohol consumption less than or equal to 43 g/day) and II (males only). Sex and level of alcohol intake were two independent variation factors of plasma retinol and carotenoids. Associated with triglyceride and cholesterol for I and with triglyceride and ponderal index for II, they explained 40% of the total variance of plasma retinol. For carotenoids, the other associated independent variables were cholesterol, vitamin A and energy intake (r2 = 23% of explained variance). And for plasma vitamin E, neither sex nor alcohol consumption was a significant predictor of the model, the only variation factors being plasma lipids and age for I (r2 = 37%) and the same parameters associated with ponderal index for II (r2 = 55%).
To identify the total content of trans fatty acid (TFA) isomers and C18:1 trans isomers in subcutaneous fat samples from persons with atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries, as an indicator of dietary exposure.
Using capillary gas chromatography, the authors determined total content of TFA isomers and C18:1 trans isomers in the subcutaneous fat of 34 patients with ischemic heart disease who had undergone aortocoronary bypass surgery and in 46 patients with no sign of coronary disease.
On average, the total TFAs in cardiac patients were 2.88 +/- 1.19% of all fatty acids, in noncardiac patients 2.56 +/- 0.89%. However, the difference is not statistically significant. The average concentration of C18:1 trans in cardiac patients (2.31 +/- 1.09%) was statistically significantly higher (p = 0.05) than in the noncardiac group (1.95 +/- 0.77%).
The results obtained indicate a lower TFA load in comparison with previous studies in other countries. A higher concentration of 18:1 TFAs in the subcutaneous fat of patients with coronary disease might be an impulse to correct the dietary habits of this very high-risk population.
Summary of current recommendations for LCP intakeInstitution LCP daily recommended intake for infants 1 FAO/WHO, 1994 20 mg/kg body weight2 Agence francaise de securite sanitaire des aliments, CNERNA-CNRS, 2001 –3 Health Council of the Netherlands, 2001 80 mg/kg body weight4 Commission of the European Communities, 2006 a n–6 LCP 2% of total fat max,1% as AA. DHA 6 0.2% of total fat5 WHO/FAO, 2003 TRS 916 –6 UK Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition, 2004 –7 International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids, 2008 AA 0.5% of total fatDHA 0.35% of total fat8 Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Ernahrung, 2005 –9 Perinatal Lipid Intake Working Group, 2007 b DHA 6 0.2% of total fat10 Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada, 2007 c –11 World Association of Perinatal Medicine, 2008 Infant formulae and baby foods:DHA: 0.2–0.5% of fatty acids EPA≤DHA, AA≥DHA a The Commission of the European Communities. Commission Directive 2006/141/EC of 22 December 2006 on infant formu-lae and amending Directive 1999/21/EC. Official Journal of the European Union 30.12.2006:L401/1401/33.
In Britain continuing declines in infant mortality have ensured that life expectancy at birth has consistently improved during this century. Life expectancy in middle ages showed small declines between 1921 and 1940, probably due to real increases in coronary heart disease and cancer mortality which were not counterbalanced by falls in infectious disease mortality of sufficient magnitude. The persistence of social class differentials during this period and the role of diet are discussed. It is suggested that the reversal in the trend in overall mortality seen earlier this century in Britain has implications for recent mortality trends in Eastern Europe.
The food intake time changes in 2-year-old children was evaluated on the basis of two studies conducted in 1973 and 1986. An increase in the consumption of dairy products, vegetables and fruits, fish and poultry was observed. In addition, the choice in dairy products and fat has changed: more semi-skimmed milk, less butter and more vegetable oil are consumed resulting in a better fatty acid balance in 1986. However, iron intake remains lower than the recommended dietary allowance given by the Centre de Coordination des Etudes et Recherches sur la Nutrition et l'Alimentation. Knowledge on the tendencies of food intake behaviour is useful to improve information and prevention.
Diet records of the WHO MONICA Augsburg dietary survey 1984/85 sample of 899 men aged 45-64 were used to derive quantitative data about food intake and the contribution of food groups to energy intake and the intake of those nutrients relevant to the discussion about nutrition and cardiovascular disease: protein, fat, saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, cholesterol, carbohydrate, polysaccharides and total fiber. The present lists of nutrient sources should be helpful for the development of acceptable dietary advises, which make allowance for actual eating patterns as well as for developing improved instruments of dietary assessment.
In the risk factor surveys of the WHO MONICA project Augsburg 1984/85 (S1) and 1989/90 (S2), a qualitative food frequency questionnaire with 24 items was used to monitor trends in food consumption in two independent age- and sex-stratified two-stage cluster samples of the population aged 25-64 years (S1: n = 4,022; S2: n = 3,966). Alcohol intake was assessed by separate questions. From S1 to S2 slight but encouraging trends towards a better agreement with dietary guidelines could be found with a decreasing monthly consumption of meat, sausages and ham, eggs, and beer and an increasing consumption of cooked vegetables and cereals. These trends correspond well with trends in food supply data.
In the WHO MONICA Augsburg survey of 1984/85 dietary intake was assessed in an age-stratified cluster sample of 899 men aged 45-64 years by 7-day records. The mean energy intake was 2,609 kcal (10.9 MJ), 15.9% of which came from protein, 38.1% from fat, and 36.6% from carbohydrate. A remarkably high proportion of 9.4% was derived from alcohol. Saturated fatty acids accounted for 14.6% of total energy, monounsaturated fatty acids for 13.2% and polyunsaturated fatty acids for 5.2%. The results showed that current dietary habits do not conform with the national nutritional guidelines.
Dietary supplements may contribute to a considerable proportion to micronutrient intake. However, little is known about the consumption of supplements in children and adolescents, especially in Germany. We therefore examined patterns and time trends in supplement consumption in healthy children and adolescents.
A total of 5,990 3-day records from 931 subjects 2-18 years of age from the DONALD Study between 1986 and 2003 were examined.
(a) Supplement type: A total of 166 different supplements were reported: 49% vitamin-mineral combinations, 31% vitamin, 13% mineral, 7% fluorine supplements. 12% (vitamin) and 13% (mineral) were single nutrient supplements. Vitamin C (72%), B(1) (57%), B(2) (54%), calcium (44%), magnesium (31%) and phosphorus (20%) were the most frequent added nutrients. (b) Users: In 25.8% (males 13.2%, females 12.6%) of the records, supplement usage was documented. Fluorine supplements were by far the most often consumed items (18.1%) followed by vitamins (4.5%), vitamin-mineral combinations (3.6%), minerals (2.4%), and multiple usage (2.6%). (c) Time trend: We found a marked time trend in supplement consumption in the past 18 years with a peak between 1994 and 1996 and lower usage before and after that time (independent of age and gender). (d) Associated factors: Supplement usage was influenced by age, year of study, season, smoking and number of persons in families, education level and employment of mothers, whereas gender or the number of children per family failed to have any effect.
Supplement usage is a common behaviour in German children and adolescents and changing with time. Type and frequency of supplement usage is age dependent. Those nutrients found mostly in supplements are not the critical ones. In evaluations of children's diet it is mandatory to separate fluorine from other supplements.
BACKGROUND/AIM AND METHOD: Severe malabsorption often necessitates prolonged parenteral nutrition. Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) offers the opportunity for treatment at home. We report clinical and laboratory data of initial 27 HPN patients of one center since its opening in 1994.
Clinical and biological markers of nutritional status were normalized and well maintained in most patients. Except for vitamin E and selenium (lower in HPN patients), the other vitamin and micronutrient levels were normal. There was no obvious essential fatty acid deficiency. Cholestasis was usual, but only 1 patient had a severe hepatic disease. Catheter infection occurred 18 times in 13 patients, but the frequency decreased with time (from 4.2 to 1.7 infections/1,000 days on HPN). No patient died from HPN complications. Social rehabilitation and, in some patients, full professional rehabilitation were constant.
These data confirm that HPN performed in centers with expertise allowed patients to overcome gut failure and to recover subnormal or normal nutritional status. Satisfactory social rehabilitation was obtained in all patients. HPN complications were rarely life-threatening, and their frequency decreased with experience.
In Germany, iodine deficiency is common. In a representative group of 2,500 Germans (age >13 years), using a specially designed food questionnaire, the iodine intake was calculated. In addition, iodine and creatinine concentrations in spot urine samples were determined in three groups with a possibly increased risk of iodine deficiency (769 conscripts, 886 pairs of mothers and newborns) or future hyperthyroidism (574 adults, age range 50-70 years) from 26 representative regions. In four groups of controls (young and older male and female adults; n = 91), 24-hour urine iodine and creatinine were measured in six diurnal fractions to calculate group- and period-specific factors for the estimation of the 24-hour iodine excretion from data of iodine/creatinine ratio and time of micturition in spot urine samples.
The mean calculated iodine intake (excretion) was 119 microg/day for the group of Germans above 13 years; it was 119 microg/day (125 microg/day) for adults aged 50-70 years, 137 microg/day (125 microg/day) for conscripts, and 162 microg/day for breast-feeding mothers. The median iodine concentration (iodine/creatinine ratio) was 9.4 microg/dl (83 microg/g) in 566 adults aged 50-70 years, 8.3 microg/dl (57 microg/g) in 772 conscripts. and 5.6 microg/dl (156 microg/g) in 739 breast-fed newborns.
Compared to older data, the iodine intake in Germany has increased. In 1996, the meticulously quantified average deficit was about 30% of the recommended iodine intake.
Recent estimates show the prevalence of obesity to be increasing at alarming rates. This study was conducted to examine trends of prevalence in overweight, obesity and central fat accumulation among Tehranian adults between 1998 and 2002.
Height and weight of 2,102 adults, aged 20-80 years, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, were measured in 1998-1999 and remeasured in 2001-2002, after 3 years. Criteria used to state prevalence of overweight and obesity were body mass index (BMI) 25-29.9 and > or =30, respectively. Central fat accumulation was defined as waist-hip ratio (WHR) > or =0.8 in women and > or =0.9 in men. Individuals were divided into 10-year groups and the prevalence of obesity was compared according to sex and age.
In 1998-1999 and 2001-2002, mean BMI was 26.1 +/- 4.1 and 26.7 +/- 4.1 kg/m(2) in men (p < 0.001) and 27.8 +/- 4.9 and 28.7 +/- 5.9 kg/m(2) in women (p < 0.001), respectively. Mean WHR in women was 0.84 +/- 0.08 in 1998-1999 and 0.88 +/- 0.08 in 2001-2002 (p < 0.001). The prevalence of overweight in men was 42.5 and 46% and 40 and 39.5% in women in the two mentioned periods. The prevalence of obesity was 32.7 and 40.3% in men and 16.5 and 20.8% in women in 1998-1999 and 2001-2002 respectively. In both sexes the fastest increasing trends in obesity and central fat accumulation were seen in the 30- to 40- and 20- to 30-year-old age groups. Comparison of the 50th percentile of BMI in all age groups showed a significant increase in 2001-2002 as compared to 1998-1999 (p < 0.01).
The findings demonstrate significant rises in the prevalence of both total and central fat accumulation, calling for urgent action to educate people in lifestyle modifications.
A deficit of various hormones during the process of aging and/or a heightened inflammatory state may be causally linked to the development of frailty. Phytoestrogens as weak estrogens, antioxidants, and anti-inflammatory agents may counteract this process.
In a cross-sectional study including two cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, i.e. 1999-2002), logistic regression was used to analyze the association between urinary concentrations of isoflavones and lignans and frailty in 600 females aged 50 years or older (median age 66.5 years). Participants were classified as 'frail' (meeting 3 or more of the 5 frailty criteria), 'prefrail' (meeting 1 or 2 of the criteria), or 'robust' (meeting none of the criteria). Four percent were frail.
For all of the phytoestrogens considered, the unadjusted OR were lower than 1 but generally not statistically significant aside from the association with O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA) (OR = 0.76; 95% CI 0.61-0.92). Multivariate analysis did not attenuate this finding (OR = 0.74; 95% CI 0.61-0.90).
This first analysis of the relationship between phytoestrogens and frailty revealed an inverse association between urinary O-DMA levels and frailty in women. However, the number of frail women was low. Although this finding may be confounded or biased, it seems worthwhile to intensify research on the potential preventive effects of O-DMA.
Establishing animal models with metabolic disorders similar to human metabolic syndrome (MS) is important. In terms of eliciting a full array of MS, we have previously shown that Wistar rats are more responsive to sucrose water drinking than are C57BL/6J mice. This study was aimed at investigating the underlying molecular mechanism of sucrose water-induced MS in Wistar rats.
Male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups (n = 8 for each group) which were given plain water (C group) or 30% sucrose water (SW group) to drink ad libitum. After 20 weeks, the transcriptional levels and protein translocation of hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) as well as the protein levels of protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP-1B) in insulin-responsive tissues (liver, muscle, and adipose tissue) were measured.
The sucrose water regimen successfully elicited visceral obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and high blood pressure. The upregulation of de novo lipogenesis in the liver of the sucrose water-treated rats was demonstrated by an increased activity of enzymes, mRNA levels of lipogenic proteins, and nuclear levels of SREBP-1c and ChREBP. Moreover, in the sucrose water-treated rats, protein levels of PTP-1B were significantly increased in liver and skeletal muscle but decreased in adipose tissue.
The susceptibility of Wistar rats to sucrose water-induced MS is associated with the transactivation of SREBP-1c and ChREBP in the liver, and PTP-1B is involved in the upregulation of de novo lipogenesis in the liver and the pathology of systemic insulin resistance in rats with MS chronically induced by drinking sucrose water.
This study aimed to examine the changes in serum lipids in children with mild hypercholesterolemia after the use of skim milk or olive-oil-enriched skim milk in their diet and the modulation of lipid levels by the Taq 1B polymorphism in the cholesteryl-ester transfer protein gene.
Thirty-six prepubertal children with mild hypercholesterolemia were randomly assigned in a crossover design into 2 groups of 16 and 20 individuals. Both groups received, in sequential inverse order, the 2 types of milk for 2 periods of 6 weeks.
Carriers of at least 1 B2 allele had an adjusted basal HDL cholesterol level significantly higher than children with the B1B1 genotype (1.291 mmol/l, 95% CI: 1.184-1.397, vs. 1.082 mmol/l, 95% CI: 0.931-1.233; p = 0.027). In contrast, there were no significant differences in the adjusted basal levels of apolipoprotein A-I (B2 carriers: 1.292 g/l, 95% CI: 1.218-1.367; B1B1 genotype: 1.215 g/l, 95% CI: 1.109-1.320; p = 0.223). The intake of olive-oil-enriched skim milk caused significant increases in HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I, both in B2 (0.089 mmol/l, 95% CI: 0.032-0.146, p = 0.005; 0.55 g/l, 95% CI: 0.012-0.098; p = 0.018) and in B1B1 carriers (0.179 mmol/l, 95% CI: 0.096-0.262; p < 0.001; and 0.095 g/l, 95% CI: 0.032-0.157; p = 0.003). This increase in HDL cholesterol was significantly higher in the B1B1 group (p = 0.049).
The consumption of skim milk enriched with olive oil increases the HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I levels in children with hypercholesterolemia, this effect being more intense in carriers of the B1B1 genotype.
Recently, it has been shown that dietary lupin protein lowers plasma triglyceride concentrations in rats. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that this effect is due to a downregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c, a transcription factor that regulates the expression of lipogenic enzymes in the livers of rats.
Two groups of 12 rats each were fed semisynthetic diets containing 200 g/kg of either casein (control group) or lupin protein from Lupinus albus for 22 days.
Rats fed the diet containing lupin protein had lower concentrations of triglycerides in the liver, plasma and VLDL + chylomicrons (p < 0.05). The concentration of protein in VLDL + chylomicrons was also lower in rats fed lupin protein than in rats fed casein (p < 0.05). The mRNA concentrations of SREBP-1c and fatty acid synthase in the liver were lower in rats fed lupin protein than in rats fed casein (p < 0.05). The mRNA concentrations of lipoprotein lipase in the liver did not differ between both groups of rats.
This study confirms that a protein isolated from L. albus is strongly hypotriglyceridemic in rats. It is shown for the first time that this effect is at least in part due to a downregulation of SREBP-1c in the liver which in turn leads to a reduction in hepatic fatty acid synthesis.
Protein-associated amino acids are supposed to play a role in sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-mediated regulation of lipid metabolism. This study investigates the effects of cysteine on expression of SREBP-regulated hepatic genes.
HepG2 cells which are an accepted model for the study of the lipid metabolism were treated with L-cysteine under different conditions.
Exposure of cells to L-cysteine reduced the mRNA concentrations of SREBP-1c (-35 to -43%) and its target genes fatty acid synthase (FAS; -20 to -50%), glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PDH; -31 to -35%), and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD)1 (-34 to -50%). Cells treated with L-cysteine had 47% higher glutathione and 47% lower triglyceride concentrations than control cells. In cells which were concurrently treated with L-cysteine and L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine, an inhibitor of enzymatic glutathione synthesis, no down-regulation of the gene expression was observed. Pro-oxidant CuSO(4) up-regulated SREBP-1c (+71%), FAS (+165%), G6PDH (+84%) and SCD1 (+96%) mRNA abundance compared to control cells, but when cells were concurrently treated with L-cysteine, the gene expression remained at control level.
The results show that L-cysteine rapidly down-regulates the transcription of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis via a mechanism that appears to be mediated by an improved glutathione status.
This study was conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of Erigeron canadensis (EC) on the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-, interleukin (IL)-4- and IL-1beta-induced stimulation of A549 cells.
In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of EC on TNF-alpha-, IL-4- and IL-1beta-induced A549 cells were determined by analyzing eotaxin secretion using ELISA. In addition, the effects of ECon gene expression profiles in stimulated A549 cells were evaluated by microarray analysis.
Oligonucleotide microarray analysis revealed that inflammatory-related genes such as NOS1, NOS2A, IL-1beta, IL-8 and CSF2 and cell adhesion-related genes such as SELE, MMP3, VCAM1, ICAM1, ITGA7 and ITGB2 were downregulated in EC-treated A549 cells that had been pretreated with TNF-alpha, IL-4 and IL-1beta. In addition, significant decreases in Eotaxin, ICAM, VCAM and IL-8 gene expression were observed in EC-treated A549 cells.
EC has an anti-inflammatory effect in stimulated A549 cells. Microarray-based genomic survey is a high-throughput approach that is suitable for the evaluation of gene expression in cell lines that have been treated with EC.
Lactose synthetase (LS) is a complex of alpha-lactalbumin and N-acetylglucosamine galactosyl transferase (GT). LS is the rate-limiting enzyme in lactose biosynthesis. Lactose is the main osmotic component of milk and may thereby affect milk volume. Dietary protein inadequacy reduces milk volume and lactose content. The study investigates the role of LS activity in these phenomena. Lactating rats were fed adequate and inadequate amounts of protein of high (milk protein) and low (cereal protein) quality. After 14 days LS and GT activity of mammary tissue was measured. Milk volume and lactose content was determined. While GT activity was unaffected by diet, LS activity was reduced by low dietary protein quality. Addition of bovine alpha-lactalbumin to tissue incubates largely restored the reduced LS activities. Milk volume was affected in a parallel manner to LS activity. A highly significant positive correlation existed between LS activity and total lactose production (r = 0.794; p less than 0.001). Dietary protein inadequacy indirectly reduces milk volume by means of a direct effect on the lactalbumin part of the LS complex and, subsequently, lactose biosynthesis.
The supply of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6omega-3), important for fetal/infant neurodevelopment, depends on the maternal fatty acid (FA) status, which may be marginal in central Europe. Therefore, we investigated the effect of a daily vitamin/mineral supplement with and without 200 mg DHA from mid-pregnancy through lactation on the DHA concentrations in maternal and infant red blood cell phospholipids (RBC%), and in breast milk FA (%).
At 21 weeks' gestation, 144 women were enrolled into a randomised, double-blind clinical trial receiving daily: (1) a basic vitamin-mineral supplement (Vit/Min group), (2) Vit/Min plus 4.5 g fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS group), or (3) Vit/Min plus 4.5 g FOS plus 200 mg fish oil-derived DHA (DHA-FOS group). FAs were determined by capillary gas-liquid chromatography.
While maternal RBC-DHA% at enrolment was not different, at 37 weeks gestation, and 3 months after delivery RBC-DHA% were significantly higher in the DHA-FOS group. The breast milk DHA% was twice as high in the DHA-FOS group (0.50%) than in the two others (0.25 %) (p < 0.001), and the ratio ARA/DHA in the DHA-FOS group was 1.0 +/- 0.43, in the others 2.1 +/- 0.43 (p < 0.001). The RBC-DHA% of the infants in the DHA-FOS group was also significantly higher, and correlated significantly with maternal RBC-DHA% before and 3 months after delivery.
In central Europe, a dose of 200 mg/day DHA from mid-pregnancy through lactation seems appropriate to improve the DHA status of mothers and infants.