Annales Geophysicae

Published by European Geosciences Union
Online ISSN: 1432-0576
Print ISSN: 0992-7689
Publications
Geometry of the problem. (XYZ) are local coordinates. 
A penetration of electric and magnetic fields of global electromagnetic ELF resonances in the cavity Earth - ionosphere into the ionosphere is investigated numerically. It is shown that a penetration depth for magnetic components is 2-3 times greater than for electric ones and it depends essentially on the orientation of the geomagnetic field with respect to the normal to the Earth's surface. A penetration height for the electric field is about 50 divided by 60 km, for magnetic field it is 100 divided by 150 km.
 
Three time intervals displaying magnetic field magnitude, flow speed, and ion density in the solar wind. The data were obtained by fluxgate magnetometer (FGM) and electrostatic ion analyzer (CIS-HIA) on board Cluster-1 spacecraft.  
Frequency spectra of magnetic field fluctuations in the three analyzed intervals: the upper curve in thin color is the spectrum for the interval 1, the lower curve the interval 2, and the middle curve in black the interval 3. The data are taken from fluxgate magnetometer on board Cluster, and the spectra are averaged over 4 spacecraft. Horizontal bars represent frequency ranges used in the wave vector analysis. Vertical bar with notation " 95 % " at bottom left represents the confidence interval for the average number of sub-intervals used in the analysis.  
Stereographic representation of the three-dimensional wave-vector spectra of fluctuating magnetic field in the solar wind for the three time intervals shown in Fig. 1. The spectra are presented in the MFA (mean-field-aligned) coordinate system spanned by the mean magnetic field (in the z-axis or k -axis) and the flow direction (in the xz-plane or k ⊥1 -k -plane) and averaged over the directions normal to the displayed plane. The confidence intervals at the color scales are based on the degree of freedom used for averaging over frequencies, wave numbers, and sub-intervals (for the interval 2 and 3).  
Values of the anisotropy index as a function of the tetrahedral configuration parameter Q G . The numbers (1)–(3) at the top of the panel denote the analyzed time interval. Three symbols denote the three projected planes in Fig. 3 for each time interval. Error bars reflect the variation of tetrahedral shape during the measurement . Dotted curve represent the artificial anisotropy produced by irregular tetrahedron.  
Using the four Cluster spacecraft, we have determined the three-dimensional wave-vector spectra of fluctuating magnetic fields in the solar wind. Three different solar wind intervals of Cluster data are investigated for this purpose, representing three different spatial scales: 10 000 km, 1000 km, and 100 km. The spectra are determined using the wave telescope technique (k-filtering technique) without assuming the validity of Taylor’s frozen-in-flow hypothesis nor are any assumptions made as to the symmetry properties of the fluctuations. We find that the spectra are anisotropic on all the three scales and the power is extended primarily in the directions perpendicular to the mean magnetic field, as might be expected of two-dimensional turbulence, however, the analyzed fluctuations are not axisymmetric. The lack of axisymmetry invalidates some earlier techniques using single spacecraft observations that were used to estimate the percentage of magnetic energy residing in quasitwo- dimensional power. However, the dominance of twodimensional turbulence is consistent with the relatively long mean free paths of cosmic rays in observed in the heliosphere. On the other hand, the spectra also exhibit secondary extended structures oblique from the mean magnetic field direction. We discuss possible origins of anisotropy and asymmetry of solar wind turbulence spectra.
 
An analysis of the low frequency geomagnetic field fluctuations at an Antarctic (Terra Nova Bay) and a low latitude (L'Aquila, Italy) station during the Earth's passage of a coronal ejecta on April 11, 1997 shows that major solar wind pressure variations were followed at both stations by a high fluctuation level. During northward interplanetary magnetic field conditions and when Terra Nova Bay is close to the local geomagnetic noon, coherent fluctuations, at the same frequency (3.6 mHz) and with polarization characteristics indicating an antisunward propagation, were observed simultaneously at the two stations. An analysis of simultaneous measurements from geosynchronous satellites shows evidence for pulsations at approximately the same frequencies also in the magnetospheric field. The observed waves might then be interpreted as oscillation modes, triggered by an external stimulation, extending to a major portion of the Earth's magnetosphere. Key words. Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions)
 
The ionosphere, composed of O(+), H(+), and electrons is modeled with four different transport formulations. The equations corresponding to the standard set, the 8-, 13-, and 16-moment approximations are presented, and the collision terms are expressed. Using a time-dependent technique, the ionosphere is studied between altitudes of 200 and 8600 km. The production of electrons and O(+) ions is described by a neutral atmosphere simplified photoionization scheme, while the energy deposition is supported by a downward electron heat flow of -0.005 erg/sq cm per s imposed at the topside boundary. When the models reach a steady state equilibrium, the electron solutions show differences due to the introduction of temperature anisotropies and heat flows between the components parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. As a corollary, the ions show structures depending on the level of approximation. A depletion of a factor of 10 is then applied to the ion densities above a certain altitude, and the development of the perturbation is followed for 1000 s for all the models.
 
The ion composition pro®le p z† ˆ 1 À O ‡ ne calculated by Eq. (1), using the neutral atmosphere from the MSIS 90 model (continuous lines) and z 50 =200, t 050 =1.5, and our modelling for z 50 =200, t 050 =1.5 (dotted lines) and z 50 =200, t 050 =0.8 (dash-dotted lines) 
This work aims at processing the data of CP1 and CP2 programs of EISCAT ionospheric radar from 1987 to 1994 using the "full profile" method which allows to solve the "temperature-composition" ambiguity problem in the lower F region. The program of data analysis was developed in the CEPHAG in 1995–1996. To improve this program, we implemented another analytical function to model the ion composition profile. This new function better reflects the real profile of the composition. Secondly, we chose the best method to select the initial conditions for the "full profile" procedure. A statistical analysis of the results was made to obtain the averages of various parameters: electron concentration and temperature, ion temperature, composition and bulk velocity. The aim is to obtain models of the parameter behaviour defining the ion composition profiles : z50 (transition altitude between atomic and molecular ions) and dz (width of the profile), for various seasons and for high and low solar activities. These models are then compared to other models. To explain the principal features of parameters z50 and dz, we made an analysis of the processes leading to composition changes and related them to production and electron density profile. A new experimental model of ion composition is now available.Key words. Auroral ionosphere · Ion chemistry and composition · Instruments and techniques · EISCAT
 
A meteor radar located at Sheffield in the UK has been used to measure wind oscillations with periods in the range 10–28 days in the mesosphere/lower-thermosphere region at 53.5°N, 3.9°W from January 1990 to August 1994. The data reveal a motion field in which wave activity occurs over a range of frequencies and in episodes generally lasting for less than two months. A seasonal cycle is apparent in which the largest observed amplitudes are as high as 14 ms–1 and are observed from January to mid-April. A minimum in activity occurs in late June to early July. A second, smaller, maximum follows in late summer/autumn where amplitudes reach up to 7–10 ms–1. Considerable interannual variability is apparent but wave activity is observed in the summers of all the years examined, albeit at very small amplitudes near mid summer. This behaviour suggests that the equatorial winds in the mesopause region do not completely prevent inter-hemispheric ducting of the wave from the winter hemisphere, or that it is generated in situ.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; thermospheric dynamics; waves and tides)
 
Variation of monthly mean percentage occurrence of daytime scintillations for the period 1983±1993
a±d. Nocturnal variation of average percentage occurrence of scintillations for magnetically quiet and disturbed days of a 1990±1992, b 1986±1989, c 1992±1993 and d 1984±1986
The correlation coecients of occurrence of night-time scintillations with sunspot number and F10.7 for the three seasons and the total period of observation
The correlation coecients of occurrence of daytime scintillations with sunspot number and F10.7 for the three seasons and the total period of observation
The characteristics of VHF radiowave scintillations at 244 MHz (FLEETSAT) during a complete solar cycle (1983–93) at a low-latitude station, Waltair (17.7°N, 83.3°E), are presented. The occurrence of night-time scintillations shows equinoctial maxima and summer minima in all the epochs of solar activity, and follows the solar activity. The daytime scintillation occurrence is negatively correlated with the solar activity and shows maximum occurrence during the summer months in a period of low solar activity. The occurrence of night-time scintillations is inhibited during disturbed days of high solar activity and enhanced during low solar activity.
 
Example of three-hourly average values of Dst, ap and AE for the interval of 1±19 January 1979
Annual correlations and correlations during magnetic storm phases for 1979; Multiple correlation between ap, AE and Dst for the same period is shown in the last group. The lag of the best correlation for each case is shown on the top of each column Fig. 7. Annual correlations and multiple correlation for 1974 and 1979
Three-hourly average values of the Dst, AE and ap geomagnetic activity indices have been studied for 1 year's duration near the solar minimum (1974) and also at the solar maximum (1979). In 1979 seven intense geomagnetic storms (Dst <–100 nT) occurred, whereas in 1974 only three were reported. This study reveals: (1) the yearly average of AE is greater in 1974 than in 1979, whereas the inverse seems to be true for the yearly average of Dst, when a higher number of intense storms is present. These averages indicate the kind of activity occurring on the sun as shown in earlier work. (2) The seasonal variation of Dst is higher than that of ap and is almost negligible in AE. (3) The correlation coefficient of ap × AE is in general the highest, as the magnetometers that monitor both indices are close, and is surpassed only by the ap × Dst correlation during geomagnetic storms, when the influence of the ring current is dominant. The correlation of ap × Dst also shows a seasonal variability. (4) For the first time a study of correlation between ap and a linear combination of AE and Dst has also been made. We found higher correlation coefficients in this case as compared to those between ap × Dst and ap × AE.
 
Interhemispheric transport is a key process affecting the accuracy of source quantification for species such as methane by inverse modelling, and is a source of difference among global three-dimensional chemistry transport models (CTMs). Here we use long-term observations of the atmospheric concentration of long-lived species such as CH3CCl3 and CFCl3 for testing three-dimensional chemistry transport models (CTMs); notably their ability to model the interhemispheric transport, distribution, trend, and variability of trace gases in the troposphere. The very striking contrast between the inhomogeneous source distribution and the nearly homogeneous trend, observed in the global ALE/GAGE experiments for both CH3CCl3 and CFCl3 illustrates an efficient interhemispheric transport of atmospherically long-lived chemical species. Analysis of the modelling data at two tropical stations, Barbados (13° N, 59° W) and Samoa (14° S, 124° W), show the close relationship between inter-hemispheric transport and cross-equator Hadley circulations. We found that cross-equator Hadley circulations play a key role in producing the globally homogeneous observed trends. Chemically, the most rapid interaction between CH3CCl3 and OH occurs in the northern summer troposphere; while the most rapid photolysis of CH3CCl3 and CFCl3, and the chemical reactions between CFCl3 and O(1D), take place in the southern summer stratosphere. Therefore, the cross-equator Hadley circulation plays a key role which regulates the southward flux of chemical species. The regulation by the Hadley circulations hence determines the amount of air to be processed by OH, O(1D), and ultraviolet photolysis, in both hemispheres. In summary, the dynamic regulation of the Hadley circulations, and the chemical processing (which crucially depends on the concentration of OH, O(1D), and on the intensity of solar insolation) of the air contribute to the seasonal variability and homogeneous growth rate of observed CH3CCl3 and CFCl3.Key words: Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere - composition and chemistry; pollution - urban and regional) - Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (convective processes)
 
The 1984 update of the GEISA data bank, containing spectroscopic information on 323,521 lines corresponding to 36 molecules and 79 isotopic species in the spectal range 3 x 10 to the -6th/cm to 17,879/cm, is discussed. The bank compiles parameters describing the radiation absorption or emission properties of gases involved in the atmospheres of the earth and planets. Values of a new exponent which summarized the variation of the collision halfwidth with temperature are given for 10 molecules. Six new molecules, HOCl, N2, CH3Cl, H2O2, H2S, and HCOOH, are included in this edition.
 
Electric-field-penetration events have been identified using F-region vertical-drift measurements obtained in the October 6-13, 1984 period by the Jicamarcan incoherent-backscatter radar and corresponding h-prime F measurements from ionosondes at Fortaleza, Cachoeira Paulista, and Dakar. Predictions made using the Rice Convection Model for the pattern, strength, and duration of the low-latitude electric field occurring in response to an increasing high-latitude convection agree with observations. The observed 1-2 h duration of the low-latitude response to decreased convection can be explained by the fossil-wind theory of Richmond (1983).
 
F-region incoherent scatter radar drift observations from Millstone Hill and Jicamarca, h-prime F observations from Huancayo, and high latitude ground-magnetometer measurements taken during the Sundial 1986 campaign are used to study the relationship between plasmaspheric electric field perturbations and high latitude currents during disturbed periods. The observations are in good agreement with numerical results from a Rice Covection Model run that involved a sharp increase in the polar cap potential drop followed by a subsequent decrease. The zonal disturbance electric field pattern is latitude independent, and the corresponding amplitudes change approximately as L exp n (where n is about 1.5). The meridional electric field patterns and amplitudes have larger latitudinal variations. The mid-, low, and equatorial electric fields from the Rice Convection Model are in good agreement with previous results from the semianalytic, Senior-Blanc (1987) model. Also discussed are three physical mechanisms (over-shielding, fossil winds, and magnetic reconfiguration) that contribute to the long lasting (1-2 h) equatorial zonal electric field perturbations associated with a sudden northward turning of the IMF. It is predicted that the penetration of high latitude electric fields to low latitudes should, in general, be closely related to the rate of motion of the shielding layer and the equatorward edge of the diffuse aurora.
 
High-latitude electric potential and ionospheric conductance patterns are presented and discussed for the Northern Hemisphere during the SUNDIAL period of September 23-26, 1986 using the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) technique of Richmond and Kamide (1988). Data sources used for the model are satellite and ground magnetometers, electron precipitation instruments, incoherent scatter radars, and ionospheric coherent radars. The period was characterized by many substorms, and a wide variety of instantaneous patterns of electrodynamic parameters on a hemispheric scale are derived throughout this period, of which only a few examples are displayed. The entire set of electric potentials and conductances are being made available through the NCAR CEDAR Data Base for further analysis and utilization in simulation models.
 
Data reduction procedures which will make it possible to model the nucleus of future targets of cometary space missions were tested on the basis of observations of Comet Levy 1990c by the HST on September 27, 1990. Faint hemispherical shells expanding in the coma, which is structured as a sunward fan deflected by solar radiation pressure, were observed. The Eddington fountain model makes it possible to infer the ejection times of the expanding shells and the initial velocity of the dust. Three shells ejected at time intervals of 11.5 and 12.5 h with an initial velocity of 0.35 km/s were observed for dust grains of 3-micron size. The lag angle of the fan is between 10 and 15 deg, thus suggesting a time delay of the most active sublimation of 1 h after midday. The observed time periodicities suggest a nucleus rotating in 24 h with a surface characterized by two active areas placed almost exactly in opposite hemispheres, even if a longer rotation period and a more complex nucleus topography can be excluded.
 
Severe chemical ozone loss has been detected in the Arctic in the winter and spring of 1995-96 by a variety of methods. Extreme reductions in column ozone due to halogen catalysed chemistry were derived from measurements of the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) on board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite in the Arctic vortex. Here, we discuss further aspects of the HALOE observations in the Arctic over this period. Potential problems, both in the data themselves and in the methodology of the data analysis are considered and the reason for the differences between the Arctic ozone losses deduced from HALOE data version 17 and 18 is analysed. Moreover, it is shown that HALOE measurements in the Arctic in winter and spring 1995-96 compare well with observations by other ground-based and satellite instruments.Key words. Chemical ozone loss (Arctic vortex 1995 · 96; halogen chemistry)
 
The purpose of this study is to establish a relation between observed total precipitation values and estimations from a one-dimensional diagnostic cloud model. Total precipitation values estimated from maximum liquid water content, maximum vertical velocity, cloud top height, and temperature excess are also used to provide an equation for the total precipitation prediction. Data for this study were collected in Istanbul during the autumns of 1987 and 1988. The statistical models are developed with multiple regression technique and then comparatively verified with independent data for 1990. The multiple regression coefficients are in the range of 75% to 80% in the statistical models. Results of the test showed that total precipitation values estimated from the above techniques are in good agreement, with correlation coefficient between 40% and 46% based on test data for 1990.
 
Volume emission rate profiles of the O(1D-1S) 5577 Å dayglow measured by the WIND imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite are analyzed to examine the O(1S) excitation mechanisms in the sunlit lower thermosphere and upper mesosphere. The observed emission profiles are compared with theoretical profiles calculated using a model which takes into account all of the known daytime sources of O(1S). These include photoelectron impact on atomic oxygen, dissociative recombination of O+2, photodissociation of molecular oxygen, energy transfer from metastable N2(A3Σ+u) and three body recombination of atomic oxygen. Throughout most of the thermosphere the measured and modelled emission rates are in reasonably good agreement, given the limitations of the model, but in the region below 100 km, where the oxygen atom recombination source is likely to dominate, the measured emission rates are considerably larger than those modelled using the MSIS-90 oxygen atom densities. This discrepancy is discussed in terms of possible inadequacies in the MSIS-90 model atmosphere and/or additional sources of O(1S) at low altitude.
 
Atmospheric gravity waves, detected over Kiruna (67.8°N, 20.4°E) during geomagnetic storms, are presented and analysed. The data include direct measurements of the OI 630.0 nm emission line intensity, the x-component of the local geomagnetic field and thermospheric (meridional and zonal) wind velocities derived from the OI 630.0 nm Doppler shift observed with an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer (IFPI). A low pass band filter technique was used to determine short-period variations in the thermospheric meridional wind velocities observed during geomagnetic storms. These short-period variations in the meridional wind velocities, which are identified as due to gravity waves, are compared to the corresponding variations observed in the OI 630.0 nm emission line intensity, x-component of the local geomagnetic field and the location of the auroral electrojet. A cross-correlation analysis was used to calculate the propagation velocities of the observed gravity waves.
 
GPS ray availability for two assimilation times. Black triangles give the location of the GPS receivers and black lines show the ground track of the rays. The blue letters give the locations of the Tromsø (Tr), Svalbard (Sv), and Sondrestrom (So) radars. Geographic coordinates are displayed. The maps are oriented with local noon which points to the top of the panel. 
As for Fig. 3. 
EISCAT time series of the ESR42 Svalbard and the UHF Mainland radar at Tromsø at 410 km altitude, as well as of the Sondrestrom radar at 428 km for 30 October 2003: electron density (black line) and temperature (grey line) scaled by x=1000 for Svalbard and Sondrestrom, and by x=2000 for Tromsø. Asterisks on the lowest panel give the sampling time of data. 
The evening of 30 October 2003 was subject to a major storm main phase. For this time, we combine largescale electron content maps from GPS imaging with time series of electron density and temperature of two EISCAT radars in Tromsø and Svalbard and the Sondrestrom radar, for observing the north polar ionosphere. The GPS assimilations resulted in the image of the electron content trace of an anti-sunward polar Tongue Of Ionisation (TOI) consecutively to 20:00 UT. In combination with the radar observations we concluded that the TOI persisted during the whole period of continuous southward IMF Bz until about 22:40 UT while its largest extension toward the nightside auroral region was found between 21:00–22:00 UT. A typical F region electron temperature of ~2000K and the plasma velocity of ~800 ms<sup>−1</sup> support its convective origin from the dayside mid-latitudes. Due to the structured appearance of the electron content distribution and the radar electron density time series we believe that discrete plasma patches formed inside the anti-sunward drift pattern. After two large oscillations of the IMF Bz the nightside plasma density was observed to re-enhance after 23:00 UT along a longitudinal band below 70°N. Coinciding electron temperatures of ~2000K suggest again the convective nature of the plasma, while a modified convection pattern is expected.
 
The capabilities of the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and the multiresolution analysis (MRA) are presented in this work to measure vertical gravity wave characteristics. Wave properties are extracted from the first data set of Rayleigh lidar obtained between heights of 30 km and 60 km over La Reunion Island (21°S, 55°E) during the Austral winter in 1994 under subtropical conditions. The altitude-wavelength representations deduced from these methods provide information on the time and spatial evolution of the wave parameters of the observed dominant modes in vertical profiles such as the vertical wavelengths, the vertical phase speeds, the amplitudes of temperature perturbations and the distribution of wave energy. The spectra derived from measurements show the presence of localized quasi-monochromatic structures with vertical wavelengths <10 km. Three methods based on the wavelet techniques show evidence of a downward phase progression. A first climatology of the dominant modes observed during the Austral winter period reveals a dominant night activity of 2 or 3 quasi-monochromatic structures with vertical wavelengths between 1-2 km from the stratopause, 3-4 km and 6-10 km observed between heights of 30 km and 60 km. In addition, it reveals a dominant activity of modes with a vertical phase speed of -0.3 m/s and observed periods peaking at 3-4 h and 9 h. The characteristics of averaged vertical wavelengths appear to be similar to those observed during winter in the southern equatorial region and in the Northern Hemisphere at mid-latitudes.Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology; middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides)
 
The OH 8Y3† and O 2 b 0Y0† volume emission pro®les obtained from the rocket-borne measurements at Alca à ntara 2 SY 44 W† (Melo, 1994) and neutral density pro®le from the MSIS-86 for June at midnight at 23 SY 45 W†
Average nocturnal variations of the OH 9Y 4† and O 2 b 0Y 0† intensities used to calculate the energy loss rates and the rotational temperatures T(OH) and T O 2 † for June
Monthly equivalent energy loss rates (in K/day à ) due to the OH Meinel and O à 2 band airglow emissions as a function of altitude
The nightglow OH(9,4) and O2 atmospheric (0,1) band emission intensities and their rotational temperatures T(OH) and T(O2), respectively, observed at Cachoeira Paulista (23 S, 45W), Brazil, during the period from October 1989 to December 1990, have been analyzed to study the nighttime mesospheric energy loss rates through the radiations from the vibrationally excited OH* and electronically excited O*2 bands. The total emission rates of the OH Meinel bands, O2 atmospheric (0,0) and O2 infrared atmospheric (1I(n", n¢)/I(9,4), IO2A(0,0)/IO2A(0,1)I_{(\nu^{''}, \nu^{'})}/I_{(9,4)}, I_{O_{2}A(0,0)}/I_{O_{2}A(0,1)} and IO2 (1Dg)/IO2A(0,1)I_{O_2 (^1{\Delta}_g)}/I_{O_{2}A(0,1)} . It was found that there is a minimum in equivalent energy loss rate by the OH* Meinel bands during December/January (equivalent energy loss rate of 0.39 K/day*, where day* means averaged over the night) and maximum in equivalent energy loss rate during September (equivalent energy loss rate of 0.98 K/day*). Energy loss rate by the O*2 radiation, on the other hand, is weaker than that by the OH* Meinel bands, showing equivalent energy loss rates of 0.12 K/day* and 0.22 K/day* during January and September, respectively.
 
The dynamics of the ion distribution function near the Earth's bow shock is studied on the basis of quasi-3D measurements of ion energy spectra in the range of 30–24200 eV/q with the Russian-Cuban CORALL instrument on the INTERBALL/Tail-probe satellite. The instrument was designed for observations of magnetospheric plasma and measures ions, in an angular range of 36°–144° from the Earth-Sun direction. Ion populations generated by the Earth bow shock are often observed upstream from the bow shock. In the solar-wind stream compressed and heated by the passing of very dense magnetic cloud (CME), two types of these ion populations were measured upstream and before the bow shock crossing on 25 August 1995 at 07:37 UT. Both populations were observed in the energy range above 2 keV. At ~06:20 UT, when the angle between the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field and normal to the bow shock VBn was ≃ 43° the instrument observed a narrow, fast (~800 km/s) field-aligned beam moving from the Earth. At ~07:30, when Bn ≃ 28°, the wide ion pitch-angle distribution was observed. A similar suprathermal ion population is observed in the magnetosheath simultaneously with the solar-wind ion population being heated and deflected from the Sun-Earth direction. The similarity of observations during the mentioned time-interval and under usual solar-wind conditions allows us to conclude that types of suprathermal ion populations upstream and downstream from the bow shock do not depend on the solar-wind disturbance generated by magnetic cloud.
 
Observed width and position parameters the filament.
The STEREO mission has been providing stereoscopic view of the filament eruptions in EUV wavelengths. The most extended view during filament eruptions is seen in He II 304 \AA observations, as the filament spine appears darker and sharper. The projected filament width appears differently when viewed from different angles by STEREO satellites. Here, we present a method for estimating the width and inclination of the filament sheet using He II 304 \AA\ observations by STEREO-A and B satellites from the two viewpoints. The width of the filament sheet, when measured from its feet to its apex, gives estimate of filament height above the chromosphere.
 
Same as Fig. 3 but at Wakkanai (45°N)  
Monthly means of amplitude and phase pro®les of the diurnal tide at Yamagawa (31°N). Solid circles are due to the observed eastward component, open circles indicate the northward component. The dotted horizontal lines are the error bars due to the variability of the tides within the month. The tidal pro®les of the global scale wave model (GSWM) by Hagan et al. (1995) are drawn as a solid line for the eastward component and as a dash-dotted line for the northward component (height resolution is 4 km)  
Same as Fig. 5 but for the diurnal tide at Wakkanai (45°N)  
The climatology of mean wind, diurnal and semidiurnal tide during the first year (1996-1997) of simultaneous wind observations at Wakkanai (45.4°N, 141.7°E) and Yamagawa (31.2°N, 130.6°E) is presented. The locations of the radars allow us to describe the latitudinal dependence of the tides. Tidal amplitude and phase profiles are compared with those of the global scale wave model (GSWM). While the observed amplitude profiles of the diurnal tide agree well with the GSWM values, the observed phase profiles often indicate longer vertical wavelengths than the GSWM phase profiles. In contrast to the GSWM simulation, the observations show a strong bimodal structure of the diurnal tide, with the phase advancing about 6 hours from summer to winter.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides)
 
Titan possesses a dense atmosphere, consisting mainly of molecular nitrogen. Titan's orbit is located within the Saturnian magnetosphere most of the time, where the corotating plasma flow is super-Alfvénic, yet subsonic and submagnetosonic. Since Titan does not possess a significant intrinsic magnetic field, the incident plasma interacts directly with the atmosphere and ionosphere. Due to the characteristic length scales of the interaction region being comparable to the ion gyroradii in the vicinity of Titan, magnetohydrodynamic models can only offer a rough description of Titan's interaction with the corotating magnetospheric plasma flow. For this reason, Titan's plasma environment has been studied by using a 3-D hybrid simulation code, treating the electrons as a massless, charge-neutralizing fluid, whereas a completely kinetic approach is used to cover ion dynamics. The calculations are performed on a curvilinear simulation grid which is adapted to the spherical geometry of the obstacle. In the model, Titan's dayside ionosphere is mainly generated by solar UV radiation; hence, the local ion production rate depends on the solar zenith angle. Because the Titan interaction features the possibility of having the densest ionosphere located on a face not aligned with the ram flow of the magnetospheric plasma, a variety of different scenarios can be studied. The simulations show the formation of a strong magnetic draping pattern and an extended pick-up region, being highly asymmetric with respect to the direction of the convective electric field. In general, the mechanism giving rise to these structures exhibits similarities to the interaction of the ionospheres of Mars and Venus with the supersonic solar wind. The simulation results are in agreement with data from recent Cassini flybys.
 
Coherence spectrum of the ®ltered microbarographic and seismographic time series shown in Fig. 1. The hypothesis of statistical independence of seismic and ground pressure oscillations from each other is rejected with 95% and 99% probability for coherence values above the solid and dashed horizontal lines , respectively. The left maximum corresponds to the 57.1 min period 
It is known that the fundamental spheroidal mode 0S2 of the Earth free oscillation with a period of about 54 min forces atmospheric oscillations. We present a certain phase relationship for components of the 0S2 multiplet, which is based on synchronous collocated microbarograph and seismograph observations. This relationship is both the first observational manifestation of the Pekeris mode of global atmospheric oscillations with the 54 min period and a further proof of the Earth's 0S2 mode penetrating into the atmosphere. We show that the linear non-dissipative model of steady forced oscillations in isothermal atmosphere at rest does not describe the penetration of the 0S2 mode into the atmosphere adequately.Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides)
 
A typical WINDII greenline volume emission pro®le (solid line) and the atomic oxygen densities derived from it as described in the text (open circles). This greenline pro®le was obtained by averaging all of the pro®les within the local solar time/latitude bin 21±22 h/30°S-24°S
The 553 nm nightglow continuum volume emission rates measured by WINDII for the same local solar time/latitude bin as Fig. 1
The nitric oxide densities derived from the continuum emission rates of Fig. 2 and the atomic oxygen densities of Fig. 1. The solid line shows the densities obtained with the case A rate coecients and the dashed line shows the densities obtained for case B
Vertical profiles of nitric oxide in the altitude range 90 to 105 km are derived from 553 nm nightglow continuum measurements made with the Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). The profiles are derived under the assumption that the continuum emission is due entirely to the NO+O air afterglow reaction. Vertical profiles of the atomic oxygen density, which are required to determine the nitric oxide concentrations, are derived from coordinated WINDII measurements of the atomic oxygen OI 557.7 nm nightglow emission. Data coverage for local solar times ranging from 20 h to 04 h, and latitudes ranging from 42°S to 42°N, is achieved by zonally averaging and binning data obtained on 18 nights during a two-month period extending from mid-November 1992 until mid-January 1993. The derived nitric oxide concentrations are significantly smaller than those obtained from rocket measurements of the airglow continuum but they do compare well with model expectations and nitric oxide densities measured using the resonance fluorescence technique on the Solar Mesosphere Explorer satellite. The near-global coverage of the WINDII observations and the similarities to the nitric oxide global morphology established from other satellite measurements strongly suggests that the NO+O reaction is the major source of the continuum near 553 nm and that there is no compelling reason to invoke additional sources of continuum emission in this immediate spectral region.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (airglow and aurora; thermosphere – composition and chemistry; instruments and techniques)
 
Intervals of periodic enhancements of E-region electron density have been found in EISCAT (European Incoherent SCATter) data. The periods are typically between 40 and 60 min. The phenomenon is observed during relatively quiet times, though after geomagnetic disturbances; it may last up to 6 h. The events can occur at all times of day with a maximum probability in the MLT morning sector. Using the EISCAT database from recent years, the statistical characteristics of these events, and their relation to magnetospheric conditions defined by the Dst index and the d.c. electric field perpendicular to B\= have been derived. The latitudinal extent is found to be several degrees, but the longitudinal extent is not known. It is concluded that these events are due to the periodically modulated flux of electron precipitation controlled by oscillations in the magnetospheric tail.
 
A method presented by Wu et al. (1992) for computing the H(+) vertical velocity from the main ionospheric parameters measured by the EISCAT VHF radar is tested in a fully controlled sequence which consists of generating an ideal ionospheric model by solving the coupled continuity and momentum equations for a two-ion plasma (O(+) and H(+)). Synthetic autocorrelation functions are generated from this model with the radar characteristics and used as actual measurements to compute the H(+) vertical velocities. Results of these simulations are shown and discussed for three cases of typical and low SNR and for low and increased mixing ratios. In most cases general agreement is found between computed H(+) velocities and generic ones with the altitude range considered, i.e., 200-1000 km. The method is shown to be reliable.
 
Variations of the assumed FAC distributions versus MLT (upper panel) and of the eastward and northward electric ®eld components (middle panels), as well as the maximum electron density NmF2 in the F2 layer (bottom) versus local time; illustrating the ®rst model run in two versions representing magnetospheric electric ®eld action only (open symbols) and magnetospheric and dynamo electric ®elds together (full symbols)
Parameters of the ®e- ld±aligned currents used as in- put for the di€erent numerical model runs and their calculated potential drops
Numerical calculations of the thermospheric and ionospheric parameters above EISCAT are presented for quiet geomagnetic conditions in summer. The Global Self-consistent Model of the Thermosphere, Ionosphere and Protonosphere (GSM TIP) was used. The numerical results were obtained both with a self-consistent calculation of the electric fields of magnetospheric and dynamo-action origin and with the magnetospheric electric fields only. It was found that the dynamo-electric field has some effect on the ionospheric convection pattern during quiet geomagnetic conditions. It has a marked effect mainly on the zonal neutral wind component above EISCAT (±20 m/s at 140 km altitude). We have studied the effects of various field-aligned current (FAC) distributions on thermosphere/ionosphere parameters and we show that a qualitative agreement can be obtained with region-I and -II FAC zones at 75° and 65° geomagnetic latitude, respectively. The maximum FAC intensities have been assumed at 03–21 MLT for both regions with peak values of 2.5×10–7 A m–2 (region I) and 1.25×10–7 A m–2 (region II). These results are in agreement with statistical potential distribution and FAC models constructed by use of EISCAT data. The lack of decreased electron density in the night-time sector as observed by the EISCAT radar was found to be due to the spatial distribution of ionospheric convection resulting from electric fields of magnetospheric origin.Key words. Electric fields and currents · Ionosphere- atmosphere interactions · Modelling and forecasting
 
A new method has been applied to extract absolute temperature information from the emission spectra of cold (T?-227 K) cometary analogue materials. To test the method, the emission spectra of three samples in the spectral range 710-2000 cm-1 with a spectral resolution of 15.4 cm-1 have been taken. Two of the samples have been prepared during the KOSI-7 comet simulation experiment. They consist od mixtures of water, ice and dust (kerogen,dunite and carbon). The third sample is pure montmorrillonite powder.The new method implies fitting a model curve based on Planck's law tothe emission spectra measured and solving not only for the temperature of the object in M different spectral channels. In order to solve this highly non-linear inversion problem, radiometrically calibrated emission spectra in at least M+2 spectral channels have to be taken. Ideally 3 (M+2) spectral channels should be measured in order minimize noise. The uncertainty of the calculated temperatures is of the order of +- 5 K, taking into account the errorof calibration temperatures (+- 5 K) and the drift of the spectrometer during measurement (+- 1.5% over 15 min). Further, it isshown that radiometric calibration of the Fourier transform spectrometer has to be performed using magnitude and phase spectra by applying complex mathematics. This seems to be a typical problem in a temperature range where the black-body temperature of the instrumental radiance is of the order or even higher than the temperature of the emitting object. Laboratory experiments are considered to be a good method for the measurement of spectral emittances of cometary analogue materials.
 
The effect of viscosity and of converging flows on the formation of blobs in the slow solar wind is analysed by means of resistive MHD simulations. The regions above coronal streamers where blobs are formed (Sheeley et al., 1997) are simulated using a model previously proposed by Einaudi et al. (1999). The result of our investigation is twofold. First, we demonstrate a new mechanism for enhanced momentum transfer between a forming blob and the fast solar wind surrounding it. The effect is caused by the longer range of the electric field caused by the tearing instability forming the blob. The electric field reaches into the fast solar wind and interacts with it, causing a viscous drag that is global in nature rather than local across fluid layers as it is the case in normal uncharged fluids (like water). Second, the presence of a magnetic cusp at the tip of a coronal helmet streamer causes a converging of the flows on the two sides of the streamer and a direct push of the forming island by the fast solar wind, resulting in a more efficient momentum exchange.
 
We present observational evidence for the presence of MHD waves in the solar photosphere deduced from SOHO/MDI Dopplergram velocity observations. The magneto-acoustic perturbations are observed as acoustic power enhancement in the sunspot umbra at high-frequency bands in the velocity component perpendicular to the magnetic field. We use numerical modelling of wave propagation through localised non-uniform magnetic field concentration along with the same filtering procedure as applied to the observations to identify the observed waves. Guided by the results of the numerical simulations we classify the observed oscillations as magneto-acoustic waves excited by the trapped sub-photospheric acoustic waves. We consider the potential application of the presented method as a diagnostic tool for magnetohelioseismology.
 
The parameters of shock-acoustic waves
We investigate the form and dynamics of shock-acoustic waves generated by earthquakes. We use the method for detecting and locating the sources of ionospheric impulsive disturbances, based on using data from a global network of receivers of the GPS navigation system, and require no a priori information about the place and time of the associated effects. The practical implementation of the method is illustrated by a case study of earthquake effects in Turkey (17 August and 12 November 1999), in Southern Sumatra (4 June 2000), and off the coast of Central America (13 January 2001). It was found that in all instances the time period of the ionospheric response is 180–390 s, and the amplitude exceeds, by a factor of two as a minimum, the standard deviation of background fluctuations in total electron content in this range of periods under quiet and moderate geomagnetic conditions. The elevation of the wave vector varies through a range of 20–44°, and the phase velocity (1100–1300 m/s) approaches the sound velocity at the heights of the ionospheric F-region maximum. The calculated (by neglecting refraction corrections) location of the source roughly corresponds to the earthquake epicenter. Our data are consistent with the present views that shock-acoustic waves are caused by a piston-like movement of the Earth’s surface in the zone of an earthquake epicenter.Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric disturbances; wave propagation) – Radio science (ionospheric propagation)
 
Layout of the tomographic array (100´200100´100´200 m 2 ) showing the grid cells (20´2020´20´20 m 2 ). Sources are labeled S1 to S4, and receivers are labeled R1 to R3 
Acoustic tomography is presented as a technique for remote monitoring of meteorological quantities. This method and a special algorithm of analysis can directly produce area-averaged values of meteorological parameters. As a result consistent data will be obtained for validation of numerical atmospheric micro-scale models. Such a measuring system can complement conventional point measurements over different surfaces. The procedure of acoustic tomography uses the horizontal propagation of sound waves in the atmospheric surface layer. Therefore, to provide a general overview of sound propagation under various atmospheric conditions a two-dimensional ray-tracing model according to a modified version of Snell's law is used. The state of the crossed atmosphere can be estimated from measurements of acoustic travel time between sources and receivers at different points. Derivation of area-averaged values of the sound speed and furthermore of air temperature results from the inversion of travel time values for all acoustic paths. Thereby, the applied straight ray two-dimensional tomographic model using SIRT (simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique) is characterised as a method with small computational requirements, satisfactory convergence and stability properties as well as simple handling, especially, during online evaluation.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (turbulence; instruments and techniques).
 
The resonant interaction between three acoustic gravity waves is considered. We improve on the results of previous authors and write the new coupling coefficients in a symmetric form. Particular attention is paid to the low-frequency limit.
 
The dynamics of the polar vortex in winter and spring play an important role in explaining observed low ozone values. A quantification of physical and chemical processes is necessary to obtain information about natural and anthropogenic causes of fluctuations of ozone. This paper aims to contribute to answering the question of how permeable the polar vortex is. The transport into and out of the vortex ("degree of isolation") remains the subject of considerable debate. Based on the results of a three-dimensional mechanistic model of the middle atmosphere, the possibility of exchange of air masses across the polar vortex edge is investigated. Additionally the horizontal and vertical structure of the polar vortex is examined. The model simulation used for this study is related to the major stratospheric warming observed in February 1989. The model results show fair agreement with observed features of the major warming of 1989. Complex structures of the simulated polar vortex are illustrated by horizontal and vertical cross sections of potential vorticity and inert tracer. A three-dimensional view of the polar vortex enables a description of the vortex as a whole. During the simulation two vortices and an anticyclone, grouped together in a very stable tripolar structure, and a weaker, more amorphous anticyclone are formed. This leads to the generation of small-scale features. The results also indicate that the permeability of the vortex edges is low because the interior of the vortices remain isolated during the simulation.
 
Profiles for the electric, Ex (red curve), and magnetic, Bz (blue curve), fields in dimensionless units (see Eq. (5)-(7)). The shock width is set by the parameter DB, with the DB = DE = 1 case illustrated in the figure. Note that the Ex scale is negative.
Ratio of downstream to upstream electron temperature as a function of electric field scale length, DE. The magnetic field scale length is kept fixed at DB = 5. A sketch of the field profiles and their relative scale lengths is shown in the inset. For large DE, the heating stays adiabatic as the electric field scale decreases. Once the adiabaticity is broken at scale lengths shorter than roughly DE = 3, however, there is a negative correlation between the heating ratio and the electric scale length.
Ratio of downstream to upstream electron temperature as a function of electric field displacement, δE. The electric and magnetic field scale lengths are kept at DE = 0.5 and DB = 5. A sketch of the field profiles and their relative scale lengths is shown in the inset. The displacement of the electric field spike given in terms of DB, i.e. δE = −1 corresponds to the center of variations in the electric field coinciding with the upstream edge of the shock layer. The heating ratio is greater for displacements towards the upstream edge of the shock. Conversely, when the electric field is displaced towards the downstream end, the heating ratio is lower.
Three electron trajectories in the xy plane for different displacements of the electric field profile. In all three cases the magnetic field variations occur between the two outer vertical lines. The electric field variations are bound by the two left-most lines in panel (a), the centre two lines in panel (b), and the two right-most lines in panel (c). All other parameters are fixed. The drift directions are shown in panel (b). The panels show that when the electric field is displaced upstream, i.e. panel (a), the electron will drift in the negativê y direction a lot more compared to when the displacement is downstream, i.e. panel (c)
Ratio of downstream to upstream electron temperature as a function of electric field spike displacement, δ spike E . The electric and magnetic field scale lengths are kept fixed at DE = DB = 5 and D spike E = 0.5. A sketch of the electric field profile is shown in the inset. The magnetic field has been omitted for clarity. The displacement of the electric field spike given in terms of DB i.e. a displacement of-1 would mean that the variations in the electric field are centered exactly at the upstream edge of the shock. The heating ratio is greater for displacement towards the upstream edge of the shock. Conversely, when the electric field spike is displaced towards the downstream end, the heating ratio is lower. For all displacements, the heating is non-adiabatic.
Under sufficiently high electric field gradients, electron behaviour within exactly perpendicular shocks is unstable to the so-called trajectory instability. We extend previous work paying special attention to shortiscale, high amplitude structures as observed within the electric field profile. Via test particle simulations, we show that such structures can cause the electron distribution to heat in a manner that violates conservation of the first adiabatic invariant. This is the case even if the overall shock width is larger than the upstream electron gyroradius. The spatial distance over which these structures occur therefore constitutes a new scale length relevant to the shock heating problem. Furthermore, we find that the spatial location of the short-scale structure is important in determining the total effect of non-adiabatic behaviour - a result that has not been previously noted.
 
An experiment was performed with the Hamburg General Circulation Model ECHAM to study the possible impact of volcanic aerosols precipitating from the stratosphere during the first few months after a violent volcanic eruption. Heating rate anomalies were prescribed for the upper tropical troposphere according to a previous paper by Hirono (1988). The maximum aerosol concentrations were set near the latitudes of two recent strong volcanoes, Mt. Agung (1963) at 2.8 deg S and El Chichon (1982) at 19.7 deg N. The modelled effects are highly significant throughout the troposphere. The anomaly patterns depend on the position of the heating rate anomaly relative to the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The effect on near surface wind stress over the equatorial Pacific seems to exclude a trigger effect for the 1982 eruption of El Chichon on the El Nino event of the same year. The Agung upper tropospheric aerosol might have had some influence on the onset of the 1963 weak El Nino.
 
The dust haze conditions, typical of the African atmosphere south of the Sahara, are a result of wind-generated dust from arid lands. The magnitude of the dust haze is evaluated for the 30-year period beginning in 1957 by calculating the number of occurrences where the observed visibility was reduced below threshold values of 10 km and 5 km. The frequency of low visibility was several times greater for the 1977-1986 period than for the 1957-1966 period. Large decreases in visibility are observed after the severe droughts of 1972-1973 and 1982-1984. Contrasting regional differences of the dustiness evolution are noticed. These differences are closely related to the differences in the regional rainfall evolution. The increase in dustiness is believed to arise from dust produced in new desertic areas which result from rainfall shortages along the southern border of the Sahara.
 
In the framework of the French-Ivorian participation to the IEEY, a network of 10 electromagnetic stations were installed at African longitudes. The aim of this experiment was twofold: firstly, to study the magnetic signature of the equatorial electrojet on the one hand, and secondly, to characterize the induced electric field variations on the other hand. The first results of the magnetic field investigations were presented by Doumouya and coworkers. Those of the electric field experiment will be discussed in this study. The electromagnetic experiment will be described. The analysis of the electromagnetic transient variations was conducted in accordance with the classical distinction between quiet and disturbed magnetic situations. A morphological analysis of the recordings is given, taking into consideration successively quiet and disturbed magnetic situations, with the results interpreted in terms of the characterization of external and internal sources. Particular attention was paid to the effects of the source characteristics on the induced field of internal origin, and to the bias they may consequently cause to the results of electromagnetic probing of the Earth; the source effect in electromagnetic induction studies. During quiet magnetic situations, our results demonstrated the existence of two different sources. One of these, the SRE source, was responsible for most of the magnetic diurnal variation and corresponded to the well-known magnetic signature of the equatorial electrojet. The other source (the SR*E source) was responsible for most of the electric diurnal variation, and was also likely to be an ionospheric source. Electric and magnetic diurnal variations are therefore related to different ionospheric sources, and interpreting the electric diurnal variation as induced by the magnetic field diurnal variation is not relevant. Furthermore, the magnetotelluric probing of the upper mantle at dip equator latitudes with the electromagnetic diurnal variation is consequently impossible to perform. In the case of irregular variations, the source effect related to the equatorial electrojet is also discussed. A Gaussian model of equatorial electrojet was considered, and apparent resistivities were computed for two models of stratified Earth corresponding to the average resistive structure of the two tectonic provinces crossed by the profile: a sedimentary basin and a cratonic shield. The apparent resistivity curves were found to depend significantly on both the model used and the distance to the center of the electrojet. These numerical results confirm the existence of a daytime source effect related to the equatorial electrojet. Furthermore, we show that the results account for the observed differences between daytime and night-time apparent resistivity curves. In particular, it was shown that electromagnetic probing of the Earth using the classical Cagniard-Tikhonov magnetotelluric method is impossible with daytime recordings made at dip latitude stations.Key words. Electromagnetics (Transient and time do- main) Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism (geomagne- tic induction) Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere)
 
A detailed analysis of the VLF emissions data obtained during occasional whistler campaigns at the low-latitude ground station Agra (geomagnetic latitude 17°1' N, L = 1.15) has yielded some unusual discrete VLF emissions of the rising type. These include (1) emissions occurring at time intervals increasing in ge ommetrical progression, (2) emissions occuring simulta neously in different frequency ranges and (3) emissions observed during daytime. In the present study, the observed characteristics of these emissions are described and interpreted. It is shown that the increasing time delay between different components of the emissions match closely with the propagation time delays between different hops of a whistler of dispersion 19 s1/2, the unusual occurrence of the emissions in two different frequency ranges approximately at the same time may possibly be linked with their generation at two different locations, and the occurrence of emissions during daytime may be due to propagation under the influence of equatorial anomaly.
 
The aircraft flight path for 13 October 1998. The observing region is from 50.9–51.2 @BULLET N and 3.2–1.0 @BULLET W. The altitude of the aircraft (near 10 km) is also marked, and the local orography is given in green and brown to represent heights above sea level.  
Atmospheric lidar backscatter at 354 nm. This shows data from 700 lidar pulses along a 50-km transect. The local orography is also plotted. There are several cloud layers present and on occasions the returns near the ground can be observed.  
Integrated lidar returns over 1 km by 1 km horizontal (14 pulses) and vertical sections, at an attitude of 3 km, covering 12000 lidar pulses (equal to approximately 680 km along track or 1-h flying time).  
Histogram of the integrated lidar returns of Fig. 5. This shows 3 peaks, interpreted as the background (< 800), the clear air returns (800–6000) and cloud returns (> 6000).  
A number of proposed lidar systems, such as ESA’s AEOLUS (formerly ADM) and DIAL missions (e.g. WALES) are to make use of lidar returns in clear air. However, on average, two-thirds of the globe is covered in cloud. Hence, there is a strong likelihood that data from these instruments may be contaminated by cloud. Similarly, optically thick cloud may not be penetrated by a lidar pulse, resulting in unobservable regions that are overshadowed by the cloud. To address this, it is suggested, for example, in AEOLUS, that a number of consecutive short sections of lidar data (between 1 and 3.5 km in length) be tested for cloud contamination or for overshadowing and only those that are unaffected by cloud be used to derive atmospheric profiles. The prob-ability of obtaining profiles to near ground level using this technique is investigated both analytically and using UV air-borne lidar data recorded during the CLARE’98 campaign. These data were measured in the presence of broken cloud on a number of flights over southern England over a four-day period and were chosen because the lidar used has the same wavelength, footprint and could match the along-track spacing of the proposed AEOLUS lidar.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles) Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (instruments and techniques; general circulation)
 
Observations of high-resolution data on radio refractivity were obtained by the airborne microwave refractometer over the Indian sub-continent (a tropical country) from 1971 to 1988. Detailed vertical and horizontal distributions of radio refractivity on a near-real-time basis in the atmospheric boundary layer were determined . Radiosonde observations cannot detect the thin refractivity gradients which characterize the propagation environment in this low-altitude region. This knowledge is required to design reliable and efficient communication systems for strategic, tactical and operational needs. However, the results demonstrate the layer structures and the variability of the boundary layer in time and space. The radio refractive effects on electromagnetic propagation and the future direction of radio refractivity fine-structure measurements are discussed.
 
With the atmosphere general circulation model ECHAM the passive transport of NOx emitted from global subsonic air traffic and the NOx concentration change due to these emissions are investigated. The source of NOx is prescribed according to an aircraft emission data base. The sink of NOx is parameterized as an exponential decay process with globally constant lifetime. Simulations in perpetual January and July modes are performed. Both the resulting mean and the standard deviation of the NOx mass mixing ratio are analysed. In January horizontal dispersion is more pronounced and vertical mixing is smaller than in July. In both cases the resulting quasi-stationary fields of the mass mixing ratio display a pronounced zonal asymmetry. The variability accounts up to 30% of the mean field.
 
A box and a Gaussian plume model including gas-phase photochemistry and with plume dispersion parameters estimated from the few available plume observations are proposed and used for evaluation of photochemical transformations of exhausts from a single subsonic transport aircraft. The effects of concentration inhomogeneities in the plume cross section on the photochemical sources and sinks in the plume are analyzed for various groups of compounds. The influence of these inhomogeneities on the rate and on the mass of ambient air entrainment into the plume are studied also by comparing the box and the Gaussian plume model simulations during the first hours of their "life''. Due to the enterance of HOx and NOx from ambient air into the plume with rates varying from the wind shear and turbulence conditions, the rate of emitted NOx oxidation in the plume is dependent on these and also on the background concentration levels of HOx and NOx.
 
Emissions from aircraft engines include carbon dioxide, water vapour, nitrogen oxides, sulphur components and various other gases and particles. Such emissions from high-flying global civil subsonic air traffic may cause anthropogenic climate changes by an increase of ozone and cloudiness in the upper troposphere, and by an enhanced greenhouse effect. The absolute emissions by air traffic are small (a few percent of the total) compared to surface emissions. However, the greenhouse effect of emitted water and of nitrogen oxides at cruise altitude is potentially large compared to that of the same emissions near the earth's surface because of relatively large residence times at flight altitudes, low background concentrations, low temperature, and large radiative efficiency. Model computations indicate that emission of nitrogen oxides has doubled the background concentration in the upper troposphere between 40°N and 60°N. Models also indicate that this causes an increase of ozone by about 5-20%. Regionally, the observed annual mean change in cloudiness is 0.4%. It is estimated that the resultant greenhouse effect of changes in ozone and thin cirrus cloud cover causes a climatic surface temperature change of 0.01-0.1 K. These temperature changes are small compared to the natural variability. Recent research indicates that the emissions at cruise altitude may increase the amount of stratospheric aerosols and polar stratospheric clouds and thereby have an impact on the atmospheric environment. Air traffic is increasing about 5-6% per year, fuel consumption by about 3%, hence the effects of the related emissions are expected to grow. This paper surveys the state of knowledge and describes several results from recent and ongoing research.
 
A simplified approach has been applied to analyse the mixing and entrainment processes of the engine exhaust through their interaction with the vortex wake of an aircraft. Our investigation is focused on the near field, extending from the exit nozzle until about 30 s after the wake is generated, in the vortex phase. This study was performed by using an integral model and a numerical simulation for two large civil aircraft: a two-engine Airbus 330 and a four-engine Boeing 747. The influence of the wing-tip vortices on the dilution ratio (defined as a tracer concentration) shown. The mixing process is also affected by the buoyancy effect, but only after the jet regime, when the trapping in the vortex core has occurred. In the early wake, the engine jet location (i.e. inboard or outboard engine jet) has an important influence on the mixing rate. The plume streamlines inside the vortices are subject to distortion and stretching, and the role of the descent of the vortices on the maximum tracer concentration is discussed. Qualitative comparison with contrail photograph shows similar features. Finally, tracer concentration of inboard engine centreline of B-747 are compared with other theoretical analyses and measured data.
 
Contribution of to the NO x emissions from industrial combustion, electricity generation and road trac to the zonallyaveraged ozone concentrations for the year 1990 (the changes in the
The effect of present-day and future NOx emissions from aircraft on the NOx and ozone concentrations in the atmosphere and the corresponding radiative forcing were studied using a three-dimensional chemistry transport model (CTM) and a radiative model. The effects of the aircraft emissions were compared with the effects of the three most important anthropogenic NOx surface sources: road traffic, electricity generation and industrial combustion. From the model results, NOx emissions from aircraft are seen to cause an increase in the NOx and ozone concentrations in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, and a positive radiative forcing. For the reference year 1990, the aircraft emissions result in an increase in the NOx concentration at 250 hPa of about 20 ppt in January and 50 ppt in July over the eastern USA, the North Atlantic Flight Corridor and Western Europe, corresponding to a relative increase of about 50%. The maximum increase in the ozone concentrations due to the aircraft emissions is about 3-4 ppb in July over the northern mid-latitudes, corresponding to a relative increase of about 3-4%. The aircraft-induced ozone changes cause a global average radiative forcing of 0.025 W/m2 in July. According to the ANCAT projection for the year 2015, the aircraft NOx emissions in that year will be 90% higher than in the year 1990. As a consequence of this, the calculated NOx perturbation by aircraft emissions increases by about 90% between 1990 and 2015, and the ozone perturbation by about 50-70%. The global average radiative forcing due to the aircraft-induced ozone changes increases by about 50% between 1990 and 2015. In the year 2015, the effects of the aircraft emissions on the ozone burden and radiative forcing are clearly larger than the individual effects of the NOx surface sources. Taking chemical conversion in the aircraft plume into account in the CTM explicitly, by means of modified aircraft NOx emissions, a significant reduction of the aircraft-induced NOx and ozone perturbations is realised. The NOx perturbation decreases by about 40% and the ozone perturbation by about 30% in July over Western Europe, the eastern USA and the North Atlantic Flight Corridor.Keywords. Atmospheric composition and structure (troposphere · composition and chemistry) · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (radiative processes)
 
Infrared (IR) molecular spectroscopy is proposed to perform remote measurements of NOx concentrations in the exhaust plume and wake of aircraft. The computer model NIRATAM is applied to simulate the physical and chemical properties of the exhaust plume and to generate low resolution IR spectra and synthetical thermal images of the aircraft in its natural surroundings. High-resolution IR spectra of the plume, including atmospheric absorption and emission, are simulated using the molecular line-by-line radiation model FASCODE2. Simulated IR spectra of a Boeing 747-400 at cruising altitude for different axial and radial positions in the jet region of the exhaust plume are presented. A number of spectral lines of NO can be identified that can be discriminated from lines of other exhaust gases and the natural atmospheric background in the region around 5.2 µm. These lines can be used to determine NO concentration profiles in the plume. The possibility of measuring nitrogen dioxide NO2 is also discussed briefly, although measurements turn out to be substantially less likely than those of NO. This feasibility study compiles fundamental data for the optical and radiometric design of an airborne Fourier transform spectrometer and the preparation of in-flight measurements for monitoring of aircraft pollutants.
 
Top-cited authors
Berndt Klecker
  • Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
Iannis Dandouras
  • Research Institute in Astrophysics and Planetology
Andre Balogh
  • Imperial College London
Jean-André Sauvaud
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
A. Korth
  • Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research