On occasion of the centenary of Professor Hugo Grau's birth, in the first part of this memorandum his successful life and work, and in the second part his forsighted contribution to the foundation of above-mentioned international associations of veterinary anatomists will be honoured.
We investigated the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) supplementation on the NADPH-diaphorase (NADPHd) and myosin-V myenteric neurons in the ileum of rats, after 4 months of treatment. Two groups were compared, i.e. controls rats (C) and AA-treated rats (CA). Myosin-V immunohistochemistry and NADPHd histochemistry were employed. We investigated the areas of 500 cell bodies of myosin-V neurons and of 500 NADPHd stained neurons from all groups. The quantitative analysis was performed using an area of 8.96 mm2 from each ileum. There was an increase of 21.9% in the myosin-V immunoreactive myenteric neurons (P > 0.05) and of 22.5% in the NADPHd in group CA when compared with C (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences when we compared the area of myosin-V stained neurons between groups C and CA. However, we verified an area reduction of 7.5% in NADPHd neurons when comparing group C to group CA (P < 0.05).
Vitamin A (0.2 micrograms, 0.6 micrograms, 1.2 micrograms) was administered orally to the mice on days 8-11 of gestation. Fetuses were removed on day 17 of gestation. No external malformation of the fetuses was seen on the stereomicroscope investigation. Corneal degeneration was seen on the light and electron microscopic examination. As a result it was accepted that vitamin A taken during the critical periods of gestation affected the development of cornea.
The morphology of 16–17 days old embryos from virgin heifers (VH) and repeat breeder heifers (RBH) was compared using light and electron microscopy. In addition some embryos transferred from one heifer category to the other were studied. Embryos from VH were elongated blastocysts and the oval embryonic disc had three germ layers. The ectoderm was stratified and many mitoses were seen. The endoderm lining the blastocoelic cavity consisted of almost squamous cells conjoined by tight junctions. Between the ectoderm and the endoderm the mesoderm had developed and expanded laterally and the coelom had formed. The trophoblastic cells adjacent do the embryonic disc were cylindrical, whereas those more peripheral located were cuboidal. The trophoblastic cells were conjoined by tight junctions and they had numerous long microvilli on their peripheral surface. Except in the embryonic disc region, the endodermal cells had filopodial processes towards the trophoblast. The embryos from RBH varied in appearance. One was similar to those from VH whereas the others were, more or less retarded, without formation of mesoderm. The smaller one consisted ot trophoblastic cells only. The transferred embryos (representing surviving embryos: 2 out of 9 in VH-RBH and 5 of 6 in RBH-VH) had a morphology similar to that of VH blastocytes two though, appeared somewhat retarded. It is suggested that the retarded embryos lack the ability to complete embryonic development and that the uterine environment of RBH is not favourable to sustain normal embryonic development.
A description is given of the anatomy of the muscles of the hindlimb of the babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa L. 1758). Four adult animals, two males and two females were dissected and the results compared with previously published information. Significant differences were found between the accounts and these were analysed within the contexts of material availability and advances in anatomical nomenclature. Comparisons made with published descriptions of the pig (Sus scrofa) showed that the muscular anatomies of the two species are very similar. Those differences which are apparent, despite intraspecies variation in structure, include a thoracic vertebral origin for the M. psoas minor in babirusa but not pig, a smaller gluteal tongue to the M. gluteus medius in the babirusa, a failure of the Mm. gluteus medius to meet on the dorsal midline in the babirusa unlike the case in the pig, the two heads of the M. gluteus accessorius are of unequal size in the babirusa but not in the pig, the vertebral head of the M. obturatorius externus is absent in the babirusa and present in the pig.
In the present study, the ovaries of 15 healthy bitches divided into three groups according to age were analysed by histology and morphometry: group 1 (1-3 years), group 2 (>3-5 years) and group 3 (>5-7 years). After ovariosalpingohysterectomy, the ovaries were fixed, routinely processed for embedding in paraffin and stained with haematoxylin-eosin. The following morphometric parameters were analysed: maximum and minimum diameter (microm), perimeter (microm), area (microm(2)) and roundness of the cytoplasm and nucleus of oocytes from different types of follicles. Significant differences in the cytoplasmic and nuclear parameters of follicular oocytes between the experimental groups were determined by anova and the Tukey test (5%). For the biotechnology of reproduction, the present results showed that in vitro maturation yielded the best performance for oocytes from primordial follicles in group 3 females and for oocytes embedded in secondary and tertiary follicles in group 2 females. In addition, the present findings will help in the diagnosis and prognosis of diseases affecting bitches, and will especially contribute to a better understanding of these cells by researchers in the field of histology and canine reproduction.
Considering monkeys are animals closely related to the human, and semitendinosus muscle has been used in many postural research experiments, we have decided to study its histochemical characteristics. Samples were removed from the proximal, middle and distal regions of the semitendinosus muscles of five adult male tufted capuchin monkeys and observed for reaction with m-ATPase (with alkaline and acid pre-incubation), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide tetrazolium reductase, and haematoxylin and eosin. The muscle fibres were classified as fast glycolytic (FG), fast oxidative glycolytic (FOG) and slow oxidative (SO) and quantified in terms of frequency and area. The three regions of the semitendinosus muscle showed no significant differences in frequency or area of the respective fibre types, and therefore the muscle can be considered histoenzymologically homogeneous. FG fibres presented higher frequencies and larger areas. The sum of FOG and SO fibres was 57.5%, suggesting that the semitendinosus muscle of the tufted capuchin monkey is adapted to an action involved in posture maintenance and in long arboreal dislocation. The present data agrees with the notion of differentiated quadrupedalism in some primates, which support a lower percentage of their weight on the fore limbs.
This study aims to show the distribution and the three-dimensional structure of the lingual papillae in the arctic fox. The macro- and microscopic structure of the tongue and its lingual papillae was studied in 11 adult arctic foxes. Two types of mechanical papillae were distinguished on the dorsal surface of the tongue--filiform papillae and conical papillae. The gustatory papillae in the arctic fox are represented by fungiform, vallate and foliate papillae. The keratinized filiform papillae on the anterior part of tongue are composed of one big posterior process accompanied by 10-12 secondary anterior processes. The number of anterior processes of filiform papillae undergo a complete reduction within the area between the posterior part of the body of the tongue and area of the vallate papillae. The conical papillae cover the whole dorsal surface of the root of the tongue, including the lateral parts surrounding the area of the vallate papillae and the posterior part of the root. The size of the conical papillae increases towards the root of the tongue but their density decreases. In the arctic fox, there are three pairs of vallate papillae distributed on the plan of a triangle. The diameter of vallate papillae in each successive pair is bigger. The wall surrounding the body of the vallate papilla and its gustatory trench is composed of six to eight conical papillae joined at various degree. The foliate papillae on both margins of the tongue consist of seven to nine laminae.
In this paper, important connections between the two main contingents of the autonomic nervous system, intrinsic and extrinsic visceral plexus were analysed. Concerning heart innervation, the territories of extrinsic innervation are very important in the treatment of congenital or acquired cardiopathy, thoracic neoplasia and aortic arch persistence, among others. This research compared young and adult extrinsic cardiac innervation and described the surgical anatomic nerve segments. Animals were perfused with a 10% formaldehyde solution in PBS (0.1 m) (pH 7.4) and submitted to macro- and meso-scopic dissection immersed in 60% acetic acid alcoholic solution and 20% hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution. The nerve segments were assigned as: right vagus nerve segment, left vagus nerve segment, right middle cervical ganglion segment, left middle cervical ganglion segment, right caudal laryngeal nerve segment, left caudal laryngeal nerve segment, right phrenic nerve segment and left phrenic nerve segment.
We described the macroscopic anatomy of the intestines and their peritoneal folds of five adult pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), a cervid species considered to ingest a high proportion of grass in its natural diet. The mean (+/-SD) body weight was 17 (+/-2) kg. The small intestine and the caecocolon measured 495 (+/-37) cm and 237 (+/-24) cm in length, respectively, with an average ratio (small intestine:caecocolon) of 1.9 (+/-0.1). The ascending colon had two and a half centripetal gyri, a central flexure and two centrifugal gyri. The spiral ansa, which was similar to an ellipse, was fixed to the whole left face of the mesenterium. Apart from the peritoneal folds described in the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, three additional, hitherto not described folds were found: a fold that fixed the caecum to the proximal ansa of the ascending colon, one that joined the terminal part of the proximal ansa to the last centrifugal gyrus of the spiral ansa of the ascending colon, and one that linked the ascending duodenum to the proximal ansa of the ascending colon. When compared with published data from other cervids of different feeding niches, it appears that, among cervids, the ratio of small intestine to the caecocolon length does not reflect the natural diet.
In eight specimens of Atlantic sea bass of commercial size (congruent with 350 g) muscle cellularity was studied at two selected sampling levels of the trunk axial musculature: caudal (anal opening) and cranial (fourth radius of the dorsal fin). The following parameters were quantified at both sampling levels: white muscle cross-sectional area, white muscle fibre diameter (900-1200 fibres), muscle fibre number and muscle fibre density. Results showed a higher total cross-sectional area at cranial than at caudal level (P < 0.05), what is related with their different gross morphology. However, the white muscle fibre size distribution, as well as the muscle fibre number and density did not show significant differences between them. This study contributes to typify muscle fibre sampling in sea bass of commercial size what is of great interest for morphometric studies where white muscle cellularity is commonly correlated with textural or organoleptic parameters.
The aim of this study was to describe the anatomy of the great vessels of the heart in capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) and to compare with those of other primates, including humans. The hearts were prepared through fixation in 10% formalin and subsequently dissected using standard techniques and instruments. The arterial and venous systems were perfused with colored latex solution via the femoral vessels. An ascending cylindrical branch with relatively great caliber was identified in the aorta artery, in addition to an aortic arch, from which three great arteries were originated, the brachiocephalic trunk, the left common carotid artery and the left subclavian artery. After a course of variable extension, the pulmonary trunk divided into right and left pulmonary arteries. The caudal vena cava was morphologically similar to that of humans, except for its association with the cardiac lobe of the right lung, whereas the cranial vena cava was formed by the two braquiocephalic veins and received the azygos vein close to right atrium. The pulmonary veins, in number of six, ended at the posterior face of the left atrium, differently from both humans and other primates. In conclusion, the morphology of the great vessels of the heart in Cebus apella was similar to that of humans and other primates, although some differences are evidenced with regards to topography and number of anatomic structures, particularly the relationship of the caudal vena cava with the cardiac lobe of the right lung and the presence of six pulmonary veins in Cebus apella.
The caudal mesenteric ganglion (CMG) is located ventral to the abdominal aorta involving the initial portion of the caudal mesenteric artery. Its macro and microstructural organization was studied in 40 domestic dogs. From the CMG, there were three nerves: the main hypogastric, the left hypogastric and the right hypogastric. The main hypogastric nerve emits two branches: the left colonic nerve and the cranial rectal nerve. Afterwards they give rise to branches to the descending colon (colonic nerves) and rectum (rectal nerves). The cranial rectal nerve, and left and right hypogastric nerves were directed to the pelvic ganglia. The microscopic study permitted the observation of the histological organization of the CMG, which is a ganglionic complex composed of an agglomeration of ganglionic units. Each ganglionic unit is composed of three major cell types: principal ganglion neurones (PGNs), glial cells and small intensely fluorescent (SIF) cells, and they were separated by nerve fibres, septa of connective tissue (types 1 and 3 collagen fibres), fibroblasts and intraganglionic capillaries. Hence, the ganglionic unit is the morphological support for the microstructural organization of the CMG complex. Further, each ganglionic unit is constituted by a cellular triad (SIF cells, PGN and glial cells), which is the cytological basis for each ganglionic unit.
The development of the bovine small intestine was examined in 39 embryos and fetuses by light microscopic and transmission electron microscopic methods. Special reference was paid to the histogenesis of the ephithelium. In contrast to the duodenum the epithelium of jejunum and ileum undergoes a degeneration by vacuolation of its villous epithelial cells. The demonstration of the acid phosphatase activity of these vacuoles shows their lysosomal character. This degenerative process of the small intestinal epithelium is also known in large intestine where it leads to the destruction of the intestinal villi. Both seem to be part of a 'principle of construction of the intestine of the vertebrates' (Wille, 1984).
The aim of this research was to characterize the preantral ovarian follicular population in collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) using light and electron microscopy. Ovaries from six mature females were collected and further fixed for histological and ultrastructural analysis. A total of 33273.45 ± 5789.99 preantral follicles (PFs) were estimated for the population in each ovary. Most preantral follicles were primordial (91.56%), followed by primary (6.29%) and secondary (2.15%) ones. Most PFs were morphologically normal (94.4%), and only a few were atretic (5.6%). At histology assessment, amounts of lipid droplets were observed into the oocyte cytoplasm, which was confirmed through ultrastructural analysis. This work characterizes for the first time the ovarian population of preantral follicles, total and per category, in collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu). The general follicles featured at primordial, primary and secondary categories are very similar to those described for other species.
Although donkeys play an important role as companion or pack and draught animals, theriogenological studies and anatomical data on the genital organs of the jenny are sparse. To provide anatomical descriptions and morphometric data, the organa genitalia feminina, their arteries and the ligamentum latum uteri of 10 adult but maiden jennies were examined by means of gross anatomical and morphometric techniques. In comparison with anatomical data of horses obtained from literature the genital organs of jennies appear to be more voluminous in relation to the body mass and the position of the ovaries is slightly further cranial than in mares. In asses, the ovaries contain large follicles reaching a diameter of up to 40 mm. The mesosalpinx is much wider than in the horse forming a considerably spacious bursa ovarica. The asinine ligamentum teres uteri reveals a very prominent cranial end, the 'appendix'. Tortuous mucosal folds occur in the wall of the jenny's cervical channel. The vascularization of the female genital organs of asses is very similar to that of horses. One of the examined specimens reveals a large mucosal fold dividing the cranial part of the vagina into a left and right compartment.
A description is given of the anatomy of the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the forelimb of the babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa, L. 1758). Three adult animals, two males and a female were dissected and the results compared with the previously published information. Significant differences were found between the accounts, and these were analysed within the context of material availability and advances in anatomical nomenclature. Comparisons made with published descriptions of the pig (Sus scrofa) showed that the muscular anatomy of the two species is very similar. Four structures are present in the babirusa but not in the pig; the M. pronator teres is completely tendinous, a tendon branch from the Caput craniale m. extensor digitorum lateralis anastomoses with the tendon of the Caput intermedium m. extensor digitorum communis to the fourth digit, there is an additional small deep portion of the M. supraspinatus and a bundle of fibres from the M. pectoralis profundus inserts on the intersectio clavicularis. Four structures present in the pig but not the babirusa are an additional insertion from the M. cleido-occipitalis into the raphe of the neck, an extra medial insertion of the M. infraspinatus, the accessory tendinous origin of the M. flexor digitorum profundus and the ulnar head of the M. flexor carpi ulnaris.
Seventeen lion heads were examined. Their arteries were injected with colored supervinyl-chloride (dissolved in acetone) after which the heads were macerated biologically. The rete mirabile of the maxillary artery was located extracranially and was formed by numerous arteries that arose from the dorsal and medial surfaces of the maxillary artery. The rete released branches (rami retis) which entered the cranial cavity through the orbital fissure where they anastomosed with the intracranial segment of the internal carotid artery. The extracranial portion of the internal carotid was found to be obliterated. Some other arteries leaving the rete anastomosed with the internal ophthalmic artery before it entered the optic canal. The following further arteries left the rete: A. ethmoidalis externa, A. ophthalmica externa, rami musculares and ramus pterygoideus. The rete mirabile of the maxillary artery in the lion provides the principal source of the blood for the brain; it also supplies the orbit.
Aspects of the vascularization of the tongue of Nellore Bos indicus (Linnaeus, 1758) were evaluated through the vascular injection technique (with latex-type Neoprene 450, Du Pont do Brasil S.A. and Sulvinil coloring, Glassurit), fixed in formaldehyde at 7% and dissected with magnifying glass. The material was collected at Goiás Carnes Freezer Warehouse in Goiania, Goias. It was found that the deep lingual artery penetrated the lower lateral region of the prominence of the dorsal area of the tongue, advancing rostrally between the hyoid bone and the hypoglossal muscle. In the intravisceral initial third, the artery represents the deep, sinuous continuation branch of the lingual artery, in which path the sublingual artery was stressed in the ventral plan. Then, the artery deepened in the interior of the hypoglossal muscles and genioglossal, supplying dorsal branches (from three to nine) for the lingual torus; from one to five dorsal collateral branches for the lingual cavity; and one or two ventral collateral branches. At the lingual apex, the artery undergoes bifurcation supplying collateral, dorsal and ventral branches with anastomoses between the parallel vessels in the same antimere and between branches of lower caliber hierarchy between opposite antemeres. The large presence of microvessels indicates a significant blood supply to the organ. These results, in comparison with those found in literature, suggest a peculiar vascular pattern for this cattle breed of Indian origin.
This research presents morphological characteristics of adrenal glands and a demonstration of arterial vascularization in the Pampas deer, which is considered to be in extreme danger of extinction. A total of ten deer constituted the material of the study. Vascularization of organs was investigated by using latex injection technique. Left adrenal glands were basically supplied by coeliac, cranial mesenteric, renal and lumbal arteries. The arterial vascularization of the left adrenal glands was very complex in comparison with right adrenal glands. In two examples, branch of the lumbal artery was divided into phrenic caudal artery and cranial adrenal artery. In six examples, it was observed that the caudomedial and ventral regions of the left adrenal glands were also supplied by thinner branches that stemmed from second left lumbal artery. Besides, coeliac and cranial mesenteric arteries also gave off shorter branches supplying the cranial region of the left adrenal glands in five examples. It was determined that two branches originated from abdominal aorta directly for supplying left adrenal glands in only two examples. In four examples, two caudal adrenal arteries stemmed separately from left renal artery in a short distance. Arterial vascularization of right adrenal glands was more constant and supplied by lumbal and renal arteries. The adrenal glands were generally oval or round shaped. In only two examples, left adrenal glands were 'V-' or heart-shaped. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in sizes between right and left adrenal glands.
Nasua nasua, coati, is a mammal of the Carnivora order and Procyonidae family. It lives in bands composed of females and young males. The pineal gland or epiphysis of brain is endocrine, producing the melatonin. Its function is the control of the cycle of light environment, characteristic of day and night. For this research, five adult coatis were used, originating from CECRIMPAS-UNIfeob (Proc. IBAMA 02027.003731/04-76), Brazil. The animals were killed and perfusion-fixed in 10% formaldehyde. Pineals were measured and a medium size was found to be 2.3-mm-long and 1.3-mm-wide. Pineal gland was located in the habenular commissure in the most caudal portion of the third ventricular roof, lying in a dorso-caudal position from the base to the apex. Pinealocytes were predominantly found in the glandular parenchyma. Distinct and heterogeneous arrangements of these cells throughout the three pineal portions were observed as follows: linear cords at the apex, circular cords at the base of the gland, whereas at the body a transition arrangement was found. Calcareous concretions could be observed in the apex. The pineal gland was classified as subcallosal type [Rec. Méd. Vét.1, 36 (1956)] and as AB type [Prog. Brain Res. 42, 25 (1979); The Pineal Organ, Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag (1981)].
The saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis) is a Passeriforme of the Brazilian wildlife. There are scarcely any morphological studies on it, although it is frequently trafficked for its birdsong abilities. Its peculiarities, such as territorialism and developed syrinx that provides outstanding song, draw attention towards its domestication. Thus, this study aimed to morphologically describe the tongue and digestive tube organs of this species to furnish subsidies for nutritional, clinical and conservation studies. Forty-one birds from the Wild Animal Screening Center (CETAS)/Brazilian Institute of Environment (IBAMA)/city of Cabedelo, state of Paraíba (PB) were used. Samples were collected, identified and sent to standard light microscopy; samples of proventriculus and gizzard were sent to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The samples showed stratification similar to that of other domestic and wild birds, confirmed in the scanning electron microscopy; however, they differed in the absence of dermal papillae in the tongue, lack of ingluvial glands and lack of muscular mucosa and sub-mucosa in the large intestine.
Two newborn males, two adult males 9 and 72 months old, one newborn female and two adult females of 30 and 54 months old pacas were used. Animals were radiographed on lateral recumbency, teeth were extracted and the vestibulolingual and mesiodistal lengths were achieved at the occlusal surface, besides the longitudinal length. The lower incisors presented greater length in relation to the other ones and sinuous shape; the upper incisors, relatively smaller, are practically straight. There is no canine tooth, and after a great diastema there is one premolar and three molars in each hemiarcade. In adult pacas, the enamel of incisors presents yellowish colour, mainly in the labial surface; in the premolars and molars, the enamel is present as internal sheets disposed nearly in a parallel way and in vestibulolingual direction, through practically all the dental length, which provides several joined teeth aspect.
The microscopic description of the teeth of pacas (Agouti paca) bred in captivity was developed for providing biological data on one of the largest American wild rodents, as not many references exist in the literature about this species. Two newborn males, two adult males (9 and 72 months old), one newborn female and two adult females (30 and 54 months old) were used after death due to fights, neonatal cannibalism or unknown causes. Animals were radiographed, and their teeth were extracted and put on an acrylic resin block, cut on a diamond-like disc microtome and diaphanized. It was noted that enamel surrounds the coronary dentine and projects to the root region, besides being present as internal laminae, arranged in a parallel way and in the vestibulolingual direction. The dentine is located between the enamel laminae and surrounds the pulp horns. The cementum is located internal to the enamel laminae. From scanning electronic microscopy, we find that the enamel is the outer element on the vestibular surface, and it is in direct contact with the dentine. On the lingual surface, the cementum and dentine are the outer elements.
This study aims to describe the origin and distribution of the hindlimb arterial vessels. Five adult lowland pacas (Cuniculus paca) were used. Stained and diluted latex was injected, caudally to the aorta. After fixation in 10% paraformaldehyde for 72 h, we dissected to visualize and identify the vessels. It was found out that the vascularization of the hindlimb in lowland paca derives from the terminal branch of the abdominal aorta. The common iliac artery divides into external iliac and internal iliac. The external iliac artery emits the deep iliac circumflex artery, the pudendal epigastric trunk, the deep femoral artery; the femoral artery originates the saphenous artery, it bifurcates into cranial and caudal saphenous arteries. Immediately after the knee joint, the femoral artery is called popliteal artery, which divides into tibial cranial and tibial caudal arteries at the level of the crural inter-osseous space. The origin and distribution of arteries in the hindlimb of lowland paca resembles that in other wild rodents, as well as in the domestic mammals.
Examined the osteomorphological features of the appendicular skeleton of Grant's gazelle (Gazella granti), bohor reedbuck (Redunca redunca) and bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus). Osseous remains of these medium sized antelopes are often encountered in African late Quaternary archaeological sites, but their specific identification poses considerable problems to the archaeozoologist. A key has been developed to meet this recurrent problem and a number of diagnostic osteomorphological features, allowing a distinction between the bovids mentioned, are established. The osteomorphological characteristics, typical for Grant's gazelle have also been observed in the eight other extant African gazelles and in two Asian species, the goitred gazelle (Gazella subgutterosa) and the mountain gazelle (Gazella gazella).
The canalis alimentarius of the Burunduk (Eutamias sibiricus), a rodent belonging to the family Sciuridae, were examined macroscopically (12 animals) and light microscopically (three animals). The esophagus is lined with a stratified non-keratinized squamous epithelium. The one-chambered stomach is of a simple type covered with a glandular mucous membrane. When empty and moderately filled, the stomach looks like a curved sack and lies intrathoracally. The filled stomach extends to the left and ventrally into the regio abdominis media. The greater omentum covers incompletely ventrally and in a part laterally the intestinal mass. The intestinal canal averages about 780 mm in length, that is 6.5 as long as the whole body. The relative length of the small intestine compared with the large intestine is 36-64%. The U-shaped Duodenum is composed of a Pars cranialis, descendens and ascendens and possesses a Plica duodenocolica as well as a Plica duodenocolica accessoria. The Jejunum averages about 420 mm length and is mainly located in the right and ventral part of the regio abdominis media. As in other rodents, the cecum is well developed. The length of the ascending colon averages about the body length and forms an Ansa proximalis and two parallel loops, Ansa media and Ansa distalis coli, both lying in the right Cavum abdominis. Peculiar for the colon are Noduli lymphatici solitarii surrounding cavities lined by a surface epithelium. According to the anatomical structure of the gut and based on physiological diet facts the Burunduk is not a mere herbivore but has to be classified as an omnivore depending upon uptake of animal food protein.
In this experiment, testicle fragments of 14 adult White-eyed Parakeets (Aratinga leucophthalma) were evaluated as for their seasonal reproductive activities using the following quantitative parameters: average thickness of the testicular tunica albuginea, volumetric proportion of tubular and extratubular compartments, average diameter of the seminiferous tubules and corporal weight. Parameters were created for qualitative evaluations of the degree of spermatogenic development. In this experiment, all the animals were distributed into four groups, and their testicular fragments were collected during the middle of summer, fall, winter and spring. The animals were submitted to volatile general anaesthesia, and a biopsy was made by celioscopy. The fragments collected were processed histologically. The slides were prepared and later evaluated by using an optical microscope. The average seasonal values of the corporal weight increased, starting in the winter and reaching the peak during the spring. A seasonal testicle cycle was observed, because, in the spring, the testicles showed values for the quantitative and qualitative parameters of spermatic production compatible with the period of greater activity, while the opposite thing happened during the fall. Our data indicate that the parameters of sperm production may be correlated with daily light rather than with air humidity.
This work aimed at applying geometric morphometric analysis techniques to the skull of the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus, Hermann, 1779). Inferential analyses were performed using a non-parameteric permutation framework based on a series of skulls of different age classes belonging to individuals of both sexes. Our goal was to establish whether a statistical approach based on osteometric measurements and surface analysis of photographs of the left lateral plane of the skull may lead to a different and scientifically sound method of age and sex classification in this critically endangered marine mammal. Our data indicate that non-parametric combination methodology enables the researcher to give local assessment using a combination with domains. Developing geometric morphometric techniques in a non-parametric permutation framework could be useful in solving high dimensional and small sample size problems as well as classification problems, including zoological classification of specimens within a specific population. The Mediterranean monk seal is believed to be the world's rarest pinniped and one of the most endangered mammals of the world, with fewer than 600 individuals currently surviving. The use of shape analysis would allow new insights into the biological characteristics of the monk seal by simply extracting potentially new information on age and size from museal specimens.
Twenty formalin fixed animals, nine male and eleven female, belonging to the genus Octodon degus (Molina 1782) were examined as to the topography of the cecum and ascending colon (Colon ascendens). The cecum shows differing forms and positions. The position of the Caput ceci is normally on the left side, directed cranially or caudally. Besides its topography on the left side, it can extend over the median level to the right side or remain with caput and corpus on the right, while the apex appears on the left side in front of the entry to the pelvis. Further findings were that the ascending colon (Colon ascendens) is arranged in two superimposed, often spiral folds, which may differ as to their form and extension, depending on the position of the cecum.
Comparative anatomical study of the ventral brain arteries of the Pudú pudu (Molina, 1782) with those of the cow. A comparison using the corrosion method was made between Pudú pudu (Molina, 1782) ventral brain arteries and those of the cow. The Pudú's Rete mirabile epidurale rostrale (Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, 1994) is ventrally formed by branches of the A. maxillaris, and caudally formed by the A. vertebralis. The Hypophysis is surrounded by the Rete mirabile rostrale. The lateral parts are rostrally joined to that gland by a thin vascular bridge and caudally by thick arteries. The Pudú's Circulus arteriosus cerebri asymmetrical, that is, on the right side the A. cerebri rostralis ends in the A. cerebri media. The left-side A. cerebri rostralis irrigates every rostral portion of the encephalon. In the cow, practically the same arteries come out of the Circulus arteriosus cerebri, which is not asymmetrical. The A. cerebri caudalis comes first out of the A. communicans caudalis and then the branches for the Pons, and finally the A. cerebelli rostralis. In this species, there are arterial blocks that are not present in Pudú.
With 4 figures
The aim of this study was to investigate the morphology and ultrastructure of the pronephros of Testudo hermanni as observed in the earlier part of its development. This paired structure appears during renal ontogenesis and originates from the first somites localised in the cephalic part of the embryo. The first pronephric evidence is noted at stage 12. The kidney is composed of large glomeruli that are devoid of a capsule and protrude into the coelomic cavity. A ciliated nephrostome provides access to short renal tubules, lined with a well-developed brush border. Two nephric ducts on the lateral sides of the embryo are connected to the tubules. The cytological characteristics of the pronephric structure suggest that it might be functional, at least in the first part of development. The pronephros of Testudo hermanni regresses after a short time around stage 18, while the mesonephros is already well differentiated. Its plesiomorphic characteristics, similar to those observed in amphibians, might be related to the phyletic position of chelonians within the reptiles.
The aim of this study was to investigate the development and differentiation of steroidogenic cells in the embryonic adrenal gland of Testudo hermanni using histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural methods. The 26 developmental stages were divided into three periods: early (stages 1-18, up to 20 days of incubation), intermediate (stages 19-22, incubation days 21-35) and advanced (stages 23-26, from incubation day 36 to hatching). A small presumptive bud of steroidogenic cells was visible at the end of the early period, protruding into the coelom from the lateral wall of intermediate mesoderm. Ultrastructural characteristics suggested that young and scarcely differentiated cells could already be able to perform steroidogenic activity: lipid droplets, large amount of SER and RER, small rounded mitochondria with variously shaped cristae and dense matrix. The cell membrane showed microvilli and coated pits. During the intermediate period, the inter-renal bud deepened into the haemopoietic tissue, close to the mesonephros and the newly formed metanephros. The ultrastructural, immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical characteristics pointed to enhanced steroidogenic activity. The contact with both kidney types (mesonephros and metanephros) continued in the advanced period, and chromaffin cells were also extensively mixed with steroidogenic cells. This is a peculiar feature of chelonian adrenal gland, in comparison with that of other reptiles. The variable cytological characteristics of embryonic steroidogenic cells in the advanced period suggest a four-phase cycle of steroidogenic activity.
The expression pattern of the intermediate filament protein cytokeratin 18 (CK 18) is described during pre- and post-natal development of the porcine lung using a monoclonal antibody against human CK 18. Lungs from 16 foetuses in pseudoglandular, canalicular, saccular and alveolar stages of lung development and lungs from 12 pigs ranging in age from birth to 49 days after birth were studied by immunohistochemistry. In the early pseudoglandular stage of development (day 70 of gestation) all the columnar epithelial cells lining the tubular endbuds strongly expressed CK 18 predominantly in the apical cell compartment. A modest staining was found in the more cuboidal cells of the canalicular stage (day 80 of gestation) where the labelling occurred as a distinct positive rim at the apical cell membrane in most of the cells lining the canaliculi. In 96- and 100-day-old foetuses, parts of the gas exchanging area were formed as terminal sacs by extreme attenuation of the epithelium. In this stage, CK 18 was clearly detectable in the flat type I as well as in the cuboidal type II alveolar epithelial cells. A marked change of the CK 18 expression pattern occurred during formation of the alveoli by septal outgrowth and maturation of the epithelium in 105- and 111-day-old foetuses. Differentiated type I cells no longer expressed CK 18, whereas type II cells were still labelled. Moreover, a specific change in the subcellular distribution pattern from the luminal periphery in immature porcine type II cells to a cytoplasmic localization in differentiated type II cells could be observed. Our investigation additionally demonstrated that the epithelium of bronchi, bronchioli and terminal bronchioli expressed CK 18 in all pre- and post-natal developmental stages. From the 96 days of gestation onwards the epithelial cells of developing bronchial glands were also labelled. Our results clearly show that during porcine lung development profound changes in the cellular expression pattern of CK 18 occur and that CK 18 can be regarded as a selective marker for differentiated porcine alveolar type II cells from the 105th day of gestation onwards. We also assume that the intermediate filament CK 18 could be of significance in the maturation process of the type II alveolar cells.
With 9 figures and 2 tables
Localization and activity levels of the following digestive enzymes in the intestine of free-living large-scaled gurnard were determined: non-specific esterase, alkaline and acid phosphatase as well as aminopeptidase. Enzymatic activity of the four enzymes was confirmed in all intestine parts but with different distribution through the enterocytes and varying in diverse intensity according to intestine part. This research is part of a broader research project on the biology of economically important fish from the Adriatic Sea. Our study reveals that in the large-scaled gurnard, the middle and posterior intestinal segments play the major role in digestion and absorption of proteins, whereas all parts of the intestine participate in lipid absorption and intracellular digestion. The high protein and lipid content in the diet of the large-scaled gurnard is most likely responsible for high activities of esterase, alkaline phosphatase and aminopeptidase, as they are involved in digestion and absorption of proteins and lipids.
The aims of this study were to examine the skeleton of domesticated budgerigars of phenotypically different breeding types, to describe the expression of skeletal changes and to discuss the results with special reference to the causes and effects of breed-conditioned alterations. Complete skeletons of 39 adult budgerigars of both sexes were the object of our research. The examinations demonstrated that almost all metrically sized skeleton dimensions of budgerigars of the exhibition type were increased significantly, compared with those of the non-exhibition type. Only for the scapula significant length differences between the budgerigars of both breeding types could not be verified. It can be stated that the measuring parameters 'occipital width', 'maxilla length', 'skull length' and 'prefrontal width' are suitable for the characterization of exhibition budgerigars. However, sexual dimorphisms could be verified in only three parameters (width of the pars symphysialis mandibulae, height of the skull, width of the skull within the range of the occiput). It has to be clarified in future studies to what extent the changes in the skeleton of budgerigars of the exhibition type have already had consequences for their flying ability, metabolism, health and well-being.
The study of lingual surfaces and the surface of interface epithelium-connective tissue of the tongue of Bradypus torquatus was performed by employing the light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results revealed that the rostral part of the tongue presents a round apex and covered by filiform and fungiform lingual papillae and a ventral smooth surface. It was observed that the epithelial layer of the dorsal surface possesses the basal, spinosum, granular and cornified epithelial cells. The lamina propria is characterized by a dense connective tissue forming the long, short and round papillae. Numerous typical filiform papillae are located especially in the rostral part intermingled for few fungiform papillae, which were revealed in three-dimensional SEM images. Usually, the fungiform papillae are located in the border of rostral apex of the tongue exhibiting the rounded form. They are covered by keratinized epithelial cells. In the fungiform papillae, several taste pores were observed on the surface. The vallate papillae presented numerous taste buds in the wall of epithelial cells, being that the major number of taste buds is located on the superior half of vallate papilla. The taste pores are surrounded by several laminae of keratinized epithelial cells. The samples treated with NaOH solution and examined by SEM revealed, after removal of the epithelial layer, the dense connective core in original disposition, presenting different sizes and shapes. The specimens stained with Picrosirius and examined by polarized light microscopy revealed the connective tissue, indicating the collagen fibres type I and type III.
The histochemical localization of non-specific esterase, alkaline and acid phosphatase as well as aminopeptidase in the intestine of the free-living common two-banded sea bream (Diplodus vulgaris) was investigated. Fish were caught near the town of Zadar (Adriatic Sea, Croatia). Samples of pyloric caeca and three parts of the intestine proper (anterior, middle and posterior) were used for the description of non-specific esterase, alkaline and acid phosphatase as well as aminopeptidase. Non-specific esterase activity was found in the cytoplasm of enterocytes in pyloric caeca and in all investigated intestinal segments. The activity was stronger in the anterior and posterior part of the intestine than in the pyloric caeca and middle segment of the intestine. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase was detected in brush border of enterocytes of all investigated intestinal segments. Enzymatic activity gradually decreased in a posterior direction. Acid phosphatase activity was observed as a fine granular reaction product in the supranuclear region of enterocytes. This activity was almost equal in pyloric caeca as well as in the anterior intestinal segment, while it was stronger in the middle and posterior intestinal segment. Aminopeptidase was present along the intestinal epithelium brush border in all investigated parts of the digestive tube. The intensity of aminopeptidase increased posteriorly. The possible role of investigated enzymes in intracellular digestion and transport is discussed.
This paper points out a situation in which a particular phalangeal modification in the genus Hemidactylus has been constantly interpreted in an erroneous manner. Conclusions about the actual situation result from the study of a wide range of genera and the modifications discussed may be utilized to set aside a particular assemblage of gekkonine geckos on the basis of the possession of a particular set of synapomorphies. The functional significance of this particular suite of modifications is considered and its probable evolutionary origin outlined. It is pointed out that particular phalangeal modifications are better indicators of phylogenetic affinity than are simple phalangeal counts.
The abdominal parts of the alimentary canal and the associated arteries from seven male and nine female maras are described. The mara possesses a stomach with a single cavity and a glandular mucosa lining. The large stomach is situated caudal of the liver at right-angles to the longitudinal body axis. The long jejunum is located on the left side of the body caudal of the stomach. The cecum has two teniae and numerous haustra which are proximal larger than distal. The smooth colon ascendens runs proximal parallel to the cecum and describes distal an U-shaped double-loop. The internal surface of the proximal part of the colon ascendens is characterized by two parallel mucosal ledges. Cecum and colon ascendens lie right caudal of the liver. The colon descendens is coiled and situated on the left body side. The A. gastrica sinistra and branches of the A. lienalis and the A. hepatica supply the stomach. The A. mesenterica cranialis which branches of separately from the A. coeliaca is a large and long vessel that supplies the major parts of the small intestine and the colon. The A. mesenterica caudalis supplies parts of the colon desendens and of the rectum.
The skin histology of Clarias gariepinus, a scaleless teleost from south central Africa, is described. The African catfish epidermis is composed of epithelial cells representing 62.3% of volumetric density (Vv), club cells (Vv = 25.7%), mucous cells (Vv = 10.5%) and melanocytes (Vv = 1.4%). Its thickness amounts to approximately 240 microm. The dermis is distinguished by two well differentiated layers, the stratum adiposum, containing prominent amounts of adipose tissue, which forms large, oblong compartments circumscribed by dense connective tissue, and the stratum compactum, which is rich in compacted collagen fibres. Compared with other catfish species the dermis thickness is considerably thicker ranging from 1.3 to 2.3 mm. The function of this type of skin is discussed.
In this study, we associated imaging modalities, such as computed tomography (CT) and standard radiography, with anatomical specimens to describe the anatomy of the appendicular skeleton of red-footed tortoises ( Chelonoidis carbonaria), using animals of different sizes, ages, sexes and weights. Manus and pes bones were described from conventional radiography and osteological specimens, because they have small structures that could not be reconstructed. The main anatomical feature that differentiates C. carbonaria from others Testudines is the ischial-pubic tuberculum. The pectoral girdle is formed by the union of two bones, the scapula and the coracoid, showing no bone connection with the shell. Carpal and tarsal bones can be fused or not and include: carporadial and central carpus, carpoulnar and V carpal, central tarsal and fibular tarsal, distal tarsal I and II. The phalangeal formula is 2:2:2:2:2 in the forelimb and 2:2:2:2:1 in the hind limb. Imaging examinations are important tools in anatomical description and can be used in living individuals, replacing or aiding the study with anatomical specimens.
Using standard methods, the study of topographic and descriptive anatomy, and histology, has led to the specification of some special features and their relationship to the function of the grasscutter digestive tract. These details include the development of dorsal excrescence on the tongue, lack of a true pylorus, and advanced disappearance of Brünner glands in the last third of the duodenum submucosa. More interesting is the size of the caecum, which fills 60% of the abdominal cavity, and the presence of large anal glands, making this animal an unusual rodent.
The thin and ultrathin structure of the perineal gland of the grasscutter was studied using routine histological, histochemical and electron microscopic techniques. The perineal glands were identified in the zona cutanea of the anal canal of males more than 4 months old. These glands are organized on a lobular model made up of sebaceous cells and isolated by connective parietal cells. The paler in colour the sebaceous cells, the more lipid vacuoles they contain. PAS-negative and Sudan III-positive secretions were demonstrated in these cells. Electron microscopy showed that the intracellular organelles were well-developed, which is a mark of high metabolic activity and storage by the glandular cells. Cystic vesicles were found in the lobules. The size and number of these cysts were variable. The position of the cyst cells and the variability of their size suggest that they are formed after lysis of some holocrine secretory cells. These observations suggest a progressive maturation of the gland towards its secretory site. No specific secretory duct for the purpose of draining secretions was observed, however, there were possible discharge pathways, although with no real walls, as is found for the biliary canaliculi.