Annals of Agricultural Sciences

Print ISSN: 0570-1783
Pollen grain morphology and seed coat characters of 11 cultivars belonging to two species of genus Hibiscus (Family Malvaceae) namely H. esculentus, H. abelmoschus and H. sabdariffa were investigated. This study was carried out using light microscope (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Pollen morphology of this genus is fairly uniform. Generally radially symmetrical apolar, mostly spheroidal, pantoporate. Seed exomorphic characters revealed four types of ornamentations; reticulate, ocealate, foveolate and ruminate. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE) was employed to characterize those taxa. Thirty-one bands of seed protein profiles have been constructed from the gel. The produced dendrograms that were analyzed by STATISCA program using UPGMA clustering method showed a close affinity among the seven H. esculentus cultivars and the four H. sabdariffa cultivars.
Newly ecdysed 5th instar Schistocerca gregaria nymphs were orally treated with LC75 of the chitin synthesis inhibitor teflubenzuron (135 ppm) for 24 h; subsequently they were offered an untreated diet for the duration of this instar. Ultrastructural observation of the cuticle in 7 day old untreated 5th instar desert locust nymphs showed that the moulting events had already began. Meanwhile, in treated nymphs of the same age, the ultrastructure of the integument showed that the moulting process was delayed, as no new chitin lamellae of 5th instar were formed and lamellae of the previous instar were still evident. Furthermore, a protein matrix was observed as a homogenous layer with the lack of chitin and occurrence of vacuoles and abundance of mitochondria. The cuticle dry weight in treated 8 day old nymphs was significantly less than that of the control, (i.e. 8.5 and 15 mg/nymph, respectively). Furthermore, in 8 day old treated 5th instar nymphs, chitin and total soluble protein content were 4.5 and 4.85 mg/ nymph, respectively. These weights were also highly significantly less than their equivalent control being 8.5 and 7.85 mg/nymph for chitin and total soluble protein, respectively. Inhibition in chitin and protein synthesis was calculated to be 88.9% and 61.85%, respectively, in 8 day old 5th instar nymphs following their treatment with LC75 concentration of teflubenzuron.
Substantial progress has been made toward micropropagation of date palm species by somatic embryogenesis. Routine production faced disadvantage due to persisting problems with the efficiency of embryo maturation and conversion. This was attributed to the formation of somatic embryos with numerous morphological abnormalities. The present paper was conducted to study the desiccation effect of poly ethylene glycol (PEG) in relation to embryo maturation, and germination. Abnormal malformed embryo explants were cultured on germination medium supplemented with different concentrations of PEG (15, 20 and 25 g l−1) for two periods (15, 30 days) as desiccation treatments. Clear significant changes showed de novo organs as newly direct somatic embryos (secondary embryos). These embryos could be germinated with shoot formation from all desiccated abnormal somatic embryo explants with PEG treatments. The addition of PEG at 20 g l−1 to germination medium for 30 days gave the highest significant number of newly direct somatic embryos comparing with other treatments. Finally secondary somatic embryos converted to full plantlets. For the first time histological investigation was made to reveal anatomical development of secondary embryos from abnormal malformed embryos under (PEG) treatments. The first step showed numerous meristematic multicellular centers occurring before treatment with (PEG). These centers may serve as an inactive source of embryoids. Some morphological and histological changes were recorded during (PEG) treatments and determined by special developmental stages (2-celled, 4-celled, globular and bipolar embryos with normal structure) of new somatic embryos of date palm. The presented data strongly supported that the osmotic stress caused by different concentrations of PEG activates the process of morpho-ontogenetic events to develop new healthy somatic embryos.
The present study aimed to isolate and identify and acclimatize Atrazine-resistant soil bacteria from different contaminated soils in order to be used for bioremediation of polluted environments. Bacteria were isolated from three soil types cultivated with corn and cucumber and amended with Atrazine. Soils were collected from different ecosystems (Abu El-Matameer area, El-Behaira Governorate, Egypt (SoilM), Hada Al-Shame area, Saudi Arabia (SoilH), and El-Sharqia Governorate, Egypt (SoilE) and used in comparative study to investigate the fate of Atrazine. The applied herbicide was tested at 3 elevated doses, dose recommended by the Ministry of Agriculture(RD), half the recommended dose (1/2 RD) and double the recommended dose (2X RD). Physical, chemical, mechanical and biological properties of soils were characterized to determine how they affect and affected by soil indigenous microorganisms. Indigenous and three exogenous bacterial isolate were subjected to a preliminary screening toxicity test obtaining 23 isolate best grown at the 2X RD. Sequences of the tested isolates were affiliated according to their 16S rDNA gene to members of 5 genera, namely Enterobacter (E. cloacae), Bacillus (B. cereus andB. anthracis), Pseudomonas (P. aeruginosa, P. balearica, P. indica and P. otitidis), Ochrobactrum (O. intermedium) and Providencia (P. vermicola) with similarities ranged between 91% and 99%. Resistant bacteria were individually enriched in 2X RD Atrazine amended-liquid cultures for 10 days to select the most promising acclimatized bacteria for biodegradation of Atrazine in the contaminated soils. Enrichment of the resistant isolates led to obtain seven isolates that exhibited remarkable stimulation (S: 70.7–88.7%) in their growth and considered acclimatized and highly Atrazine-resistant. Therefore, they can efficiently be used for degradation of Atrazine-contaminated soil and/or wastewater.
Egyptian soils are facing a serious problem which is high accumulation of salts for many years of flooding irrigation; thus, it becomes necessary for search about high tolerant crops such as date palm, as well as search for modification agent for these injurious effect of salts on vegetative growth and finally products of crops. This work was done at Central Laboratory of Date Palm for Research and Development at Agriculture Research Centre (ARC), Egypt, to investigate the inversely effects of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1 × 109 cells/ml) at 40 and 50 cm/l and amino acids at 3 and 6 cm/l on the bad expression of salinity at two levels 16,000 and 18,000 ppm NaCl + CaCl2 2: 1 by weight on the growth of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) plantlets cv. Bartomouda, chemical compositions as contents of amino acids, chlorophyll a and b, iodole content, uptake of some elements and activated antioxidative enzymes (catalase CAT and peroxidase POD). Results proved that levels of salinity drastically affected plant height (cm), number of leaves/plantlet, and fresh and dry weights (g). Severe reduction was closely associated with 18,000 ppm comparable to the control treatment (without salts), expressive gradually increase in amino acids as well as the content of Na, Ca, and Cl; however, chlorophyll a and b and iodole contents were significantly decreased at two levels, and highest significant reduction was associated with 18,000 ppm salts. Moreover, it was shown that there is a closely positive relation between salt stress and the antioxidative enzyme catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD), which was significantly enhanced in the presence of salinity levels, and antioxidant enzymes had the defense system for salt tolerance in a lot of plants. On the other hand, application of yeast and amino acids had significantly ameliorated the harmful effects of salinity, which accompanied by markedly increase in all studied growth parameters particularly at 50 cm/l yeast and 6 cm/l amino acids compared to control treatment (salts only). The tolerance of date palm plantlets to soil salinity could be improved and alleviated the harmful effects of salinity by the application of 50 cm/l yeast or 6 cm/l amino acids to soil.
Minerals content of school meal (mg/100 g).
Adequacy diets play an important role especially for primary school children aged from 6 to 12 years, to support normal growth and development. Appropriate amounts of amino acids, vitamins and minerals are required since a deficient intake of certain minerals can produce diseases and lead to abnormal development. In this way, the amount of amino acids, vitamins and minerals must be suitable with the edible portions of diets prepared for children. A school meal (pie) was prepared in this study. The meal was evaluated for its proximate composition, amino acids, minerals and vitamins. The total protein content of the pie was 9.70%. This formula contained high percentage of essential amino acids. The percentage of total essential amino acids in the protein was 42.46%, it was rich in cysteine (2.29%), valine (11.48%), isoleucine (5.25%) and phenyl alanine (5.58%) compared to those of casein. The essential amino acids index (EAAI) was also higher than casein being 0.85 and 0.83, respectively. The first limiting amino acid in meal protein was lysine. On the other hand, the content of Fe in 100 g of the experimental meal covered 11.07% of FAO/WHO daily allowance. Also, the prepared pie was rich in vitamins A, D, B complex and C, their contents in 100 g of meal covered FAO/WHO daily requirements except vitamin E. Therefore, results indicated that the prepared meal contained a complementary amino acid profiles, minerals and vitamins.
Recipes of different formulas/100 g contained differ- ent percentage of margarine and/or yellow butter.
Acid, peroxide and iodine values of butter and margarine.
Fatty acids composition of butter and margarine.
Because of the malnutrition in Egyptian children, especially in the more poverty governorate, the country’s plan is to prepare school meals for primary stage children within the Egyptian school feeding project, Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation. These meals must meet with the requirements of calories and major food elements. This study was aimed to prepare and evaluate five meals made from (A, B, C, D and E) formulas containing margarine, yellow butter or their blends as a source of fat content. Formula A contained 100% yellow butter, while formula B contained 80:20, formula C contained 50:50, formula D contained 20:80 butter to margarine, respectively and formula E contained 100% margarine. Results showed that acid, peroxide and iodine values of margarine were higher than those of butter. The content of total unsaturated fatty acids (TUFA) was higher in margarine than in butter. Also, UFA/SFA ratio was higher in margarine than in butter. Whereas, the content of saturated fatty acids was higher than unsaturated fatty acids in all prepared formulas except for formula C. Formula C had higher content of unsaturated fatty acids (C16:1, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3) than other formulas especially linoleic acid (17.057%). Formulas C, D and E had higher content in C18:1 (32.44, 32.45 and 31.96, respectively) than other formulas. While, the UFA/SFA ratio was higher in formula C (1.00) than in other formulas. Therefore, the prepared formula C which contained1:1 butter and margarine was considered the best, suitable and healthier one for Egyptian school children aged between 6 and 12 years.
-chemical parameters in wheat plants as affected by water stress, foliar application of delfan or yeast and their interaction during 2010/2011 (S1) and 2011/2012 (S2) seasons. 
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important cereal crops grown in the world. Drought is a worldwide problem, constraining global crop production seriously and recent global climate change has made this situation more serious. Two experiments (pots and field) were performed to investigate the effect of foliar spray with some biostimulants (amino acids 1.5 and 3 ml/L or yeast 3 and 6 g/L) to reduce hazards of drought stress (irrigation after the depletion of 65% and 80% of available soil water) on bread wheat (Sakha 94 cv.). The obtained results revealed that all studied characters of growth, relative water content (RWC), photosynthetic pigments, total soluble sugars (TSS), total carbohydrates (TC), total free amino acids (TAA), enzymes activities, minerals (NPK% and uptakes), yield and its attributes and grain quality were negatively affected by lower water supplies, meanwhile a significant increase was obtained in leaf water deficit (LWD), osmotic potential (OP), total phenols (TP) and proline content. The maximum decrease was recorded under high level of water stress (W2) compared to optimum level of water supply (W0). Application of amino acids and yeast extract significantly increased all measurement studied with exception of leaf water deficit, osmotic potential and proline content characters in favor of yeast application at a rate of 6 g/L compared to untreated plants in the two seasons. The interaction between the tested water stress and biostimulants was found to be significant for most characters of physiological traits and yield and its components. Also it was noticed that application of yeast (6 g/L) under normal water supply gave the best results of all studied characters. Also, it could be recommended that application of natural substances led to overcome the deleterious effect of drought and consequently resulted in improved the productivity of wheat and its grain quality.
Estimates of specific combining ability effects for the studied traits under well watered and rainfed conditions in F 1 and F 2 generations.
of general combining ability effects for the studied traits under well watered and rainfed conditions in F 1 and F 2 generations.
Seven genotypes of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) were used in carrying out half diallel cross, 21 F1 hybrids and 21 F2 progenies evaluated under well watered and rainfed conditions at the Maryout Agriculture Experimental Station of Desert Research Center. Mean squares of genotypes in F1 and F2 generations showed that the differences due to genotypes were significant for all characters studied under well watered and rainfed conditions. The four parental genotypes; P2, P4, P5 and P6 were the earliest in days to 50% flowering and recorded values raging from 30.88 to 47.98 days under well watered and rainfed conditions and the two crosses; P1 × P3 and P2 × P7 in both generations under the two treatments. The parental genotype P2 recorded the highest number of branches per plant (7.85 and 6.94 branches) under well watered and rainfed treatments, respectively. While, the two crosses; P2 × P4 and P2 × P6 recorded the highest number of pods per plant in both generations under well watered and rainfed treatments. For 100-seed weight the parent Aquadulce (P4) recorded the highest values under well watered and rainfed conditions (95.62 and 71.72 g, respectively). As well as the two crosses; P2 × P5 and P2 × P6 recorded the highest values for seed yield per plant. Significant positive heterosis and heterobeltiosis were detected for different traits; With respect to seed yield per plant, the seven crosses; P1 × P7, P2 × P5, P2 × P6, P4 × P6, P5 × P6, P5 × P7 and P6 × P7 had significant positive heterotic effects relative to mid and better parents under the two irrigation treatments. Mean squares of both GCA and SCA estimates were highly significant or significant in both generations for all the studied traits under well watered and rainfed conditions. Variances due to GCA were larger than those for SCA and exceeded the unity were detected for days to 50% flowering in F1 generation under rainfed conditions, No. of branches per plant, No. of pods per plant in both treatments and generations except for F1 generation under rainfed condition, 100-seed weight in both treatments and generations except for the F1 generation under well watered conditions and seed yield per plant in both treatments and generations except for the F2 generation under well watered and rainfed conditions, revealing that the largest part of the total genetic variance associated with different traits being the result of additives types on gene action. General combining ability results showed that the three parental genotypes (P1 (G.461), (P2 (NBL2) and P4 (Aquadulce)) were good combiners for improving most studied traits. Such combinations might have desirable transgressive segregations, provided that the additive genetic system is present in different crosses for increasing plant yield and its components under targeted well watered and rainfed conditions. For SCA, the desirable inter-and intra-allelic interactions were presented in the cross P6 × P7 in the two generations under both treatments along with P1 × P2 in the F2 generation under both treatments, P1 × P5 in F1 and F2 generations under well watered and rainfed conditions respectively, P1 × P6, P2 × P5 and P4 × P6 in F1 under both treatments and the three crosses; P1 × P7, P3 × P4 and P3 × P5 in F1 generation under well watered conditions showed significant positive effects for 100-seed weight. Moreover, seven F1′ P1 × P7 in both generations and under the two treatments, P1 × P4 in the F1 generation under well watered conditions, P2 × P5, P2 × P6, P4 × P6 and P5 × P7 under F1 generation under both treatments and P6 × P7 in the F2 generation under rainfed conditions possessed significant positive effects for seed yield per plant. These crosses might be of interest in breeding programs to produce pure lines while most of them involve at least one good combiner for the trait in view.
Azotobacter chroococcum (A101) was examined for some biological activities such as nitrogenase, phosphatase, potassium solubilization, and production of some plant hormones such as indole acetic acid, gibberellic acid, and cytokinin. Six different formulations were prepared, using different carrier materials namely; peat moss, mixture of peat moss plus vermiculite 1:2 (w/w), wheat bran, rice husk, clay, and sodium alginate. Each carrier material was packed using polyethylene pages, and then divided into three groups. The first group was sterilized by autoclaving at 121 °C for 20 min, and the second one was sterilized by gamma irradiation at a dose rate of 4.0 kGy for 1 h. However, the third group was left without sterilization. Half of the inoculated polyethylene bags, containing the tested formulations either sterilized by autoclaving or gamma irradiation, were incubated at 8 °C and the other bags were incubated at 30 °C for 6 months. The non-sterilized bags were incubated under the same condition but only for 3 months. For testing the survival of Az. chroococcum (A101), the prepared formulation samples were taken every month during the storage period. Nitrogenase activity was evaluated in the prepared formulations which exerted survival cells equal to or more than 108 CFU/ml after 6 months of storage period. Results revealed that non-sterile formulations exerted high numbers of total fungi and bacteria along the storage period; however, Az. chroococcum (A101) numbers were decreased over incubation time. No contaminants have been detected in all sterilized carriers. Az. chroococcum (A101) inoculated on wheat bran exhibited the highest densities among the tested carriers. Encapsulated formulation of alginate exerted the high stability in Az. chroococcum (A101) densities up to the end of the incubation period (6 months) at both 30 °C and 8 °C, being 11.905 log 10 CFU/g.
Wheat varieties investigated. 
Total phenolics content of (mg/g) of whole wheat and bran fraction extracted by different solvents. 
Radical DPPH scavenging activity (%) of whole wheat and bran fraction extracted by different solvents. 
Two wheat varieties grown in Upper and Delta Egypt were compared for their total phenolic content and antioxidant activities. Three solvent systems have been used to prepare the antioxidant extracts from whole wheat and its bran fraction. The three solvent systems included 50% acetone (v/v), 70% methanol (v/v) and 70% ethanol (v/v). Antioxidant activities were tested using DPPH radical scavenging activity and total flavonoid content. The results showed that the extraction solvents and wheat varieties significantly altered the total phenolics and antioxidant activity of whole wheat and bran, and 50% acetone is a recommended solvent for extracting phenolic compounds from the tested wheat and bran. Also data indicated that the bran fraction was rich in total phenolic content and high power for radical scavenging activity than whole wheat. These results showed that wheat bran could be considered as a potential source of antioxidant agent. Therefore, durum wheat variety (Beni-suef-3) showed high level of total phenol contact and antioxidant properties in bran fraction than common wheat variety (Gemiza-9). So, whole meal wheat products maximize health benefits and strongly recommended for use in food processing.
Distribution of farmers by their personal and socio-economic characteristics. Source: Questionnaire data, 2012.
Some information on the training course. Source: Questionnaire data, 2012.
Gross margin and returns for Egyptian clover. Source: Questionnaire data, 2012.
Gross margin and returns for fodder beet. Source: Questionnaire data, 2012.
Farmers appeared to use more traditional knowledge in Sinai Peninsula; this required a more supportive extension role to help farmers to develop appropriate farming systems. The research was interested to identify the difference in production economics between traditional and improved management practices to reflect the results of extension activities (field days, training courses, and regional farmer field school) in developing the forage crops productivity, knowledge, skills and attitudes of farmers. The research employed surveyed data of 32 selected farmers, and selected farmers were the participated farmers in the project, The analytical tools were used descriptive statistics, gross margin analysis .The results indicated that Several extension activities had been implemented, These activities included field days, training courses, and regional farmer field school. These activities were implemented to introduce improved farm technologies to the farmers as a result of implementing the extension activities. The average net farm income of Egyptian clover, barley, fodder beet, pearl millet and sorghum cultivation under improved practices was 28.3%, 20.07%, 70.2%, 30.01% and 58.02% respectively higher than the cultivation under the traditional practices, and this increment in the net farm income because of all the forage crops productivity cultivation under improved practices was higher than the productivity cultivation under traditional practices.
Natural vegetation on sand dunes located in North Sinai is exposed to several stress factors, such as: aridity, high light intensity, extreme temperature, nutrients limitations and sand accretion…, etc. Many plants have adapted, genetically, morphologically and physiologically to withstand stresses, partially or completely, with variable degrees between plant species. The sand dune system in El-Ssabha, El-Sheikh Zuwied, Abu-Asab, El-Hauol, El-Gapher and Magaria at the north of Sinai was studied phytosociologically and ecologically. Twenty-four plant species growing in the above mentioned locations were collected during 2007 and 2008. Plant root length/shoot length ratio, root dry weight/shoot dry weight percentage, root and shoot water saturation deficit (W.S.D.) percentage, root and shoot succulence degree percentage and the concentrations of: total chlorophyll pigments, proline, soluble carbohydrates, N, P, K, Na, Ca and Mg were measured. The results indicated that the climatic factors have significant role on the monthly and seasonally microhabitats. The great variety of coarse sand recorded in El-Ssabha sand dunes. Soil moisture percentage gave maximum percentage in wet season during the two years 2007 and 2008. Soil pH and soil E.C obtained varied according to the location. Ammophila arenaria were recorded in all sand dune locations. Generally, Boiaceae family gave the highest values for six plant species belong. Cressa cretica recorded the highest values of root/shoot length ratio and Ifloga spicata of root/shoot dry weight percentage. The mean values of roots and shoots water saturation deficit (W.S.D.) percentage and succulence degree percentage recorded 40.850, 37.555, 46.309 and 37.657, respectively. Total chlorophyll pigments, proline and soluble carbohydrates differ from species to another. Some macronutrients were highly concentrated in shoot system compared to root system. The relationships are highly significant simple correlation coefficients and simple regression equation between most parameters of plant species.
Anther culture response of 15 F 1 hybrids and their respective parents for callus induction and plant regeneration.
Heterosis as percentage of better parent for callus induction and plant regeneration.
In vitro induction of haploid wheat plants through anther culture and their subsequent transfer to pots. (A) Formation of callus in the cultured anthers. (B and C) Green and albino plantlets emerging from cultured anthers. (D) Plantlets in greenhouse. (E) Haploid chromosome number (n=3X=21). (G) Double haploid chromosome number (2n=6X=42). (H) Sterile plant (spike abnormal). (I) Fertile plants, normal spike and seeds obtained from the same plant.
Anther culture response of six wheat parents and their hybrids.
Anther culture response of six wheat genotypes and their F1 crosses was investigated. Results indicated that considerable genetic variation among the tested genotypes was observed. Calli were obtained from all wheat genotypes studied. The percentage of anthers that developed calli ranged from 0.67% for Gemmeiza-9 to 18.00% for the cross (Gemmeiza-7 × Sids-4). Plants were regenerated from 19 out of 21 wheat genotypes. The highest frequencies of green plantlets were achieved from the two crosses (Giza-164 × Gemmiza-9 and Giza-164 × Line-115), while the lowest ones were obtained in the cross (Giza-164 × Sids-4). Generally, crosses showed a better response in anther culture than their parental genotypes. Significant and positive heterotic effects were observed in some crosses for callus induction and green plant regeneration. Ninety-four doubled haploid lines, which were derived from five F1 crosses and their respective parents were evaluated under field conditions. Some doubled haploid lines that resulted from these crosses performed well and transgressed significantly the higher-yielding parent and the check variety.
Physiochemical analysis of the soil. 
Chemical analyses of irrigation water. 
Chemical composition of chicken manure. 
Effect of organic fertilizer, soil solarization, and VA-mycorrhizae and their interactions on early and total yield of pepper (kg/plot) and fruits number/plot (combine analysis of two seasons). 
Two protected experiments were designed to study the effect of organic fertilizer, soil solarization, and endomycorrhizae on yield and fruit quality of sweet pepper. A split–split plot design was used with four replicates for each treatment. The organic fertilizer treatments were randomly distributed among the main plots, soil solarization treatments arranged among the sub plots, while mycorrhizal treatments were allocated as sub–sub plots. The combined interaction of organic fertilizer, soil solarization, and endomycorrhizae gave the highest increase roots infection percentages when compared to other treatments, being 78% and 87% in the first and second seasons in respective order. Organic fertilizer, soil solarization and mycorrhizal inoculation, either separately or in different interactions resulted in significant increases in pepper’s early yield, total yield, total number of fruits per plot, and fruit length and diameter. The combined interaction between organic fertilizer, soil solarization, and VAM gave the highest significant increase in early and total yields (kg/plot) and total number of fruits/plot being 9.251 and 75.645 kg/plot and 529.3 fruits/plot, respectively.
Analysis of variance for drying methods.
Essential oil components of Cymbopogon citratus as affected by different drying methods of leaves.
Gas chromatogram of lemongrass C. citratus oil.
The leaves of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) were dried using three different drying methods (sun-drying for 36 h, shade-drying for 48 h and oven-drying at 45 °C for 7 h). The essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation of the leaves dried by every treatment, and was analyzed by capillary GC and GC/mass instruments. Statistical analysis showed significant differences in the essential oil content of leaves dried by different drying methods. Oven drying gave the highest essential oil percentage (2.45%) compared to shade-drying (2.12%) and sun-drying methods (2.10%). Eighteen components were identified in the essential oil of fresh and dried C. citratus leaves obtained by different drying methods, including geranial (citral-a), neral (citral-b) and myrcene as main components. The drying methods had a marked effect on the proportion of the various components.
Some characteristics of the used amendments.
A field trial experiment was carried out during the winter season of 2010/2011 to investigate the effect of different amendments i.e. gypsum, citric acid, farmyard manure, compost and the combination among them on heavy clay salt-affected soil irrigated with wastewater and also, their effects on wheat production. The experiment was conducted in north El-Hosinia plain, Sharkia Governorate that is irrigated with Bahr El-Baqar drain water. Obtained results showed that the chemical characteristics of the studied soil i.e. pH, ECe, soluble ions, SAR and ESP were improved by application of the amendments under irrigation with Bahr El-Baqar drain water. The better effect was shown by using 50%gypsum + 50%FYM. Regarding to DTPA-extractable heavy metals i.e. Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni and Cd in soil, the applied amendments increased the downward movement of heavy metals as indicated by increasing their concentrations with increasing soil depth which means reducing such heavy metals concentration in plant root zone. Gypsum amendment was superior in reducing the chemically available heavy metals in the studied soil.The grain yield, weight of 1000 grains and NPK concentration of wheat plants were significantly increased due to the application of these amendments compared to the control, especially for 50%gypsum + 50%FYM treatment. In addition, heavy metals concentrations under investigation in root parts of wheat plants were higher than shoot parts. It is worthy to mention that the heavy metals concentrations in grains were the lowest ones and within the normal range except for Cu and Ni. Regarding to whole plant parts the heavy metals concentrations were reduced by application of gypsum to the used soil.
Main constituents of the tested essential oils. 
Potato brown rot inhibition by some essential oils. 
PC/IC-RT-PCR for detection of PVYO cp gene within individual aphid. M: 1000bp DNA marker (Invitrogen, USA).
Essential oils from different Egyptian aromatic plants (Mentha piperita, Ocimum basilicum, and Thymus vulgaris) were tested for their inhibitory effect on some selected harmful bacteria and yeast (Escerichia coli, Psedumonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Candida albicans). Aerial parts from plants were directed to steam distillation for essential oil extraction. Oil yields were expressed in relation to dry weight of plant material, which found to be 0.39%, 0.20% and 0.55% w/w for M. piperita, O. basilicum and T. vulgaris, respectively. The types and percentage of essential oil constituents were determined using gas chromatography (GC). GC data revealed that the main compounds from M. piperita were menthol (35.44%) and menthone (20.11%), O. basilicum main component was linalool (45.11%), while T. vulgaris oil main component was thymol (75.76%). Preparations studied for their inhibitory effect were raw oils for sensitivity test and in the form of emulsions for spraying application. Emulsions were prepared depending on commercial liquid dish wash soap (Peril®) and Tween 80 as emulsifying agents. Results of sensitivity tests indicated that the most effective oil against bacteria and yeast was that of O. basilicum followed by that of T. vulgaris. O. basilicum oil was highly effective on S. pyogenes giving a zone of 19 mm more than that produced by Ampicillin, which was of 15 mm in diameter. Oil of O. basilicum was slightly more effective on C. albicans when compared with clotrimazole as an antifungal agent. Spraying potato tubers with O. basilicum oil emulsified with soap prior to brown rot bacteria (Ralstonia solanacearum) infection and preservation at 4 °C gave the best results followed by T. vulgaris oil with soap, as only 2 and 3 tubers out of 10 used shows rot symptoms, for O. basilicum and T. vulgaris oils, respectively. After feeding Myzus persicae aphids on potato virus y potyvirus (common strain) (PVYO) infected tobacco plants for 1 h, insects were print-captured individually and virus was successfully detected by immunocapture reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction PC/IC-RT-PCR, as the 801 bp coat protein gene (cp) bands were detected within agarose gel. Spraying tobacco plants with O. basilicum or T. vulgaris oils both emulsified with soap gave excellent results, as 8 and 6 plants out of 10 treated confirmed to be PVYO-free by giving negative I-ELISA results, respectively. It was also observed that adding soap as an emulsifier has a killing effect on aphids.
Fresh-cut okra pods were stored in sealed polypropylene bags at 5 °C and 95% RH for 8 days. Pods were dipped in 0.5% solution of cysteine, ascorbic acid, CaCl2, or citric acid for 5 min before storage. The main observed undesirable physiological and morphological alterations were weight loss, increasing microbial load, softening texture, and decreasing the phenolic content with blackening in color. CaCl2 was effective in increasing cell membrane integrity leading to improving texture, minimizing weight loss, decreasing microbial load, and preventing polyphenoloxidase (PPO) from contacting its phenolic substrates and thus reducing blackness. Ascorbic acid and cysteine were best anti-coloring agents since their strong ability to inhibit PPO and reacting with the resulted colored quinones to give colorless products. Reducing blackness was found parallel to decreasing phenolic content, indicating the role of the phenolic oxidation in the blackening process in okra pods during storage. Citric acid was less effective in enhancing the examined physical and chemical properties.
The incidence of crown gall disease recently has been gradually increased in Egyptian vineyards and grapevine nurseries. Twelve isolates of tumorigenic bacteria were isolated from grapevines galls which are collected from different areas in Egypt. The isolates were identified as Agrobacterium vitis based on their reaction with a monoclonal antibody raised to A. vitis, their ability to induce galls and necrosis on grapevine, their reactions to standard biochemical and physiological tests and also by polymerase chain reaction amplification of specific Ti plasmid using polygalacturonase specific primers. All isolates were able to induce galls on grapevine. The isolates differed between itself in host range. All of these isolates except two were able to induce galls on kalanchoe, sunflower, datura, tobacco and chenopodium. Only five isolates produced galls on tomato. All isolates caused necrosis on grapevine explants. The genetic diversity was evaluated for these isolates by comparing DNA samples using multiplex PCR with three specific primer pairs. The isolates were segregated into three main groups, the first group that is isolated carry octopine type Ti plasmids; the second group that is isolated carry vitopine Ti plasmids and the third group that is isolated carry both octopine and vitopine type Ti plasmids. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the identification of A. vitis in Egypt.
Physiochemical analysis of the used soil.
numbers and percentages of AMF mycorrhizal colonisation of onion plants as influenced by AMF mycorrhizal and Thiobacillus isolates (A1& A2) inoculation under different treatments of mineral fertilizers after 60 days of planting.
Thirty isolates of Thiobacillus sp. were successfully isolated on Thiobacillus enrichment medium from different plants rhizosphere. Thiobacillus A1, Thiobacillus A2 gave the lowest pH and the highest total sulphate in liquid medium after one week. These two isolates were used as bioinoculants. The effect of inoculation with the two selected isolates and/or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on onion and maize plants was studied in pot experiment under green house conditions. Mineral fertilizers were applied at the recommended dose of N, P, K and sulphur(S) besides rock phosphate (RP) as P fertilizer. Results showed that, inoculation gave significant increases in N, P, K and S concentrations in plants rhizosphere soil at the sampling periods of 60 and 90 days from planting. Highest values of nutrient concentrations were found in soils fertilised with NK + S + rock phosphate (RP) and inoculated with AMF + Thiobacillus A1. Total sulphur-oxidising bacterial counts, dehydrogenase activity (μg TPF/100 g dry soil Day−1) and CO2 evolution (mg CO2/100 g soil) were determined in rhizosphere of the tested plants. Soil biology was affected by either mineral or biofertilizer treatments. Significant differences were found for samples collected after 60 days for onion and 90 days for maize fertilised with NK + S + RP and inoculated with AMF + Thiobacillus A1 which gave the highest significant differences over control. Mycorrhizal spores number and AMF infection percentages in plants roots greatly affected by AMF inoculation especially when combined with Thiobacillus A1 after 60 days from planting. Dry weight of onion bulbs and maize shoots as well as NPK contents significantly affected by AMF and Thiobacillus inoculations than the control plants.
Influence of soil treatment with fungal and bacterial bioagents on vegetative growth of cucumber plants infected with 
This study was carried out under simulated field conditions to evaluate the efficacy of some bioagents and soil amendments, as a single or combined treatments, in controlling root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infecting cucumber. Each of the fungus Verticillium chlamydosporium and the symbiotic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens, as single or joint treatments significantly reduced gall formation and other criteria on cucumber roots. Maximum reduction in gall formation, female numbers, egg-mass production, developmental stages and final population of juveniles in soil, was acquired by these treatments, V. chlamydosporium + P. luminescens, P. luminescens + compost (C) and V. chlamydosporium + P. luminescens + animal compost (AC), compared with the control and other treatments. Applications of all treatments significantly promoted plant growth i.e. length of shoot and root, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root, number of leaves, flowers, fruits and weight of fruits per each plant compared to control (infested plants with nematode only and healthy plants).
Chemical composition of rations.
The digestibility coefficients and nutritive value.
The objectives of this study were to verify the potential benefits of growing green barley on anaerobic enzyme (ZAD) treated rice straw. In addition, the work intended to investigate the effect of this treatment on digestibility parameters in Ossimi sheep. A complete random design was used to distribute twelve mature male of Ossimi sheep (45.0 + 0.5 kg wt.) on the following treatments: Rice straw with grown barley (RSGB) without either ZAD or orange pulp (control, T1), RSGB plus ZAD (T2), RSGB plus orange pulp (T3) and RSGB + ZAD + orange pulp (T4). The obtained results could be summarized as follow:
Cross sections in leaves of Kalanchoe spp.
Cross sections in stems of Kalanchoe spp.
Cross sections in stems of Kalanchoe spp. 
Anatomical studies of the stems and leaves of 15 species of the genus Kalanchoe were studied. Anatomical examination of the cross sections of the above mentioned stems and leaves revealed diagnostic characters among species. Data of comparative characters reached 42 couplet characters; data matrix was organized on the basis of variations to obtain a classification using sequential indented key. Data matrix included the anatomical description and features of the epidermis, cortex, pericycle, vascular bundles and pith for stem anatomy and epidermis, mesophyll, midrib region and vascular bundles for leaf anatomy.
Hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity of aniline compounds.
Antiradical efficiency (AE) of aniline compounds in DPPH assay.
Hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity of phenolic compounds.
Antiradical efficiency (AE) of phenolic compounds in DPPH assay.
The scavenging behavior of a series of phenolic and anilines compounds toward H2O2 and DPPH was examined. The efficient concentration (EC50) was calculated for all compounds under investigation by using H2O2-scavenging activity assay. The antiradical efficiency (AE) and EC50 were calculated for all investigated compounds by applying DPPH scavenging activity assay. Wide differences among compounds in each series and between the two series were observed. In H2O2-scavenging activity assay, the anilines series were more active than the phenolic series due to the reduction properties of the anilines compounds. While in the DPPH scavenging activity, the phenolic compounds were more active than the anilines compounds due to the lower bond dissociation energies (BDE) of O–H than that of N–H. So, the phenolic compounds were comparatively easier to lose H atom than anilines. The antioxidant activity related to the compound structure was found to be dependable on the number of the included active group (OH or NH2). The more active compound is the more included active groups. The position of the active groups also plays an important role of structure–antioxidant relationship activity. The ortho position was found to be the more active one, due to its ability to form intramolecular hydrogen bonding (iHB), followed by para position and then meta position of compounds.
Some characteristics of the identified fresh grasses weeds at 60 days in the wheat field (Sakha/93-cv). 
Effect of clodinafop-propargyl formulations and hand-deeding on average fresh might (g m À2 ) of grassy weeds in wheat field (Sakha/93-cv) during 2009-2010 seasons. 
Effect of clodinafop-propargyl formulations and hand-weeding on grain and straw yield of wheat crop as well as on biological parameters during 2010-2011 season. 
Field experiments were conducted in 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 seasons to evaluate the effect of four post-emergence clodinafop-propargyl formulations (Topic 15% WP, Akopic 24% EC, Current 24% EC and Herstop 15% WP) and hand weeding for controlling annual grassy weeds in wheat fields. Wheat seeds were sown in 25 and 30 November in both seasons, respectively. The tested herbicides were applied 30 days after sowing (DAS), while hand weeding was practiced twice (20 and 40 DAS). Fresh and dry weed biomasses (g m−2) were recorded 60 DAS, whereas length of spike (cm), weight of spike (g), weight of 1000 grain (g), number of spikelet spike−1, number of grains spike−1 and wheat grain and straw yields (kg plot−1) were determined at harvest. All the tested formulations significantly decreased weed density as well as fresh and dry weed biomasses of the annual grasses (Poa annua L., Avena fatua L., Polypogon monospeliensis L., and Lolium temulentum L.) prevailed in wheat field during both seasons. These formulations also increased all the biological parameters of wheat crop including its grain and straw yields. In this regarded, Topic (15% WP) was the most effective one followed by Akopik 24% EC, Current 24% EC and Herstop 15% WP.
Inhibitory activity of eight bacterial isolates against Agrobacterium tumefaciens in vitro.
Effect of eight antagonistic bacterial isolates on incidence and size of galls induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens in rose shoots (A), kalanchoe leaves (B) and squash fruits (C).
Inhibition zones resulted from challenge of eight antagonistic bacterial isolates toward Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
of eight antagonistic bacterial isolates on incidence and size of galls induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens on rose shoots, kalanchoe leaves and squash fruits, under artificial conditions.
In vitro analyzing the antagonistic activity of seventy native bacterial isolates towards plant tumorigenic Agrobacterium tumefaciens resulted in a selection of eight potential biocontrol agents. These isolates were screened for their antagonistic effect in vitro as well as their efficacy in reducing gall formation in planta. They were identified using Biolog microplates system as Bacillus megaterium, Paenibacillus polymyxa, Pseudomonas fragi (two isolates), Pseudomonas viridilivd, Pseudomonas asplenii, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens and Curtobacterum sp.All antagonists tested exhibited considerable inhibitory activity in vitro and significantly reduced incidence and size of galls in rose shoots, kalanchoe leaves and squash fruits with variable degrees on the tested hosts. C. flaccumfaciens reduced the incidence of crown gall up to 100% in the case of rose shoots and kalanchoe leaves whereas the same antagonist reduced galling of squash fruits to 75%. Likewise, P. asplenii, P. viridilivd and P. polymyxa reduced the incidence of crown gall up to 100% in the case of kalanchoe leaves and squash fruits, whereas they reduced galling of rose shoots to 66.7%, 55.6% and 44.5% respectively. In the same manner, the two isolates of P. fragi reduced galling up to 100% in squash fruits, while it was 88.9% in rose shoots and kalanchoe leaves. Interestingly, B. megaterium isolate completely suppressed the gall development in rose shoots, whereas the gall incidence was 100% in kalanchoe leaves and 25% in squash fruits. Bacterial isolates characterized in this study may be considered as potential sources of novel bioactive metabolites as well as promising candidates to develop new biocontrol agents for controlling crown gall disease.
Anther culture response of five bread wheat genotypes (four F1 crosses and its parental genotype) was evaluated on four different media for their ability to initiate callus and green plantlets. Results indicated that considerable genetic variation among tested genotypes was observed. The percentage of anthers that developed calli ranged from 4.67% for the cross (Line-A × Gemmeiza-7) to 9.42% for the cross (Line-A × Misr-1) among the genotypes across the four media compared to the parental Line-A, which gave 7.67%. The cross (Line-A × Misr-2) produced the highest mean value for green plantlets (5.50%), while the cross (Line-A × Gemmiza-7) produced the lowest one of green plantlets (2.42%) compared to the parental Line-A, which gave 3.17%. Concerning NaCl concentrations, the medium without NaCl gave better response to multiple shoots as compared to the other media. The two crosses (Line-A × Misr-1 and Line-A × Gemmiza-11) with the highest response in multiple shoots had parent that exhibited very good response. The parental line (Line-A) and the cross (Line-A × Msir-1) produced the highest mean values (61.90 and 45.24, respectively) for salt tolerant index, while the control parental Line-A gave the lowest response to salt susceptibility index (0.13) as compared to its derived crosses.
Effect of different cooking methods on the chemical composition of lentil seeds (g/100 g dry weight basis). *
Effect of different cooking methods on the antinutritional factors of lentil seeds (dry weight basis). *
The effects of microwave cooking and other traditional cooking methods such as boiling and autoclaving on the nutritional composition and anti-nutritional factors of lentils were studied. Cooking treatments causing decrease in carbohydrate fractions was completely eliminated after cooking treatments, antinutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor, tannins and phytic acid) and minerals. Cooking treatments decreased the concentrations of lysine, tryptophan, total aromatic and sulfur-containing amino acids. The losses in minerals in lentils cooked by microwaving were smaller than those cooked by boiling and autoclaving. Based on these results, microwave cooking is recommended for lentil preparation, not only for improving nutritional quality, but also for reducing cooking time.
Vegetable juice was prepared from a mixture of tomato, watercress, parsley, carrots, celery, lettuce, beets and spinach and analyzed for its antioxidant content and activity (total phenols, total flavonoids, carotenoids, chlorophyll A and B, vitamins C and E) and minerals. As well as antiatherogenic effects of vegetable juice on Wister rats fed on high fat diet was studied. The results revealed that, the vegetable juice had a high content of important compounds which act as antioxidants e.g., phenolic compounds (22.37 mg/L), lycopene (84.24 mg/100 g), vitamin C (5.25 mg/mL), carotenoids (0.93 mg/L) and Zn (5.02 mg/100 g). The biological evaluation indicated that, the rat’s body weight gain was significantly higher in the atherogenic control group (Ac) than those of the other two groups [normal control group (NC) fed on standard diet and vegetable juice group (VJ) fed on atherogenic diet and consumed vegetable juice (1 mL/g BW)]. An improvement in serum lipid profile of VJ group was observed. The histopathological examination of the heart and aorta confirmed these results which reflected the protective effect role of vegetable juice against atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases.
Chitosan is produced from shrimp waste chitin at three particle sizes 20, 40 and 60 mesh by deacetylating with different concentrations of NaOH solution (30%, 40% and 50%) under microwave irradiation for 10 min. The process describes a rapid synthesis procedure in comparison to conventional methods. The microwave-synthesized chitosan was characterized and the experimental results showed that the degree of deacetylation increased with increasing concentration of deacetylation alkali solution. A degree of deacetylation of 95.19% was achieved after irradiating chitin at 60 mesh with 50% NaOH solution in a microwave for 10 min at 1400-W power. Microwave-synthesized chitosan exhibited antioxidant activities of 47.71–72.31% at 10 mg/ml and showed reducing powers of 2.094–2.367 at 10 mg/ml. On the other hand, at 10 mg/ml, the scavenging ability of chitosan on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals ranged from 43.03% to 90.48%. The antibacterial activities of microwave-synthesized chitosan were examined against two gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium) and two gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus), tested chitosan markedly inhibited the growth of tested bacteria although inhibitory effects differed with molecular weight (Mw) of chitosan and the species of bacteria. Generally, the microwave technique can be very useful for synthesizing good functional properties chitosan with rapid and clean chemistry.
The antioxidant activity of pomegranate peel powder (PPP) and whey powder (WP) was evaluated, their hepatoprotective effect of each alone or in combination (PPWP) at equal levels was also evaluated in Wistar rats against carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) induced liver injury. The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters and histopathological studies. The results indicated that both PPP and WP exhibited antioxidant activity. Also, rats fed on diets supplemented with 10% PPP, 10% WP or 10% of their mixture (PPWP) for 28 days showed a potential hepatoprotective effects compared to liver injury control group (IC). They succeeded to restore the biochemical parameters and improved the histological alteration of the liver. This improvement was pronounced in the group received PPWP. It could be concluded that whey powder should be incorporated with pomegranate peel powder when used as ingredients in functional foods for people suffering from liver diseases.
Saturated fatty acids identified in various chicken burger treatments. 
Unsaturated fatty acids of different investigated chicken burger treatments. 
Sensory evaluation of different chicken burger treatments. 
Poultry meat is economic, quick and easy to prepare and serve and it has a number of desirable nutritive and organoleptic properties. Poultry meat is low in fat in relation to other meats. The aim of study was to use some plant wastes such as pea hulls, tomato peels, and wheat germ as well as carrot and rusk in processing of chicken burger to minimize cost of production and to produce burger with high nutritive value which could be exported to poorer regions especially in Africa. This study included fatty acid pattern (either saturated or unsaturated), antioxidant activity, vitamin content and sensory evaluation. T.B, G.B and CA.B treatments had high contents of total saturated fatty acids, and it was ranged between 30.4% and 32.6%. The oleic acid (C18:1) is the predominant fatty acid in all treatments except G.B treatment that contained linoleic acid (C18:2) as a predominant fatty acid, Antioxidant activity (mg/100 g) of different chicken burger treatments showed some differentiations between all types of burger, and it was recorded 3.9, 12.3, 10.87, 6.96, 7.391, 6.441 and 11.4 in C.B, P.B, T.B, G.B, R.B, Ca.B and CA.B respectively. Chicken burger contains considerable amount of vitamins such as fat soluble vitamin (A, E and D), water soluble vitamins (C, folic acid, nicotinic acid, B1, B6 and B12). Sensory evaluations of chicken burger were evaluated for texture, appearance, color, taste, odor and overall acceptability. The best treatment was CA.B treatment, owing to its higher mean scores of evaluated parameter that is not less than 8.5 and it was the nearest one to that of control treatment. The other treatments that showed similar findings were G.B and Ca.B treatments.
Hard candy formula (100 g).
Sweet jelly powder formula (100 g).
Identification of compounds for anthocyanin pigments extracted from purple carrots.
Distribution pattern of anthocyanin extracted from purple carrots within selected carrier.
score of sensory evaluation of hard candy and jelly prepared with different levels of natural red colorants (anthocyanin) from purple carrots.
Anthocyanins derived from purple carrots were extracted, and identified by using HPLC. Extracted pigments from purple carrots are used as alternative natural red colorants for preparing hard candy and sweet jelly and also red carrot pigment used as natural antioxidant on sunflower oil to delay the rancidity of sunflower oil. Purple carrots contain 168.7 mg anthocyanin/100 g on fresh weight basis, where the major constituents were Cyanidin-3-xylosyl-glucosyl-galactoside acylated with ferulic acid (33.65%) followed by Cyanidin-3-xylosyl-glucosyl-galactoside acylated with coumaric acid (29.85%) and Cyanidin-3-xylosyl-galactoside (28.70%) as determined by HPLC. Dextrin was the best carrier for purple carrots anthocyanin pigment followed by cellulose, soluble starch and glucose respectively. On the other hand, the highest pigment color stability of anthocyanin derived from purple carrots was obtained at pH values ranged between 1.0 and 4.0 and temperatures ranged between 40 and 80 °C, while the degradation ratio of anthocyanin being 15% of total pigments after 180 min at 100 °C. Antioxidant activities of anthocyanin from purple carrots were assessed by determining peroxide value on sunflower oil during 7 days at 60 °C. Sunflower oil contained 1000 ppm purple carrots extract showed lower peroxide value being (7.90) than using 200 ppm synthetic antioxidant (BHT) (8.38) meq/kg. Analysis of variance for sensory evaluation of prepared hard candy and sweet jelly indicated that there were no significant differences for hard candy contains 0.30% and sweet jelly 0.20% anthocyanins pigments from purple carrots and control hard candy and sweet jelly.
Effect of neem or willow aqueous leaves extract on malondialdhyde (MDA) contents in infected and non infected tomato seedlings
Effect of aqueous leaves extract from neem and willow on% of disease incidence of fusarium wilt in tomato seedlings.
Native – PAGE for POX isoenzymes in tomato seedlings treated with neem and willow before or after infection with Fusarium oxysporum. (1) Refer to non infected control, (2) refer to infected control, (3) refer to non infected neem treated seedling, (4) refer to infected seedling treated with neem, (5) refer to non infected willow treated seedlings, (6) refer to infected seedling treated with willow.
of aqueous leaves extract from neem and willow on shoot and root length in infected and non infected tomato seedlings.
Fusarium wilt disease is one of the major plant diseases that affect tomato production. The effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) and willow (Salix babylonica) aqueous extracts on fusarium wilt disease in tomato seedlings were investigated. Four weeks old tomato seedlings were treated with 10% of either neem and willow aqueous extracts and then infected with Fusarium oxysporum after 4 days of treatment. The results showed that the percentage of disease incidence was increased in non treated tomato seedlings in time dependent manner and reached the maximum level (65%) after 6 weeks of infection. Treatments of tomato plants with neem and willow aqueous extracts reduced the percentage of disease incidence to the level of 25.5% and 27.8% after 6 weeks of infection respectively. The results show that infection of tomato seedling with Fusarium oxysporum led to many morphological and biochemical changes including, reducing the growth of tomato shoot and root, increasing the level of lipid peroxidation and marked increase in the activities of antioxidant defensive enzyme i.e. POX, CAT, and SOD. Treatment with neem and willow aqueous extracts significantly exhibited a growth promotion of tomato shoot and root in infected or non infected seedling. Moreover, application of neem and willow aqueous extracts with fusarium, significantly reduce the level of lipid peroxidation and induce high activities of antioxidant defensive enzymes after 3 and 7 days of infection. Electrophoretic pattern of POX demonstrated that Fusarium oxysporum caused up regulation of several POX isoenzymes. It could be concluded that neem and willow aqueous extracts reduced the disease incidence of fusarium wilt in tomato seedlings by increasing the activities of antioxidant defensive enzymes and decreasing the level of lipid peroxidation
Identification of carotenoids (lyco-red) extracted from tomato peel.
Effect of temperature on the degradation rate of carotenoids (lyco-red) extracted from tomato peel.
Thermal stability of carotenoids (lyco-red) extracted from tomato peel.
The nine carotenoid pigment compounds of tomato peels were identified by HPLC analysis. The main component of carotenoids (lyco-red) extracted from tomato peels was lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene, β-carotene, cis-lycopene and lutein. Consequently, the higher stability of carotenoids (lyco-red) extracted from tomato peels was observed in alkaline pH ranging from 7 to 10 and temperature ranging from 40 to 70 °C. Meanwhile, the degradation of carotenoids (lyco-red) extracted from tomato peel did not exceed than 16.20% of total pigments after 180 min incubation at 100 °C. On the other hand, the antioxidant activity of carotenoids (lyco-red) extracted from tomato peel was also studied by the Rancimat test at 110 °C on sunflower oil by adding 50–200 ppm of carotenoids (lyco-red) extracted from tomato peels. However, sunflower oil containing 50–200 ppm recorded higher induction period than 200 ppm BHT. Supplementing ice cream with carotenoids lyco-red extract increased the Radical Scavenging Activity RSA and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) in the ice cream by increasing the concentration of adding lyco-red extract. On the other hand, analysis of variance for sensory evaluation of prepared ice cream indicated that, ice cream containing 3% and 2% of carotenoids (lyco-red) extracted from tomato peels had the highest scores for flavor, body and texture, melting and color and the best mix compared with that prepared with 1%, 4% and 5% which recorded the lowest scores in all tested quality attributes.
Relative percentages of major polyphenolic fractions in leaves and bulbs of Giza 6 and Photon spring onions at zero time.
content in leaves and bulbs of Giza 6 and Photon spring onions (mg/100 g fresh weight basis) at zero time.
percentages of the major flavonoids components in leaves and bulbs of Giza 6 and Photon spring onions at zero time.
The shelf life of green (spring) onions was short (from 3 to 4 weeks). Therefore, the aim of this investigation is to elongate green onion shelf life by freezing at −18 °C with slight changes in antioxidant activities and pungency for each spring onion Allium cepa L. varieties (Giza 6 and Photon) which cultivated in Egypt. This study included leaves and bulbs in each varieties of spring onion. Results showed high contents of total phenols and flavonoids in leaves compared with bulbs either of Giza 6 or Photon types, therefore Giza 6 had high content of total phenols and flavonoids than Photon variety, in parallel the results were obtained of total chlorophyll and total carotenoids contents. While, chlorophyll a content showed higher than chlorophyll b in leaves than in bulbs for each variety. Results indicated that the diversity in kind of polyphenolic and flavonoids components either leaves or bulbs in each spring onion types. Benzoic acid showed the major polyphenolic compounds in the bulbs of either Giza 6 or Photon spring onions varieties (11.92% and 27.43%), while salicylic acid (8.37%) and ellagic acid (9.10%) were major ones of the leaves of Giza 6 and Photon variety. The major components of flavonoids were myricetin, quercitin and rutin in leaves and bulbs for each variety. Myricetin which was the highest flavonoids components was the major; it also showed higher percentage in the leaves than bulbs of two varieties (Giza 6 and Photon). It also was higher in Photon leaves than Giza 6 leaves. Giza 6 bulbs was highest content of pungency, then Photon bulbs followed by Giza leaves and Photon leaves at zero time till 3 months of storage at freezing. Also, results of pungency and antioxidants activity by DPPH method in leaves and bulbs for each variety indicated that there were slightly decrease during storage (3 months). Results indicated that export onion spring can be stored under freezing at −18 °C during 3 months without high changes in pungency.
Mean numbers of foraging workers entered their colonies and foragers entered their colonies loaded with pollen of A.m. jementica (indigenous bees) and A.m. carnica (Carniolan bees) three times/day during different inspection months (Mean ± S.E).
Numbers and percentages of died and superseded queens in the experimental honeybee colonies for three different groups during experiment period extended from March, 2009 to March, 2010.
This field study was carried out to evaluate two honeybee races namely; Apis mellifera jementica (indigenous race) and Apis mellifera carnica (carniolan race) based on brood production, population development, foraging activity, and queens status through the experimental period extended from March, 2009 up to March, 2010 under main physical environmental conditions of the central region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The obtained results showed that, indigenous bees transferred from traditional hives (Aoud) into Langstroth (modern) hives and supplied with frames contained 33 cells/μ2 (regular worker-size cell for indigenous bees) (group I) had significantly higher brood production and population development than indigenous bees transferred from traditional hives into Langstroth hives and supplied with frames contained 25 cells/μ2 (regular worker-size cell for European bees) (group II) and carniolan bees transferred from honey bee nuclei into Langstroth hives and supplied with frames contained 25 cells/μ2 (regular worker-size cell for European bee) (group III). The general mean of brood area in cm2, frames of brood and frames covered with adult bees were (2813.13, 1730.94 and 1867.05 cm2/colony), (3.13, 2.21 and 2.07 brood comb/colony) and (6.39, 4.44 and 4.38 comb of bees/colony), in groups I, II and III, respectively. The indigenous race significantly surpassed the carniolan race in brood production during summer season during high temperature commonly exceeds 45 °C. Data also showed that no significant difference in foraging activity between the two examined races (indigenous and carniolan race) for gathering pollen during the first inspection period extended from 6 to 7 am during the relatively cold, moderate and very high air temperature during inspection months. This situation differed between the two examined races during the second and third inspection period extended from 11 to 12 am and 4 to 5 pm, relatively high air temperature in June, August and October, during which the indigenous race significantly surpassed the carniolan race in foraging activity for gathering pollen. Moreover, the foraging activity was significantly higher in the first inspection period (6–7 am) than the other two periods (11–12 am and 4–5 pm). When the numbers and percentages of died or superseded queens in the three inspection groups (I, II and III) were studied, no died or superseded queens were found in honey bee colonies in group (I) during the experimental period which was extended from March, 2009 to March, 2010. However, the percentages of failed queens during the experimental period were 0.00%, 45.00% and 60.00% in groups (I, II and III), respectively. The results also showed that increasing the size of the worker cells negatively affected brood production and population density in indigenous race and indigenous race is more tolerant and well adapted to the environmental conditions in the search area than carniolan race (imported). Therefore, this study recommends that improving the characteristics of indigenous and carniolan races should take place through breading programs, because the indigenous race shows high ability and good adaptation to the environmental conditions in the area but it is small in size, in addition their honey stomach and pollen basket are small, meanwhile the carniolan race is large in size and their honey stomach and pollen basket are great, but is not acclimatized to environmental conditions in the region, especially during the hot summer when the air temperature exceeds 45 °C.
The current experiment was conducted to control the root-knot nematode; Meloidogyne incognita infecting Thompson seedless grapevines by using eight treatments as follows: some bioagents (Trichoderma harzianum and Arbascular mycorrhizae), some plant oil extracts (orange oil extract and jojoba oil) and plant aqueous extracts (Origanum majorana and Tagetes erecta) in comparison with oxamyl (24% EC) on grapes infected with root-knot nematode to determine its impact on growth and yield of grapevines during two successive seasons (2009 and 2010) under field conditions. The chosen vines were 10-year-old grown in a sandy soil in a private vineyard located in Alexandria-Cairo road, spaced at 1.75 × 2.75 m and irrigated by drip irrigation system where the cane was pruned and trellised by the Y shape system. Bioagents and plant aqueous extracts were added to the soil under the vines three times/week after bud burst. Results showed that all the treatments had a significant effect in reducing the total population and build up of root-knot nematodes, M. incognita in both soil and rots especially after the 3 months from the time of application. In addition they had increased the physical characteristics of both clusters and berries, vegetative growth parameters, macro nutrient content and yield of Thompson seedless grapevines during two studied seasons (2009 and 2010) under field conditions. Both jojoba oil and orange oil extract were the most effective treatments in reducing total population and rate of build up of M. incognita in both soil and roots up to the harvesting time. They also increased cluster weight, number of clusters, yield per vine as well as enhancing the physical characteristics of berries, TSS % TSS/acidity ratio whereas, acidity was decreased in berry juice and improved vegetative growth parameters and increased the total surface area/vine, wood ripening coefficient, total chlorophyll and percentages of total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of leaves. Data of root growth parameters showed that the extension of fine roots through the vertical direction (root density) expressed as length of the fine roots were significantly higher at (30 cm) depth in the soil profile, the horizontal extension of fine roots was more concentrated at the distance of (50 cm) from the vine trunk. All treatments recorded the highest values of medium roots and large roots in both horizontal and vertical directions as compared with the control but lower than oxamyl treatment. On the other hand, the treatments with bioagents (T. harzianum and A. mycorrhizae) were in the intermediate rank, whereas, treatments of plant aqueous extracts (O. majorana and T. erecta) were the least effective in both seasons. It can be concluded that jojoba oil and orange oil extract were the best safe treatments compared with oxamyl (24% EC) in reducing total population and rate of build up of root-knot nematodes, M. incognita and improving fruiting of vines yield and quality of the berries of Thompson seedless grapevines.
This work was conducted to monitor the presence of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean in processed meat products in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Seventy-two samples of processed meat products were collected from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) food market. DNA was extracted and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify the soybean lectin gene, and screened by GMOScreen 35S/NOS test kit for qualitative detection of GMO varieties on food, feed, and seed to amplify both 35S promoter and NOS terminators that present in Roundup Ready soybean by PCR. The positive samples for Roundup Ready soybean (GMO) were subjected to real-time quantification of GMO using TaqMan real-time PCR. The results showed that all collected samples were positive for lectin gene and 45 samples out 72 samples were positive for Roundup Ready soybean. Twenty-three samples contained more than 10 g kg−1 GMO and 22 samples contained less than 10 g kg−1 GMO.
Time trends for the dates processed products during 2003-2008. Source: calculated from Table 2.
Relative importance of processing problems for Saudi dates. Source: Data from research sample 2009.
Important preferred varieties of Saudi dates exported to foreign markets. Source: Analysis of sample data of Saudi processing units 2009/2010.
Market chain for Saudi dates.
dates processed by ton during the period 2003-2008. Source: Ministry of agricultural, ministry agency for research and development, administration of studying, planning and statistics, 2010.
Although the production of dates increased extensively, processing sector of Saudi dates face many problems. By studying economic indicators of dates, the results show that there are improvements in all general economic dates indicators such as production, consumption, export, and import of Saudi dates during the study period. Although production of dates increased by about 86%, processing dates is only 10% of total production during 2000–2010. By studying the manufacturing problems, the results show that there are multiple production and marketing problems in manufacturing process such as the low quality of some dates varieties, inefficient marketing services (lack of standardising and grading), Government regulations, and manufacturing deterioration. In addition to processing problems related to the morphology characteristic (size, color, weight, etc.) and chemical contents (sugar, glucose, fructose, etc.) of date varieties. As a result of processing problems, feasibility for processing some dates varieties is now in depute such as Ehalas and Rezez produced from eastern Governorate. So, this paper study the processing problems of Saudi dates moreover study local and foreign consumers needs of Saudi dates by analysis the local and foreign demand of processed dates varieties such as size, color, taste, chemical, and morphology characteristics. The research supposes some possible solution for solving these processing problems and promoting marketing and manufacturing sector of Saudi dates. Finally, it is important to build a strategy plan that is concentrating on the cultivation varieties for export according to the foreign consumers’ needs other than local consumers’ needs to improve the export percentage of total dates production, which is very limited (5%) for the third world producer.
Microbial deterioration of archeological marble was studied on samples taken from three locations in Cairo, Egypt; Mohamed Ali palace, El-Ghory Mosque and Mosque of El-Kady Abdel-Baset. Sampling resulted in 110 microbial isolates, identified as eight fungal genera, three bacterial genera, one actinomycetes genus and six algae. Isolated strains were all identified up to species. The inhibitory effect of five antimicrobial agents at various concentrations was investigated against the growth and development of these microbial isolates. Sodium azide at 100 ppm was found to be the best treatment for both fungal and bacterial isolates. Colored spots, caused by microbial growth, were treated by different synthetic and natural chemical substances. Results showed also that microbial enzymes produced by Aspergillus flavus isolate was the best decolorization treatment.
Toxicity values of Indoxacarb on 2nd and 4th instar S. littoralis larvae.
Toxicity regression lines of Indoxacarb 15% EC against 2nd and 4th instar Spodoptera littoralis larvae.
carbohydrate, protein and lipid content in 2nd and 4th instar larvae of S. littoralis 24 h following treatment with LC 50 concentrations of Indoxacarb.
The efficacy of Avaunt (Indoxacarb 15% EC) on newly ecdysed 2nd and 4th instar Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) larvae was evaluated. Results of the conducted bioassay showed that 2nd instars were more susceptible than the 4th instars as the LC50 and LC90 values were 0.63 and 3.1 ppm for 2nd instar larvae and 2.0 and 18.75 ppm for 4th instar larvae, respectively. The total development period of the subsequent larval instars following the treatment of 2nd or 4th instars by their respective LC50 Indoxacarb was significantly extended by 2.8 and 3 days, respectively. Furthermore, percentage pupation and adult emergence were significantly less than their equivalent control. The biochemical study carried out on 2nd and 4th instar larvae, 24 h following their feeding on castor oil bean leaves treated by their determined LC50 of Indoxacarb, showed that the treatment of 2nd instar larvae caused a 32.6% and 82.7% decrease in the content of carbohydrates and lipids in larvae than their value in the control. These two respectively mentioned components were also reduced in treated 4th instar larvae by 56.4% and 76.5% than their control. Although, total protein was slightly increased by 8.7% in 2nd instars following treatment, it was found to decrease by 24.9% in treated 4th instar than that in untreated insects. The disturbance in the carbohydrate level was expressed by impairment in the activity of carbohydrate enzymes in treated 2nd and 4th instar larvae. In both treated instar larvae there was a significant increase in the enzyme activity of alpha and beta esterase as well as in glutathione S-transferase. Meanwhile, a significant decrease in the enzyme activities of both acetyl choline esterase and acid phosphatase was recorded in treated larvae.
Reduction% in growth of Botrytis fabae in response to different concentrations of Dithane M45, Galben manozeb 584 and copper oxychloride.
Severity of chocolate spot infection and some plant characters of four faba bean cultivars, under field conditions, 2007/08 and 2008/09 seasons.
Simple regression analysis between (Y) AUDPC and seed of yield and loss%.
Mean chocolate spot severity (%) on five broad bean cultivars under the effect of Dithane M45 as spray on artificial inoculum at 45 days under greenhouse.
This work was carried out at Sers El-Lyain Agriculture Research Station Farm, El-Minufiya Governorate during 2007/08 and 2008/09 growing seasons to evaluate the amount of losses in the seed yield of the five faba bean cultivars Giza 3 Mohassen, Giza 716, Giza 40, Sakha 1 and Sakha 2 under. In vitro studies show that Dithan M45 was the most effective agent against Botrytis fabae than Galben manozeb and copper oxychloride. Application Dithan M45 of under greenhouse conditions, 2 days before inoculation reduced the disease severity (3.11%) at 200 ppm compared with the control treatment (18.59%) on Giza 40 cv., while the symptoms did not appear at the same concentration on other tested cultivars. It was observed that, the cvs. Giza 716 and Sakha 2 showed lower infection than the other tested cvs, except with Giza 40 which was highly susceptible. Field studies showed significant differences under the influence of chocolate spot disease. The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) was higher on Giza 40 followed by Sakha 1, Giza 3 Mohassen, Sakha 2 and Giza 716, respectively, with higher disease infection in the first season 2007/08 than 2008/09 season. High negative significant correlation (r) was obtained between AUDPC and the yield of the five tested cultivars in the two seasons. High negative correlation was observed between disease severity and each of plant height, number of branches, number of pods, weight of pods and weight of 100 seeds of Giza 40 and Sakha 1 in the first season. High negative regression coefficient (b) was found between each of the five studied characters and disease severity of five cultivars. However, plant height and number of branches were not significant for the Giza 716 and Sakha 2. The regression coefficient (b) values were found significant for number of pods (X3) with 0.532 and 0.096, for weight of pods (X4) with 0.422 and 0.0126 and for weight of 100 seed (X5) with 0.753 and 0093 for Giza 716 in the two seasons, respectively. While for Giza 40 these values were 0.644 and 0.226, 0.115 and 0.64 and 0.159 and 0.222, respectively. Coefficient of determination (R2) values were 0.63 and 0.341 for Giza 716 and were 0.757 and 0.854 for Giza 40 for the weight of pods in the two seasons, respectively.
Effect of atrazine at 0.5ppm (a) and 1.0ppm (b) on shoot lengths of wheat, grown in sterilized or unsterilized soil previously planted with maize, after 22, 37, 52 and 67days of treatment.
Residues of atrazine (at 1ppm) in sterilized unplanted and planted soil (a) and unsterilized unplanted and planted soil (b) with maize after 30 and 60days of treatment.
of atrazine on shoot and root lengths (cm) of different seedlings after 7 day-period of application in water agar medium.
Greenhouse experiments were carried out to determine the potential capability of maize plants to remediate atrazine-contaminated soil. The potted sandy loam soil was treated with atrazine (Gesaprim 90%WG) at 0.5 and 1.0 ppm then was planted immediately with maize. After 15, 30, 45 and 60 days from sowing, maize plants were cut and discarded. Wheat seeds were sown in treated soil to determine atrazine residues. Untreated soil and soil unplanted with maize served as controls. Seven days after sowing, the shoot and root lengths of wheat seedlings were measured. The results indicated that shoot and root lengths of wheat in the treated-soil previously planted with maize were taller than the treated-unplanted soil. Persistence percentage of atrazine in the treated soil was estimated by determining the residues of atrazine by Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC). The obtained data showed that residues of atrazine were less in soil planted with maize compared with unplanted soil. Considerable concentrations of atrazine, i.e., 0.99 ppm and 0.14 ppm were detected in sterilized unplanted or planted soils with maize after 30 days of sowing, respectively. While these values, were 0.38 ppm and 0.09 ppm in sterilized unplanted or planted soil with maize after 60 days of sowing, respectively. This study demonstrated that residues of atrazine were reduced in faster rate in contaminated soil planted with Zea mays than the unplanted soil. Results indicated that Z. mays was useful for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with atrazine.
Physical-chemical properties of fresh pumpkin and pineapple.
Physical-chemical properties of canned pumpkin and pineapple.
Effect of storage periods at room temperature on physical properties of canned pumpkin and pineapple.
Effect of storage periods at room temperature on chemical properties of canned pumpkin and pineapple.
This study was carried out to produce and enhance sensory properties and nutritional value of canned pumpkin and pineapple and the effect after processing and storage on these products. Pumpkin and pineapple cubes were packed with sugar solution (control treatment), diluted orange juice at a ratio 1:1 of water:juice (wt:wt), diluted mango juice at a ratio 3:1 of water:juice (wt:wt), all filling media were raised to 40% by sucrose and then packed at a ratio 2:1 of cubes:solution (wt:wt). The obtained results indicate that the total sugars, ash, total phenols, total carotenoides and ascorbic acid contents of flesh pumpkin and pineapple were (62.16% and 78.49%), (5.69% and 2.21%), (3.74% and 4.28%) on dry weight basis and (0.38% and 0.16%) and (33.81 and 37.79 mg/100 g) on fresh weight basis, respectively. Results indicate that total soluble solids, total sugars, total phenols, total carotenoids and ascorbic acids of canned pumpkin and pineapple were ranged from 17.1% to 19.5%, 89.50% to 97.49%, 0.87% to 1.47%, 0.42% to 1.27% and ascorbic acid 88.19 to 210.53 mg/100 g on dry weight basis. Firmness of canned pumpkin and pineapple showed a sever decrement as a result of canning process and storage. Also, non-enzymatic browning was slightly increased during storage without noticeable effect on products quality. Chemical constituents of canned pumpkin and pineapple were slightly decreased during storage. Statistical analyses for sensory evaluation of canned pumpkin and pineapple with added natural juice especially orange juice (treatments, nos. 2 and 5) recorded a high score of acceptability ever after 6 months of storage at room temperature.
Mechanical and chemical characteristics of experimental soil used for pot experiment of black cumin. 
Biochemical activities of bacterial isolates. 
Effect of inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum and/or inorganic N-fertilization on NPK in plants of black cumin (Nigella sativa). 
Effect of inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum combined and/or inorganic N-fertilization on NPK. 
Antimicrobial action of the essential oil of black cumin plants against some pathogenic bacteria. 
Thirty one rhizosphere soil samples were collected from different gavernorates and localities cultivated with different standing crops. Samples were used for the isolation of N2-fixer Azotobacter sp. isolates. The purified isolates were identified as Azotobacter chroococcum. The purified isolates were tested for their N2 fixation activity, phosphates dissolving ability, production of plant growth promoting substances, exopolymer secretion, siderophores production, salicylic acid formation, and some enzymatic production. Out of these purified isolates namely Azo.4, Azo.5, Azo.9 and Azo.23 found to be more significant in the production of the aforementioned activities as compared with the other purified isolates. The four purified isolates were tested for some biochemical activities (hormonal activity and enzymes production) and used to prepare the effective microbial inoculants for black cumin (Nigella sativa) seeds. Results show that mixed inoculation with the four biofertilizer strains and using half dose of recommended N2-fertilizer enhanced the densities of the total microbial microflora, phosphate dissolving bacteria, azotobacters colonization, CO2 evolution in the rhizosphere of the inoculated plants and plant growth features in comparison with uninoculated plants (control). The effect of the crude oils of the produced black cumin seeds on some human pathogenic bacteria was studied. It was found that the crud fixed oil extracted from the seeds of plants has powerful antibacterial properties against this diverse genus of bacteria. However, the influence was different and depending on the tested bacterial strain.
This study was conducted with a view to isolate bacteria associated with the roots of sweet potato plants (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) and to assess their functional potentialities in relation to plant growth promoting activities. Seven bacterial isolates namely P18, P19, P31, P32, P35, P39, and P42 were obtained from surface sterilized healthy roots of sweet potato. The isolates were tested for morphological and biochemical characteristics. The results of in vitro assays showed that all isolates can produce IAA, while four isolates i.e. P18, P31, P35, and P42) solubilize rock phosphate. These isolates having abilities for IAA production and phosphate solubilization were tested as bioinoculant to potato tubers. The results of inoculated plants showed significant differences in vegetative growth parameters as well as photosynthetic pigments and N, P, and K concentrations compared with control. Consequently, the more efficient isolates namely P31 and P35 were identified by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing analysis as Bacillus cereus and Achromobacter xylosoxidans, respectively. These can be recommended as biofertilizers for reducing the dependence on chemical fertilizers and providing a step forward toward sustainable agriculture.
Physical, sensory, and staling properties of gluten-free balady flat bread formulation based on rice flour, corn, and potato starch blends with different levels of hydrocolloids were studied. Results show that gums clearly improved the weight and roundness of GFBFB. Bread formulations A4-X3, A1-X3, A5-XG3, and A4-XG2 showed lower loss of moisture content after 72 h of storage at room temperature and recorded higher moisture retention being 94.4%, 93.7%, 92.3% and 92.1%, respectively, compared to control (89.4%). All GFBFB formulations were sensory acceptable, since they recorded higher scores in studied quality characteristics. Bread formulations, A4-X3, A4-XG2, A5-X3 and A5-XG3, had lower hardness and remained softer up to 72 h of storage period compared to other treatments. It could be concluded that the formulations A4 (rice flour:corn starch:potato starch, 40%:20%:40%) followed by A5 (rice flour:corn starch:potato starch, 40%:40%:20%) with 3% xanthan were the best formulation for production of GFBFB.
(continued) 7d. As related to dune locations, directions and their levels 
This study was carried out during two years 2007 and 2008 in three sites (microhabitats) of sand dunes i.e., El-Hauol, El-Gapher and Magaria located in North Sinai, Egypt to clarify the ecological factors affecting sand dunes vegetation. Sand dune location, dune levels (interdune, foot, flank and crest), directions (windward and leeward) and the effect of storage period of soil seed bank under room temperature on number of seedling emergence/m2 and survival of the natural vegetation growing on sand dunes ecosystem and some edaphic factors such as (soil moisture %, soil particles size distribution and some chemical characteristics) were investigated. The simple correlation coefficients between some tested factors were also computed. The results indicated that the microhabitats significantly impacted the distribution patterns of the number of seedling emergence/m2 in soil seed bank during the two years of study. Ecosystems may have different patterns because vegetation and soil seed bank can affect each other. The number of seedling emergence/m2 in soil seed bank increased with increasing the period of soil storages under room temperature during the two years. The period of the soil storage had a significant effect on the number of seed germination. The dune locations, directions and levels must play an important role on soil seed bank and seed germination. Also, seed germination was affected by soil physical and chemical properties. There were 54%, 34% and 12% of seed emergence; respectively, in El-Hauol, El-Gapher and Magaria in the first year and 70%, 24%, 6% in the second year. There was highly significant simple correlation coefficients and positive relationship between some edaphic factors and number of seedling emergence/m2 in soil seed bank.
Top-cited authors
Sobhy Ahmad El-Sohaimy
  • South Ural State University
Mohamed G. Shehata
  • City Of Scientific Research And Technological Applications
Hussein Ali
  • Ain Shams University
Eslam. Bendary
  • Ain Shams University
Mona S. Zayed
  • Ain Shams University