Ancient Science of Life

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The antipyretic activity of a herbal formulation, TBR-002 was compared with that of andrographis paniculata, andrographis elongate and paracetamol in yeast-induced pyrexia in male albino rats, TBR-oo2 was found to be effective at an oral dose of 100 mg/kg in the inhibition if pyrexia. Its efficacy was almost comparable to that of paracetamol as well as andrographis elongate, the antipyretic activity of andrographis paniculata, the well known antipyretic herb, was found to be less than that of the above drugs.
 
A polyherbal formulation was evaluated for its hepatoprotective activity against ethanol and CCl(4) induced liver damage in rats. The rats were divided into five groups of six animals each and serve as control, toxic, post-treated, herbal control, Liv.52 treated groups respectively. The results showed that the activities of liver marker enzymes in serum namely AST, ALT, ALP, ACP and serum bilirubin level (total) were increased in toxic group animals. But the activities of these enzymes were significantly lowered in post-treated group of rats. Thus, the results suggest antihepatotoxicity of "Ayush-Liv.04".
 
Bronchial asthma is a clinical syndrome characterized by proximal dysphasia and wheeze due to increased resistance to the flow of air through the narrowed bronchi. Asthma has become the most common chronic disease in the world and epidemiological studies suggest that its prevalence, severity and mortality are rising at a time when mortality from other common treatable conditions is falling. The reasons for the above statistics are environmental factors such as increased exposure to allergens and atmospheric pollutants. Antiasthmatic treatment includes corticosteroids, which are very effective in the treatment of asthma. But corticosteroids are costly and if given systemically, have many severe adverse effects. Hence, the present research work involves the use of a herbal compound formulation Pentapala -04 prepared from five medicinal plants namely, Adhatoda vasica Need, Ocimum sanctum Linn, Coleus aromaticus Benth, Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn and Alpiania galangal Sw. The effect of “Pentapala-04” on ova albumin and aluminium hydroxide induced lung damage in albino wistar rats was investigated. The rats were divided into three groups of four animals each. Group I, II and III serves as control, toxic and post treatment group respectively. Our results showed that their was increased level of lipid peroxidation and secreased level of antioxidants in toxic group animals. But the levels of antioxidant enzymes were restored in post-treated groups of animals, which might be due to the ability of “ability of “Pentapala-04 to scavenge the reactive oxygen species.
 
The aqueous extract was found to be more effective on the surfactant system of lung against ova albumin and aluminium hydroxide induced lung damage in albino wistar rats. The rats were divided into 3groups of four animals each, namely group I, II and III which served as control, toxic and post treatment groups respectively. Our results showed increased Lung Body-Weight Index (LBI) and decreased lung lipid content in the toxic group of animals. But the levels of lipid content and Lung Body-Weight Index were restored in post-treated group of animals, which might be due to the protective activity of "Pentapala-04".
 
The second part of the study addresses issues raised by the notion that planning in developing countries should integrated indigenous medical resources in state funded health service system. In this perspective the author analyses here the relationship between "alternative practices" of the world today.
 
Effect of Immue-21 (an herbal immunomodulator) was studied on different immunopharmacological models. Immue-21 significantly enhanced the mobilization and functional capacity of peritoneal macrophages of experimental animals. An elevated blastofenic response of splenic lymphocytes was observed in Immue-21 treated mice. The potential to modulate the immunity in general by Immue-21 assumes considerable therapeutic and/or prophylactic significance.
 
IMMU -21 a polyherbal immunomodulator effectively enhanced the immune status of animals treated with cytotoxic and immunosuppressive agents like cyclophosphamide and azathioprine. Leucopenia, lymphopenia and neutropenia in rats induced by cyclophosphamide were significantly minimized in IMMU-21 pre treated animals. IMMU-21 strengthened the host immune status against bacterial endotoxin. Cell mediated immune response was also found to be maintained at the normal level in immunocompromised mice treated with IMMU 21. The results of the experiments are of immense clinical significance IMMU -21 shows promise as a useful immunoadjuvant which may have various therapeutic applications.
 
is taken from Giedion (1962) who offers the drawings on a rock by the 
The author presents in this article many evidence to prove that the cross is a symbol of soul.
 
Effect of spirulina and Liv-52 on lead induced hypercholesteroleamia in albino rats was studied. Oral administration of lead acetate(10mg/kg body weight/day) for 30 days resulted in a significant increase(P<0.01) in the level of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL Cholesterol and a significant decreases in the level of serum HDL cholesterol, when compared to normal and control group of albino rats. Administration of either Liv-52 alone or in combination with spirulina produced a well pronounced protective effect against lead induced hypercholesteroleamia in rats. Although administration of spirulina alone caused an appreciable protective effect in lead toxicated tats, further study is needed with increased doses to evaluate its optimal effect.
 
Oral feeding of 70% EtOH extract of Lindenbergia indica to female rats at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight and 1000 mg / kg body weight caused significant reduction of serum cholesterol, HDL – cholesterol, triglycerides & phospholipids (P≤ 0.05 to P≤ 0.001). Where as the protein levels were not reduced significantly. Fertility test showed 100% negative results. The negative fertility reflects the arrest of Oogenesis & depletion of estrogen level. Further Lindenbergia indica reflects antiestrogenic nature.
 
Fig. Thin – layer chromatography pattern of " 777 oil " , coconut oil and leaf extract of Wrightia tinctoria in different organic solvents.  
“777 oil” is a code drug of the Siddha system of medicine used in the treatment of Psoriasis. The drug is derived from the leaves Wrightia tinctoria by insolation, with coconut oil as base. The present study is aimed at comparing the drug prepared by insolation with that prepared in darkness. Analytical studies carried out in both the drugs showed difference in acid number without exposing to sunlight. The drugs showed changes in acid and iodine numbers on exposure to sunlight. Studies on Thin Layer Chromatography showed no difference between the two drugs. However semi quantitative chromatography showed that two spots were more in concentration in the drug prepared in darkness than the drug processes in sunlight. Except one spot all the spots Rf values are identical to raw coconut oil. In analytical studies carried out in shade dried leaves of Wrightia tinctoria showed the presence of iron calcium and ammonium. Alcohol had maximum extractive matter.
 
"777 oil" a coded drug of Siddha system of medicine was prepared and analyzed in the paper. The drug showed 3.62, 13.57 and 266.9 Iodine value, acid number and saponification number respectively. The bark which was one of the ingredients in the drug was possessing 0.63% nitrogen in the acid soluble portion. The bark also exhibited proeolytic activity and the optimum pH was 4.
 
“777 oil” is a coded drug of the Siddha system of medicine prescribed in Psoriasis. Sunlight plays an important role in the preparation of the drug as well as in the treatment of the cases. In vitro studies carried out with the drug exposed to sunlight for four hours showed an increase in acid and iodine values. The visible spectrum was changed in shape at the wave length 480 to 580 mm. The thin layer chromtographs employing different solvent systems did not show any difference. The drug resolved in to two to three spots in these solvents and did not indicate any response of the drug to insulation.
 
Subcutaneous treatment of 50% EtOH extract of neem bark (Azadirachta indica A. juss) to male rats at the dose of 10 mg for 30 days caused arrest of spermatogenesis. The diameter of serminiferous tubule, Leydig cell nucleus and epithelial heights of epididymides were significantly reduced (p≤0.001). Sperm motility and density were significantly reduced. Reduced testicular and accessory organ protein, sialic acid and vesicular fructose content manifested arrest of spermatogenesis and depletion of androgen level.
 
The microscopic and macroscopic characters of the leaves, physical constant values, behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents, fluorescence characters under ultra violet light after treatment with different chemical reagents of the powdered leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Family-Meliaceae) were studies to fix some pharmacognostical parameters.
 
The present paper deals with the athnomedicobotany of crude drugs used by a seminomadic ethnic group, the Yanadis, found in Cuddapah district of Andhra Pradesh. This aboriginal group is considered to be the conservators of folklore medicine. Fourteen plant species available in the locality, used by this tribe to cure ailments like epilepsy, hysteria fits and insanity were collected. The valid scientific and vernacular names, plant parts used, therapeutic combinations, mode of administration were enumerated.
 
Effect of Extract on Carrageenin induced rat paw oedema 
Cassia auriculata is widely distributed even in poor soil in Sri Lanka, India, Burma and cultivated in tropics. Based on Physical and Chemical methods, the flower of C. auriculata was found to contain a flavonol glycoside 5-O-methylquercetin 7-O-glucoside. The 50% acetone extract of the flower of C. auriculata showed marked anti-inflammatory activity (56%) in carrageenin induced oedema in rats.
 
Abha Guggulu an Ayurvedic medicine was tried clinically on 15 patients having simple fractures. The duration of the treatment varied from 13 to 40 days, depending on several factors, Radiological tests were conducted periodically during the administration of the medicine. The patients were examined clinically every day to assess the effect of the medicine on the healing process, the medicine was found to bring about significant anti-inflammatory effects, relief in symptoms and positive aspects of improvement in blood picture ultimately culminating in the healing of fractures. Thus this medicine is recommended for the treatment of simple fractures.
 
A synopsis of the Sanskrit text, Abhinava Chintamani is presented in this paper. Attention is paid to highlight the novel features of this text composed in 18(th) Century A. D. by Mahamati Cakrapani Das of Orissa.
 
50 cases of conjunctivitis studies comparatively with Haridra Eye Drops and with Soframycine Eye Drops, Clinically and bacteriologically observed that Haridra Eye Drops has a definite role on conjunctivitis. Bacteriological study shows the Haridra has a role to act on E. Coli, St. Aureus Klebshella and pseudomonas organisms.
 
This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of Abhraka Bhasma on spermatogenesis in heat-damaged testis. A histological analysis over the sukravaha srotomula (testes) of male albino Wistar rat was carried out in order to examine the potency of the test drug in preventing the organ from heat damage. The current experiment was carried out on 32 healthy adult male albino Wistar rats divided into four groups. Sahastraputi Abhraka Bhasma, subjected to 1000 putas, was used as the test drug. On sacrificing the animals after 30 days, it was observed that control animals (G1) had normal spermatogenesis and drug-induced animals (G2) showed hyperactive tubules. Testicular hyperthermia occurred in few (G3) animals, who were subjected to 43°C for 1 h daily for four consecutive weeks, resulting in degeneration of tubules with inspissated spermatozoa (25%) leading to atrophy of the organ. 3% tubules showed disintegration, 23% were in the recovery stage while 71% tubules exhibited enhanced proliferation of germinal epithelium leading to hypertrophy and hyperplasia. The present study reveals that the test drug can correct heat-induced male infertility and provides us with the possibility of treatment of human heat-induced oligozoospermia and azoospermia. Hence, this ayurvedic maharasa (primary mineral) can be a promising formulation as an anti-impotency fecundity drug.
 
The present paper profiles plants used as anti-diabetic agents by the Nilgiri hills. The plants have been well identified and studied from the ethno therapeutics point of view.
 
In this article, 26 folKlore claims on Antifertility, Abortifacient and Fertility - promoting drugs gathered from the tribals of Dandakaranya during the Medico-Ethno-Botanical explorations undertaken by the authors are presented. suggesting scientific screening of these claims for establishing their validity and acceptability so as to make use of them, with modifications if any, in the National Family Welfare Programmes.
 
Dried powder of leaf extract of common Indian plant Moringa Oleifera of Moringaceae family was tested experimentally in albino rats in our laboratory for its antifertility activity. Cant per cent abortifacient activity was found when administered orally in aqueous solution at dose of 175 mg/kg body weight daily to Charles foster strain albino rats from days 5-10 post mated.
 
Dandruff called Huzaz/Abria in Unani medicine is a common ailment in the world with easy options of treatment. Most of the treatment options have ignored the cosmetic aspect of hair. Unani medicine has got a vast array of drug formulation to evaluate the efficacy of Unani pharmacopoeal formulation in mild form of seborrhic dermatitis of scalp (dandruff). Its efficacy was compared with standard drug (2% ketakonazole shampoo). Patients were enrolled after ethical clearance and informed consent in the study. 30 patients were treated with Unani formulation and 20 patients with the standard drug. The assessment of various parameters like Itching, Scalp shedding, Erythema, Hair frizz, Hair combing ease, and Hair smoothness was made before and after 30 days. The assessments of the parameters were analyzed and compared using appropriate statistical tests. The study revealed that Unani formulation was equally effective as standard drug and the hair comesis was better than the standard drug as seen clinically, but was not statistically significant (p=0.576).
 
Seeds of Gunja (Abrus precatorius Linn) are reported to be poisonous due to the presence of a toxic protein 'abrin and an alkaloid hypaphorine. Te seeds after subjecting to the process of shodhana, find use in a number of Ayurvedic preparations. HPLC studies revealed that the process of shodhana resulted in depletion of more toxic alkaloid hypaphorine and protein abrin.
 
Effect of Śhodhana on yield of final product after Śhodhana with different media 
Seed of Guñjā (Abrus precatorius Linn.), a known poisonous drug, is used extensively in various ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommends the administration of Guñjā in diseases like Indralupta (alopecia), Śotha (edema), Kṛmi (helminthes), Kuṣṭha (skin diseases), Kaṇḍu (itching), Prameha (urinary disorders) etc., after being treated with specific Śodhana (purification) procedures. To assess the antimicrobial action of of raw and Śhodhita (Processed) Guñjā seeds. Guñjā seeds after being processed with Godugdha (cow's milk), Nimbu swarasa (Lemon juice), Kāñjī (Sour gruel) and water, as the media, were evaluated for its antibacterial effect against clinically important bacterial strains using agar well diffusion method. Aqueous extracts of raw seeds of Guñjā exert its antibacterial effect on both Gram positive, as well as Gram negative bacteria but none of the Śodhita Guñjā seeds showed any bactericidal effect on any bacterial strains. Chloroform extracts of all the Śodhita Guñjā seed extracts could inhibit bacterial growth but with variations. The study displayed that chloroform extracts of raw and śodhita samples for bacterial study were much sensitive than the aqueous extracts.
 
Procedure of Vamana
Sadyo Vamana is a type of purificatory measure mentioned in Ayurveda, which to expel the pus and morbid factors present in a dental abscess without opening it. However, Sadyo Vamana's role in fever and pus filled dental abscess has not been reported so far. I report a case of dental abscess with fever. A 24-year-old male patient with a pus filled dental abscess. His fever and dental abscess didn't respond to antibiotic and analgesic treatment for 10 days. The patient was given Sadyo Vamana (instant therapeutic emesis) to expel the accumulated pus in dental abscess without opening it. The patient got complete relief from fever and dental abscess after Sadyo Vamana. The patient not gave internal medication.
 
Abu Mansur's Al-Abniya a pioneering work on pharmacological treatise in Persian language, has not received the attention that it richly deserves. This work provides as a starting point to probe into the hitherto neglected field of study regarding the relationship of medical systems prevalent in Central, West and South Asia-Greco-Syriac, Iranian and Ayurvedic medical sciences.
 
Chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the leaves of Abutilon indicum were investigated for antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Among the various extracts, maximum antibacterial activity was exhibited by ethanol extract (14, 25, 14, 25, 17, 18 mm) followed by chloroform extract (13, 17, 8, 15, 15, 20 mm) while aqueous extract, showed no activity.
 
In this paper the contraceptive effect of Ayush AC-4 an ayurvedic compound preparation is assessed. Totally 281 volunteers have been enrolled in the study. Tho menstrual cycles covered by the women ranged from 1-30. Tho result is moderately satisfactory. No toxic symptoms or severe aide-effects were noticed. The authors say that in tho light of the results obtained in this study, it may be desirable and feasible to make this compound preparation acceptablo like the other oral contraceptives.
 
Schedule of the YIC program
Interpretation of Guna (Personality) inventory scores
Test–retest reliability co-efficient of Guna
Interpretation of Guna scores
Data analysis
Academic excellence is essential to provide opportunities for students to work together to improve their understanding of concepts in their academic core. Academic excellence helps students to teach problem-solving and collaborative learning strategies. The objective of this study was to assess Guna (personality traits) in students undergoing Yoga Instructor's Course (YIC). In all, 68 YIC students with a mean age of 28.03 ± 9.38 years participated in this single group pre-post study. The Personality Inventory data were collected before (pre) and after (post) the YIC. Means, standard deviations, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for analyzing the data with the help of SPSS 16. The data analysis showed 11.33% decrease (P < 0.01) in Tamas Guna (dull personality trait), 0.68% decrease (P =0.819) in Rajas Guna (violent personality trait), and 10.34% increase (P <0.01) in Sattva Guna (balanced personality trait) scores. This study suggests that YIC can result in the improvement of Sattva Guna (balance personality trait) among students, thus paving the way for their academic excellence.
 
The anti - inflammatory activities of the alcoholic extracts of three species of Andrographis Wall. were assayed at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight in Male albino rats using carrageenin induced rat paw edema. All the extracts were screened for their anti-inflammatory activities in Carrageenin induced inflammation in rats. The maximal anti-inflammatory activity was found with the alcoholic extract of Andrographis alata Nees.
 
Nelsonia canescens leaf photos (a-h) Enlarged view of various parts of the leaf.
Acr- Acicular crystal, Cam-Cambium, Col- Collenchyma, Cu-Cuticle, Le-Lower Epidermis, Mcr-Microsphenoidal crystal, Mr-Medullary, Ue- Upper epidermis, Xy-Xylem Vessel
Nelsonia canescens leaf drawn photo
Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng. (Acanthaceae), a well-known plant in traditional systems of medicine, known as "Bada Rasna" by the traditional practitioners of Odisha, is being used as Rasna for managing pain and inflammation. The detailed macroscopic and microscopic characters of the plant, except its root, are lacking. Hence, it was thought worth to study the leaves of the plant for its detailed morphological and microscopical characters, by following the standard pharmacognostical procedures. The study shows the presence of diacytic stomata in the lower epidermis of lamina, microsphenoidal and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in the mesophyll cells, simple and glandular trichomes. The observed major diagnostic characters of the leaf may find useful for its standardization.
 
A preliminary survey of medicinal plants conducted surrounding forest region of Krishna District of Andhra Pradesh, among these abnormality of wild variegated Andrographis paniculata medicinal plant and its details are reported in this paper.
 
Nilgirianthus heyneanus is widely used in South India in place of Sahachara (Barleria prionitis L) and is considered as an important Vatahara drug. Detailed pharmacognosy of the root of N. heyneanus commonly known as Karim Kurinji (Malayalam) in Kerala has been carried out. Some of the diagnostic features of the drug are pigmented cystoliths in the cortex and pith region; yellow colour cell contents in the cortex region; thick walled and oval-elongated stone cells in the cortex region.
 
The stability of Eazmov capsule in accelerated condition ie by exposing it to the temperature at 45°C and 40°C with 75% relative humidity was studied. The samples were periodically anallysed upto six months for their organoleptic characteristics, assay of active plant ingredients and the DPTLC finger printing and their peak area analysis, which were found to be stable/ consistent during the period of study. The change in quantifiable components was within 90% of the initial amount, indicating e stability of product for more than three years at room temperature.
 
Biological effects of extracts of Dolichos biflorus seeds and Amaranthus spinosus roots administered at two different doses (25 mg of D.biflorus seeds and 25 mg of A.spinosus roots; 50mg of D.biflorus seedsand 50 mg of A.spinosus roots) for 10 consecutive days were studied in the accessory sex organs of adult male rats. The observed adverse effect on organs weight, protein content and concentration as well as the enzymatic activities in the vas defers, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate indicates the probable antiandrogenic action of the drug in the male rats.
 
Effects of mercuric chloride and speman on the wet weight of epididymis, sperm population, serum testosterone level and fertility in mice 
Adult Swiss albino male mice exposed to mercuric chloride via drinking water at 5 μg/ml for 100 days revealed significant reduction in the wet weight and severe histopathological changes in male accessory organs, poor level of serum testosterone and infertility. These effects were reduced remarkable and fertility was restored when drug (12.50 mg/mouse/day orally) was administered during mercury exposure for 100days or after Hg-exposure for next 60 days (Post therapy). Natural recovery after mercury exposure for 60 days remind ineffective. Probable action of herbal drug based on the presence of the active principles of constituents (i.e Orchis mascula, Mucuna pruriens, parmelia perlata, Argyreia speciosa, Tribulus terristris, Leptadenia reticulate, Lactuca scariola and Hygrophila spinosa) is discussed in detail.
 
Surgery in ancient India was highly advanced, much more than in any other country at that time. Its proof is available in Susruta Samhita, one of the main treatises of Ayurveda, which is presented here.
 
Soma was originally Sauma as the Sanskrit form of the Avesta name Haoma. It is a loan word from the Chinese term, Hao-Ma, fire coloured hempior fibrous items like hemp and also coloured yellow with a tinge of brown. The Aryans as hunters took its juice as anti-fatigue drink. It was extolled as panacea and even as drink of longevity. The plant and its stalks were crushed between stones to produce juice. There arose different fractions and these have been given in a regular chart here.
 
Two kinds of 'shapunkha', the 'Shvet' (white) and 'Rakta' (red) are described in some of the Ayurvedic texts and the former is reported therapeutically more effective. Some of the Ayurvedic physicians use T. villosa Pers. as 'Shvet sharpunkha' due to its persistently villous silky white parts. While others have advocated white colour of flowers as main feature for distinguishing "Shvet sharpunkha'. A white flowered form of Tephrosia purpurea which is found in association with red or purple flowered ones is reported by us as T. purpurea (Linn.) Pers. Form albiflora S. R. Paul et R. C. Gupta. In the present work, however, detailed comparative pharmacognosy of all vegetable parts of T. villosa and T. purpurea f. albiflora have been carried out. Also the study reveals that two species exhibit great similarity in their macro - an microscopical feature.
 
Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) is an important ubiquitous four carbon nonprotein amino acid with an amino group attached to gamma carbon instead of beta carbon. It exists in different organisms including bacteria, plants, and animals and plays a crucial role in humans by regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. It is directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone and also effective in lowering stress, blood pressure, and hypertension. The aim of the study was to develop the fingerprint profile of selected medicinally and economically important plants having central nervous system (CNS) activity and to determine the quantity of GABA in the selected plants grown under natural conditions without any added stress. The high-performance thin layer chromatography analysis was performed on precoated silica gel plate 60F-254 plate (20 cm × 10 cm) in the form of bands with width 8 mm using Hamilton syringe (100 μl) using n-butanol, acetic acid, and water in the proportion 5:2:2 as mobile phase in a CAMAG chamber which was previously saturated for 30 min. CAMAG TLC scanner 3 was used for the densitometric scanning at 550 nm. Specific marker compounds were used for the quantification. Among the screened medicinal plants, Zingiber officinale and Solanum torvum were found to have GABA. The percentage of GABA present in Z. officinale and S. torvum were found to be 0.0114% and 0.0119%, respectively. The present work confirmed that among the selected CNS active medicinal plants, only two plants contain GABA. We found a negative correlation with plant having CNS activity and accumulation of GABA. The GABA shunt is a conserved pathway in eukaryotes and prokaryotes but, although the role of GABA as a neurotransmitter in mammals is clearly established, its role in plants is still vague.
 
Acquired Immuno Deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has emerged as a real threat for mankind since last decade. Lack of knowledge and awareness about AIDS is an important factor responsible for rte rapid spread of the disease. Ayurveda as a part of its holistic approach offers the concepts of Achara Rasayana and sadvrta i.e good conduct for the self and for society. Such concepts can prevent the disease which are basically caused by Prajnaparadha which also appears responsible for the spread of AIDS.
 
Ayuveda "the science of life" deals with various dimensions of human being. In this age old science, psychological factors have been given equal importance as physiological factors in the etiology of various diseases. Though there are so many rejuvenation therapies, Achara Rasayana is mainly advocated for psychosomatic disorders. Chittodvega (anxiety neurosis) is one among those psychological diseases in which, the code of conduct (Achara Rasayana) plays an important role in both etiology as well as treatment. Here an attempt has been taken to clarify the role of Achara Rasayana in the disease Chittodvega.
 
Three new immigrant species of Spilanthes Jacq. (Asteraceae) is described for the first time from India. Their current nomenclature and an artificial key for the identification of the 5 Indian species are provided. The identity of the commonly used 'tooth-ache' plant is also discussed.
 
Top-cited authors
Pradeep Prajapati
  • All india institute of Ayurveda sarita vihar New Delhi
Soham Saha
  • Institut Pasteur International Network
Bhavana Suresh
  • Heriot-Watt University
Pulok K Mukherjee
  • Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development
Peyman Mikaili
  • Urmia University of Medical Sciences