Annals of Applied Biology

Published by Wiley
Online ISSN: 1744-7348
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Article
A description is given of a simple flow cell and modifications to an amino acid autoanalyser. These allow continuous monitoring of the 14C in effluent from chromatographic columns using a standard liquid scintillation counter.
 
Article
Aldicarb or Du Pont 1410 (S-methyl 1-(dimethylcarbamoyl)-N-[(methylcarbamoyl) oxy] thioformimidate) at 2.6–11.2 kg a.i./ha applied to the soil at planting time controlled potato cyst-nematode, Heterodera rostochiensis, in sandy loam, peaty loam and silt loam and greatly increased tuber yields of susceptible potatoes. Nemacur (O-ethyl-O-(3-methyl-4-methylthiophenyl) isopropylamido-phosphate) controlled potato cyst-nematode in sandy loam at 2.9–10.3 kg a.i./ha and in silt loam at 11.2 kg a.i./ha but did not control the nematode well in peaty loam even at 22.4 kg a.i./ha. In peaty loam aldicarb and Nemacur were more effectively incorporated by rotavation than by a modified power harrow.
 
Article
Experiments on roguing virus-diseased plants from plots of Majestic potatoes, which have been in progress since 1943, were continued in 1946. Plots were rogued in mid-June, early and late July, and plants were lifted from these plots at the end of July, August and September respectively. Roguing had little effect in reducing the spread of rugose mosaic (caused by potato virus Y). The spread of leaf roll was reduced to half that on unrogued plots by roguing on 14 June. Later roguing did not reduce the spread of leaf roll, unless combined with early lifting. Early lifting increased the effect of early roguing. In spite of these results roguing main crop potatoes in the south of England is not considered a practical control measure.
 
Article
A series of experiments on the spread of potato rugose mosaic (virus Y), and leaf roll, which has been in progress on a uniform plan since 1943, was ended in 1946. Mean values for thirteen centres in England and Wales showed that in 1946 69% of the infections with virus Yand 48 % of those with leaf-roll virus reached the tubers of Majestic potatoes by the beginning of August. There was usually little subsequent increase of rugose mosaic, but a late increase of leaf roll was associated with a relatively high initial spread. Three-quarters of the virus Y and over half the leaf-roll infections occurred within five plants distance of the source. There was no close correlation between the spread of either virus and the maximum number of Myzus persicae, either apterous forms on the plants or alate forms caught on adhesive traps, but centres with high trap catches in July and August showed pronounced late season spread of leaf roll. There were marked differences at different centres in the relative spread of the two viruses. The amount of spread and the gradients from source of infection of the two viruses are compared over the period 1943–6.
 
Article
Suction traps operating at low level (1 5 m) were used to catch live alate Rhopalosiphum padi, Macrosiphum (Sitobion) avenae and Metopolophium dirhodum which were tested for transmission of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). The first species caught and infective was R. padi, followed by M. (S.) avenae infective some 2–3 wk later and M. dirhodum 3–4 wk later still. Never more than 11-5% of the annual catch of any species transmitted BYDV and the proportion fluctuated from week to week and between seasons in different years. The relative abundance of infective vectors of ths three species varied; annual numbers of infective M. (S.) avenae and M. dirhodum varied inversely with infective R. padi, the latter also usually transmitted severer virus. The results of the infectivity tests have been compared with the catches of these aphids by the Rothamsted Insect Survey and show that numbers of alate aphids do not necessarily indicate the likely incidence of BYDV.
 
Article
2-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)ethylamine (2,4-D ethylamine) was converted to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetaldehyde (2,4-D acetaldehyde) by extracts of pea cotyledons. The 2,4-D acetaldehyde was further converted to 2,4-dichloro-phenol and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Under the same conditions, 2-(2,6-dichlorophenoxy)ethylamine was converted to 2,6-dichloro-phenoxyacetaldehyde and 2,6-dichlorophenol, although at a relatively slow rate. In pea stem segments and wheat coleoptiles the main products of 2,4-D ethylamine metabolism were 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4-D acetaldehyde and 2,4-D. In comparison with the wheat coleoptiles, larger amounts of these products were found in the pea stem segments. Metabolism of 2,4-D acetaldehyde gave 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)ethanol (2,4-D ethanol) and 2,4-D in both pea and wheat tissues. Pretreatment with the amine oxidase inhibitor, 2-hydroxyethylhydrazine (HEH) completely prevented the extension of pea stem segments and substantially prevented the extension of wheat coleoptiles on subsequent treatment with 2,4-D ethylamine. No such protection was found against 2,4-D acetaldehyde or 2,4-D after pretreating the tissues with HEH. In pea, radish, and tomato plants, epinasty resulted from treatment with 2,4-D ethylamine, 2,4-D acetaldehyde and 2,4-D. Prior treatment with HEH prevented the epinasty due to the 2,4-D ethylamine, but no protection was given by HEH against 2,4-D acetaldehyde or 2,4-D.
 
Article
The metabolism of certain 2,6-disubstituted phenols that possess high auxin activity in the pea segment, pea curvature and tomato-leaf epinasty tests, but are much less active in the wheat cylinder test, has been investigated in wheat, pea and tomato tissue. Metabolites were identified by thin-layer chromatography and a semi-quantitative assay method was developed.The low activity of 2,6-dihalogenophenols and inactivity of 2-halogeno-6-nitro-phenols and 3-halogeno-2-hydroxybenzonitriles in the wheat cylinder test was caused by rapid metabolic conversion of the compounds in this tissue to inactive compounds by a process involving hydroxylation of the aromatic ring in the para- position. No such inactivation occurred in pea and tomato tissues.Evidence for a novel detoxification of nitrophenols within both pea and wheat tissue was obtained; 2-bromo–6-nitrophenol was converted via 2-bromo-6-aminophenol to N-acetyl-2-bromo-6-aminophenol.Certain 3-halogeno-2-hydroxybenzaldehydes and corresponding aceto-phenones, although fulfilling the necessary structural and electronic criteria for auxin activity, are inactive. Metabolic studies indicate that this is because they are metabolized in wheat, pea and tomato tissues to compounds not possessing the structural requirements for auxin activity.
 
Article
Laboratory investigations into the low-temperature tolerance of the green spruce aphid, Elatobium abietinum, revealed that the insect was killed by freezing. Aphids and host Sitka spruce needles showed similar seasonal changes in supercooling ability. A noticeable increase in this ability occurred between June and October. Aphids were more susceptible to low temperatures when attached to the plant. It is suggested that mortality resulted from ice which formed in the sap of the host needles and spread into the feeding aphids via their mouthparts. Neither the chlorotic banding of needles, caused by aphid feeding, nor needle length affected needle supercooling. Increased duration of exposure increased the probability of freezing of supercooled needles at low temperatures. A small percentage of first-instar nymphs supercooled to much lower temperatures than the remainder of the population. These were newly born nymphs whose high supercooling ability markedly decreased when they began to feed.
 
Article
Detailed observations were made of the behaviour of Phytoseiulus persimilis while searching for, identifying and feeding on eggs of Tetranychus urticae. A theory is proposed to explain how P. persimilis may identify prey eggs and distinguish them from non-prey objects. The existence of a water-soluble feeding stimulant on prey eggs is postulated.The effect of residues of captan, dinocap and malathion on the feeding behaviour of P. persimilis was investigated. Residues of the fungicide dinocap on the eggs of the prey did not affect acceptance by the predator, but captan had a marked repellent effect. Malathion had an even stronger repellent effect.It is suggested that, by making the prey eggs less acceptable to the predator, the use of certain fungicides could render more difficult the prediction of population interactions on which biological control depends.We wish to thank Dr N. W. Hussey of the Glasshouse Crops Research Institute for helpful comments and for supplying predatory mites. Mr Jackson wishes to thank the Overseas Development Administration for financial support during this work.
 
Article
Uptake of the dodine cation from acetate solutions by conidia of Alternaria tenuis and Neurospora crassa was characterized by a rapid rate of sorption, a ‘Langmuir type’ adsorption isotherm, and independence of temperature: all of which suggests an ionic bonding mechanism. Metal cations competed with dodine for the anionic binding sites of the cell—regarded as carboxyl and phosphate groups—and dodine uptake also decreased as ionization of the carboxyl group was suppressed. Cell walls of A. tenuis had a greater capacity to bind dodine than did those of N. crassa. Binding at the cell wall may detoxify some of the large amount of dodine that must be accumulated by the spores to achieve toxicity. The dodine retained by N. crassa cell walls could not be exchanged or desorbed by washing and is probably bound covalently rather than by weaker ionic bonds. At sub-lethal concentrations there was no evidence that dodine disorganized cell wall structure. Disruption of spores which had been incubated with 14C-labelled dodine showed the fungicide to be associated with intra-cytoplasmic organelles. It is suggested that dodine reacts with the protoplast membrane so as to alter its permeability and allow more dodine to penetrate into the cytoplasm where it may destroy intracellular membrane structure.
 
Article
Several compounds were separated from the antifungal materials produced in Edward VII apple fruits attacked by the brown rot organism Sclerotinia fructigena. Six phenolic compounds were isolated in the crude state by column chromatography and their fungicidal properties examined. Two of the phenolic acids present were purified and identified as 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid. These phenolic compounds were shown to arise from the action of the pathogen on the juice of the fruit and not from the peel or the juice-free pulp.
 
Article
Effects of ring substitution on the plant growth-regulating activities of trans- and cis-cinnamic acids have been investigated in the wheat cylinder, pea segment and pea curvature tests. Most of the cis- acids were shown to be active. Substitution of fluorine, chlorine or bromine into the ring of cis-cinnamic acid in most cases increased the activity. The results are discussed in relation to mode of action and chemical structure/biological activity relationships: 4-chlorobenzoic acid is shown to act as a competitive antagonist towards 4-chloro-cis-cinnamic acid.
 
Article
The plant growth-regulating activities of isatic acid and twenty-six of its derivatives, together with the twenty-seven corresponding anthranilic acids, have been assessed in the wheat cylinder, the pea segment and the pea curvature tests. Activity was sustained by substitution in the 4- and 5-positions of isatic acid but decreased by substitution in the 3- and 6-positions. In the anthranilic acid series, the parent acid was inactive but the introduction of a large grouping (bromine or iodine) into the 5-position conferred activity. The 3,6- and 5,6-dichloro and the 3,6-dibromo acids were also active; compounds substituted in the 4-position to the carboxyl group or disubstituted in the 3,5-positions, were, as expected, inactive. In metabolism experiments on wheat and pea tissues with isatic and 5-chloroisatic acids the corresponding anthranilic acid was formed, together with an unidentified non-acidic metabolite in each case. There was no evidence that the growth regulating activity of isatic acids was related to this breakdown and it is concluded that the acids possess activity per se. The results are briefly discussed in terms of recent theories relating chemical structure to plant growth-regulating activity.
 
Article
The plant growth-regulating activities of all the mono- and di-chloro-substituted α-hydroxy-phenylacetic (mandelic) acids and their methoxy derivatives have been determined in the wheat coleoptile cylinder, pea segment and pea curvature tests. In general, chloro-substituted α-hydroxy acids were less active in all three tests than the corresponding α-methoxy acids. The α-methoxy compounds and the dichloromandelic acids were more active in pea than in wheat tissues. These results are discussed in relation to the plant growth-regulating activities of the corresponding phenylacetic and phenoxyacetic acids.
 
Article
The sedimentation coefficients (s020, w) of the two sedimenting nucleoprotein components of broad bean stain virus (BBSV) were 92 S and 113 S, and of Echtes Ackerbohnenmosaik-Virus (EAMV) were 93 S and 114 S. Particles from each of these sedimenting components contained a single RNA species and two polypeptides. Estimates of the molecular weights of these constituents obtained by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels were: 42000 and 22200 (BBSV) and 41400 and 21800 (EAMV) for the polypeptides; and 2–64 and 1·62 × 106 (BBSV) and 271 and 175 × 106 (EAMV) for the RNAs. In mixtures, the protein and RNA components of BBSV and EAMV were indistinguishable from those obtained from particles of the yellow strain of cowpea mosaic virus. In freshly made virus preparations each of the sedimenting components of BBSV contained two, and those of EAMV contained three electrophoretic components. After storage for 7–10 days, BBSV preparations contained only the component migrating fastest towards the anode. Both BBSV and EAMV are distantly related serologically to cowpea mosaic but, whereas BBSV reacted only with antiserum to the severe strain, EAMV reacted only with antiserum to the yellow strain.
 
Article
When sixth abdominal or metathoracic ganglia of the cockroach Periplaneta americana L. were irrigated continuously with diazoxon (O, O-diethyl O-(2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinyl) phosphate) solution in situ, the log. of the time required to block conduction in certain nerve pathways in the ganglia was directly proportional to the log. of the concentration of diazoxon applied. Inhibition of cholinesterase began peripherally before function was affected, and had begun to affect the neuropile by the time that conduction was first blocked. Longer exposure to diazoxon disrupted nerve function even more, especially in the sixth abdominal ganglion, and inhibited more cholinesterase, but much longer exposure was needed to inhibit nearly all the cholinesterase. Irrigation with saline, begun when block first occurred, failed to restore completely either nerve function or cholinesterase activity. The cholinesterase activity of ganglia from cockroaches treated topically with an LD90 of diazoxon and examined at intervals after treatment decreased steadily to a level similar to that of ganglia treated directly with diazoxon until conduction was just blocked, but rarely became less, even in moribund insects. Nerve function in metathoracic ganglia became badly affected and remained so in all cockroaches that failed to recover, but sixth abdominal ganglia, though usually badly affected for a time, always recovered normal function, even in prostrate cockroaches. The condition of a poisoned insect, therefore, corresponded much more closely to the functional condition of the metathoracic ganglion than to that of the sixth abdominal ganglion. Applying the insecticide close to a ganglion advanced the time of onset of symptoms but affected the final outcome very little. It was calculated that the highest concentration of diazoxon in the haemo-lymph in contact with the nervous systems of cockroaches treated topically with LDgo's of diazoxon was about 10-5M.
 
Article
When sixth abdominal ganglia of the cockroach Periplaneta americana were irrigated continuously with diazinon solution in situ, its effects on nerve conduction and cholinesterase activity closely resembled those of diazoxon; spontaneous activity and after-discharge increased until conduction was blocked, which happened while some cholinesterase was still uninhibited. The symptoms were only slightly relieved by irrigating ganglia with saline. Though the LD50's of diazinon and diazoxon applied topically to adult male P. americana were similar (2.5 ± 0.33 and 4.5 ± 0.38 μig. per insect), diazoxon was about 300 times more active than diazinon against nerve function and cholinesterase activity in the sixth abdominal ganglion. This is probably because in the nerve preparations contact between the insecticide and the tissues surrounding the nerve cord, which in whole insects convert diazinon, a thionophosphate, into its phosphate analogue diazoxon, a more active anticholinesterase, was minimized. Indeed, taking into account the evidence of workers who previously compared in vitro the anticholinesterase activities of several thionophosphates with those of their phosphate analogues and found the phosphates much more active, the effect of diazinon on cholinesterase activity and nerve function in our experiments was unexpectedly great. By applying diazinon to nerve cords with SKF 525-A, a compound likely to prevent oxidation of diazinon to diazoxon, an attempt was therefore made to decide whether diazinon directly affected nerve conduction or whether the effect resulted either from its conversion to diazoxon within the nerve tissue or from impurities in the diazinon used. Results were inconclusive, for SKF 525-A (p-diethylaminoethyl diphenylpropylacetate hydrochloride) not only failed to prevent the inhibition of cholinesterase, but interfered with the action of both diazinon and diazoxon on nerve conduction, and itself affected nerve conduction when applied alone. The possibility that diazinon is itself a mild anticholinesterase was not excluded. SKF 525-A applied to sixth abdominal ganglia at 2 × 10-4M blocked conduction from cereal nerves to giant fibres in 50–97 min. and at 4 × 10-5M decreased the post-synaptic response; applied to giant fibres at 2 × 10-4M it blocked conduction in 90–208 min. The effects of the larger concentration were not completely reversible. Although SKF 525-A has been widely used to study the metabolism of drugs, its direct effects on conduction in nerve axons seem not to have been noted previously.
 
Article
Laboratory trials using Aspergillus niger indicate that the antifungal effect of 1-phenylthiosemicarbazide is based upon its conversion into an oxidation product, phenylazothioformamide. This conversion takes place much more slowly at pH 5 than at pH 7 and is completely prevented by the reducing agent sodium thioglycollate. Both acidity of the medium and the presence of reducing agents lower the fungitoxicity of 1-phenylthiosemicarbazide.
 
Article
Standard procedures for determining acute oral and contact toxicities of insecticides to worker honeybees were developed and used to find the median lethal doses (LD50) of twenty-one compounds. The test procedures can be simplified to give less precise results and can be applied with little modification to other species of bee.
 
Article
Twenty-six biochemical tests were used to study cultures of basidiomycetes isolated from roots of fruit-trees and other plants. The results enabled isolates to be placed into one of sixteen groups. Three of these groups were identified as Collybia drucei, Corticium utriculicum and Heteroporus biennis by matching their biochemical reactions with those of isolates from fruiting bodies of these fungi. This suggests that the other groups might also correspond to species. The three named fungi are indigenous, the first two not having been recorded elsewhere. Thus, root infections by these fungi may have originated from the indigenous fungal flora. Isolates of C. utriculicum and Stereum purpureum which were indistinguishable in culture were also separated using biochemical tests.
 
Article
Processes affecting the toxicity of diazinon to a susceptible and a resistant strain of houseflies were examined. More evidence was obtained to show that slower penetration of diazinon through the integument of resistant flies is a cause of resistance. Small amounts of two decomposition products were found in both strains. The decomposition mechanisms, in these strains were differently distributed and, although detoxication of diazinon in the two strains is quantitatively similar and small, it may contribute to resistance. Traces of diazoxon were detected when diazinon was incubated with tissue extracts of either strain. Tissue extracts of resistant, but not of susceptible, flies decomposed significant amounts of diazinon in 1 hr. and the ability to decompose diazoxon seems to be an important cause of resistance. Tissues of both strains sorbed diazinon from aqueous solution similarly; the quantities sorbed were large and suggest that sorption may increase the amount of poison needed inside the insects to kill, by between five and forty times.
 
Article
Nicotiana velutina mosaic virus (NVMV), found in Australia, was transmitted by inoculation of sap to twenty species in the Solanaceae and Chenopodiaceae, and to Gomphrena globosa; its host range closely resembles that of potato mop-top virus (PMTV). Infectivity was abolished when sap was kept at room temperature between 1 and 4 days, or when heated for 10 min between 60 and 70 °C. NVMV was frequently transmitted through the seed of four Nicotiana spp. NVMV and PMTV were purified by a method that involved redissolving virus particles sedimented by low speed centrifugation of leaf extracts, followed by sedimentation through sucrose cushions. NVMV preparations contain rod-shaped particles about 18 nm wide and with a large range of lengths, the commonest being 125–150 nm. The particles have a helical structure with a pitch of 2–9 nm, break easily, and contain a single protein of apparent mol. wt. 21|400, slightly larger than that of PMTV (19 800). In serological tests assessed by electron microscopy, no relationship was detected between NVMV and PMTV, or barley stripe mosaic, beet necrotic yellow vein, soil-borne wheat mosaic, tobacco mosaic or tobacco rattle viruses. However, antiserum to soil-borne wheat mosaic virus reacted quite strongly with PMTV and weakly with tobacco mosaic virus. NVMV is considered to be a distinct member of the tobamovirus group; its frequent transmission through seed may be an adaptation to the arid environment where it was found. Its cryptogram is */*:*/*:E/E:S/*.
 
Article
A virus obtained from sweet potatoes in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania was transmitted by inoculation of sap and by whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci). It infected forty-five of 119 plant species in fourteen of thirty-six plant families. It was propagated in Nicotiana glutinosa and N. tabacum, in which diagnostic symptoms of vein clearing, leaf curling and distortion developed. Cheno-podium quinoa was a good local lesion host. Different seedling lines of sweet potato differed greatly in their susceptibility to infection and in symptoms produced; some developed leaf mottling and were stunted, some were symptomless, and some appeared immune. The virus was transmitted by dodder (Cuscuta campestris) but not by aphids, or through seed of Ipomoea nil or N. clevelandii. Sweet potato sap contained strong inhibitors of infection, and a low concentration of virus. Virus-free cuttings of sweet potato were obtained by thermotherapy (4–5 wk at 35 °C), or by meristem-tip culture. The virus remained infective in sap of N. tabacum after dilution to 10-3, or after 10 min at 55 °C (but not 60 °C), 3 but not 7 days at 18 °C, or 42 but not 49 days at 2 °C. Infectivity was abolished by sonication or u.v. irradiation, by 2% formaldehyde or 2% tri-sodium orthophosphate, and was greatly decreased by 20 % CHC13 or 20 % ether. Purified virus preparations were obtained from N. tabacum by clarifying phosphate buffer extracts with n-butanol, virus precipitation with polyethylene glycol, and differential centrifugation. The virus sedimented as one band in density gradients, and produced a single sedimenting boundary in analytical centrifugation (s°20, w = 1555)- It contained one polypeptide species of mol wt 37700, and preliminary digestion experiments suggested a single-stranded RNA. Antisera prepared against the virus reacted specifically in precipitin tube tests with titres of 1/16384, but no serological relationships could be found between the virus and fourteen viruses of the potato virus Y group. Electron micrographs showed straight, filamentous particles c. 950 nm long when mounted in MgCla, but 800–900 nra long in EDTA. The present cryptogram is: (R/i):*/*:E/E:S/Al. This virus is probably the same as Sheffield's virus B.
 
Article
Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CAMV) was isolated for the first time in East Africa where three distinct strains, type, veinbanding and mild, were differentiated by host range and serology. The three strains infected 17/38, 18/37 and 10/35 legume species, and 11/21, 7/21 and 3/19 non-legume species, respectively. The viruses were propagated in cowpea and assayed in Chenopodium amaranticolor. Isolates of all three strains had similar in vitro properties: dilution end point between 10-3 and 10-4; thermal inactivation point between 56 and 58 °C; longevity in vitro between 2 and 3 days. Infectivity of sap from frozen leaves was high after 4 wk but much less after 7 wk; infectivity was largely precipitated by 50% acetone but inactivated by 50% ethanol. High yields of virus were consistently obtained from cowpea by extracting systemically infected leaves in 0.5 m sodium citrate containing 1% mercaptoethanol (pH 8.1), and clarifying with 8.5 ml n-butanol/100 ml sap. Virus preparations contained numerous unaggregated and aggregated virus particles c. 750 nm long and contained components with sedimentation coefficients (s°20, w) of 150S and 175S (presumably unaggregated and aggregated particles, respectively). CAMV is serologically distantly related to bean common mosaic virus, but not to bean yellow mosaic or eight other morphologically similar viruses. It is a typical but distinct member of the potato virus Y group.
 
Article
There was a significant inverse correlation (P= 0=001) between concentrations of mushroom viruses 1 and 2 in sporophores and amounts of mycelial growth on malt agar of isolates taken from them. Increasing virus concentrations decreased linear growth of one mushroom strain from 76 mm (healthy) to 35 mm (mildly infected) and 7 mm (severely infected) when incubated at 25°C for 3 wk. Mycelial growth rates of isolates from healthy and from virus-infected mushrooms were compared on eleven agar media. All media clearly differentiated between healthy and severely infected isolates, but fewer separated healthy from mildly infected isolates. Those that did contained maltose, sucrose or starch as carbon source. Media containing peptone usually gave better differentiation than those with other sources of nitrogen, but the best differentiation was obtained with malt agar. Growing healthy and infected isolates on a range of media affected their subsequent growth on malt agar, the growth of some isolates apparently being changed permanently after 2 months on some of the different media. Whereas none of the infected isolates grew less rapidly after this treatment, the growth of some of the mildly infected isolates improved to such an extent that they could no longer be distinguished from healthy isolates. After heat-treatment (1–6 wk at 33°C), mycelial growth rates of infected isolates were increased, but viruses 1 and 2 were not always eliminated unless the heat-treatment was begun immediately after subculture. Mycelial growth rate and colony characters are not infallible criteria of the presence or absence of virus, a feature of particular significance when checking the health of mushroom spawn.
 
Article
A spiroplasma isolated from citrus with little-leaf disease was grown in a cell-free medium and injected into leafhoppers (Euscelis plebejus). Injected leafhoppers, but not those fed on infected plants, transmitted the spiroplasma to white clover (Trifolium repens cv. S100) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia). Infected clover plants were severely stunted; infected sweet orange plants showed typical symptoms of citrus little-leaf disease. The spiroplasma was detected in clover and sweet orange plants by electron microscopy; the helical morphology of the organisms was most easily recognizable in sections 150-200 nm thick. The organism was re-isolated in cell-free media both from infected plants and from injected E. plebejus. The original isolate and those re-isolated from experimentally infected clover and sweet orange appeared by morphological, cultural, biochemical and serological criteria to be identical to each other and to the R8-A2 (type) and C-189 strains of Spiroplasma citri. Serological tests and electrophoretic analysis of protein preparations indicated no relationship to Acholeplasma laidlawii, although this organism survived for at least 10 wk after injection into E. plebejus. Our results show that the causal agent of little-leaf disease is related to S. citri.
 
Top-cited authors
Bryan D Harrison
  • James Hutton Institute
R. A. C. Jones
  • University of Western Australia
Hermann Bleiholder
David J Newman
  • National Cancer Institute (USA)
Jose Luis Araus
  • University of Barcelona