Ni\'eb\'e is a food leguminous plant cultivated in tropical Africa for its seeds rich in proteins. The main problem setted by its production is the conservation of harvests. In the fields as in the stocks, the seeds are destroyed by pests (bruchids). These bruchids are always associated with several entomophagous species of hymenoptera. Four entomophagous species were listed : an egg parasitoid (U lariophaga Stephan), and three solitary larval and pupal ectoparasitoids (D. Basalis Rondoni, Pteromalidae; E. vuilleti Crawford and E. orientalis Crawford, Eupelmidae). The survey of the populations shows that at the beginning of storage, E orientalis is the most abundant specie (72 %) whereas E. vuilleti and D. Basalis respectively represent 12 % and 16 % of the hymenoptera. During storage, the E orientalis population decreases gradually and it disappears completely in less than two months after the beginning of storage. E. Vuilleti population becomes gradually more important than D. basalis population which regress until less than 10 % of the emerging parasitoids. E vuilleti adopts ovicide and larvicide behaviour against D. Basalis. This behaviour explains its population regression inside granaries. If the aggressive behaviour of this Eupelmidae is a constant, that could also explain the disappearance of E orientalis. However if this species is maintained in stocks, it would be an effective control agent of bruchids according to their parasitic capacities. This study shows that ovicide and larvicide behaviour of E vuilleti is not expressed against E orientalis. When the females have exclusively the hosts already parasitized by E orientalis, they do not lay eggs. The disappearance of E orientalis could not thus be explained by the presence of E. vuilleti.
The phylogeny of the Carabinae (genera Cychrus, Pamborus, Ceroglossus, Calosoma, Carabus) is still not well resolved in its deepest nodes, despite several attempts in recent years. This group appeared during the Palaeogene, but phylogenetic analyses are difficult, which is correlated to the topology of the conflicting trees obtained, with long terminal and short internal branches. To circumvent this classical problem, we studied a non-coding and rather conservative nuclear marker (18SrRNA), then we focussed on its most variable regions, looking for some ‘molecular signatures’ originating from deep inter-nodes. For this, we compared the secondary structure of the helices H23-3 and H43. We found that the genus Carabus is monophyletic, the clade Calosoma being its sister group. Within Carabus, the Arcifera is the sister group of a diversified clade, named Eucarabi, grouping the Spinulati, the Crenolimbi and the Heterocarabi. Unexpectedly, the Heterocarabi is a very homogenous clade considering 18SrRNA, despite a high morphological diversity. The close phylogenetic relationship between Spinulati and Crenolimbi is emphasised. A clade grouping the genera Pamborus and Ceroglossus is a probable hypothesis but is not yet robustly demonstrated.
The revision of the genus Nemocephalus Gurin-Mneville 1827 is carried out. The genus is studied on the base of morphological characters. After being redefined, it is considered not to belong to the tribe Acratini and is therefore transferred, maybe provisionally, to Trachelizini since the analysis of adult characters shows similarity with the neotropical genus Paratrachelizus Kleine 1921. The synonymy with Exopleura Kleine 1922 is confirmed. All the species are redescribed and their area of distribution is revised as many misidentifications occurred in previous studies. Two species are described as new: Nemocephalus ayitiensis n. sp. from the island of Hispaniola, and N. nyabinghi n. sp. from Jamaica. Two species previously included in the genus Paratrachelizus are transferred to Nemocephalus, leading to the following new combinations: Nemocephalus linearis (Suffrian 1870), n. comb., and N. uncimanus (Boheman 1840), n. comb. The following new synonymies are proposed: Nemocephalus avarus (Kleine 1927), n. syn. for Nemocephalus monilis (Fabricius 1787); Paratrachelizus tenuis (Suffrian 1870), n. syn. for Nemocephalus uncimanus (Boheman 1840); Nemocephalus moderatus (Kleine 1922), n. syn. for Nemocephalus uncimanus (Boheman 1840). Finally, Nemocephalus gounellei Kleine 1944 is removed from this genus and transferred to Nemobrenthus Sharp 1895 in Acratini, leading to the following new combination: Nemobrenthus gounellei (Kleine 1944), n. comb. The areas of distribution of the different species are precised or corrected; the genus Nemocephalus is not present in Central or South America, and includes the following species: N. ayitiensis n. sp. in Hispaniola, N. enodis in Bahamas, Cuba and Florida, N. linearis in Cuba, N. monilis In Porto Rico, Virgin Islands, Saint-Martin and Saint-Barthlemy, N. nyabinghi n. sp. in Jamaica, and N. uncimanus in Cuba and Hispaniola. A phylogenetic analysis based on morphological characters and using cladistics methods is performed. The genus Nemocephalus seems to have its origin in the oldest islands of the Greater Antilles (Cuba and Hispaniola) after separation from the rest of the American continent; later (not before 12-20 Mya), colonization of Jamaica and Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands led to speciation events on these territories; finally, the colonization of Florida and Bahamas from Cuban migrants is probably very recent (maybe during last Ice Age, 12000 years ago).
Ranaivodes, new subgenus of Ceraclea, is described from Madagascar. It is closely related to the South Saharan endemic subgenus Pseudoleptocerus Ulmer. Ranaivodes is characterized by the presence of the harpago and the absence of the phallic parameres. Pseudoleptocerus is characterized by the presence of scales on the wings and two pairs of parameres at the phallic apparatus. Four new species are described: Ceraclea (Ranaivodes) sartorii n. sp., Ceraclea (Ranaivodes) higleri n. sp., Ceraclea (Ranaivodes) ifarantsae n. sp. and Ceraclea (Ranaivodes) jonathani n. sp. Homilia grandis Mosely, described from Madagascar, is transferred from the genus Homilia to the genus Ceraclea and to the subgenus Ranaivodes comb. nov. This new subgenus is endemic of the Island and includes all the known Malagasy species of Ceraclea. The geographic distributions of the species are studied and analyzed according to ecological parameters.
The call of the male of Besdolus bicolor, produced by percussion or drumming, is described for the first time. It represents the first recorded and analyzed signal for the genus Besdolus. It consists of a repetition of two or three beat groups, with each group composed by two (rarely three) beats, and with very constant interbeat intervals and intergroup intervals (mean 0.037 seconds and 0.213 seconds, respectively). The call pattern exhibited by this species can be catalogued as an ancestral percussive signal.
The genus Trachymyrmex is a key group in the tribe Attini because of its close phylogenetic relationship to leaf-cutter ants, Acromyrmex and Atta. Cytogenetic data are only available for five taxa of Trachymyrmex, with chromosome numbers of 2n = 12, 18, 20 and 22, and morphology with predominantly metacentric chromosomes. The aim of the present study was to characterize the karyotype of the ant Trachymyrmex fuscus Emery, 1934, by means of the number and morphology of its chromosomes, heterochromatin pattern, CMA3 and DAPI fluorochromes in the population of two nests collected at Paraopeba, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Nineteen females presented 2n = 18 chromosomes (16m + 2sm) and a single male presented n = 9 (8m + 1sm). A size chromosomal polymorphism involving the short arm of the submetacentric pair was confirmed by statistical analysis, with three character conditions: heterozygous SB (with a difference in size between the short arms), standard SS (smaller short arms) and homozygote BB (bigger short arms). In the first nest, both SB and SS workers were observed. The other nest contained heterozygous (SB), homozygous (BB), and a male carrying the B chromosome (larger size). The presence of heterochromatin on all centromeric and pericentromeric chromosomes of T. fuscus suggests that the size difference observed in the submetacentric pair in the SB and BB workers is not related to the heterochromatin but to a duplication of euchromatic regions through intra- or inter- chromosomal rearrangements. The fluorochrome CMA3 matched the C-banding markings, indicating that the heterochromatin is rich in GC base pairs. As far as we know, this is the first chromosomal polymorphism reported in the tribe Attini.
À la suite de captures de larves effectuées dans les Monts Bamboutos (Ouest du Cameroun) et de leurs mises en élevage, les auteurs décrivent le mâle, la nymphe et la larve d’Anopheles deemingi Service, 1970 dont seule une femelle était connue. Ils décrivent aussi la nymphe et la femelle d’une nouvelle espèce: Anopheles eouzani n. sp. qui a été capturée dans ces mêmes Monts Bamboutos mais à une altitude supérieure à 2 000 m. Abstract Afrotropical anophelines. V – Description of the male and the immature stages of Anopheles deemingi Service and description of An. eouzani n. sp. (Diptera: Culicidae) Following the collection, made in the Bamboutos Mountains (West Cameroun), of larvae reared in the laboratory, the authors describe the male, nymph and larva of Anopheles deemingi Service, 1970 of which only one female was hitherto known. They also describe the nymph and female of a new species, Anopheles eouzani n. sp., collected in the same mountains but at an altitude higher than 2000 m.
La synonymie entre Perrindema Lacroix 1997, et Zanitanus Lacroix 2001, est proposée. Le genre Perrindema est révisé. Une nouvelle combinaison est établie pour Cephaloncheres lindiensis Moser 1919. Deux nouvelles espèces sont décrites du Mozambique : Perrindema quiterajoensis n. sp. et P. pembaensis n. sp. Un historique du genre est donné ainsi qu’une clé de détermination. La position systématique de ce genre au sein des Pachydemini Burmeister 1855, est discutée. La conservation de l’utilisation du nom Pachydeminae au détriment de Tanyproctinae Erichson 1847, est argumentée.
An annotated checklist of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) is compiled for Guadeloupe, an island located in the Lesser Antilles of the eastern Caribbean. The list has seventeen species, including three exotic species to the Caribbean, two apparently endemic of Guadeloupe, six species only known from the Caribbean and five species that occur both on the mainland and the Caribbean. The list is created using data from literature and from our own field researches, carried out between 2011 and 2013. A list of visited flowers, along with ecological notes for each species is also given.
This study concerns the species list of Hymenoptera Apoidea Andrenidae belonging to Andrena genus collected during years 2002, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 in the north-eastern Algeria. A total of 58 species from 27 subgenera are reported including a species described in 2011, Andrena (Parandrenella) tebessana Scheuchl, Benarfa & Louadi. Two species are new for the Algerian fauna: A. (Orandrena) monilia Warncke 1967 and A. (Suandrena) cyanomicans Pérez 1895. A. (Margandrena) quinquepalpa Warncke 1980 has been only very recently cited from Algeria from the material described here. The present study also includes the Algerian distribution of each species, flight periods and flower choices.
Species of the genus Leptopilina are larval parasitoids of Drosophilidae, mainly species of the genus Drosophila. We provide four lines of evidence (i.e. morphological descriptions, crossing experiments, ITS2 sequences and RFLP's) to show that at least six species of Leptopilina occur in Africa, of which three previously unidentified species are described here. The phylogenetic position of these three new African species (L. orientalis n. sp., L. freyae n. sp. and L. guineaensis n. sp.) is established in relation to the species already known (L. heterotoma Thomson, 1862, L. victoriae Nordlander, 1980 and L. boulardi Barbotin et al., 1979) from Africa. This relationship is based on a comparison of sequences of the ITS2 of the ribosomal DNA. The geographical distributions over the Afrotropical region of these Leptopilina species are illustrated.
We describe the new genus Elektrothopomyia n. gen., with two new species E. saltensis n. sp. and E. tzotzili n. sp. as second and third fossil Pachygastrinae from the Mexican amber. These fossils from the Totolapa amber deposit confirm the presence of this group in Central America during the late Oligocene to middle Miocene period. Their exact affinities remain uncertain because of the current problems in the phylogenetic classification of these flies. These fossils are new elements of comparison between the entomofaunas of the Dominican and Mexican amber.
Conditioning of isolated ants was attempted in the ant Myrmica sabuleti. Isolated ants did not die and could be visually as well as olfactorily conditioned. They acquired and kept ‐ or partly lost ‐ their visual ‐ or their olfactory ‐ conditioned responses as do ants living in a colony. Each individual of an ant colony is thus able to learn and memorize by itself. Any collective conditioning, learning and memory actually reflect the individuals’ performance. Naive workers paired with isolated previously conditioned ants apparently acquired olfactory conditioning in a shorter time than isolated ants, reaching a conditioning score identical to that of isolated ants. But they lost their apparent conditioning as soon as the olfactory cue was removed. Thus, imitation of nestmates exists in ants but does not lead, by itself, to learning Sensu stricto since nothing of what has been imitated is retained.
Coconut trees are mostly anemophilous; however, because bees and ants forage on coconut tree inflorescences for floral food, entomophilous pollination can also occur. The aim of this study was to determine the food resource preference of bees and ants while they collect pollen, nectar and, for ants, occasionally prey on coconut tree inflorescences, as well as to evaluate their impact on self-pollination. The number of ant visits to first female and then male flowers is significantly higher than that of bees. For Apis mellifera (L.) and Pseudomyrmex gracilis (Fabricius) 14% of the sequences were favorable to direct self-pollination. The probability of visits for all of the sequences was similar for both bees and ants and there was no difference in resource choice. For these reasons, neither can be considered a more effective pollinator of the coconut tree.
The conservation of beetles that depend on dying or dead wood (i.e. saproxylic), has received a great deal of attention in many parts of the world in recent years. Human activities such as urbanization and logging, and their results, e.g. global warming, destroy natural ecosystems and threaten unusual species such as Lucanus cervus (L. 1758), Rosalia alpina (L. 1758), Limoniscus violaceus (Müller 1821) and Osmoderma eremita (Scopoli 1763). Attempts have been made to conserve the habitats upon which these species depend. Although represented by a large number of species, saproxylic beetles in Turkey have not received much attention. Although some Turkish studies have acknowledged their value, comprehensive investigations of these species are very limited. The aim of this study is to make a list, from the literature, of the species that are endangered in Europe and found in Turkey, to highlight the importance of these species. The research includes 151 saproxylic beetle species belonging to the families Bostrichidae, Cerambycidae, Elateridae, Eucnemidae, Scarabaeidae, Euchiridae, Lucanidae and Mycetophagidae. The list of Turkish saproxylic beetles was prepared using the European Red List of Saproxylic Beetles. Information is provided about the IUCN Red List category in Europe, the locations of the species in Turkey, and their global geographic range. We gathered all data about these species from the international literature. Furthermore, we also include in the list certain species whose locations are not specified, but which inhabit Turkey. We obtained their records from some catalogs in Turkey. In addition to the list, we prepared three distribution maps for Turkey. The maps show distribution in Turkey of some species in the Endangered, Vulnerable and Near Threatened categories in the European Red List. It is expected that this study will lead to comprehensive studies on saproxylic beetles from Turkey.
#Tuthillia cognata$ est découvert comme ravageur de #Myrciaria dubia$ (#Myrtaceae$) au Pérou et Brésil. Tenant compte de la morphologie de la larve, le genre est transféré des #Ciriacreminae$ dans les #Anomoneurinae$. (Résumé d'auteur)
Au cours de huit années de surveillance des milieux aquatiques, dans le cadre du Programme de lutte contre l'Onchocercose en Afrique de l'Ouest, quatorze espèces appartenant au genre #Leptocerus$ ont été capturées. Les piégeages ont eu lieu en Côte-d'Ivoire, au Togo, au Mali, en Guinée, au Burkina Faso et au Cameroun dans des milieux et des cours d'eau variés. La morphologie des genitalia de dix espèces est étudiée en détail de façon à en permettre l'identification. Six espèces sont nouvelles et décrites pour la première fois (#Leptocerus coulibalyi$, n. sp., #sechani$, n. sp., #telimelensis$, n. sp., #lauzannei$, n. sp., #stephanei$, n. sp., et #taianae$, n. sp.). Les données sur la répartition géographique et les conditions écologiques dans lesquelles les diverses espèces se rencontrent sont exposées et brièvement analysées. (Résumé d'auteur)
The type specimens of Sagrinae housed in the collections of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris) are cataloged. All specimens present in the collection are listed with verbatim label data and discussed. The collection consists of 27 holotypes, one allotype, one paratype and 32 syntypes of 49 species. Results are summarized as follows. (1) Holotypes: Prionesthis funerarius Lacordaire 1845, Rhagiosoma obscurithorax Pic 1914, Sagra angolensis Pic 1939, S. bontempsii Fairmaire 1897, S. brevior Pic 1953, S. cribrosa Pic 1938, S. descarpentriesi David 1953, S. favareli Pic 1938, S. favareli var. crampeli Pic 1938, S. impressipennis Pic 1953, S. jansoni var. favrei Pic 1953, S. longefemoralis Pic 1938, S. luctuosa Fairmaire 1887, S. minor Pic 1939, S. minuta Pic 1930, S. minuta var. insuturalis Pic 1953, S. pici David 1953, S. habasi David 1953, S. jeanneli David 1953 (also with allotype and one paratype), S. longeciliata Pic 1938, S. longithorax Pic 1938, S. murrayi var. benitensis Pic 1938, S. nitidissima Pic 1953, S. saphirina David 1954, S. signoreti Thomson 1858, S. subalutacea Pic 1953, S. villiersi David 1954. (2) Syntypes: Atalasis sagroides var. atricollis Pic 1934, A. sagroides var. bijuncta Pic 1934, A. sagroides var. postinnotata Pic 1948, A. sagroides var. postobliterata Pic 1948, A. sagroides var. ruficollis Pic 1934, Rhagiosoma fraternum Duvivier 1891 (3 ST), R. transactor Fairmaire 1903, Sagra deyrollei Thomson 1858, S. diversepunctata Pic 1938 (2 ST), S. donckieri Fairmaire 1903 (2 ST), S. longior Pic 1953 (2 ST), S. muelleriana Quedenfeldt 1888 (2 ST), S. nitida Pic 1938, S. nitida var. brevespinosa Pic 1938 (2 ST), S. nitidiventris Fairmaire 1891, S. oberthueri Duvivier 1891, S. perrieri Fairmaire 1898, S. petelii var. cyanescens Pic 1953 (2 ST), S. purpurea var. atricolor Pic 1953, S. purpurea var. jeanvoinei Pic 1953 (2 ST), S. suturalis Pic 1953 (2 ST), S. tibialis Fairmaire 1891. (3) Species labeled as types and proved to be manuscript names: Sagra cyanea Pic, S. cyaneoviolacea Pic, S. fulgida Weber var a Pic, and S. seguyi David. Two additional species were present under a name that was never published but actually belong to type series of described species: Sagra cyanea Pic is most likely the other syntype of S. petelii var. cyanescens Pic 1953; Sagra latipennis Pic is certainly a syntype of S. diversepunctata Pic 1938. (4) One specimen of Sagra cogoana Clavareau 1916 has been compared to the type. (5) Synonymy and new combinations. The genus Prionesthis Lacordaire 1845 is resurrected from synonymy with Megamerus MacLeay 1827 and the following new synonymy is proposed: Prionesthis Lacordaire 1845 = Rhagiosoma Chapuis 1878, syn. nov. Accordingly the following species are transferred to the genus Prionesthis: P. chapuisi (Sekerka 2007), comb. nov., P. fraternum (Duvivier 1891), comb. nov., P. grossus (Reineck 1913), comb. nov., P. madagascariensis (Chapuis 1878), comb. nov., P. obscurithorax (Pic 1914), comb. nov., P. transactor (Fairmaire 1903), comb. nov. The following new synonymies are proposed in the genus Sagra Fabricius 1792: S. bicolor Lacordaire 1845 = S. pici 1953, syn. nov.; S. congoana Clavareau 1916 = S. angolensis Pic 1939, syn. nov. = S. cribrosa Pic 1938, syn. nov.; S. ferox Baly 1877 = S. nitidiventris Fairmaire 1891, syn. nov. = S. longithorax Pic 1938, syn. nov.; S. fulgida Weber 1801 = S. minuta Pic 1930, syn. nov. = S. minuta var. insuturalis Pic 1953, syn. nov.; S. mouhoti Baly 1861 = S. suturalis Pic 1953, syn. nov.; S. odontopus Gistel 1831 = S. impressipennis Pic 1953, syn. nov. = S. petelii var. cyanescens Pic 1953, syn. nov.; S. senegalensis Klug 1835 = S. tibialis Fairmaire 1891, syn. nov.; S. tristis Fabricius 1798 = S. favareli Pic 1938, syn. nov. = S. favareli var. crampeli Pic 1938, syn. nov. = S. muelleriana Quedenfeldt 1888, syn. nov. = S. murrayi var. benitensis Pic 1938, syn. nov.; S. violacea (Olivier 1789) = S. descarpentriesi 1953, syn. nov. = S. deyrollei Thomson 1858, syn. nov. = S. habasi 1953, syn. nov. = S. jeanneli 1953, syn. nov. = S. longeciliata Pic 1938, syn. nov. = S. longefemoralis Pic 1938, syn. nov. = S. luctuosa Fairmaire 1887, syn. nov. = S. nitida Pic 1938, syn. nov. = S. nitida var. brevespinosa Pic 1938, syn. nov. = S. nitidissima Pic 1953, syn. nov. = S. saphirina David 1954, syn. nov. = S. villiersi David 1954, syn. nov.
This paper provides the first faunal checklist for the family Cicadidae (Insecta: Hemiptera) in Laos, comprising 60 species belonging to 33 genera. Aetanna pallidula n. sp. and Aetanna curta n. sp. are described as new to science. Cabecita draluobi (Boulard 2003) n. comb. and Hea yunnanensis Chou & Yao 1995 are added to the cicada fauna of Laos. Megapomponia imperatoria (Westwood 1842), which was recorded erroneously, is removed from the fauna. Unipomponia n. gen., Paranosia n. gen., Aetanna n. gen., and Cabecita n. gen. are erected. Nipponosemia Kato 1925 is synonymized with Vagitanus Distant 1918. Transfers of many species from one genus to another are made. Trengganua Moulton 1923 is transferred to Gaeanini Distant 1905 from Tosenini Amyot & Audinet-Serville 1843. Talainga Distant 1890 and Paratalainga He 1984 are transferred to Gaeanini from Talaingini Myers 1929, synonymizing Talaingini n. syn. with Gaeanini. Chloropsalta Haupt 1920 is transferred to Cicadatrini Distant 1905 from Gaeanini. Bijaurana Distant 1912 is placed in Cicadatrini.
Cicadatra persica Kirkaldy 1909 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) damages apple trees in Erneh (33°21′ N, 35°52′ E), a village located in the Alsheikh mountain in south-western Syria. In this study, the numbers of eggs per egg nest and of egg nests per tree, as well as their relation with the numbers of emerged adults, was estimated. The mean number of eggs per nest was 154.3 ± 90.48. There was a positive correlation among the three variables egg nest length (L), number of slits (S), and eggs (E) per nest. The best model for predicting egg numbers (E) was E = –16.145 + 12.688 S. Mineral oil (3%) applied on egg nests on apple trees did not reduce cicada hatch. Biological and cultural options such as the development of biopesticides rather than oil and insecticides should be considered as more sustainable means for controlling C. persica in fruit orchards.
This article describes two new species, Corticaria antonioi n. sp. and Corticaria lucasi n. sp., from the Iberian Peninsula. A key to the species of the sylvicola group is provided.Résumé. Revisión du groupe sylvicola (Coleoptera : Latridiidae), avec la description de deux espéces de Corticaria de la Péninsule Ibérique. Cet article décrit deux nouvelles espèces, Corticaria antonioi n. sp. et Corticaria lucasi n. sp. de la Péninsule Ibérique. Une clé des espèces du groupe sylvicola est présentée.
Stromatanobium delgadoi n. gen. n. sp. est décrit. Cette espèce se développe dans les stromas produits par un Champignon Ascomycète sur Plukenetia volubilis L. (Euphorbiaceae), cultivé au Pérou pour ses graines oléagineuses. La morphologie des pro-, méso- et métasternum place le nouveau genre dans la sous-famille des Ptinidae Mesocoelopodinae. Le genre et l’espèce sont bien caractérisés par la structure des antennes des deux sexes, de l’édéage et par d’autres caractères dans la morphologie externe. Stromatanobium n. gen. semble être proche de Tricorynus Waterhouse 1849, mais il s’en distingue par les caractères mentionnés ci-dessus.
The community structure, dynamics and succession patterns of the sarcosaprophagous Formicidae (Insecta, Hymenoptera) at the end of spring and summer, 2004, have been determined following a study carried out in Coimbra (Central Portugal) using piglet carcasses. A modified Schoenly trap was used to collect the fauna. Five decomposition stages were observed and 1061 ant workers, corresponding to six species, were collected and identified. The dominant species was Linepithema humile (Mayr 1868), for which its distribution throughout the decomposition process is shown. Comparisons are made with data from literature at two other localities in Spain. The information presented in this study represents the first report on the sarcosaprophagous Formicidae community that is present in Portugal. These data will contribute to enlarging our knowledge on the biology of this fauna, will provide interesting references for some species, and will be very useful for establishing a database that is critical in forensic practice.
Among host plants of Lixinae weevils, plant life-form ratio (sensu Raunkiaer) is similar to the plant spectrum of Mediterranean deserts. A possible explanation is that this group of insects formed in desert zones and settled in the steppe rather later. For the first time Raunkiaer’s life-form ratio is compared with a spectrum of food plants of herbivores. This approach may be useful for reconstruction of the genesis of taxa and communities.Résumé. Parmi les plantes-hôtes des charançons Lixinae, le “plant life-form ratio” (sensu Raunkiaer) est similaire au spectre de plantes des déserts méditerranéens. Une explication posible serait que ce groupe d’insectes se serait constitué dans les zones désertiques et serait établis dans les steppes par après. Pour la première fois, le “life-form ratio” de Raunkiaer est comparé avec une spectre de plantes alimentaires d’herbivores. Une telle approche pourrait être utile pour la reconstruction de l’origine des taxons et des communautés.
Thirteen new species of Spilogona Schnabl are described from China, namely Spilogona binigloba Xue, n. sp., Spilogona brevipila Xue, n. sp., Spilogona brunneipinna Xue, n. sp., Spilogona klinocerca Xue, n. sp., Spilogona longilabella Xue, n. sp., Spilogona nudisetula Xue, n. sp., Spilogona paradisea Xue & Yu, n. sp., Spilogona qingheensis Xue, n. sp., Spilogona subcaliginosa Xue, n. sp., Spilogona subdepressiuscula Xue, n. sp., Spilogona subdepressula Xue, n. sp., Spilogona sublitorea Xue, n. sp. and Spilogona tenuisurstyla Xue, n. sp. An identification key to the males of 61 Chinese species with geographical distribution is provided.
To set up a biological control method against Plutella xylostella, in cabbage crops, the efficiency of 17 strains of Trichogramma and Trichogrammatoidea were compared. Laboratory experiments were divided into 2 phases. The first test was carried out in tubes containing P. xylostella eggs (or Ephestia kuehniella eggs), and females of each Trichogramma strains. This test allowed a preliminary choice : among all the strains, only 10 were retained through criteria of P. xylostella eggs parasiting ability. These species are T. voegelei, T. oleae, T dendrolimi, T. bactrae, T. exiguum, T. chilonis, T. pretiosum, T. buesi and T. ostriniae. The second test was carried out in cages where P. xylostella eggs had been placed on a cabbage leaf. This experiment introduced the "egg finding" factor and the "cabbage environment" factor. According to parasitism rates, T. oleae ranked first. Among all the strains tested and according to the 2 laboratory experiments, T. oleae was the most efficient Trichogramma species to control P. xylostella.
A spontaneous mutation, ‘Pseudozorro’, has arisen in 1998 in a captive brood of P. apollo maintained by the authors. It induces (i) the production of additional wing veins, (ii) the distortion and confluence of the black spots of the forewing discal cell and (iii) a reduction of the hindwing eyespots and, more generally, of all red components of the wing pattern. Various crosses demonstrated that ‘Pseudozorro’ is dominant and lethal when homozygote. Its expression is quite variable, probably due to epistatic interactions with other loci. When combined with the recessive mutation ‘wiskotti’, it rather attenuates its manifestations; the two loci are not linked.
Five species of Histeridae have been collected in subterranean nests of the African pinguin (Spheniscus demersus, Spheniscidae). One species, Atribalus wolfaardti, is new for science. A new sclerified structure on the aedeagus of A. wolfaardti is described for the first time on a Histeridae species. The larvae of Hypocaccus brasiliensis (Payk.) and A. wolfaardti, sp. n. are described and illustrated for the first time.
Four Aedes aegypti samples and two Ae. albopietus samples collected in Nha Trang in Southern Vietnam were infected with a dengue 2 virus and were analyzed for genetic differentiation based on isoenzyme polymorphism. Infection rates were higher in Ae. aegypti (91.7% to 96.8%) than in Ae. albopictus (33.3% to 66.3%). The analysis of isoenzyme variation showed that differentiation was high (F-ST = +0.146) and significant (P < 10(-4)) between Ae. aegypti populations. These results are discussed in view of other results obtained from Ae. aegypti populations collected in other pails in the world.
The European subspecies of Ocypus ophthalmicus (Scopoli) are studied. 4 are validated : O. ophthalmicus rodopensis Coiffait from Mounts Rodopes (Bulgaria), pernigrus Coiffait from Picos de Europa (Spain), atrocyaneus (Fairmaire & Coquerel) from Spain and North Africa and balearicus (G. Müller) from Mallorca; ibericus Coiffait is put in synonymy with atrocyaneus and baicalensis with the nominal subspecies; two new subspecies are described : benoiti, ssp.n. from Western Spain and brigitteae, ssp.n. from Corse. The subspecies balcanicus (G. Müller) is considered as incertae sedis, it could be a synonym of the nominal subspecies or of hypsibatus. The nominal subspecies is redescribed and a neotype is designated. In Western Europe, this form seems to occur only in lowland. We show that this species is in evolutive crisis and that its subspecies are very polymorphic. We suppose that dispersal phenomena explain the actual distribution of these taxa.
More than 3500 fleas, collected in southern Belgium, from 54 garden dormice (Eliomys quercinus) and from 58 nests of the rodent, were examined. Ceratophyllus s. sciurorum seems to be the only regular and abundant flea on the garden dormouse and in its nest whereas Myoxopsylla laverani is quite uncommon (5/31 infested animal and 11/52 infested nests). In comparison, 96 garden dormice were checked in France. M. laverani is present on nearly every infested animal (61/66). Other fleas were also found, some mammal-fleas (Megabothris turbidus, Hystrichopsylla talpae, several Ctenophthalmus spp.) and great numbers of bird-fleas (Ceratophyllus gallinae and Dasypsyllus gallinulae) because the dormouse-nests where the fleas were taken were built on old tit-nests (Parus spp). Finally, Schizophthirus pleurophaeus, a louse, was collected for the first time in Belgium.RésuméLes puces et les poux (Insecta : Siphonaptera et Anoplura) du lérot, Eliomys quercinus (L. 1758) en Belgique. Plus de 3500 puces, récoltées au sud de la Belgique, ont été examinées pour 54 lérots (Eliomys quercinus) et 58 nids de ce rongeur. Ceratophyllus s. sciurorum est la puce la plus régulière et la plus adondante sur le lérot, dans sa fourrure et dans ses nids alors que Myoxopsylla laverani est assez rare (5/31 des lérots parasités et 11/52 des nids infestés). Des comparaisons sur 96 lérots pris en France montrent que M. laverani est present sur 61 lérots pour 66 animaux parasités. Quelques espèces de puces liées à des petits mammifères ont été observées (Megabothris turbidus, Hystrichopsylla talpae, plusieurs espèces de Ctenophthalmus spp.) et des nombreuses puces d’oiseaux (Ceratophyllus gallinae et Dasypsyllus gallinulae). Il faut dire que les lérots ont parfois l’habitude de s’installer dans les nids des mésanges. Enfin, un pou, Schizophthirus pleurophaeus, a été trouvé la première fois en Belgique.
Since 2004, hybridizations in captivity were tested between Saga pedo (Pallas 1771), a parthenogenetic species, and various bisexual closely related species of the Balkans: Saga hellenica Kaltenbach 1967, Saga rammei Kaltenbach 1965 and Saga campbelli Uvarov 1921. Mating with formation of spermatophores were noted in all cases. The first hatching, resulting from a female of S. pedo with a male of S. rammei, occurred in April 2006.
Relationship between environmental factors and larval density in Ochlerotatus caspius Pallas 1771 and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday 1833 (Diptera: Culicidae) of Tunisia. Ochlerotatus caspius and Oc. detritus, two major mosquito species considered as pests in Tunisia, are subjected to intensive insecticide treatments. Considering the large areas colonized by immature stages and high adult densities generated at each egg hatching period, the efficiency of insecticide control is limited. In order to define more suitable control strategies, we aim in this study to characterize the ecological niche of each mosquito species using multivariate analyses (CA, HAC). Our results show that larval densities of both mosquito species are mainly related to plant composition and salinity of breeding sites. Indeed, Oc. detritus is more adapted to salty biotopes mainly colonized by Sarcocornia fruticosa when Oc. caspius is mostly associated to biotopes with more diversified vegetation bearing a low salinity and predominantly occupied by Juncus maritimus.
Depuis 2004, des hybridations en captivité ont été expérimentées entre Saga pedo (Pallas 1771), espèce parthénogénétique, et diverses espèces affines bisexuées des Balkans : Saga hellenica Kaltenbach 1967, Saga rammei Kaltenbach 1965, Saga campbelli Uvarov 1921. Des accouplements avec formation de spermatophore se vérifient dans tous les cas. Les premières éclosions, issues de l’accouplement d’une femelle de S. pedo avec un mâle de S. rammei, se sont produites en avril 2006. Abstract Hybridization between Saga pedo (Pallas 1771) and Saga rammei Kaltenbach 1965 (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) Since 2004, hybridizations in captivity were tested between Saga pedo (Pallas 1771), a parthenogenetic species, and various bisexual closely related species of the Balkans: Saga hellenica Kaltenbach 1967, Saga rammei Kaltenbach 1965 and Saga campbelli Uvarov 1921. Mating with formation of spermatophores were noted in all cases. The first hatching, resulting from a female of S. pedo with a male of S. rammei, occurred in April 2006.
The presence of the thermophilic species Anopheles hyrcanus in the lower Dyje River basin has been regularly monitored since 2008. Mosquito trapping has been conducted mainly in summer using EVS traps with CO2 as attractant. Anopheles hyrcanus and Culex modestus were studied in a group of ponds near the Czech-Austrian border. At the Sedlec location, occurrence of An. hyrcanus was low during 2008-2011, with around 1-9 individuals/trap/collection day. At the Lednice location on the edge of Mlýnský Pond, the first capture of An. hyrcanus occurred in 2010. In 2013, there was a sudden increase in the An. hyrcanus mosquito at all monitored locations. The largest presence was recorded at Sedlec and reached 524.4 individuals/trap/collection day. Culex modestus was one of the predominant species throughout the period. At Sedlec, the smallest finding was in 2009 (at 9.6 individuals) while the greatest was in 2010 (at 988.6 individuals/trap/collection day). At Lednice, the smallest finding was in 2011 (at 56.3 individuals) while the largest was in 2013 (at 3850 individuals/trap/collection day).
The subgenal coronet was first described in 1941 by TIMBERLAKE. Very few authors wrote something about this structure of the Andrena's external morphology. In this article the authors propose a compared study of this structure within several common european species, using both electronic and optical microscopy methods. They also propose hypothesis about the functional aspect of the subgenal coronet and the related parts.
Description of a new Paederus Fabricius, 1775 from Sicily, with systematic, biogeographic and ecological notes on Italian species of the subgenera Paederus s. str. and Eopaederus Scheerpeltz, 1957 (Coleoptera : Staphylinidae). -The new species Paederus (s. str.) ragusai, sp. n. from Sicily, similar in characters to P. (Eopaederus) caligatus Erichson, 1840, but included in the subgenus Paederus s.str. owing to the characters of the aedeagus (internal sac with many spines) and to the longitudinally separated sternite of the IX female genital segment, is described. The records of P. caligatus from Sicily refer to this new species. Some notes on the Italian species of the subgenera Paederus s.str. (P. melanurus Aragona, 1830 and P. balcanicus Koch, 1938) and Eopaederus (P. caligatus Erichson, 1840 and P. limnophilus Erichson, 1840) are reported, with particular reference to the systematic relationship between P. melanurus and P. riparius L. For each of these species the aedeagus and the IX female urite are illustrated. Lectotypes are designated for P. caligatus and P. limnophilus.
Four solitary wasps, Apodynerus troglodytes (Saussure, 1856), Antepipona biguttata (Fabricius, 1787), Euodynerus trilobus (Fabricius, 1787) (all Vespidae: Eumeninae), and Chalybion japonicum (Gribodo, 1882) (Sphecidae), and one solitary bee, Amegilla zonata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Apidae) using nests of the mud dauber wasp Sceliphron madraspatanum (Fabricius, 1781) in Vietnam are studied. Except for C. japonicum, the others are reported for the first time to use S. madraspatanum nests. Antepipona biguttata is considered both an invader and a re-user, and the other species are only re-users of the nests of the mud dauber wasp. While A. troglodytes utilizes old nest cells of S. madraspatanum and divides each cell into its two nest cells, the other two vespid species excavate their own nest burrows in S. madraspatanum nests and build their nest cells at the terminal of the burrows. Chalybion japonicum uses old intact nest cells of S. madraspatanum. Amegilla zonata digs its own nest, builds the cells in the nests of the mud dauber wasp, and uses them as nesting and overwintering sites. The life history and nest structure of the five species are presented.
Recent years have seen an increasing number of alien praying mantis species being introduced and establishing populations across Europe. Here we add to this count, reporting a stable and spreading population of an Asian species, Statilia maculata (Thunberg, 1784), in Krasnodar Krai of Southern Russia. This is the first introduced praying mantis species in the Russian fauna and the first representative of the genus Statilia Stål, 1877 in Europe. We review what is known about biology of this species and provide diagnostic characters to distinguish nymphs, adults and oothecae from native and introduced European species of praying mantis. Our attempts at captive breeding identify humidity as one of the most important factors limiting possible spread of S. maculata. Invasion to neighbouring territories and other countries with a humid subtropical climate remains a very real possibility with an unknown outcome for local ecosystems.
Coenonympha oedippus, the False Ringlet is, for European lepidopterists, one of the most endangered species of butterfly. Although its geographical range extends from western France to China, european populations are fragmented, isolated, often endangered, even extinct from three countries. Its habitats (Molinion) also decrease as a consequence to human activities ; in addition, the solitary behaviour of the False Ringlet does not allow it to colonize new habitats. After an assessment of the rarity and distribution of this species, in Europe and in France, results are presented about the monitoring of two experimental stations, where an evaluation of population was made, together with a study of imaginai biology and behaviour. From these examples, it appears that only sub populations of Aquitaine region seem to be equilibrated. For the conservation of this species, in situ dispositions of conservatory management are urgently required for certain sites, but also ex situ measures associated with an assessment and monitoring of source populations.
Unlike the other Apiomerini, which are mostly polyphagous predators, Micrauchenus lineola seems to feed exclusively on termites. Immatures of different stages have been found in galleries of a termit nest (Nasutitermes sp.) where they are apparently well tolerated by their preys. M. lineola can be distinguished from the other Apiomerini by some distinctive morphological features: - short and convex head; - right maxillary stylets strongly barbed; - absence of tarsal sulcus on the fore legs. The barbed right maxillary stylet shows some similarities with those of other termitophagous reduvids belonging to the subfamilies Salyavatinae and Sphaeridopinae.