Andrologia

Published by Wiley
Online ISSN: 1439-0272
Publications
Article
This study was set up to determine if there are any age-dependent differences in the adverse effects of DBCP on the reproductive system of male rats. Groups of male rats were injected at the ages of 7,30 or 90 days with a single (50 mg kg-1 body weight) or repeated (20 mg kg-1 body weight once a week for 3 weeks) dose of DBCP, dissolved in DMSO. Ninety days after the last injection the males' fertility was estimated and the animals were killed. Blood was collected for future hormone assays, organs were weighed, testes were then taken for histological studies and sperm counts. The results were compared with those of control peers. The results showed that animals injected at the ages of 7 or 90 days under both regimens of treatment were adversely affected. The damage was noted in their fertility rate, sperm production, testicular histology and hormonal profile. Those injected at the age of 30 days showed only an insignificant variation compared with controls.
 
Article
This study was set to determine if there is a correlation between the general toxic effect and the gonadotoxic effect of DBCP on male rats. Groups of male rats were injected with a single dose of DBCP (50 mg kg-1) dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Twenty four hours, one and four weeks post injection animals were sacrificed. Blood was collected for enzymes' and hormones' assays. Organs were weighed and testes were taken for histological examination and sperm counts. The results showed that DBCP at a dose of 50 mg kg-1 had a general toxic effect expressed by reduction in body and liver weights and reduced activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT). These changes show a tendency to revert to normal values with time. On the other hand, gonadotoxic effects increase in severity with time. The weight of testes and epididymides were reduced, sperm counts decreased and histological damage advanced, and FSH and LH blood levels increased 4 weeks post injection. It seems that in rats the gonadotoxic effect of DBCP is dissociated from the general toxic effects.
 
Article
This work aimed to assess seminal alpha-1,4-glucosidase activity in infertile oligoasthenozoospermic men associated with and without scrotal varicocele. Eighty men were investigated. They were divided into three groups: group 1 (n = 20), fertile normozoospermic men; group 2 (n = 30), oligoasthenozoospermia with varicocele; and group 3 (n = 30), oligoasthenozoospermia without varicocele. The patients underwent medical history, clinical examination, conventional semen analysis and estimation of seminal plasma alpha-1,4-glucosidase activity by double-beam spectrophotometer method and serum testosterone by radioimmunoassay method. There was a significant decrease in the mean seminal alpha-1,4-glucosidase activity levels in infertile men versus controls (mean +/- SD; 7.66 +/- 0.433, 2.088 +/- 0.565, 5.384 +/- 0.85 mU ml(-1) respectively). Mean serum testosterone levels demonstrated nonsignificant differences between studied groups. Seminal alpha-1,4-glucosidase activity levels demonstrated significant correlation with sperm count, sperm motility percentage and serum testosterone in oligoasthenozoospermia with varicocele group and demonstrated nonsignificant correlation in other groups. It is concluded that varicocele-induced hypoxia is the adverse effect that causes both oligoasthenozoospermia and decreased seminal alpha-1,4-glucosidase levels.
 
Article
In this study we determined the effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation during incubation in media at 39 degrees C on ram spermatozoa and the protection by exogenously added antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD). A novel Cu/Zn-SOD, isolated from the fungal strain Humicola lutea 103 (HLSOD), was used. Our results point out that the levels of both, superoxide anion radicals (*O2-) and H2O2, increase approximately 8-10- and 2-3-fold, respectively, during incubation of spermatozoa. Enhanced ROS generation coincided with reduction of motility, independently of the type of diluted medium. Addition of HLSOD (30, 60 and 120 U ml(-1) sperm) improved sperm functions, maintaining almost initial percentages of motile spermatozoa and increasing the values of mean cytochemical coefficient. At the same time, a significant diminution of *O2- and H2O2 content in the presence of antioxidant enzyme was established. The results suggest that HLSOD is an effective *O2- scavenger in semen that leads to protection of sperm functions.
 
Article
Clinical, spermiologic and karyologic examinations and determinations of plasmatic testosterone were performed in a group of 105 chromatin-positive patients aged 16 to 45 years. A comparison with a control group of 108 somatosexually well developed and fertile men at the age of 21 to 55 years has established that in the Klinefelter's syndrome the male sex hormone level in the blood was highly significantly lower. Whereas in the control group the male sex hormone values in the blood were dependent on age, it was not possible to prove any dynamic changes in the process of ageing between 21 and 45 years in chromatin-positive patients. A comparison of some phenotypical and laboratory findings in the various chromosomal variants of Klinefelter's syndrome shows that comparatively the least changes were found in patients with a mosaic of 46,XY/47,XXY.
 
Article
This study, performed using semen samples from 10 men, investigated the relationship between sperm protein tyrosine phosphorylation and acrosomal status in conditions supporting in vitro capacitation. Percoll-selected spermatozoa (cells from the 95% fraction) were incubated for 3 h at 37 degrees C under an atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air, in a polyvinyl alcohol (1 mg ml(-1)) containing Biggers-Whitten-Whittingham's medium, nonsupplemented or supplemented with either bovine serum albumin (BSA; fatty acid free, 3 mg ml(-1)) or 2-hydroxy-propyl-beta-cyclodextrin (2-OH-p-beta-CD; 0.5, 1, 2 mmol l(-1)). Sperm suspension in each medium was split into two aliquots. The first was used to evaluate the acrosomal status by staining with the fluorescein isothiocyanate Pisum sativum agglutinin after induction of the acrosome reaction (AR) for 45 min with 10 micromol l(-1) of A23187 calcium ionophore. The second aliquot was used for sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting, followed by a densitometric analysis. Compared with the nonsupplemented medium, BSA- or 2-OH-p-beta-CD-supplementation induced an increase in both the percentage of live acrosome-reacted sperm and the tyrosine phosphorylation intensity of the main phosphorylated 107 kDa protein. A correlation between the percentage of live acrosome-reacted sperm and the 107-kDa protein phosphotyrosine intensity was observed. Therefore, the 107 kDa protein-phosphotyrosine level measurement would bring additional information to conventional semen parameters in the assessment of the human sperm functionality.
 
Article
The serial semithin sections of the testes of perfused rats (age: 25–41 postnatal days) were evaluated microscopically on each alternative day for the morphology of spermatogenetic cells and especially for spermatid differentiation. The histochemical reaction for non-specific esterases, 3α-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase (HSDH), 3β-HSDH, 11bT-HSDH, 17β-HSDH were performed in cryostat sections of corresponding rat testes (age: 25–55 days). Eight different types of germ cell associations (designated as A—H) appeared from day 25 to day 41. Seven steps of differentiation of spermatids were characterized. The turning point of spermatid maturation was observed on day 35. Prior to this day, mainly spermatids step 1 were identified. On day 35 spermatids steps 1–5 were present. The reactions of non-specific esterases, 3β-HSDH, 17β-HSDH and 3α-HSDH were observed in the Leydig cells of all testes. Only from day 35 onwards could 11β-HSDH be demonstrated. The temporal sequence of the differentiation of spermatids and the appearance of histochemical activity of 11β-HSDH in the Leydig cells seem to be closely correlated. An additional observation concerning the presence of germ cell debris was made in the seminiferous tubules during the postnatal development. Large amounts of debris were observed only till day 33.
 
Article
Immunizing Balb-c mice with washed motile human spermatozoa enabled the production of 2 monoclonal spermatozoal antibodies designated Ki-Sp II-13 and Ki-Sp VI-2. Immunohistochemically Ki-Sp VI-2 reacts only with mature spermatozoa. The monoclonal antibody Ki-Sp II-13 recognizes besides spermatozoa also T- and B-lymphocytes. Electronmicroscopically both antibodies react with the surface membrane of spermatozoa in the area of the head, the neck and the proximal part of the tail. Functional tests show a high sperm-agglutinating and sperm-immobilizing activity, using different test systems for Ki-Sp II-13. Both antibodies proved to be IgG. On immunoprecipitation Ki-Sp II-13 was identified as IgG-2a and Ki-Sp VI-2 as IgG1. Immunoprecipitates of SDS-electrophoretically separated and radiolabeled sperm surface antigens revealed a molecular weight of 18 KD for Ki-Sp II-13 and of 24 KD for Ki-Sp VI-2.
 
Article
The study investigated the psychosexual status and sexual function in adults who had hypospadias surgery at different ages. A detailed questionnaire was mailed to 130 patients who underwent hypospadias surgery between January 1988 and December 2007, and 50 healthy males who served as the control group. The patients were divided into three groups based on their age at which surgery was completed: group A (n=32; <10 years); group B (n=45; 10-18 years); and group C (n=53; >18 years). The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and The Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale were used to assess psychosexual status; a designed questionnaire and the International Index of Erectile Function-5 were used to assess sexual function. The incidence of anxiety and depression was significantly higher in patients than that in controls (P < 0.001), and was correlated with the age at which surgery was completed. The length and circumference of penises in patients were shorter than those of control groups with statistically significant differences (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences between patients and controls regarding libido strength, overall sexual satisfaction and erectile function (P > 0.05). In conclusion, difference existed in certain aspects of psychosexual and penile development between patients and controls. Hypospadias surgery should be performed early.
 
Article
A method of cell separation by enzymatic attack and filtration was applied after injecting the testes. The results indicated that in the case of the interstitial injections, the fraction rich in interstitial cells captures from 30 to 50 times more RISA than that rich in germinal cells, and from 10 to 20 times more than that rich in Sertoli cells. Following the intratubular injection, radioactivity incorporation was greatly reduced and there were no differences in RISA (radioactivity/mg of protein) among the cell fractions. It was concluded that Sertoli cells do not have in its apical side a phagocytic activity comparable to that of the interstitial macrophages and possibly they incorporate only a small amount of tracer by a process of moderate pinocytosis. Inkorporierung und intrazellulare Hydrolyse von 131 J-Albumin nach Injektion in den Rattenhoden Zusammenfassung: Mittels einer Zelltrennungsmethode (Enzymatische Einwirkung und Filtration) wurden die Aufnahme von 131 J-Albumin und die Hydrolyse untersucht. Die Ergebnisse legen offen, daß bei interstitiellen Injektionen die interstitiellen Zellen etwa 30–50mal mehr RISA speichert als in den Keimzellen nachzuweisen ist; in den Sertoli-Zellen ergab sich, daß die Werte in den Interstüums-Zellen 10–20mal höher lagen. Nach intratubulärer Injektion war die Radioaktivität deutlich reduziert und es ergaben sich keine Unterschiede in RISA hinsichtlich der Zellfraktionen. Es wird die Schlußfolge-rung gezogen, daß die Sertoli-Zellen in ihrem apikalen Teil keine phagozytische Aktivität vergleichbar jener der interstitiellen Makrophagen besitzen und möglicherweise lediglich einen geringen Anteil des Tracers inkorporieren mittels einer mäßigen Pinozyrose.
 
Article
A study undertaken on 1345 pregnancies resulting from artificial insemination with donor showed an 18% risk of abortion. This figure is the same as that admitted for natural reproduction. It does not depend on any of the classically studied semen characteristics and in particular remains invariant whatever the postthaw motility, the factor most strongly linked to conception rate. Two results, well known from the literature, i.e. the increased abortion rate mentioned in natural reproduction when the sperm is of poor quality and the high incidence of repeated abortions when sperm quality is particularly good are discussed. The first of these results cannot be considered as being established in a statistically significant way. The second may result from different sources of bias, some of which are identified. In essence a high frequency of abortions signifies simply a high frequency of pregnancies, it is therefore not surprising that the semen is in this case particularly good.
 
Article
Little is known about the biological and clinical significance of bilaterally enlarged testes (bilateral megalotestes or macroorchidism). We have investigated clinical, endocrine and spermatological characteristics of 135 andrological patients with a testicular volume of more than 25 ml bilaterally. 135 patients with normal testicular volumes served as controls. Subjects with bilateral megalotestis had higher sperm counts and better sperm morphology and motility than the controls. Levels of LH, FSH, prolactin, testosterone and estradiol were lower in the megalotestis group. This was statistically significant for LH and FSH. No testicular tumours were diagnosed in either group. We conclude that in most andrological patients with bilateral megalotestes fertility parameters are excellent despite the unusually low hormone levels found in a significant minority. No specific pathology underlying the large gonadal volume could be identified.
 
Article
Complex chromosome rearrangements (CCR) with two independent chromosome rearrangements are rare. Although CCRs lead to high unbalanced gamete rates, data on meiotic segregation in this context are scarce. A male patient was referred to our clinic as part of a family screening programme prompted by the observation of a 44,X,der(Y),t(Y;15)(q12;q10)pat,rob(13;14)(q10;q10)mat karyotype in his brother. Karyotyping identified the same CCR. Sperm FISH (with locus-specific probes for the segments involved in the translocations and nine chromosomes not involved in both rearrangements) was used to investigate the rearrangements meiotic segregation products and establish whether or not an inter-chromosomal effect was present. Sperm nuclear DNA fragmentation was also evaluated. For rob(13;14) and der(Y), the proportions of unbalanced products were, respectively, 26.4% and 60.6%. Overall, 70.3% of the meiotic segregation products were unbalanced. No evidence of an inter-chromosomal effect was found, and the sperm nuclear DNA fragmentation rate was similar to our laboratory's normal cut-off value. In view of previously published sperm FISH analyses of Robertsonian translocations (and even though the mechanism is still unknown), we hypothesise that cosegregation of der(Y) and rob(13;14) could modify rob(13;14) meiotic segregation.
 
Article
Treatment of varicocele is suggested in infertile men if sperm parameter values are abnormal. The effectiveness of the treatment with respect to fertility remains to be clarified. A multicentre, prospective randomized study on varicocele treatment in infertile men to demonstrate the superiority of sclerotization of the varicocele in preventing persistence, was started in 1995 with the collaboration of 15 German andrological centres. The primary endpoint was the incidence of pregnancy 1 year after randomisation. The number of cases needed to achieve the goal of the study was calculated at 460. However, three years after starting the study, only 67 patients had been randomized. Different reasons contributed to the poor recruitment. There was no significant increase in pregnancy rate in the treated group, compared to the controls, the confidence interval being 20.8% to 15.7%. The authors would like to encourage further collaborative study groups to start another prospective, randomized study with the aim of avoiding the costs and risks of varicocele treatment when its success remains unclear.
 
Article
The present study examines several aspects of [14C]-2-deoxyglucose uptake by rat Leydig cells: the characteristics of uptake by Leydig cells and type of inhibition by cytochalasin B, the effect of other drugs on [14C]-2-deoxyglucose uptake, the specificity of the glucose transporter for other substrates and the effect of various hormones. The apparent Km and V for [14C]-2-deoxyglucose were 0.4 mM and 0.17 mumol/min/10(6) cells, respectively. The inhibition of [14C]-2-deoxyglucose by cytochalasin B was competitive in nature, with an apparent Ki of 0.28 microM. Both phloretin and phlorizin (1.0-50 microM) inhibited [14C]-2-deoxyglucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner. Although D-glucose inhibited [14C]-2-deoxyglucose uptake by Leydig cells, L-glucose was ineffective, reflecting the stereospecificity of the glucose transporter for the former substrate. Various hormones, including: insulin, LH, 17 beta-estradiol or growth hormone which have been reported to stimulate glucose uptake in cells from other tissues, had no effect on [14C]-2-deoxyglucose uptake in Leydig cells under the current conditions. It remains to be determined how glucose uptake in Leydig cells is regulated.
 
Comparison of Frequency Distributions of Sperm Counts in a Earlier Publications and Present Report 
Comparison of Mean Values, Standard Deviations and Ranges from Semen Analysis Reported Earlier and in the Present Report 
Article
Standard-Werte der Fertilität des Mannes I. Samenanalysen von 1500 Männern Die Samenproben von 1500 Männern, bei denen eine Vasektomie bevorstand, wurden eingehend untersucht. Die Ergebnisse wurden mit den Berichten anderer Autoren verglichen. Von jedem Mann wurden zwei Ejakulate innerhalb eines Intervalls von 15 Tagen bei einer sexuellen Abstinenz von 3–5 Tagen geprüft. In 13,8% fand sich eine Spermatozoen-dichte unter 20 Mill. Sp./ml und in 21,2% über 100 Mill. Sp./ml. Für Fruktose und Zitronensäure ergab sich jeweils ein höherer Wert bei höherer Spermatozoendichte. Es wird ausdrücklich betont, daß unabhängig von diesen im Kollektiv erhobenen Werten, die im allgemeinen niedrigere Werte als früher postuliert zur Grundlage einer Fertilität beim Manne machen, jeder Einzelfall genau beurteilt werden muß.
 
Article
A prospective study was performed in the Reproduction Center of Ichikawa General Hospital (Chiba, Japan) to assess the relationship between dyslipidaemia and sperm quality and serum hormone levels in male patients in Japan. The semen parameters and blood samples were assessed in relation to several variables, including body mass index (BMI) and serum triglyceride (TG) levels. Between 2011 and 2012, 167 male partners of infertile couples aged 22-46 years (mean: 36.5 years) were referred to the reproduction centre. In total, 66 patients (39.5%) had hypertriglyceridaemia (TG level ≥ 150 mg dl(-1) ). There was no significant relationship between serum TG levels and sperm concentration or motility; however, the serum TG level was positively associated with the sperm morphological traits. Furthermore, the serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase were associated with the serum TG levels. By contrast, a negative relationship between serum testosterone and TG levels was discovered.
 
Article
Summary Ten subjects were treated orally with acitretin (Ro 10–1670) over a period of 3 months. Before, during and after treatment, semen and blood analyses were performed to investigate drug-induced impairment of spermatogenesis and the hypothalamic — pituitary — gonadal axis. Our study concludes that acitretin in therapeutically effective doses does not influence spermatogenesis, sperm morphology, sperm motility and the hypothalamic — pituitary — gonadal axis. Zusammenfassung Zehn Probanden erhielten über einen Zeitraum von drei Monaten Acitretin (Ro 10–1670) per os. Vor, während und nach der Behandlung wurden Samen- und Blutanalysen durchgeführt, um den Effekt von Acitretin (Ro 10–1670) auf die Spermatogenese und die Hypothalamus — Hypophysen — Gonaden Achse zu untersuchen. In unserer Studie konnte gezeigt werden, daß Acitretin in therapeutischen Dosen die Konzentration, Motilität und Morphologie der Spermatozoen und die Hypothalamus — Hypophysen — Gonaden Achse nicht beeinflußt.
 
Article
We have investigated on eventual relationships existing in men between plasma levels of 17-a-OH-Progesterone (17-a-OH-P) and, plasma levels of Testosterone (T) and on the modifications of these relationships after stimulation of the testicles by HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin). An inverse correlation exists between basal plasma levels of the two steroids and their delta max (%max increase 96 h after the injection of 5000 I.U. of hCG): r = -06, p 0.01. This suggests that the enzymatic steps of the delta -4 steroidogenic pathway are rate-limiting for the synthesis of T. The delta max of the two-steroids are also inversely correlated with the circulating levels of LH (Luteinizing Hormone) (r = -05, -06; p less than 0.01) suggesting that the rate-limiting activity of the delta 4 pathway is under endogenous LH control. A desensitized state of this pathway can be expected in presence of high circulating levels of LH. Similarly to LH also the FSH plasma levels, an index of function of the seminiferous tubules, are inversely correlated with the 17-a-OH-P and T delta max (r = -0.4, -05; p 0.005) indicating close relationships between tubular and interstitial functions. In men with idiopathic oligozoospermia and high circulating levels of FSH we have found increased 17-a-OH-P/T ratios after hCG.
 
Article
The effects of 17 alpha-oestradiol and 17 beta-oestradiol on basal and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-stimulated inhibin B secretion by rat Sertoli cells were studied. Sertoli cells were isolated and cultivated from testes of 18-day-old Wistar rats in the presence and absence of FSH and different doses of oestrogens. On day 4 of culture, secreted inhibin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neither 17 alpha-oestradiol nor 17 beta-oestradiol had any effect on the secreted inhibin level in either the presence or absence of FSH. It is concluded that these oestradiols do not play an essential role in regulatory processes involving inhibin or FSH.
 
Article
The enzyme 17ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17ß-HSD) has been shown to exist biochemically and histochemically in the toad testis. A single injection of cadmium chloride (0.5 mg/toad) resulted 7 days later in reduced 17ß-HSD activity in the testis and decreased serum testosterone with an increase in thumb pad glycogen content. It is concluded that cadmium induced changes lead to inhibition of androgen synthesis in the toad testis. Der Einfluß von Cadmium auf 17ß-Hydroxysteroid-Dehydrogenase im Hoden der Kröte Zusammenfassung: Das Enzym 17ß-Hydroxysteroid-Dehydrogenase (HSD) zeigte so-wohl biochemisch als auch histochemisch eine Aktivität im Hoden der Kröte. Eine einzige Injektion von Cadmium chlorid(0,5 mg/Kröte) fiihrte 7 Tage später zu einer reduzierten HSD-Aktivität im Hoden und zu einem herabgesetzten Serum-Testosteron sowie einem Glykogenanstieg im Daumenpolster. Es wird aus diesen Ergebnissen die Schlußfolgerung gezogen, daß Cadmium Veränderungen indiziert, die zu einer Hemmung der Androgensyn-these im Krötenhoden fßhren.
 
Article
Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules of human testicular tissue were successfully separated by means of an anti-substance P-antiserum. On incubation with (14C)-testosterone or (14C)-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) it could be shown that besides DHT and 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol (3 alpha-diol) also 5 alpha-androstane-3 beta, 17 beta-diol (3 beta-diol) originated in the tubular compartment. The ratio 3 alpha/3 beta-diol was found to be higher (0.7) here compared to incubation with whole testicular tissue (0.2), indicating that the testicular interstitium influences the metabolism of DHT by the seminiferous tubules.
 
Article
Combined results of 21-DF (via the specific RIA method) and 17-OHP levels in plasma were used to support the evidence that some of the cases with idiopathic oligozoospermia (I.O.) are the result of 21-hydroxylase deficicency (C-21-HD). In our current tests, in four out of 19 males with I.O., elevated levels of 21-DF prior to ACTH stimulation (24,3 ± 2,3 ng/dl) and after ACTH stimulation (81,2 ± 5,2 ng/dl) in comparison to the controls (10,6 ± 4,3 ng/dl and 36,9 ± 10, 1 ng/dl after ACTH) and other I.O. cases were observed. Only one out of these cases presented elevated 17-OHP levels prior and after ACTH stimulation in comparison to the controls and other I.O. cases. Measuring the 21-DF levels along with the 17-OHP in males suspected of C-21-HD, seems to aid the establishing of a correct diagnosis. Zusammenfassung: 21-Deoxycortisol- und 17-Hydroxyprogesteron-Antworten auf adrenocorticotropes Hormon bei Männern mit idiopathischer Oligozoospermie Die kombinierten Ergebnisse von 21-Deoxycortisol (21-DF) (mit-tels spezif. RIA) und 17-Hydroxyprogesteron (17-OHP) wurden eingesetzt, um den Nach-weis zu stützen, daß einige Fälle von idiopathischer Oligozoospermie (I.O.) das Ergebnis eines 21-Hydroxylase-Mangels (C-21-HD) sind. Bei vier von 19 Männern mit I.O. wurden erhöhte Werte für 21-DF vor der ACTH-Stimulierung (24,3 ± 2,3 ng/dl) und nach ACTH-Stimulierung (81,2 ± 5,2 ng/dl) gegenüber den Kontrollen (10,6 ± 4,3 ng/dl und 36,9 ± 10, 1 ng/dl nach ACTH) und anderen I.O.-Fällen gefunden. In einem einzigen Fall ergaben sich erhöhte 17-OHP-Werte vor und nach ACTH im Vergleich zu den Kontrollen und anderen I.O.-Fällen. Die Messung von 21-DF gemeinsam mit 17-OHP bei Männern mit Ver-dacht auf C-21-HD scheint die Begründung für eine korrekte Diagnose zu liefern.
 
Article
A considerable body of evidence is available indicating a paracrine relationship between the seminiferous tubules and the Leydig cells. In 113 adult subjects in basal conditions the blood levels were determined of FSH (follicle stimulating hormone), LH (luteinizing hormone), 17-alpha-OH-P (17-alpha-OH-progesterone) and T (testosterone) either as a whole or as a free fraction. According to the sperm counts and the FSH levels, the studied subjects were divided into three groups: a group N (Normozoospermia) with sperm counts greater than 20 million/ml and FSH levels of 2.5 +/- 1.5 (mean +/- SD, mIU/ml), a group MO (moderate oligozoospermia) with mild degree of oligozoospermia (5-10 mill) and FSH levels in the range found in group N, a group SO (severe oligozoospermia) with severe degree of oligozoospermia (sperm count less than 5 mill/ml) and FSH levels greater than 2 SD the mean value in the N. Serum levels of LH, 17-alpha-OHP, total T, free T and FSH/LH, LH/T, 17-alpha-OHP/T ratios in group MO and SO were compared with those found in the group N.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
 
Article
Serum LH, FSH and immunoreactive testosterone-like substances (TLS) have been measured by radioimmunoassay in 130 male infertility patients and oestradiol 17β in 26 cases. A weak but significant negative correlation was found between FSH and sperm count (rs = –0.19, p <0.05) but not LH and sperm count. However, LH and FSH were strongly correlated in the azoospermic (rs = 0.71, p <0.01) and oligozoospermic (rs = 0.53, p <0.01) groups and levels of both gonadotrophins were significantly elevated in the azoospermic and oligozoospermic as compared to the normozoospermic group. The elevated LH levels in the oligozoo- and azoospermic groups could not be explained by reduced negative feedback of testosterone or oestradiol 17β since firstly, TLS and oestradiol 17β levels were similar in all three groups and, secondly, within-group correlations between LH and TLS were either non-significant or positive (azoospermic group r = 0.37, p = 0.06). It is suggested that spermatogenesis-related feedback factor(s) may inhibit LH as well as FSH secretion. No role for oestradiol 17β as a selective inhibitor of FSH secretion seemed likely as oestradiol 17β levels were similar in the three groups and were correlated (r = 0.51, p < 0.01) to TLS levels i.e. to leydig cell rather than spermatogenic function.
 
Article
The purpose of this study was to show the effect of cold exposure on testicular activities in breeding and hibernating seasons in the toad. Adult male toads were placed in a cold chamber in both breeding and hibernating seasons for periods of 7, 14 and 21 days. At the time of sacrifice on the 15th and 22nd days, cold-exposed animals showed a decrease in testicular weight, testicular delta 5-3 beta and 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities and low levels of plasma testosterone both in breeding and hibernating seasons. There was no significant alteration in the above mentioned steroidogenic enzymes and plasma levels of testosterone after 7 days of cold exposure, both in breeding and hibernating seasons in respect to the control animals. The results of our present experiment suggest that environmental cold is an important modulator of breeding activities in the male toad. It also indicates that the breeding and hibernating cycle in the toad (seasonal breeders) may be asynchronous to each other.
 
Article
Histochemical studies of testicular delta5-3beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase and 17beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase in sexually immature rats treated chronically with simultaneous Indomethacin and Clomiphene revealed greater inhibition in the enzyme activities when compared to Clomiphene treated animals alone. This suggests prostaglandin-inhibitors may be directly inhibitory to NAD-requiring enzymes involved in testicular steroid biosynthesis.
 
Article
The purpose of the present study was to show the effects of lithium on testicular activities in the toad. Adult male toads were injected with lithium chloride (200 micrograms/toad) of alternate days for 21 days. At the moment of sacrifice on 22nd day, lithium treated animal showed decreases in testicular weight and Leydig cell nuclear area along with inhibition of spermatogenesis and testicular delta 5-3 beta as well as 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities. The results of our present experiment suggest that lithium administration might be associated with significant adverse effects on testicular activity in toad.
 
Article
By means of specific RIA unconjugated 5 alpha-androstan-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol (3 alpha-diol) and 5 alpha-androstane-3 beta, 17 beta-diol (3 beta-diol) have been estimated for the first time in normal and pathological human seminal plasma. Testosterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone and testosterone-glucosiduronate (T, DHT, TG) have been determined simultaneously. On average a significant decrease of both diols was established in seminal plasma obtained from males suffering from oligozoospermia, azoospermia, asthenozoospermia and teratozoospermia. The decrease of 3 beta-diol was more pronounced. A significant diminution in DHT concentrations was found only in severe oligozoospermia. Significantly lowered concentrations of testosterone were detected in severe oligozoospermia and in teratozoospermia. However, DHT levels in teratozoospermia were found on average within normal ranges. TG exhibited no significant deviations.
 
Immunolocalisation of IL-18 in the examined testicular tissues. Immunohistochemical staining of testicular tissues from the healthy controls (a, b) and nonobstructive azoospermic patients with a histopathological pattern of hypospermatogenesis (c), maturation arrest (d) and Sertoli cell-only syndrome (e, f). Symbols: LC, Leydig cell; SC, Sertoli cell nucleus; Spg, spermatogonia; SpcI, primary spermatocyte; SpcII, secondary spermatocyte; Rspt, round spermatid; Espt, elongating spermatid; Spz, spermatozoa.
Expression of IL-18 in testicular tissue of normal control and abnormal human biopsies with maturation arrest (MA) and Sertoli cell-only syndrome: RNA levels of IL-18 were examined in testicular tissue of normal (n = 5) and abnormal human biopsies with Sertoli cell-only syndrome (n = 6) and MA (n = 7) by real-time PCR analysis using specific primers. *Indicates P < 0.05; **Indicates P < 0.01.
Article
Recently, IL-18 was identified in human testes. Moreover, an inverse correlation was found between the levels of IL-18 and the number and motility of spermatozoa. We examined the presence of IL-18 protein in normal and impaired spermatogenesis. Testicular tissue specimens were taken from 25 nonobstructive azoospermic patients undergoing testicular sperm extraction and from autopsies of three healthy controls. The presence of IL-18 in human testicular cells was examined by immunohistochemical staining of paraffin-embedded sections, using a specific antibody for human IL-18. In testicular tissue of healthy controls as well as in study cases, presence of IL-18 was identified in somatic, mitotic, meiotic and post-meiotic cells in correlation with their presence. In all patients, Leydig cells were less intensively stained. Mitotic cells were immunostained in the control group and less intensively in hypospermatogenesis and maturation arrest subgroups. Primary spermatocytes were in general most efficiently stained. The expression of IL-18 mRNA (as examined by real-time PCR analysis) showed significantly lower expression in testicular tissues with impaired spermatogenesis when compared to normal tissues. We report the first study demonstrating the presence of IL-18 in human testicular tissue at the protein level. The presence of this cytokine in somatic as well as in different types of germ cells may suggest its involvement in the regulation of the spermatogenic process and steroidogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions.
 
Article
A high acrosome index (percentage of sperm with normal acrosome morphology--cutoff value > or =10%) is known to be associated with an improved fertilization rate in conventional IVF. A retrospective evaluation of the relationship between duration of sexual abstinence and acrosome index among oligozoospermic and normozoospermic semen samples with teratozoospermia was undertaken. A significant (P = 0.001) decrease in the acrosome index was observed among the normozoospermic samples (n = 1264) between the peak value of 10.2 +/- 3.6% on day 2 and 8.5 +/- 4.0% on day 5 of abstinence, while for the oligozoospermic samples (n = 536) the peak value of 8.7 +/- 3.5% was observed on day 1 and the lowest values of 6.8 +/- 3.7% (P = 0.04) on day 5 of abstinence. The results suggest that an optimal acrosome index will be obtained following a short sexual abstinence.
 
Article
This study aimed at evaluating the impacts of sperm quality of six national sperm banks on pregnancy rates (PRs) of artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID) in China. A large retrospective analysis was performed on 1877 insemination cycles in 1209 women in a unique setting during a 3.5-year period. Global PRs of 22.1% per cycle and 34.2% per patient were achieved. The PRs of the six banks varied from 15.5% to 29.0% (P = 0.011). Significant differences were observed in the quality of donor semen provided by the six sperm banks. Moreover, in some banks, the poor sperm quality was related to the suboptimal PRs. However, in certain banks, high values of sperm parameters did not result in satisfactory PRs accordingly. These data demonstrated that variability of donor semen quality existed in the different banks. But, sperm parameters after thawing may not be detrimental factors affecting the success rate of AID treatment. Further studies are needed to seek potential molecular markers for predicting fertility potency of donor sperm.
 
Article
Pentoxyphyllin (BL 191) in der Behandlung der Asthenozoospermie bei oraler Applikation In Verfolg einer experimentellen Studie über den Einfluß des Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitors Pentoxyphyllin auf die Motilität menschlicher Spermatozoen wird jetzt eine klinische Studie bei 15 Männern mit einer Asthenozoospermie vorgelegt. Die Tagesdosis betrug 1.200 mg peroral über wenigstens 4 Monate. Während und 3 Monate nach Beendigung der Therapie wurden Spermiogramme angefertigt. Es ergab sich eine signifikante Besserung des Prozentsatzes progressiv beweglicher Spermatozoen. In fünf Fällen zeigte sich sogar eine Normalisierung des Spermas, in 7 Fällen eine signifikante Besserung gegenüber den Vor-Werten. Zweimal kam es zu einer Schwangerschaft. Es wird betont, daß Pentoxyphyllin eine brauchbare Alternative zur Behandlung der normogonadotropen Asthenozoospermie ist.
 
Article
The routine spermiogram parameters of 3432 patients born between 1952 and 1971 in the region of Leipzig were determined between January 1975 and March 2000. The patient group aged 24-35 years was characterized by low mobility and relocation living in the main centre of chemical industry with enormous environmental pollution in Eastern Germany up to 1990. Sperm concentrations and total sperm counts were found to be significantly reduced in men born between 1960 and 1970 compared with men born before this period (52.38 +/- 1.21 versus 70.79 +/- 2.15 millions ml(-1) 139.51 +/- 3.66 versus 176.31 +/- 6.04 millions; mean +/- SEM; P < 0.01; 2410 versus 1022 patients) independently of the year of semen examination.
 
Article
From 1971 until 1982 we examined 12,097 andrological patients, particularly the amnestic data concerning their private lives as well as their professions were investigated. During this time the age distribution showed a maximum shifting from 31 to 35 years for the year 1972 and from 26 to 30 years in 1981. Whilst the quota of the married men practically did not change, the quota of the engaged couples showed a reduced tendency. The percentage of free partnership increased from 1.5% to 8.6%. The quota of single persons did not change. Regarding the different groups of professions we found typical results: the percentage of soldiers was reduced, the quota of artists increased (elevated percentage of free partnership). In cases with a social profession we found a reduced quota of married couples: for students, apprentices, schoolboys as well as retired people, the free partnership predominated.
 
Article
Vom Januar 1972 bis zum Dezember 1976 wurden bei 228 Patienten, die sich in der Abteilung f. Andrologie vorstellten, Hautschuppen wegen des Verdachtes auf eine Pilzinfektion mykologisch untersucht. In 48 Fällen waren Dermatophyten, in 7 Fällen Hefen die Erreger. In 138 Fällen wurde Nocardia minutissima, in 25 Fällen Malassezia furfur gefunden. Bei 12 Patienten wurden Mischinfektionen gefunden. 46,2% der Hefen, 11,1% Dermatophyten, 8% Malassezia furfur und 6,2% Nocardia minutissima wurden in Mischinfektionen gefunden. Das klinische Bild allein genügt nicht zur exakten Diagnose. Zur gezielten Therapie ist die Erregerisolierung notwendig, um den Einsatz unwirksamer Medikamente zu verhindern. Es wird darauf hingewiesen, daß bei alien Patienten neben der andrologischen Untersuchung auf Hautveränderungen, z.B. durch Pilzinfektionen, geachtet werden muß. Die Genitocrural-Region wird häufig kontaktinfiziert, z.B. durch das Kratzen mit einem infizierten Fingernagel. Daher müssen auch die Körperregionen untersucht werden, von denen Pilze übertragen werden können, z.B. Hände, Nägel, der Stamm und manchmal auch die Mundhöhle. Das Ziel aller Untersuchungen muß die Behandlung sein. Daher ist die exakte Identifizierung der Dermatophyten, Hefen, Schimmelpilze oder auch Bakterien notwendig. Nur die mikroskopische und kulturelle Identifikation ermöglicht eine spezifische Behandlung. Besonders wichtig erscheint die Verifizierung von Mischinfektionen, die dann eine gezielte differenzierte Therapie notwendig machen.
 
Article
In a katamnestic study we analysed both the clinical and spermatological data of 223 turkish andrological patients which has been investigated 1981-1984. Concerning the ejaculate parameters, mostly our findings corresponded to those of other authors. In 21.5% we found an azoospermia, in 43.5% oligozoospermia, 9.4% normozoospermia, 10.3% teratozoospermia and 9.0% asthenozoospermia. In 5.9% the patients were not able to produce a semen specimen for investigation. The sexual activity of turkish males is clearly higher than that of europeans.
 
Article
Einfluß der Prostaglandin E1, E2, F1a und F2a auf die Motilität menschlicher Spermatozoen In einer experimentellen Studie wird an menschlichen Spermatozoen der Einfluß der Prostaglandine E1, E2, F1a und F2a auf die Motilität, auf die Fruktose-Utilisation und auf die ATPase-Aktivität der Spermatozoen untersucht. Es wurde jeweils 100 μg der einzelnen Prostaglandine zugesetzt. Es kann gezeigt werden, daß PGE2 die Spermatozoenmotiliät und die Fruktose-Utilisation erhöht, während gleichzeitig die ATPase-Aktivität der Spermatozoen absinkt. PGE1 hat keinerlei Einfluß auf die überprüften Parameter; dagegen setzten PGF1a und PGF2a die Spermatozoenmotiliät in einem gewissen Umfange herab. Die Fruktose-Utilisation wurde nach Zusatz von PGF1a reduziert. Nach Zusatz von PGF1a und PGF2a zeigte sich keine Änderung der ATPase-Aktivität der Spermatozoen.
 
Article
Pregnancy Specific β1 Glycoprotein (PSβ1G), human choriogonadotropin (hCG), α foeto protein (AFP) and Carcino Embryonic Antigen (CEA) were assayed in 58 patients with active germ cell tumors and 20 patients in complete clinical and radiological remission. The markers were negative in all the cases in remission as well as in one case of pure teratoma. The positivity rate of the four markers together is 76%, which is better than for any marker alone. All the markers except AFP seem ubiquitous with respect to the histological classification. The highest positivity rate is obtained for hCG in all the histological types. PSβ1G is related to hCG but its positivity rate is quite lower. AFP is mainly related to embryonal carcinoma but can be associated with any type of tumor except seminoma. CEA is less frequently positive, always associated with other markers and seems therefore useless for the diagnosis of germ cell tumors.
 
Article
Testosterone in plasma is measured in 50 young males in the morning and in the evening by radioimmunoassay. Peaks are found in the morning. At 07,00 h and 10,00 h the values lie on a plateau: 91,77% at 07.00 h and 90,59% at 10.00 h. The difference is not significant. Significant differences however can be noted in comparison between values in the first and second half-day. The difference between the 07.00 h value and the 16.00 h value amounts to 17,08%; between the 07.00 h value and the 19.00 h value, to 22,6%.
 
Article
The protective effect of quercetin on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced testicular damage in rats was investigated. Twenty-two rats were equally divided into four groups; first group was kept as control and given corn oil as carrier. In second group, TCDD was orally administered at the dose of 2 μ (kg week)(-1) for 60 days. In third group, quercetin was orally administered at the dose of 20 mg (kg day)(-1) by gavages, and in fourth group TCDD and quercetin were given together at the same doses. Although TCDD increased the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) significantly, it caused a significant decline in the levels of glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), GSH-Px and CuZn-Superoxide Dismutase (CuZn-SOD) in rats. In contrast, quercetin significantly increased the GSH, CAT, GSH-Px and CuZn-SOD levels but decreased the formation of TBARS. In addition, sperm motility, sperm concentration and serum testosterone levels were significantly decreased but abnormal sperm rate and testicular damage were increased with TCDD treatment. However, these effects of TCDD on sperm parameters, histological changes and hormone levels were eliminated by quercetin treatment. Our results show that administration of TCDD induces testicular damage (oxidative stress, testes tissue damage, serum hormone level and sperm parameters), and quercetin prevents TCDD-induced testicular damage in rats. Thus, quercetin may be useful for the prevention and treatment of TCDD-induced testicular damage.
 
Article
In this study, it was aimed to determinate beneficial effects of protocatechuic acid (PCA) against reproductive toxicity caused by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), an environmental contaminant. For this purpose, 28 rats were equally divided into four groups (control, TCDD 2 μg kg(-1) per week, PCA 100 mg kg(-1) per day and TCDD + PCA group), and compounds were orally administered for 45 days. The results indicated that TCDD induced oxidative stress via an increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels and a decrease in reduced glutathione, catalase, glutathione peroxidise and SOD levels in male rats. In contrast, PCA treatment prevented toxic effects of TCDD in terms of oxidative stress. Additionally, sperm motility, sperm concentration and serum testosterone levels significantly decreased, and pathologic testicular damage increased with TCDD exposure. However, these effects of TCDD on sperm characteristics, histopathological changes and hormone levels were reversed by PCA treatment. In conclusion, it was found that TCDD exposure induced reproductive toxicity (oxidative, hormonal, histopathological and spermatological alternations) in male rats and PCA treatment could prevent toxic effects of TCDD. Thus, PCA may be useful for the prevention and treatment of reproductive toxicity caused by TCDD.
 
Photomicrograph of a control group rat showing normal histological appearance of testis. (b) Photomicrograph of an aminoguanidine (AG) group rat showing normal histological appearance of testis. (c) Photomicrograph of a rat testis treated with TCDD alone group; Note that the thinning of germinal cell layers (arrowhead). Degeneration and vacuolation of germ cells (thin arrows) and oedema in the interstitial area (thick arrow). (d) A testicular section of a rat treated with TCDD + AG group showing a thinning of germinal cell layers (arrowheads). Degeneration and disorganisation of the germ cells. Haematoxylin and eosin X400 (a,b) and X320 (c,d).
Levels of SOD, GPx, CAT, GSH and TBARS in rat testis tissue. (Mean ± SEM, n = 7)
Values of absolute reproductive organ weights in rats. (Mean ± SEM, n = 7)
Values of sperm motility. Epididymal sperm concentration and abnormal sperm rate in rats. (Mean ± SEM. n = 7)
Article
In this study, it was aimed to determinate protective effects of aminoguanidine (AG) against reproductive toxicity caused by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), an environmental contaminant. Thirty-two rats were equally divided into four groups; the first group was kept as control and given corn oil as carrier. In second and third groups, TCDD and AG were orally administered at the dose of 2 μg kg(-1) per week and 100 mg kg(-1) per day for 45 days, respectively. In fourth group, TCDD and AG were given together at the same doses. Although TCDD significantly increased the formation of TBARS, it caused a significant decline in the levels of GSH, CAT, GPx and SOD in rats. On the other hand, AG, given together TCDD, reversed TCDD effects on TBARS SOD, GSH, GPx and CAT. In addition, sperm characteristics negatively affected and histopathological deformation occurred with TCDD exposure. However, AG treatment partly prevented these toxic effects of TCDD on spermatological parameters and histopathological changes. In conclusion, TCDD exposure induces testicular damage (oxidative stress, histopathological damage and sperm parameters), and AG treatment reversed TCDD-induced testicular damage in rats. Thus, AG may be useful for the prevention and treatment of TCDD-induced male infertility problems.
 
Article
Wireless devices have become part of everyday life and mostly located near reproductive organs while they are in use. The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effects of melatonin on oxidative stress-dependent testis injury induced by 2.45-GHz electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Thirty-two rats were equally divided into four different groups, namely cage control (A1), sham control (A2), 2.45-GHz EMR (B) and 2.45-GHz EMR+melatonin (C). Group B and C were exposed to 2.45-GHz EMR during 60 min day(-1) for 30 days. Lipid peroxidation levels were higher in Group B than in Group A1 and A2. Melatonin treatment prevented the increase in the lipid peroxidation induced by EMR. Also reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels in Group D were higher than that of exposure group. Vitamin A and E concentrations decreased in exposure group, and melatonin prevented the decrease in vitamin E levels. In conclusion, wireless (2.45 GHz) EMR caused oxidative damage in testis by increasing the levels of lipid peroxidation and decreasing in vitamin A and E levels. Melatonin supplementation prevented oxidative damage induced by EMR and also supported the antioxidant redox system in the testis.
 
Article
During the last years tremendous changes have occurred in the epidemiologic knowledge and the diagnostic process of the prostatitis syndrome. A new worldwide-accepted classification system has become the gold standard in contemporary literature. The aim of this study was to compare the inflammatory and infectious status of men with prostatitis syndrome with results from our study cohort from 1992. A total of 168 symptomatic men (mean age 43.2 years; range 18-79) attending the Giessen prostatitis outpatient department were included. All men underwent a standard four-glass-test including leucocyte analysis in all specimens. A routine search for Ureaplasma urealyticum and Chlamydia trachomatis was performed. Ejaculate analysis following World Health Organization (WHO) criteria has been performed including the evaluation of increased number of peroxidase-positive leucocytes (PPL). Men were classified according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) prostatitis classification. The distribution of patients according to NIH criteria is as follows: NIH II (4.2%), NIH IIIA (31.5%), NIH IIIB (50.0%) and urethroprostatitis (14.3%). Chlamydial infection was present in one man (0.6%). Only two men with increased leucocytes in prostatic secretions demonstrated > or =106 million ml-1 PPL in semen. As compared with our cohort study 10 years ago, the proportion of the different subtypes of the prostatitis syndrome have remained stable. The aetiological spectrum of chronic bacterial prostatitis has not changed whereas, in contrast, the prevalence of C. trachomatis now is found to be strikingly reduced. Using the WHO cutpoints for leucocytospermia the inclusion of seminal leucocytes to the diagnostic process has not influenced the distribution between inflammatory (type NIH IIIA) and noninflammatory (type NIH IIIB) chronic pelvic pain syndrome.
 
Article
The first theoretical reflections concerning the relation of hormone production with the ageing process stemmed from Charles Edouard Brown-Sequard (1817–1894). At the age of 72 years he experimented on himself with an injection of animal testicular extract. The Viennese physiologist Eugen Steinach (1861–1944) gained world-wide acknowledgement for his theory of ‘autoplastic‘ treatment of ageing. He deduced that after vasoligation, an increased incretory hormonal production would ensue following the cessation of the secretory output of the gonads. The first operation was performed in 1918 and resulted in a vasectomy boom over the next two decades. The Russian Serge Voronoff (1866–1951), working in Paris, was one of the first to transplant testicular tissue from a monkey into a human reproductive gland in 1920. Five years later he had already performed this procedure on 300 patients and attracted patients from all over the world. In America early efforts of human testicular transplantation were performed by Frank Lydston and V.D. Lespinasse. Steinach's vasoligation was taken over by many American doctors, e.g., Harry Benjamin and Charles H. Chetwood. Among the patients who underwent a rejuvenation operation according to Steinach's method were Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) and the Irish poet and Nobel Prize winner William Butler Yeats (1865–1939). Two caricatures from the German magazine Simplicissimus published in 1927, confirm that the rejuvenation operations were constantly in the limelight of the printed media. From 1935 onwards rejuvenation operations gradually lost their appeal due to the introduction of artificial androgens.
 
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