Animal Biodiversity and Conservation

Published by Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona
Print ISSN: 1578-665X
Publications
The immigrant S. commerson (Lac., 1802) represents more than 2% of the total Egyptian catch and its distribution stretches from East to West along the Egyptian Mediterranean coast. The feeding habits of T. lepturus and S. commerson were investigated through stomach content analysis of specimens collected from Abu Qir Bay (Egypt) on a seasonal basis from November 1999 to January 2001 using daytime purse seines. The food content range of T. lepturus was wide, including Engraulis encrasicolus, Gobius spp., Sardinella aurita, Sardina pilchardus, fish eggs, amphipods, copepods and shrimps. The main diet constituents of S. commerson included Engraulis encrasicolus, Sardinella aurita, Sardina pilchardus and shrimps. Seasonal variations of feeding activity indicated that food consumption was highest in spring to autumn for T. lepturus and in summer and autumn for S. commerson. The diet overlap in terms of number and weight between the two species was high. Food composition was related to fish size in both examined fishes. Small T. lepturus (less than 30 cm) fed mainly on crustaceans, while larger samples (more than 59 cm) fed only on fishes. Teleosts were the most important food item for S. commerson of all sizes, while this species became piscivorous when larger than 40 cm in length.
 
The Alboran Island and its geographical location. Dotted lines delimit the distinct stretches of shore taken into account, showing the numbers of specimens of Patella ferruginea found at each in July 2002. Accessibility by land to each of the stretches is also shown: Dotted. High accessibility; Striped. Medium accessibility; In white. Null accessibility (see Field methods).  
Specimen of Patella ferruginea found on the Alboran Island in July 2002.  
Espécimen de Patella ferruginea encontrado en la Isla de Alborán durante julio de 2002.  
Due to the high risk of the global extinction in which Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 is found, it is considered of great interest to describe and quantify its demographic characteristics in those sites where it still persists, as well as to evaluate the reasons which have led this limpet to be one of the most threatened marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Over the study period (2000-2002), systematic census were made on the perimeter of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, westernmost area of the Mediterranean Sea) with the object to quantify the abundance of the species in the locality, as well as their external biometry and spatial distribution. As a result, the presence of a probable reproductive population of P. ferruginea was found on the island. The negative effect provoked by the continuous presence of man was proved, prejudicing the population in those zones which were more accessible for their harvesting. For this reason, it is necessary to regulate the use of the natural resources of the island to favour the conservation and spontaneous recolonisation of the zone by P. ferruginea.
 
Estado de las poblaciones del molusco protegido Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Gastropoda, Patellidae) en las islas argelinas (SO Mediterráneo).� Patella ferruginea es el invertebrado marino endémico más amenazado de las costas del Mediterráneo occidental según la Directiva 92/43 de la Unión Europea. En este estudio se registraron un total de 1.017 ejemplares en las islas occidentales argelinas, con densidades medias de 0,8 a 35,3 ind/m de transecto linear y valores medios de 4,8 ind/m en la isla Habibas occidental y de 22 ind/m en la isla Plana. Estas poblaciones representan un "punto caliente" de la especie a nivel de todo el Mediterráneo. La estima de población para las islas Habibas es de 50.400 individuos, uno de los más elevados para la especie. La talla media de P. ferruginea fue significativamente (p < 0,001) mayor en la isla Habibas occidental (4,45 cm) que en la isla Plana (2,78 cm). El reclutamiento fue muy elevado en la isla Plana y en el sector norte de la isla Habibas occidental. Los ejemplares de mayor talla muestran conchas muy cónicas. El establecimiento de una reserva marina en las islas Habibas podría explicar las diferencias halladas entre las poblaciones. La conservación de estas poblaciones debe ser una prioridad para evitar la definitiva extinción de la especie.
 
This study was performed on 2,859 specimens of sardine, Sardina pilchardus, collected biweekly from November 2006 to October 2007. Samplings were carried out at the fishing port of Annaba where purse-seine methods are used for small-scale fishing at depths from 15 to 30 m. Data concerning the exploitation of catches were analysed by means of two software packages: i) FISAT (2004), which we used to determine the essential parameters for the study of dynamics; and ii) VIT (2000), the most suitable tool for stock assessment based on the application of length cohort analysis (LCA) together with a yield per recruit analyses (Y/R) based on a short series of data. VIT (2000) assumes steady state and functions with pseudo-cohorts, requiring knowledge of the catches over one year only instead of a historical series of several years. The results of this application revealed that the exploitable average biomass of the sardine stock, composed of 28 length sizes from 6.5 to 20 cm with a step of 0.5 cm, was around 4,778.93 tons, of which 2,513 tons (53%) were spawning stock. The size and the average age of the sardine stock were 12.5 cm and 2.7 years. Total biomass balance (D) was estimated at 5,508.64 tons. This corresponded to growth in weight of 4,453.77 tons, (80.85%), as compared to recruitment of only 1,054.86 tons (19.15%). Losses were caused mainly by natural mortality (M), estimated at 3,823.14 tons, and accounting for 69.40%. This was higher than fishing mortality (F) which was 1,685.5 tons (30.60%). We estimated the yield per recruit (Y/R) of sardine at 2.682 g. This value was lower than the threshold of maximum yield per recruit at 3.413 g. Though preliminary, these results indicate that the sardine population can be considered to be in a situation of under-exploitation in this area. The stock is moderately exploited for F0.1 a reference considered more appropriate for management. Applying the precautionary principle, fishing efforts should not increase and we recommend limiting fishing to current levels. However, we recommend monitoring the fishing strategy and the annual evolution of catches.
 
Items found in 30 scat samples of Cyclura nubila collected on Cayo Sijú, Cayos de San Felipe, Cuba. All samples were collected during the month of June, 2004:
Density of iguanas, Cyclura nubila, in three habitats on Cayo Sijú, Cayos de San Felipe, Cuba. Values are shown as the mean and the vertical line indicates the standard deviation.  
Summary of sexual dimorphism in morphological traits (lengths in mm) in Cyclura nubila nubila from Cayo Sijú, Cayos de San Felipe, Cuba. The last column presents the results from unpaired two-tailed t-tests for sexual size dimorphism.
Natural history and morphometry of the Cuban iguana (Cyclura nubila Gray, 1831) in Cayo Sijú, Cuba.— The report presents data about the Cuban iguana population (Cyclura nubila nubila) inhabiting Cayo Sijú, an 88 ha island off the southwest coast of Cuba. Population densities estimated using strip transects were higher in xerophytic coastal scrub (6.72 ± 6.25 iguanas/ha) than in typical sand vegetation (3.63 ± 2.71 iguanas/ha) and mangrove forests (2.9 ± 2.9 iguanas/ha). The total population for the cay was estimated at 350 individuals with an adult biomass of approximately 11.67 kg/ha. Densities varied minimally between three habitat types and between the wet and dry seasons. No significant density fluctuations were found one month after Hurricane Ivan affected the cay. Iguana burrows were encountered most frequently in beach dunes. Analysis of 30 scat samples revealed eight species of plants, with the fruits of Chrysobalanum icaco and the leaves of Batis maritima being the most frequently identified items. The remains of crab (Cardisoma guandhumi) and insects of the order Hemiptera were also present in scat samples. Sexual dimorphism was evident in this population, with males being significantly larger in eight morphological variables. The snout–vent length measurements were larger in this population than in those reported in two cays off the south coast of Cuba.
 
Items found in 30 scat samples of Cyclura nubila collected on Cayo Sijú, Cayos de San Felipe, Cuba. All samples were collected during the month of June, 2004:
Summary of sexual dimorphism in morphological traits (lengths in mm) in Cyclura nubila nubila from Cayo Sijú, Cayos de San Felipe, Cuba. The last column presents the results from unpaired two-tailed t-tests for sexual size dimorphism.
Variación estacional de la densidad de iguanas en tres hábitats de Cayo Sijú, Cayos de San Felipe, Cuba.  
Seasonal variation of the density of iguanas in three habitats on Cayo Sijú, Cayos de San Felipe, Cuba.  
The report presents data about the Cuban iguana population (Cyclura nubila nubila) inhabiting Cayo Sijü, an 88 ha island off the southwest coast of Cuba. Population densities estimated using strip transects were higher in xerophytic coastal scrub (6.72 ± 6.25 iguanas/ha) than in typical sand vegetation (3.63 ± 2.71 iguanas/ ha) and mangrove forests (2.9 ± 2.9 iguanas/ha). The total population for the cay was estimated at 350 individuals with an adult biomass of approximately 11.67 kg/ha. Densities varied minimally between three habitat types and between the wet and dry seasons. No significant density fluctuations were found one month after Hurricane Ivan affected the cay. Iguana burrows were encountered most frequently in beach dunes. Analysis of 30 scat samples revealed eight species of plants, with the fruits of Chrysobalanum icaco and the leaves of Batis maritima being the most frequently identified items. The remains of crab (Cardisoma guandhumi) and insects of the order Hemiptera were also present in scat samples. Sexual dimorphism was evident in this population, with males being significantly larger in eight morphological variables. The snout-vent length measurements were larger in this population than in those reported in two cays off the south coast of Cuba.
 
Description of Bathysciola liqueana n. sp. from the central Pyrenees. Designation of lectotypes and distribution data for species of the B. meridionalis group (Jacquelin du Val, 1854) (Insecta, Coleoptera, Leiodidae, Cholevinae, Leptodirini) We describe a new species of the genus Bathysciola Jeannel, 1910 (B. liqueana n. sp.) belonging to the ‘meridionalis’ group. It was collected in a subterranean environment, in Liqué cave, Larroque massif, Moulis, Ariège, France. The closest species is Bathysciola meridionalis (Jacquelin du Val, 1854), also known from Ariège. The new species differs mainly in morphological characteristics of the aedeagus: short, wide, with rounded apex in B. liqueana n. sp. whereas it is long, narrow, with pointed apex in B. meridionalis. We discuss the taxonomical position of the new species and provide illustrations of structures showing the differences between the two species, along with distribution data, including for B. finismillennii Fresneda & Salgado, 2006. We designate lectotypes of B. meridionalis and B. nitidula Normand, 1907.
 
Distribution, in the African continent, of the genus Trichodesma LeConte, 1861, Xyletinastidius Español & Comas, 1992 and Stagetodes australis Español & Viñolas, 1994.
Distribution of the genus Gastrallus Jacquelin du Val, 1860, in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.
New species of the genus Trichodesma LeConte, 1861 and Gastrallus Jacquelin du Val, 1860, from South Africa (Coleoptera, Anobiidae) Continuing the review of the Anobiidae collection at the Transvaal Museum of Pretoria, we describe the following species of Anobiinae: Trichodesma endroedyyoungai n. sp., Gastrallus omedesae n. sp., G. jeremiasi n. sp., G. strydomi n. sp., G. pafuriensis n. sp., G. skukuzaensis n. sp., G. ndumuensis n. sp. and G. krugerensis n. sp. Most of these species were collected at the National Kruger Park, South Africa. As we found specimens of males of the Xyletininae, Xyletinastidius tessellatus (Español, 1971) and of the Dorcatominae, Stagetodes australis Español & Viñolas, 1995, these are described here as only females of genus Xyletinastidius (Español & Comas, 1991) and the two species were described previously.
 
Continuing the review of the Anobiidae collection at the Transvaal Museum of Pretoria, we describe the following species of Anobiinae: Trihodesma endroedyyoungai n. sp., Gastrallus omedesae n. sp., G. jeremiasi n. sp., G. strydomi n. sp., G. pafuriensis n. sp., G, skukuzaensis n. sp., G. ndumuensis n. sp. and G. krugerensis n. sp. Most of these species were collected at the National Kruger Park, South Africa. As we found specimens of males of the Xyletininae, Xyletinastidius tessellatus (Español, 1971) and of the Dorcatominae, Stagetodes australis Español & Viñolas, 1995, these are described here as only females of genus Xyletinastidius (Español & Comas, 1991) and the two species were described previously.
 
H. orcesi. MEPN 1538, Ecuador, provincia Morona–Santiago, río Tayusa afluente del Upano bajo el puente en la vía Méndez–Sucua.  
H. polyodon: MEPN 1534, Ecuador, provincia de Zamora–Chinchipe, finca Torres, río Zamora.  
Redescripción de Hemibrycon orcesi Bohlke, 1958 y H. polyodon (Günther, 1864) (Pisces, Characidae), incluye clave para las especies de Hemibrycon en Ecuador.- Hemibrycon orcesi se distingue de las demás especies del género por presentar 13 a 16 dientes en el maxilar, por la base de la aleta caudal escamada, por 34 a 36 escamas con poros de la línea lateral, por 17 a 18 radios ramificados en la aleta anal. Mientras H. polyodon se distingue de sus congeneres por presentar la aleta dorsal con radios simples y ramificados de igual longitud y la forma de la mancha humeral.
 
Female genitalia (ventral view): 21. Typhlocharis carinata n. sp.; 21. Typhlocharis paulinoi n. sp.  
Typhlocharis carinata n. sp.: 1. Head, dorsal view; 2. Stridulatory organ (pars stridens), dorsal view; 3. Head, ventral view; 4. Posterior part of the head, pronotum and anterior part of elytra, { dorsal view (arrow: tooth in the inner margin of profemur); 5. Right elytron, latero–dorsal view; 6. Carina in sternum II, { ventral view; 7. Thorax and abdomen, { ventral view; 8. Thorax and abdomen, } ventral view.  
Geographic distribution: 23. Silvanoides species group (ellipses); 24: A. T. algarvensis (UTM: 29SNB71, 29SNB90); C. T. carinata n. sp. (UTM: 29SNB21, 29SNB24, 29SNB42); P. T. paulinoi (UTM: 29SNB42, 29SPB15, 29SPB34); S. T. sarrius (UTM: 29SMC95). Distribución geográfica: 23. Grupo silvanoides (elipses); 24: A. T. algarvensis (UTM: 29SNB71, 29SNB90); C. T. carinata sp. n. (UTM: 29SNB21, 29SNB24, 29SNB42); P. T. paulinoi (UTM: 29SNB42, 29SPB15, 29SPB34); S. T. sarrius (UTM: 29SMC95).
Two endogean carabid species of Typhlocharis Dieck, 1869 in the T. silvanoides species group are described, Typhlocharis carinata n. sp. and Typhlocharis paulinoi n. sp. T. carinata is characterized by the elytron with four discal setae and one subapical seta, the abdominal sternum II with a median carina, more developed near the posterior margin, stronger in male than in female, the median lobe of aedeagus strongly sickle–shaped and the parameres bisetulose, each with a large apical seta and a short sub–apical seta. T. paulinoi is characterized by the elytron with three discal setae and one subapical seta, the abdominal female sterna II and III without any fovea, the internal sac of median lobe in central area very difuse with one lateral sclerite and the right paramere bisetulose, with a large apical seta and a short sub–apical seta. Affinities to putative relatives and a key for the identification of the seven known species belonging to the silvanoides group are also given.
 
Taxonomical revision of Helix zapateri Hidalgo, 1870 (Pulmonata, Trissexodontidae) and its new status in the Iberian malacofauna A taxonomic revision is made and the new generic assignation of the Iberian taxon Helix zapateri is discussed; its conchological features are compared with the most similar species, Hatumia pseudogasulli and Gasullia gasulli, both trissexodontids. Conchological studies allow us to conclude that Helix zapateri should be considered as a valid species and designated Hatumia zapateri, while H. pseudogasulli is a junior synonym of H. zapateri.
 
Branchiosyllis salazari n. sp.: C. Anterior falcigers; D. Anterior aciculae; E. Falcigers of setiger 18; F. Aciculae of setiger 35; G. Falcigers and hook of setiger 35; H. Posterior falcigers and hook.
Branchiosyllis salazari sp. n. (Polychaeta, Syllidae) del Caribe noroccidental y comentarios sobre el material tipo de B. exilis (Gravier, 1900) On the basis of 195 specimens from the Northwestern Caribbean Sea, a new species of Branchiosyllis Ehlers, 1887 is described. Branchiosyllis salazari n. sp. has three pairs of eyes (two small pairs above the anterior margin of the prostomium, the third pair in a transverse line), without branchia, setae with large hooked blades in median setigers, and proventricle without middorsal line. The type material of B. exilis (Gravier, 1900), an apparently circumtropical species, was revised to clarify its presence in the Caribbean Sea. Its diagnostic features are: two pairs of eyes in a transverse line, no branchia, setae with large hooked blades in posterior setigers only, and proventricle with a middorsal line of Diamond-shaped cells. A key for the seven species of Branchiosyllis in the Grand Caribbean is included.
 
Anatomic characters of O. elegans in different populations: Oee. O. e. elegans Cognetti, 1905 from Panamá; Oe. O. elegans, this study from Panamá; Oec. O. e. cubana Michaelsen, 1924 from Cuba; Oc. O. cubana Zicsi, 1995 from Cuba; Oe. O.elegans, this study from Cuba; Oee. O. e. elegans Righi, 1995 from Colombia; Oe. O. elegans, this study from México; N.
Considerations on the identity of Onychochaeta elegans (Cognetti, 1905) (Oligochaeta, Glossoscolecidae) Anatomical variability of Onychochaeta elegans in Cuban populations was studied. A comparison among these populations and O. elegans cubana Michaelsen, 1924 and O. cubana Zicsi, 1995 from Cuba, as well as the descriptions of the typical form of Cognetti (1905) from Panama and Colombian specimens (Righi, 1995) was made. Besides, new materials from Mexico and Panama were added. Variations in anatomical characters in Cuban populations included those present in continental forms, so, there were not any character that justifies the division of O. elegans nor subspecies neither in distinct insular and continental species.
 
Osteology of Astyanax aurocaudatus, Eigenmann, 1913 (Pisces, Characidae), with notes on the validity of Carlastyanax, Géry, 1972. The taxonomic status of Astyanax aurocaudatus is difficult to interpret as no relevant osteological data are available to date. In the present paper we studied the osteological, morphometric and meristic characters of this species. The osteological characters of A. aurocaudatus found include the number and shape of premaxilla, maxilla and dentary teeth, second infraorbital separate from the preopercle, anal fins with pterygiophores that differ as towards the anterior, and presence of supra–orbital. These and other characters, body shape and coloring pattern, coincide with descriptions for the genus Astyanax. The characters describing the genus Carlastyanax therefore correspond to incorrect observations and the studied species is situated in the genus Astyanax. Carlastyanax is here considered a synonym of Astyanax.
 
Edeagos de los holotipos en visión lateral: 2. Antoinella espanyoli sp. n..; 3. Antoinella iblanensis sp. n.; 4. Antoinella fadriquei sp. n. Aedeagus of the holotypes in lateral view: 2. Antoinella espanyoli n. sp.; 3. Antoinella iblanensis n. sp.; 4. Antoinella fadriquei n. sp.
Genera Antoinella Jeannel, 1937 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae) three new species from Morocco: A. espanyoli n. sp. , A. iblanensis n. sp. y A. fadriquei n. sp. Three new species of the genus Antoinella Jeannel (Carabidae, Trechinae) are described from the region of Taza in Morocco: A. espanyoli n. sp. (the smallest of all Antoniella), A. iblanensis n. sp. (with the end of aedeagus truncate) and A. fadriquei n. sp. (with the aedeagus rather similar to that of A. iblanensis n. sp. but end not trunacte). A brief summary on the geographical dispersion of the genus is given. The most distinctive taxonomic characteristics concern the male genitalia; the accompanying drawings contribute further to the identification of the new taxa.
 
Otiorhynchus (Lixorrhynchus) zariquieyi, genitalia femenina: A. Spiculum ventrale; B. Detalle del spiculum ventrale; C. Espermateca.  
Mapa de distribución de la especie Otiorhynchus (Lixorrhynchus) zariquieyi (Alt Empordà, Girona , España): villa de Cadaqués (localidad típica), cueva Tassana y cueva de la Bora Major (las tres localidades subrayadas en el mapa).  
New data on Otiorhynchus (Lixorrhynchus) zariquieyi (Clermont, 1949) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) This paper discusses the discovery of new specimens of Otiorhynchus (Lixorrhynchus) zariquieyi (Clermont, 1949). Until now, the species was known by its type specimen, a male captured in an endogean environment in 1928. Four live males, eight live females and some remains were collected from two further localities in Spain, the Tassana and the Bora Major caves (Alt Empordà, Girona). The species is redescribed, giving new details of its morphology, in particular the genitalia of both sexes. Some remarks about the ecology and distribution are also provided. It is the first time this species has been found in a cave habitat
 
Sampling area inhabited by a population of Echinogammarus longisetosus.  
Zona de muestreo habitada por una población de Echinogammarus longisetosus.
Monthly water temperature of the investigated area: S. September; O. October; N. November; D. December; J. January; F. February; M. March; A. April; M. May; J. June; J. July; A. August.  
Distribución mensual de clases de talla (L P3 ) de individuos jóvenes, machos y hembras de Echinogammarus longisetosus.
Aspects of the population structure and reproductive biology of the freshwater amphipod Echinogammarus longisetosus were studied in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula (Catalonia, Spain). Amphipods were sampled at approximately monthly intervals from September 1999 to October 2000. Pairs in precopula and ovigerous females were present all year round. The sex ratio was not significantly different from 1:1. Juveniles were abundant in all samples (> 40%). The number of eggs carried by females (N) was related to the size of the females (LP3) (range: 9-68, mean value: 28.2): N = 0.594 LP33.141 (n = 80, r 2 = 0.7136, LP3 were measured from the anterior part of the head to the posterior edge of the third pereional segment; total length was approximately 3.5 times greater than LP3 ). The mean embryo diameter was 0.45 mm (mean of measurements of the long and short axes of recently laid eggs). The egg volume increased during development (2 fold by eggs close to hatching).
 
Two new species of subterranean Anillini belonging to genus Speleotyphlus Jeanne, 1973 (Coleoptera, Carabidae) Speleotyphlus comasi n. sp. and S. virgilii n. sp. from two caves Cueva del Turcacho (Teruel province) and Cova Bonica in Ulldecona (Tarragona province) are described. The former was collected in 1981 and was a female. Despite several attempts the male was not found. Only one other species S. fideli Viñolas & Escolà has been described for the province of Teruel but S. comasi clearly differs regarding the shape of the elytra and umbilicate series. S. virgilii n. sp. is very similar to S. fadriquei Español, 1999 but is slightly larger and the pronotum is transverse rather than elongated as in S. fadriquei Español.
 
A new species of the genus Stachorutes Dallai, 1973 from Russia (Collembola, Neanuridae) Nueva especie del género Stachorutes Dallai, 1973 de Rusia (Collembola, Neanuridae) .- Se describe una nueva especie de Stachorutes Dallai, 1973, Stachorutes gracilis sp. n., procedente de la zona de bosque- estepa de Rusia (tierras altas del cis-Volga). Esta nueva especie se caracteriza por sus 4+4 ojos y la quetotaxia reducida del labio y las patas. Es muy similar a S. ruseki Kovác, 1999 de Eslovaquia. Se incluye una clave de identificación de las especies del género.
 
Prominence of genetic versus demographic data in plan development according to species taxonomic group. Tabla 3. Importancia de los datos genéticos en comparación con los datos demográficos en el desarrollo de los planes según el grupo taxonómico de la especie.
The utility of genetic data in conservation efforts, particularly in comparison to demographic information, is the subject of ongoing debate. Using a database of information surveyed from 181 US endangered and threatened species recovery plans, we addressed the following questions concerning the use of genetic information in animal recovery plans: I. What is the relative prominence of genetic vs. demographic data in recovery plan development? and, II. When are genetic factors viewed as a threat, and how do plans respond to genetic threats? In general, genetics appear to play a minor and relatively ill-defined part in the recovery planning process; demographic data are both more abundant and more requested in recovery plans, and tasks are more frequently assigned to the collection / monitoring of demographic rather than genetic information. Nonetheless, genetic threats to species persistence and recovery are identified in a substantial minority (22 %) of recovery plans, although there is little uniform response to these perceived threats in the form of specific proposed recovery or management tasks. Results indicate that better guidelines are needed to identify how and when genetic information is most useful for species recovery; we highlight specific contexts in which genetics may provide unique management information, beyond that provided by other kinds of data.
 
Stratified sampling design as a function of the sector, vegetation, protection and type of forest management.
Evolución de la probabilidad de presencia de la lagartija de Carbonell, en función de la distancia a la costa y la gestión del matorral. Los puntos indican los distintos valores de amplitud térmica (media de las máximas del mes más cálido–media de las mínimas del mes más frío) para distintas estaciones meteorológicas de la comarca.  
Probability of presence of Carbonell lizards as a function of the distance to the coast and the management of scrubland. Dots show the thermal amplitude (difference between the mean of the highs of the warmest month and the mean of the lows of the coldest month) for the meteorological stations found in Doñana.
Evolución anual de las capturas de la lagartija de Carbonell, desde septiembre de 1998 hasta agosto de 1999. Debido a que las capturas son menores en los meses con temperaturas extremas, se ha dibujado la evolución del valor absoluto de la diferencia entre la Tª media mensual y la Tª media anual.  
Environmental factors determining the presence of the Carbonell lizard Podarcis carbonelli (Pérez-Mellado, 1981) in the Doñana area The Carbonell lizard (Podarcis carbonelli) is an Iberian endemism. The region of Doñana is its southernmost and more isolated stronghold. We used logistic regressions to investigate the factors conditioning the presence of this lizard in Doñana. All selected models retained the distance to the coast as the main variable. This variable is related with less humidity and more continental climatic conditions, including more extreme temperatures, when further from the coast. This climatic factor was observed both spatially and temporarily, with adult lizards drastically reducing their activity both in winter and in summer. We observed juveniles from June to January, with a maximum in September. Scrubland management was another important environmental factor affecting the presence of lizards. The probability of finding this species was higher where the scrubland was partially cleared, and lower in areas with a high plant cover (hygrophytic scrubland) or in areas with sparse vegetation (dune scrubland), probably due to a lower amount of incident light and less protection when moving between refuges, respectively.
 
Few fields in modern ecology have developed as fast as the analysis of marked individuals in the study of wild animal populations (Seber & Schwarz, 2002). This is the topic of EURING Conferences, which from 1986 have been the premier forum for advances in capture–recapture methodology. In this sense, EURING Conferences still maintain the flavour that originally inspired scientific meetings: to disseminate the very last findings, ideas and results on the field. Traditionally, EURING Conferences have been published in the form of Proceedings, which because of their relevant content, become a required reading to anyone interested in the capture–recapture methodology.EURING 2003 was held in Radolfzell (Germany), hosted by the Max Planck Research Centre for Ornithology, and the Proceedings appear as a special issue of Animal Biodiversity and Conservation. The full title of the 2003 meeting was "The quantitative study of marked individuals in ecology, evolution and conservation biology", which stands for one of the main aims of the meeting: to establish the capture-recapture approach as one of the standard methodologies in studies within these fields. One of the shared views is that capture–recapture methodologies have reached a considerable maturity, but the need still exists to spread their use as a "standard" methodology. The nice review paper by Lebreton et al. (1993) in Trends in Ecology and Evolution is still applicable, in that general ecologists and evolutionary biologists still resist their general use. The same applies to conservation biology, where the analysis of marked individuals may also be a keytool in its development. We hope, with the spread of 2003 Proceedings, to help to fill this gap.The Proceedings follow the same general structure as the Conference. We organised the EURING meeting in 10 technical sessions, covering what we considered as fastest growing areas in the field. Weappointed for each session, two chairs, which were charged with selecting 4–7 talks on the topic of their session. Each session additionally included a plenary conference intended to summarise or to provide ageneral but synthetic flavour of the topic. As a novelty in EURING conferences, we asked session chairs to include at least one talk dealing with study species other than birds. This is the result of a heated but fruitful discussion at EURING 2000 in Point Reyes, and fits with the general aim to spread the capture–recapture methodology beyond zoological groups: although EURING as an organization, deals with birds,and conferences have traditionally focused on this group, the capture–recapture approach is becoming a standard way to address biologically relevant questions on populations and individuals (Schwarz, 2002),for any zoological group. This volume, contains several nice examples of taxa other than birds.As far as possible, we selected chairs so that each session was delineated with a good balance between the biological and the statistician emphasis. This balance has in fact characterised EURING conferences,which in addition to the workshop atmosphere always present, has lead to very fruitful exchanges. Session chairs were also asked to act as editors for the papers within their session. All the papers were hence subjected to peer review, as in any other issue of Animal Biodiversity and Conservation, and presentationof the paper in the Conference did not assure publication in the Proceedings. This has lead to an even higher quality of the papers presented at the Conference. Editors were additionally asked to write a short summary on their session. Given that these summaries also present the views of the Editors on the different topicspresented, we have preferred each introduction to appear as a short paper in the front of each one of the sessions, so that it can be cited as a regular paper.The Proceedings start with the Honour Speaker Talk by James Nichols (Nichols, 2004). This talk is traditionally the last one in the Conference, but we think that it nicely summarises how and why capture–recapture has developed to its current healthy state. The talk is in fact a tribute to David Anderson, to whom,as Nichols says, all of us are more or less in debt. Hence, we have preferred to move the Honour Talk to the front position of the Proceedings, and we would like this to be our humble tribute to David.At the end of the Proceedings appear a few papers which were presented in poster format, and a papersummarising several of the main topics presented at the traditional short course on capture–recapture, this time organized by the unflagging Evan Cooch.We would like to thank all the people who helped in one way or another to the successful completion of the EURING Conference and the Proceedings. We thank to the Session Chairs, their dedication andenthusiasm in organizing the sessions and also in editing the different papers. All their names appear in thefront page of the Proceedings as credits. We thank Wolfgang Fiedler for the local organization of the event:a very difficult and exhausting task that is not always properly recognized. Jean Clobert, althoughunfortunately unable to attend the Conference, supported us with ideas and friendship meanwhile preparingthe scientific program. Evan Cooch maintained the always successful web page (which probably will alsobecome a classic in EURING conferences…), and organized the traditional course on capture–recapture.Charles Francis very efficiently organized the poster session and acted as editor for the papers sent forpublication. Finally we thank the Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología for financial support to the publicationof this special issue of Animal Biodiversity and Conservation (B.O.S. 2002–12283–E) and to the NaturalHistory Museum of Barcelona for their support.
 
Summary of metapopulation concepts. Tabla 1. Resumen de conceptos metapoblacionales.
MLEs and AIC for Poisson and negative binomial hierarchical models fitted to the avian point count data: and are the Poisson moment estimates.
Results of models fit to ovenbird counts obtained under a temporary removal protocol.
I consider modeling avian abundance from spatially referenced bird count data collected according to common protocols such as capture-recapture, multiple observer, removal sampling and simple point counts. Small sample sizes and large numbers of parameters have motivated many analyses that disregard the spatial indexing of the data, and thus do not provide an adequate treatment of spatial structure. I describe a general framework for modeling spatially replicated data that regards local abundance as a random process, motivated by the view that the set of spatially referenced local populations (at the sample locations) constitute a metapopulation. Under this view, attention can be focused on developing a model for the variation in local abundance independent of the sampling protocol being considered. The metapopulation model structure, when combined with the data generating model, define a simple hierarchical model that can be analyzed using conventional methods. The proposed modeling framework is completely general in the sense that broad classes of metapopulation models may be considered, site level covariates on detection and abundance may be considered, and estimates of abundance and related quantities may be obtained for sample locations, groups of locations, unsampled locations. Two brief examples are given, the first involving simple point counts, and the second based on temporary removal counts. Extension of these models to open systems is briefly discussed.
 
Abundance is the state variable of interest in most population–level ecological research and in most programs involving management and conservation of animal populations. Abundance is the single parameter of interest in capture–recapture models for closed populations (e.g., Darroch, 1958; Otis et al., 1978; Chao, 2001). The initial capture–recapture models developed for partially (Darroch, 1959) and completely (Jolly, 1965; Seber, 1965) open populations represented efforts to relax the restrictive assumption of population closure for the purpose of estimating abundance. Subsequent emphases in capture–recapture work were on survival rate estimation in the 1970’s and 1980’s (e.g., Burnham et al., 1987; Lebreton et al., 1992), and on movement estimation in the 1990’s (Brownie et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 1993). However, from the mid–1990’s until the present time, capture–recapture investigators have expressed a renewed interest in abundance and related parameters (Pradel, 1996; Schwarz & Arnason, 1996; Schwarz, 2001). The focus of this session was abundance, and presentations covered topics ranging from estimation of abundance and rate of change in abundance, to inferences about the demographic processes underlying changes in abundance, to occupancy as a surrogate of abundance. The plenary paper by Link & Barker (2004) is provocative and very interesting, and it contains a number of important messages and suggestions. Link & Barker (2004) emphasize that the increasing complexity of capture–recapture models has resulted in large numbers of parameters and that a challenge to ecologists is to extract ecological signals from this complexity. They offer hierarchical models as a natural approach to inference in which traditional parameters are viewed as realizations of stochastic processes. These processes are governed by hyperparameters, and the inferential approach focuses on these hyperparameters. Link & Barker (2004) also suggest that our attention should be focused on relationships between demographic processes such as survival and recruitment, the two quantities responsible for changes in abundance, rather than simply on the magnitudes of these quantities. They describe a type of Jolly–Seber capture–recapture model that permits inference about the underlying relationship between per capita recruitment rates and survival rates (Link & Barker, this volume). Implementation used Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods and appeared to work well, yielding inferences about the relationship between recruitment and survival that were robust to selection of prior distribution. We believe that readers will find their arguments compelling, and we expect to see increased use of hierarchical modeling approaches in capture–recapture and related fields. Otto (presentation without paper) also recommended use of hierarchical models in analysis of multiple data sources dealing with population dynamics of North American mallards. He integrated survival inferences from ringing data, abundance information from aerial survey data, and recruitment information based on age ratios from a harvest survey. He used a Leslie matrix population projection model as an integrating framework and obtained estimates of breeding population size using all data. Otto’s approach also permitted inference about biases in estimated quantities. As with the work of Link & Barker (2004), we find Otto’s recommendation to use hierarchical models to integrate data from multiple sources to be very compelling. Alisauskas et al. (2004) report results of an analysis of capture–recapture data for a Saskatchewan population of white–winged scoters. They used the approach of Pradel (1996) to estimate population growth rate (
 
In many monitoring programmes it may be prohibitively expensive to estimate the actual abundance of a bird species in a defined area, particularly at large spatial scales, or where birds occur at very low densities. Often it may be appropriate to consider the proportion of area occupied by the species as an alternative state variable. However, as with abundance estimation, issues of detectability must be taken into account in order to make accurate inferences: the non-detection of the species does not imply the species is genuinely absent. Here we review some recent modelling developments that permit unbiased estimation of the proportion of area occupied, colonization and local extinction probabilities. These methods allow for unequal sampling effort and enable covariate information on sampling locations to be incorporated. We also describe how these models could be extended to incorporate information from marked individuals, which would enable finer questions of population dynamics (such as turnover rate of nest sites by specific breeding pairs) to be addressed. We believe these models may be applicable to a wide range of bird species and may be useful for investigating various questions of ecological interest. For example, with respect to habitat quality, we might predict that a species is more likely to have higher local extinction probabilities, or higher turnover rates of specific breeding pairs, in poor quality habitats.
 
In studies of wild animals, one frequently encounters both count and mark-recapture-recovery data. Here, we consider an integrated Bayesian analysis of ring¿recovery and count data using a state-space model. We then impose a Leslie-matrix-based model on the true population counts describing the natural birth-death and age transition processes. We focus upon the analysis of both count and recovery data collected on British lapwings (Vanellus vanellus) combined with records of the number of frost days each winter. We demonstrate how the combined analysis of these data provides a more robust inferential framework and discuss how the Bayesian approach using MCMC allows us to remove the potentially restrictive normality assumptions commonly assumed for analyses of this sort. It is shown how WinBUGS may be used to perform the Bayesian analysis. WinBUGS code is provided and its performance is critically discussed.
 
Percent of fungal clusters occupied by ciid species in the four study sites; black bars represent forests and grey bars show clearcuts.
Number of individuals and percent of samples occupied by ciid beetles in this study in forests and clearcuts. Tabla 2. Número de individuos y porcentaje de muestras ocupadas por escarabajos cíidos en este estudio, en los bosques y en los claros de tala. Forest Clearcut
Probabilidad predicha de la presencia de las cuatro especies de cíidos en las masas fúngicas, como función del peso de dichas masas (no transformado), basada en un modelo logístico de regresión. Las cifras se refieren a la estima de la razón entre los valores predichos y observados ("odds ratio") y los CIs 95%; los círculos negros representan los bosques, y los grises los claros.  
The predicted probability of occurrence of the four ciid species in the fungal clusters as a function of cluster weight (untransformed), based on a logistic regression model. Figures give the estimated odds ratios and 95% CIs; black dots represent forests, grey dots clearcuts.
Presencia y abundancia de los escarabajos fungícolas (Ciidae) en los bosques y claros de tala boreales: asociaciones al hábitat según dos escalas espaciales.¿ Se compararon las cantidades de insectos (> 30,000 individuos) que se alimentan de los cuerpos fructíferos de los hongos desintegradores de la madera Trametes en los bosques boreales maduros y los claros adyacentes en Finlandia. Sulcacis affinis y Cis hispidus aparecían con mayor frecuencia, y en promedio eran más abundantes en los claros. Llama la atención la frecuencia ligeramente mayor de Octotemnus glabriculus y Cis boleti en los bosques, a pesar de una menor disponibilidad de recursos. El primero también presentaba una abundancia promedio mayor. En promedio, el tamaño de las masas de cuerpos fructíferos de Trametes de los restos de árboles era mayor en los claros que en los bosques, y tenía un efecto positivo en la presencia y abundancia de especies en dichas masas. El efecto independiente del macrohábitat (bosque o claro) subraya la importancia del macrohábitat cuando los recursos específicos aparecen, pudiendo anular los efectos positivos de la disponibilidad de recursos.
 
Movements of migratory birds across the Western Paleartic concentrate populations along Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts, thus producing flows of migrants that converge at both extremes of the Pyrenees. Here we analyse the effect of these corridors on the winter distribution of some passerines (F. Motacillidae, F. Turdidae and F. Fringillidae). The number of ring recoveries of migrants at the edges of the Pyrenees was higher than expected, a pattern that was also observed in the case of winter recoveries. In addition, there was a significant decrease in the abundance and species richness of the bird assemblages of the three families analysed wintering in the coastal farmlands of northern Iberian peninsula as their location was further away from the western corridor of the Pyrenees. These results suggest the existence of links between the routes of migratory passerines and their winter densities in northern Iberia.
 
Distribución de los emplazamientos de recuento de la Isla de Barro Colorado, Panamá. Los puntos al azar (círculos negros) y los suplementarios (círculos blancos) distan entre sí un mínimo de 200 m: BCI. Isla de Barro Colorado.  
Few data are available to evaluate the long term effects of habitat isolation on species richness or abundances in the tropics. Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, has been studied for more than 80 years since its isolation from surrounding lowland forest when the Panama Canal was constructed. Thirty-five percent of the originally present 200 resident species have disappeared. Although the loss of species is well-studied, changes in abundance that might help predict future losses have not been evaluated. One study in 1970 and the present study conducted 25 years later estimated abundances of most bird species on BCI. Comparisons indicate at least 37 species have declined by at least 50%. Twenty-six species of edge habitats are expected to decline as forest maturation proceeds, yet 11 forest species that are now rare may be lost soon. All 26 species that were present in 1970 but not detected in the mid-1990s were rare in 1970. Thus, rarity appears to be a good predictor of extinction risk in this tropical habitat fragment.
 
Location, grassland type, management, species richness and total number of collected individuals from sample sites: GT. Grassland type; M. Management; R. Richness; I. Individuals.
Box-plot diagram of the response of species richness and abundance to management on 26 sites paired by habitat type and geographic location.
Diagrama de la respuesta en riqueza y abundancia de especies a la actuación desarrollada en 26 áreas emparejadas según el tipo de hábitat y localización geográfica.
Curva de la dominancia-diversidad para las mesetas/llanuras que hayan sido quemadas/ no quemadas.
The land snail faunas from 72 upland and lowland grassland sites from central North America were analyzed. Sixteen of these had been exposed to fire management within the last 15 years, while the remainder had not. A total of 91,074 individuals in 72 different species were observed. Richness was reduced by approximately 30% on burned sites, while abundance was reduced by 50-90%. One-way ANOVA of all sites (using management type as the independent variable), a full 2-way ANOVA (using management and grassland type) of all sites, and a 2-way ANOVA limited to 26 sites paired according to their habitat type and geographic location, demonstrated in all cases a highly significant (up to p < 0.0005) reduction in richness and abundance on fire managed sites. Contingency table analysis of individual species demonstrated that 44% experienced a significant reduction in abundance on fire-managed sites. Only six species positively responded to fire. Comparisons of fire response to the general ecological preferences of these species demonstrated that fully 72% of turf-specialists were negatively impacted by fire, while 67% of duff-specialists demonstrated no significant response. These differences were highly significant (p = 0.0006). Thus, frequent use of fire management represents a significant threat to the health and diversity of North American grassland land snail communities. Protecting this fauna will require the preservation of site organic litter layers, which will require the increase of fire return intervals to 15+ years in conjunction with use of more diversified methods to remove woody and invasive plants.
 
Diagrama de la disposición de las trampas de intercepción dotadas de valla de deriva en los claros de tala y naturales; en la mayoría de los claros existían 3 dispositivos (A) y cada subconjunto tenía dispositivos a lo largo de todo su transecto norte–sur, para estudiar las diferencias en las tasas de captura dentro del claro (B).  
2002 ANOVA results of ranked difference values and Tukey's pairwise comparisons among gap treatments (difference values -reported in captures per 100 trapnights-calculated by subtracting the mean closed-canopy capture rate of a 10-ha research area from the gap capture rate): I. Immature; J. Juvenile; A. Adult; M. Metamorph; E. Efts.
Small–scale canopy gaps created by logging may retain adequate habitat structure to maintain amphibian abundance. We used pitfalls with drift fences to measure relative abundance of amphibians in 44 harvested gaps, 19 natural treefall gaps, and 36 closed–canopy forest plots. Metamorphs had relatively lower capture rates in large harvest gaps for Ambystoma maculatum, Lithobates catesbeianus, L. clamitans, and L. sylvaticus but we did not detect statistically significant (p < 0.1) differences among gap types for Lithobates palustris metamorphs. L. clamitans juveniles and L. sylvaticus juveniles and adults had relatively lower capture rates in large harvest gaps. For juvenile–adult A. maculatum, we caught relatively fewer individuals in all gap types than in closed–canopy areas. Some groups with overall lower capture rates (immature Plethodon cinereus, juvenile L. palustris) had mixed differences among gap types, and Notophthalmus viridescens (efts) and adult P. cinereus showed no differences among gap types. One species, L. clamitans, was captured more often at gap edges than gap centers. These results suggest that harvest gaps, especially small gaps, provided habitat similar to natural gaps for some, but not all, amphibian species or life–stages.
 
Variación geografica de algunas características ambientales de la región de estudio. Códigos de la tipificación estructural de hábitats: 1. Áreas con muy poca cobertura vegetal o desprovistas de ella; 2. Formaciones herbáceas; 3. Formaciones arbustivas; 4. Formaciones ecotónicas con presencia de arbolado disperso; 5. Bosques poco maduros (altura del arbolado < 6 m); 6. Bosques maduros. (En negro se representan las áreas urbanas.)  
Patterns of habitat preference and distribution and abundance of wintering bird fauna in central Spain. Analysis and prediction of the effect of ecological factors This paper analyses the effect of geographic, topographic, land use and habitat structure variables on the composition and structure of wintering bird communities in Central Spain (Iberian peninsula). Parameters describing the avifauna varied in a predictable way considering a small group of coarse-grained variables defining the geographical and altitudinal location of the censuses, and the basic characteristics of the structure and typology of habitats: 49-76% of variance accounted for total bird density and for abundance of four ecological groups, 37-63% accounted for species richness and diversity, and 65% explained the relative abundance of species with conservation problems according to the European scale (SPEC figures). Regarding the most widespread species in the study area, significant models were obtained by means of tree regression analysis for 50 species, with an average reduction of deviance of 39%. Altitude was the most important variable affecting bird community parameters and abundance of each bird species, showing a consistent and marked negative effect. Structural complexity of the vegetation and geographical location followed as the variables of importance explaining variability. The habitats with the lowest bird density, richness and diversity of birds were mountain grasslands/shrublands, young pine re-forestations, and Pyrenean oak forests at 1,200-1,600 m a.s.l. The habitats with the highest values on these parameters were riparian forests, agricultural mosaics, and holmoak “dehesa” parklands, mainly located at the southern and western part of the region and at intermediate altitudes. The total density of birds increased from east to west, was higher in intermediate altitudes than in the extremes of the altitudinal range, and increased with habitat structural complexity (i.e., vertical development and degree of vegetation cover), agricultural use of the land, and the presence of water (e.g., streams, rivers, flooded areas). Density of strictly wintering species in the study region decreased latitudinally from southeast to northwest, being higher at intermediate altitudes in localities with presence of water and woodlands dominated by coniferous trees. Abundance of facultative or obligate frugivorous species was very low. Richness of species was higher toward the western part of the study area, increased with habitat structural complexity, and was lower at higher altitudes. On the other hand, the less diverse bird assemblages were those that inhabit agricultural landscapes and/or areas located at higher altitudes. Habitats and areas with a higher relative abundance of species with conservation problems at the European scale (SPEC scores) were located at intermediate altitudes in the southwest and southeast of the study region. The relative abundance of this group of species was also associated to the presence of water, habitat structural complexity and agricultural use. The relationship between the European conservation status of species (SPEC scores) and the patterns of distribution, abundance, habitat preferences and ecological width of 72 species was also analysed. Species with more conservation problems on the European scale have a marked preference for structurally simpler habitats (e.g., agricultural and grasslands habitats) and have a broader altitudinal and among-habitats distribution. Results from the 44 census localities were extrapolated to the remaining region using a geographical information system in order to build predictive maps for density, species richness, species diversity and weighed European conservation status. This work shows that valuable knowledge can be obtained from fragmentary and dispersed data, in order to describe general patterns of distribution, abundance and habitat preferences of birds. This methodological approach could be a valid in environmentally heterogeneous, large regions, with few qualified bird observers and researchers.
 
Calctrombidium nikolettae n. gen., n. sp. is described from Calcutta in India. Larvae were obtained from plants. The new genus has the following main features: anterior dorsal scutum sensillae placed between setae AL and PL; PL setae placed posterior and lateral to bases of sensilla. Posterior dorsal scutum absent. Bf 5, 4, 4, Tr 1, 1, 1, Cx 2, 2, 1, all barbed. Posterior claw III reduced to a hooked conical spur.
 
Discriminacion morfologica entre dos poblaciones del alburno del Danubio, Chalcalburnus chalcoides (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae), utilizando una red en celosia.. Recientemente se han criticado diversos metodos de medicion de parametros corporales, que se utilizaban en la identificacion de los linajes, debido a la debilidad y los sesgos inherentes a ellos. Como alternativa, cada vez se esta usando mas un nuevo sistema de medicion morfometrica denomiado red en celosia, para la identificacion de los linajes. Nosotros hemos estudiado las diferenciaciones morfometricas entre dos poblaciones y en los dos sexos del alburno del Danubio (Chalcalburnus chalcoides) utilizando este tipo de red. Se midieron las distancias entre 15 puntos determinados o nudos de la celosia en 66 especimenes. Se evaluaron las transformaciones del ajuste del tamano dividiendo las caracteristicas (distancias entre nudos) por el valor del centroide del especimen. Se llevaron a cabo analisis de varianza multivariante (AMOVA), analisis de componentes principales y analisis de discriminacion para investigar la distincion y los patrones de las variaciones morfologicas entre poblaciones y sexos. El AMOVA (test de Wilks) indicaba una diferencia significativa para los vectores medios entre poblaciones (�© = 0,136; F.=.7,76; P.<.0,001) y sexos (�©.=.0,120; F = 45,32; P < 0,001). El analisis de discriminacion clasifico correctamente el 97% y el 89,4% de las muestras en sus grupos originales de poblacion y sexo, respectivamente. Nuestros resultados respaldan el uso de las redes en celosia para estudiar la variacion morfologica entre poblaciones, ya que proporcionan perspectivas muy interesantes para el estudio de los patrones de diversidad.
 
The interaction of an additional source of mortality with the underlying 'natural' one strongly affects population dynamics. We propose an alternative way to test between two forms of interaction, total additivity and compensation. In contrast to existing approaches, only ring¿recovery data where the cause of death of each recovered individual is known are needed. Cause-specific mortality proportions are estimated based on a multistate capture-recapture model. The hypotheses are tested by inspecting the correlation between the cause-specific mortality proportions. A variance decomposition is performed to obtain a proper estimate of the true process correlation. The estimation of the cause-specific mortality proportions is the most critical part of the approach. It works well if at least one of the two mortality rates varies across time and the two recovery rates are constant across time. We illustrate this methodology by a case study of White Storks Ciconia ciconia where we tested whether mortality induced by power line collision is additive to other forms of mortality
 
Localización de las ecoregiones de selva tropical seca dentro del área de estudio.
Spearman correlation coefficients for different types of diversity for reptiles, amphibians and herpetofauna with respect to latitude and quadrants. Bold numbers indicate statistical significance at P < 0.05: L. Latitude; Q. Quadrants.
The latitudinal distribution patterns of alpha, beta and gamma diversity of reptiles, amphibians and herpetofauna were analyzed using individual binary models of potential distribution for 301species predicted by ecological modelling for a grid of 9,932 quadrants of ~25 km2 each. We arranged quadrants in 312latitudinal bands in which alpha, beta and gamma values were determined. Latitudinal trends of all scales of diversity were similar in all groups. Alpha and gamma responded inversely to latitude whereas beta showed a high latitudinal fluctuation due to the high number of endemic species. Alpha and gamma showed a strong correlation in all groups. Beta diversity is an important component of the herpetofauna distribution patterns as a continuous source of species diversity throughout the region.
 
Annual survival and dispersal rates of adult and juvenile red-tailed tropicbirds were examined in connection with exposure to heavy metals. From 1990-2000 the incineration of a U.S. stockpile of chemical weapons stored at Johnston Atoll exposed nesting tropicbirds to increased levels of human disturbance, smoke stack emissions and potential leaks. Using a multi-state mark-recapture modeling approach, birds nesting in this site (downwind of the plant) were compared to those nesting in a reference site (upwind of the plant) with less human disturbance, no exposure to smoke stack emissions or other potential incineration emissions. We did not find any difference in survival of adults or juveniles when comparing the two sites. Adult breeding dispersal rates did not differ between the sites but we did find differences in the age-specific natal dispersal rates. Birds fledged from downwind areas were less likely to return to their natal area to nest and more likely to immigrate to the upwind area than vice-versa. This asymmetry in emigration rates is believed to be due to differing vegetation densities and has implications for vegetation management in relation to tropicbird nest success and population size.
 
MARK design matrix, showing the use of the "add" and "product" commands to model survival as a quadratic function of true age (individual covariate "age" plus number of years since colour ringing). The corresponding parameter index matrix was set up as fully age–specific (i.e. 16 age classes, no time–dependence). 
Probabilidad estimada de la supervivencia de gaviotas tridáctilas adultas como una función de la edad real. Las líneas indican estimaciones y límites de confianza del 95% a partir del modelo preferido con una relación cuadrática, mientras que los símbolos indican estimaciones sin restricciones a partir de un modelo que utiliza la edad real como factor.
In long-lived birds, pre-breeders are often difficult or impossible to observe, and even though a proportion of marked adults may be of known age, the estimation of age-specific survival is complicated by the absence of observations during the first years of life. New developments in MARK now allow use of an updated individual covariate. We used this powerful approach to model age-dependence in survival of Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) at a North Sea colony. Although only 69 marked breeders were of known age, there was strong evidence for a quadratic relationship between true age and survival. We believe that this simple but powerful approach could be implemented for many species and could provide improved estimates of how survival changes with age, a central theme in life history theory.
 
The study of population dynamics has long depended on methodological progress. Among many striking examples, continuous time models for populations structured in age (Sharpe & Lotka, 1911) were made possible by progress in the mathematics of integral equations. Therefore the relationship between population ecology and mathematical and statistical modelling in the broad sense raises a challenge in interdisciplinary research. After the impetus given in particular by Seber (1982), the regular biennial EURING conferences became a major vehicle to achieve this goal. It is thus not surprising that EURING 2003 included a session entitled “Methodological advances”. Even if at risk of heterogeneity in the topics covered and of overlap with other sessions, such a session was a logical way of ensuring that recent and exciting new developments were made available for discussion, further development by biometricians and use by population biologists. The topics covered included several to which full sessions were devoted at EURING 2000 (Anderson, 2001) such as: individual covariates, Bayesian methods, and multi–state models. Some other topics (heterogeneity models, exploited populations and integrated modelling) had been addressed by contributed talks or posters. Their presence among “methodological advances”, as well as in other sessions of EURING 2003, was intended as a response to their rapid development and potential relevance to biological questions. We briefly review all talks here, including those not published in the proceedings. In the plenary talk, Pradel et al. (in prep.) developed GOF tests for multi–state models. Until recently, the only goodness–of–fit procedures for multistate models were ad hoc, and non optimal, involving use of standard tests for single state models (Lebreton & Pradel, 2002). Pradel et al. (2003) proposed a general approach based in particular on mixtures of multinomial distributions. Pradel et al. (in prep.) showed how to decompose tests into interpretable components as proposed by Pollock et al. (1985) for the Cormack–Jolly–Seber model. Pledger et al. (in prep.) went on in their thorough exploration of models with heterogeneity of capture (Pledger & Schwarz, 2002; Pledger et al., 2003), by considering the use of finite mixture models for the robust design. Given the level of details in demographic traits presently addressed by capture–recapture, the problem of heterogeneity, once apparently settled by fairly reassuring messages (Carothers, 1973, 1979), is becoming again a central issue, with potential disastrous consequences if improperly handled. Heterogeneity models, that bear also a relationship to “multi–event models” (Pradel, in press), will thus certainly be increasingly useful. Pollock, Norris, and Pledger (in prep.) reviewed the capture–recapture models as applied to community data (Boulinier et al., 1998) and developed general removal and capture–recapture models when multiple species are sampled to estimate community parameters. Because of unequal delectability between species, these approaches bear a clear relationship to heterogeneity models, which will be more and more a reference for comparative studies of communities and “macroecology” (Gaston & Blackburn, 2000). Bonner & Schwarz (2004) proposed a capture–recapture model with continuous individual covariates changing over time more fully developed in Bonner & Schwarz (2004). The difficulty here is to set up a sub–model predicting the covariate value when an individual is not captured. While multi–state models permit an ad hoc treatment by categorizing the covariate, Bonner and Schwarz bring a sound answer by considering the covariate obeys a Markov chain with continuous state–space. Otis & White (2004) presented a thorough, simulation–based, investigation of two approaches used to test the contrasting hypotheses of additive and compensatory hunting mortality based on band recovery data. The two approaches are the usual ultra–structural model and a new one based on a random effects model. Thispaper can be viewed as part of a revival of studies of the dynamics of exploited populations, in the broad sense, including the study of man–induced mortality in the framework of conservation biology (Lebreton, in press). This revival is a direct consequence of the increasing impact of man on the biosphere and of continuing methodological progress (Ferson & Burgman, 2000). The use of random effects models (see also Schaub & Lebreton, 2004) directly builds upon the seminal work by Anderson and Burnham (1976). Stauffer presented a Winbugs implementation of the Cormack–Jolly–Seber model that complemented other presentations in the conference and the short course. Finally, Morgan, Besbeas, Thomas, Buckland, Harwood,Duck and Pomery, proposed a thorough and timely review of integrated modelling, i.e., in our context, of models considering simultaneously capture–recapture demographic information and census information. These methods were covered in other sessions, in relation to Bayesian methodology. Integrated modelling appears indeed to be the logical way of combining all pieces of information arising from integrated monitoring, and as one of the great methodological challenges for our community in the years to come (Besbeas et al., 2002).
 
Composición del hábitat alimentario y selección de hábitats dentro de la gama alimentaria de la garceta común durante las estaciones reproductoras de 1998 y 1999. Se presentan el número de individuos observados (N) y el número de individuos esperados (Exp) según la proporción de hábitat disponible. * Indican los hábitats seleccionados en mayor proporción que su disponibilidad para una colonia indicada. Los índices indican en rango de preferencia de hábitats y en orden creciente: RICE. Campos de arroz; DRY. Tierras cultivadas de secano; URB. Tierras urbanizadas; NM. Marismas; SAN. "Sansouïres"; § A fin de evitar problemas debidos a celdas vacías y uniformizar los datos, se añadió la constante 10 -8 a todas las celdas para los cálculos de las
In order to understand the role of foraging habitat quality on fecundity parameters we measured habitat use, breeding parameters, and body condition of chicks in six colonies of Little Egrets in southern France. The foraging habitat available differed between colonies; it was mainly natural marshes around the Carrelet colony, agricultural lands (rice fields and dry crops) around the Agon colony, a mix of agricultural and natural lands around the Redon and Fiélouse colonies, a mix of natural and urbanised/industrial lands around the Palissade colony, and mainly cultivated and urbanised lands around the Chaumont colony. The habitat attractiveness to adult Little Egret breeding was higher for natural marshes than for other habitat types. Agricultural marshes (rice fields) came next. Other human¿made habitats came last. Clutch size and body condition index of chicks did not differ between colonies. Brood size was influenced by both the association of the proportion of natural marshes in the foraging area and clutch size, and the association of clutch size and the total number of heron pairs in the colony. The effect of the proportion of natural marshes could not be distinguished from the effects of the colony size. The potential influence of other parameters not taken into account in this study is discussed.
 
Wildlife managers use flight initiation distance (FID), the distance animals flee an approaching predator, to determine set back distances to minimize human impacts on wildlife. FID is typically estimated by a single person; this study examined the effects of intruder number and orientation on FID. Three different group size treatments (solitary person, two people side-by-side, two people one-behind-the-other) were applied to Pied Currawongs (Strepera graculina) and to Crimson Rosellas (Platycerus elegans). Rosellas flushed at significantly greater distances when approached by two people compared to a single person. This effect was not seen in currawongs. Intruder orientation did not influence the FID of either species. Results suggest that intruder number should be better integrated into estimates of set back distance to manage human visitation around sensitive species
 
Map of the breeding pond and the four roads around La Pobla de Segur surveyed for toads: a. C-13 from La Pobla de Segur to Tremp (11 km); b. N-260 from La Pobla de Segur in the direction of Sort (7 km); c. N-260 from La Pobla de Segur going towards Senterada (5 km); d. A local road from La Pobla de Segur to Aramunt (5 km). (For more information see Material and methods.) Mapa del punto de reproducción y las cuatro carreteras alrededor de La Pobla de Segur donde se han buscado sapos atropellados: a. C-13 desde La Pobla de Segur a Tremp (11 km); b. N-260 desde La Pobla de Segur en dirección a Sort (7 km); c. N-260 desde La Pobla de Segur hacia Senterada (5 km); d. Carretera local desde La Pobla de Segur a Aramunt (5 km). (Para más información ver Material y métodos.)
Plot of the multiple correspondence analyses to detect the variables linked to the presence of killed common toads Bufo bufo in the C-13 road. Variables (categories): Toad presence (yes, no); Presence of streams (yes, no); Presence of local ways (yes, no); Slope of the road side (high, medium, low); Type of vegetation (natural vegetation, fields, nat. veget. + fields).
The Common Toad Bufo bufo is the amphibian with the highest rates of road mortality in many European countries. This elevated incidence of road kills has frequently been associated with migration to breeding sites. In this study, we analysed the mortality of the Common Toad in the road network in Catalonia (NE Spain), and investigated the related causative factors on four roads near a breeding site in the Pyrenees. Results suggest that the high mortality rate is due to a combination of factors: toad abundance, traffic density and quality of water bodies for breeding. On the road with the highest incidence of road kills we investigated whether deaths occurred at specific spots or in a random manner. The road was divided into 500 m sections and each section was classified according to biotic (type of vegetation) and abiotic (presence of streams, roadside topography) variables. Multiple correspondence analysis showed that sections with streams crossing under the road had the highest mortality rate, suggesting that such water bodies flowing into the breeding pond are the toads' main migratory pathways for hibernation and breeding. As toads use the same migratory routes each year, it is critical to identify areas with a high potential mortality so that efficient measures can be designed to increase wildlife permeability, and thereby reduce habitat fragmentation. This methodology could be applied in other areas with high amphibian mortality.
 
Monthly variation in the number of boats–day at the Columbretes Islands during the period 1997–2000: E. January; F. February; M. March; A. April; Ma. May; J. June; Jl. July; Ag. August; S. September; O. October; N. November; D. December.  
Number of nests and productivity of Eleonora's Falcons (Falco eleonorae) detected on each island of the Columbretes archipelago during the period 1988-2000 (source: Reserva Natural Islas Columbretes, 1988-2001): ND. No data available; In brackets number of boats-day. Tabla 1. Número de nidos y productividad de halcones de Eleonora (Falco eleonorae) detectados en cada una de las islas del archipiélago de las Columbretes durante el periodo 1988-2000 (datos extraídos de: Reserva Natural Islas Columbretes, 1988-2001): ND. Información no disponible; entre paréntesis se indica el número de barcos-día durante el periodo reproductor.
Human disturbance is a common threat for species of conservation concern such as the Eleonora's Falcon. This paper shows that the rise in tourist presence from 1992 to 2000 has not affected the overall number of breeding pairs or their productivity in a small archipelago of the western Mediterranean (Columbretes Islands). However, the increasing tourist activity has coincided with a shift in the degree of occupancy on two islands within the archipelago, favouring that with a lower human presence close to colonies. Several conservation actions are reported and suggested, aimed at both testing and preventing the role of human presence as a factor influencing long-term colony persistence and growth.
 
Map of the breeding pond and the four roads around La Pobla de Segur surveyed for toads: a. C-13 from La Pobla de Segur to Tremp (11 km); b. N-260 from La Pobla de Segur in the direction of Sort (7 km); c. N-260 from La Pobla de Segur going towards Senterada (5 km); d. A local road from La Pobla de Segur to Aramunt (5 km). (For more information see Material and methods.)
Plot of the multiple correspondence analyses to detect the variables linked to the presence of killed common toads Bufo bufo in the C-13 road. Variables (categories): Toad presence (yes, no); Presence of streams (yes, no); Presence of local ways (yes, no); Slope of the road side (high, medium, low); Type of vegetation (natural vegetation, fields, nat. veget. + fields).
The Common Toad Bufo bufo is the amphibian with the highest rates of road mortality in many European countries. This elevated incidence of road kills has frequently been associated with migration to breeding sites. In this study, we analysed the mortality of the Common Toad in the road network in Catalonia (NE Spain), and investigated the related causative factors on four roads near a breeding site in the Pyrenees. Results suggest that the high mortality rate is due to a combination of factors: toad abundance, traffic density and quality of water bodies for breeding. On the road with the highest incidence of road kills we investigated whether deaths occurred at specific spots or in a random manner. The road was divided into 500 m sections and each section was classified according to biotic (type of vegetation) and abiotic (presence of streams, roadside topography) variables. Multiple correspondence analysis showed that sections with streams crossing under the road had the highest mortality rate, suggesting that such water bodies flowing into the breeding pond are the toads' main migratory pathways for hibernation and breeding. As toads use the same migratory routes each year, it is critical to identity areas with a high potential mortality so that efficient measures can be designed to increase wildlife permeability, and thereby reduce habitat fragmentation. This methodology could be applied in other areas with high amphibian mortality.
 
Principal components analysis (PCA) of lizard morphology. The eigenvalues, the proportion of the variance explained by the eigenvalue for each axis, and the loadings for the morphology variables are given. 
We examined microhabitat occupation and functional morphology of four sympatric agamid lizards (Phrynocephalus helioscopus helioscopus, P. interscapularis, P. mystaceus galli and Trapelus sanguinolentus) at three sites in the arid zone of central Uzbekistan. At two sites located in sand dunes, substrate attributes played a key role in habitat selection by three syntopic species. At a third flat, stony site, P. helioscopus selected habitat non-randomly, tending to occur close to sparse, low vegetation. Syntopic taxa were separated in morphospace, and there was a trend for taxa with proportionally longer limbs to have faster field escape speeds. Field escape distances and predator avoidance tactics differed between species, with two main escape strategies (crypsis or sand-diving following an escape sprint). We caution that broad-scale threatening processes such as over-grazing and salinity may be having a detrimental effect on microhabitat features important to terrestrial reptiles in Uzbekistan.
 
Little attention has been given to date to the potential influence of agricultural land use methods or farming practice on the genetic variability of native species. In the present study, we measured the genetic structure of three model species —Microtus arvalis, Arion lusitanicus and Lumbricus terrestris— in an agricultural landscape with a diversity of land use types and farming practices. The aim of the study was to investigate whether different management strategies such as the method of land use or type of farming practice (conventional and ecological farming) have an impact on the species’ genetic structure. We used RAPD markers and multilocus DNA fingerprints as genetic tools. Genetic similarity was based on the presence or absence of bands, which revealed a wide range of variability within and between the analysed populations for each model species. Cluster analysis and Mantel tests (isolation by distance) showed different genetic structures in the populations of M. arvalis from sampling sites with different land use. However, the main factors influencing the genetic variability of these vole populations were geographic distances and isolation barriers. The genetic variability observed in A. lusitanicus populations correlated with geographic distance and the type of land use method, but no correlation was found with different farming practices. Our preliminary results suggest that the genetic structure of L. terrestris populations is influenced by the agricultural land use method used at the different sampling sites but not by the geographic distance.
 
Sampling sites: 1. Herl, near Trier; 2. Wahlen.
Analysed species, number of analysed individuals (N), and description of the sampling sites (Ss: H. Herl; W. Wahlen) and locations including land use (Sl: Cm.
Relación (aislamiento por la distancia) entre la distancia genética D ij (Lynch, 1991) y la distancia geográfica de las poblaciones analizadas: A. L. terrestris; B. A. lusitanicus; C. M. arvalis.
S ab media (basada en 94 marcadores RAPD) en cada poblacción (cursiva) y entre las poblaciones analizadas de A. lusitanicus. (Para las abreviaturas ver tabla 1.) Sampling locations
Little attention has been given to date to the potential influence of agricultural land use methods or farming practice on the genetic variability of native species. In the present study, we measured the genetic structure of three model species —Microtus arvalis, Arion lusitanicus and Lumbricus terrestris— in an agricultural landscape with a diversity of land use types and farming practices. The aim of the study was to investigate whether different management strategies such as the method of land use or type of farming practice (conventional and ecological farming) have an impact on the species’ genetic structure. We used RAPD markers and multilocus DNA fingerprints as genetic tools. Genetic similarity was based on the presence or absence of bands, which revealed a wide range of variability within and between the analysed populations for each model species. Cluster analysis and Mantel tests (isolation by distance) showed different genetic structures in the populations of M. arvalis from sampling sites with different land use. However, the main factors influencing the genetic variability of these vole populations were geographic distances and isolation barriers. The genetic variability observed in A. lusitanicus populations correlated with geographic distance and the type of land use method, but no correlation was found with different farming practices. Our preliminary results suggest that the genetic structure of L. terrestris populations is influenced by the agricultural land use method used at the different sampling sites but not by the geographic distance.
 
The clustering coefficients of amphibian species (A) and families (B). Species and family names are listed in table 1. Most species and families have low clustering coefficients. Abbreviations: B. Bufonidae; H. Hylidae; M. Microhylidae; P. Pelobatidae; R. Randiae; Amb. Ambystomatidae; Amp. Amphiumidae; C. Cryptobranchidae; Pl. Plethodontidae; Pr. Proteidae; Sl. Salamandridae; Sr. Sirens.  
Los cuatro posibles modelos conceptuales para los anfibios de Alabama, en la distribución de la distancia al vecino más cercano.  
Large-scale biodiversity conservation is urgently needed due to increasing habitat loss and fragmentation. Understanding topological perspectives of species' distribution patterns can provide useful information for linking conservation studies at larger scales. We studied topological properties of localities in Alabama where 60 species of 12 families of amphibians were present. Analysis included a clustering coefficient which measures the strength of a population group, the relationship between occurrence localities and species number, the fractal dimension of occurrence localities (which emphasizes spatial irregularity), and distance to nearest-neighbor. The results indicate that the clustering coefficients of most amphibian species were low, but were higher for species with few occurrence localities, such as Rana sylvatica and Limnaoedus ocularis. The general relationship between species number and occurrence localities was that the majority of species held few localities in their distribution, while the remaining species occupied a greater number of localities. The fractal dimension (FD) for all amphibian localities was about 1.58, although FD was low for most individual species. We identified four relationships in the distribution of distance to nearest-neighbor: linear, logarithmic, power and polynomial. These topological properties may indicate intrinsic features about amphibians in Alabama and provide useful information for regional planning. Enhancing landscape linkages across a large area using undisturbed areas, such as 300-500 km in diameter may be a good approach to conservation practice in this region. Steps needed for biodiversity conservation planning in Alabama include creating or conserving small habitats across agricultural and urban land, and maintaining suitable spatial complexity and distance to nearest neighbors.
 
Top-cited authors
Jean-Dominique Lebreton
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
Olivier Gimenez
  • Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive
Roger Pradel
  • Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive
Jay Rotella
  • Montana State University
Thomas Ranius
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences