Anales de Pediatría

Published by Elsevier España
Online ISSN: 1695-9531
Print ISSN: 1695-4033
Publications
To study the gut flora in infants who received fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus termophilus and its effect on secretory immunoglobulin levels. An experimental, randomized, prospective, parallel group study was carried out. Thirty-five infants were included (18 in the treatment group and 17 in the control group) with a mean age of 2 years (SD: 0.6 years; range: 1-3 years). The experimental group received both fermented milk (0.5 l/day) containing L. casei and S. termophilus for 6 weeks and standard cow's milk for the following 6 weeks. The control group received standard cow's milk (0.5 l/day) for 12 weeks. Secretory IgA levels in saliva were evaluated in the experimental group at the start of the study (baseline levels) and 6 weeks later. In both groups, stools were collected to study gut flora at 0, 6 and 12 week. Secretory IgA levels significantly increased (p =0.0063) from a mean baseline value of 2.5 mg/dl to a mean of 3.4 mg/dl at 6 weeks. Gram-negative aerobic flora were decreased in the experimental group after 6 weeks compared with the control group (p =0.0203). The number of infants with Lactobacillus spp in their gut flora was greater in the experimental group than in the control group at week 6 and this difference was statistically significant (p =0.028) at week 12. Conclusion The present study provides evidence of L. casei survival in the gastrointestinal tract and of its effect of increasing secretory IgA.
 
To determine whether the currently widespread practice of sending all premature infants with birth weight between 1,000 and 1,500 g to early care centres is necessary from a neurological point of view, or if it is possible to establish selection criteria. A retrospective study of newborns (NB) at our hospital between January 1998 and December 2004 with birth weight between 1,000 and 1,500 g, and followed up for at least two years in a paediatric neurology clinic. We analysed the prognostic significance of the different neurological variables in the neonatal period, and those of greater significance were set at a score for deciding the start of early stimulation treatment on discharge from neonatology. A total of 194 infants met the above criteria. The most significant neurological prognostic variables were: gestational age < 28 weeks, male sex, intraventricular haemorrhage grade > I, history of high risk pregnancy, sepsis, anaemia with haemodynamic repercussion and fundamentally abnormal neurological examination at discharge (odds ratio of 16). A prognostic score was developed with a cut-off of 4 points, with an area under the curve of 88.3%. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 43.75% and 96.2%, respectively, with 84.8% sensitivity and 78.9% specificity. The newborns with birth weight between 1,000 and 1,500 g and normal neurological examination at discharge, with a score of less than 4 points, do not require early stimulation treatment from a neurological standpoint, given its predictable good outcome.
 
Obstetrics and Perinatal Care has improved in the last few years. As a result there has been a significant increase in preterm babies and longer survival. The risk of abnormalities in their development is high; they need follow up, prompt action and prevention from the neonatal period. We evaluated 116 preterm babies, birth weight less than or equal to 1,000 grams, admitted to our Unit over 5 years. Seventy five neonates survived after the neonatal period (64.7 %). We studied the development during the first three years of life. The number of admissions of extremely low birth weigh infants has increased by 100 % in the last five years and the survival has increased by 15 %. Failure to thrive was the most frequent problem; in the first 2 years of life neonatal growth retardation was present in more than 50 % of cases (58 % 1st year, 57 % 2nd year, 40 % 3rd year). Catch-up growth occurred except in infants who had intrauterine growth retardation. Motor function disorders were the most serious; minor alterations in this system were the most frequent but usually did not compromise the life of the patient. Cerebral palsy was present in 14 % in the 1st year of life, 17,4 % 2nd year and 19 % 3rd year. Retinopathy of prematurity was very high in our group (74 %), but ophthalmic sequela were infrequent (3.2 % 1st year, 3.9 % 2nd year, and 3.4 % 3rd year); similarly with hearing function (deafness 2.0 %). Only some mild or moderate language development delay was present and psychomotor development was normal in the majority of cases and those who were retarded improved with time. Nowadays there is a significant increase in the incidence and survival of extremely low birth weigh infants. They have a higher risk of abnormal development. The most frequent problem is failure to thrive and the most serious is cerebral palsy. Major ophthalmic and hearing sequela are rare. Psychomotor and language development is normal in the majority of these patients.
 
Combined neurological index (IVH grade III and/or HPI and/or PVL grade 2) in both groups, expressed as percentage.
Perinatal characteristics of the two groups,
To determine morbidity at 2 years' corrected age in a cohort of neonates with a birth weight of less than 1,500 g born in 1999-2000 in a tertiary hospital in the Autonomous Community of Madrid. An observational longitudinal follow-up study was performed in a cohort of 213 infants with a birth weight of < 1,500 g. Of these, 188 (87%) completed the 2-year follow-up. Various types of neurosensorial disability were studied, paying special attention to the main impairments: vision, hearing and motor impairment, and low development quotient. Among the patients initially included in the study, 87% completed the follow-up; 17.1% had one or more major sequela. We found one case (0.4%) of bilateral neurosensorial deafness and one case of bilateral blindness. At the age of 2 years, 5.8 % (11/188) had cerebral palsy, 14.9% had a development quotient below 85 and 18% had not reached the 3rd percentile for weight. Factors of poor neurological prognosis were subnormal head size at the age of 2 years and white matter disease (including persistent intraparenchymal periventricular echodensity and ventriculomegaly or irregular shape) as ultrasound findings. Less than a fifth of the very low birth weight infants presented severe sequelae at 2 years of follow-up. Factors of poor neurological prognosis were subnormal head size at 2 years and the presence of white matter disease on ultrasonography. The findings on growth and development were worrying, since 18 % of the patients had not reached the 3rd percentile for weight at 2 years' corrected age.
 
Adverse neurological events in very low birth weight (VLBW) children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) are more frequent than in children without. An understanding of the ages when preterm infants acquire certain motor skills will give parents more appropriate information on motor development. The objective of the present study is to estimate the influence between BPD and the age of acquisition of sitting unsupported and independent walking in VLBW children with normal neurological examination at 2 years of corrected age. A longitudinal study was conducted on a cohort of 885 children with VLBW, admitted to the Hospital "12 de Octubre" between January 1991 and December 2003. Age for both skills was established by interview with parents. Means were compared with t-test and Bonferroni adjustment where appropriate. Both motor skills were acquired later in the group with BPD (7.8±2m vs. 7.1±1.3m for sitting unsupported and 14.5±3.8m vs. 13.4±2.5m for walking) (P<.001). BPD was associated with delayed acquisition (above p90) of these skills, OR=2.6 (1.6-4.1) for sitting and OR=2.8 (1.6-4.8) for walking. Association was found after adjusting for gestational age (GA) and weight. BPD was associated with delayed acquisition of both skills in VLBW children with normal neurological examination at 2 years.
 
To design and implement a registry of infants weighing less than 1,500 g at birth in Spain. Prospective, cohort, multicenter study. All live born infants weighing less than 1,500 g in several voluntarily participating neonatal units in public and private hospitals were included. In the first 4 years of the registry (2002 to 2005), 9,638 very-low-birth-weight infants were born in the 65 neonatal units that have so far joined the program. The goal of very-low-birth-weight infant databases is to try to improve the quality and safety of the medical care given to these newborns and their families. This type of program helps to coordinate and promote several areas, including those of health education, training of medical staff, research and development, surveillance and quality improvement.
 
Neonatal video-polysomnography (VPSG) in preterm infants is indicated to rule out sleep-related respiratory disturbances before discharge from neonatal units and to study neonatal sleep patterns and associated pathologic conditions. To study the presence of apnea, hypopnea, and periodic breathing in preterm infants with low birth weight (< 1,800 g) and to describe their cardio-respiratory variability, electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities, and brain maturity in connection with sleep stages. We performed a cross-sectional, descriptive study through review of the clinical histories of preterm infants with a birth weight < 1,800 g who had undergone VPSG (2001-2003). The most common indication for VPSG was the presence of sleep apneas and oxygen desaturation. The data obtained were used for descriptive statistical analysis. Thirty-one infants were studied, with a mean gestational age of 27.8 weeks and a mean birth weight of 1,158 g. The most frequently associated condition was hyalin membrane disease (68 %). Cardiorespiratory impairment was detected in 65 %, altered sleep pattern in 6 %, immature EEG recording in 32 %, abnormal pattern in 13 %, and immature plus abnormal pattern in 3 %. Sixty-nine percent of the infants required home monitoring and 23 % needed oxygen at home. Four infants were readmitted on several occasions due to apnea. We wish to stress the importance of carrying out VPSG with suitable methodology in preterm infants with cardiorespiratory or neurological impairment in order to detect abnormalities on EEG and to assess brain maturity and sleep-related abnormal respiratory events.
 
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is endemic, and children who attend day care are the most important source of infection. To establish recommendations based on the medical evidence on the vertical transmission of cytomegalovirus in preterm infants weighing less than 1500g at birth. Infection in pregnant women may be primary or secondary. Although there is fetal infection, 85% of newborn infants are asymptomatic. Symptoms of infection include low birth weight, hepatosplenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, microcephaly and neurological disorders. The prognosis of symptomatic children is very poor, with high mortality and neurological disorders. The virus can be reactivated during breast feeding, and early infection is possible through breast milk, probably with little impact in term infants, although the long-term neurological outcome worsens in preterm infants. The diagnostic method of choice is the identification of CMV in urine; the determination in the first two weeks of life suggests congenital infection; later it can be acquired at birth or through breast milk or contaminated blood transfusion. Determine viral DNA at 4-6 weeks of life by protease chain reaction. If it is positive, monitoring of samples from the first days of life and breast milk are mandatory. This should allow the newborn to be classified into three states: "Without CMV infection", "Congenital CMV infection", "Acquired CMV infection".
 
Árbol genealógico. Los parientes numerados son aquellos en los que contamos con el historial médico. 
Radiografía de tórax. Se observa la ausencia de clavículas.
Radiografía de cráneo. Se observa la hipoplasia de maxilar superior.
A female who was born after a gestation of 37 weeks without incident. A caesarean was performed due to cephalopelvic disproportion. She had no clavicles, dehiscence of the sagittal suture, large anterior fontanelle and occipital prominence. A chest x-ray, abdominal and brain ultrasound and karyotype, was requested, with changes only seen in the x-ray,, which showe clavicular agenesis and flared chest. Cleidocranial dysostosis was diagnosed a family study was started. There are ten affected members in five generations. The partial or total absence of clavicles, the late closure of cranial sutures and fontanelles, the diastasis of the pubic symphysis and the flared chest during the first days of life, are constant features. Four presented characteristic facies and three delayed onset of first teeth which required extractions. There is hearing loss in three of them. The three documented childbirths were caesarean due to cephalopelvic disproportion. Other alterations are failure to thrive, coxa vara and early osteoarthritis.
 
To review the clinical and bacteriological features of pediatric patients with non-typhi Salmonella (NTS) bacteremia. We reviewed the medical records of children aged less than 14 years with culture-proven NTS bacteremia in the previous 11 years in a referral hospital in Madrid, Spain. A total of 29 cases of NTS bacteremia were diagnosed. Of these, 27 were used for study purposes. The mean age was 11.1 months (range: 3 days to 11 years); 48% were infants aged < 1 year. Eleven children (41%) had an underlying disease. These included immunodeficiency in seven (malignant disease in three, IgA-IgG2 deficit in one, chronic granulomatous disease in one, HIV infection in one, and systemic lupus erythematosus in one patient on steroid treatment), liver disease in three, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in one. Clinical manifestations at the initial visit included: fever > 39 C (85%), diarrhea (67%), and vomiting (37%). Seven patients had occult bacteremia. Three children (11 %) required intensive care management for severe sepsis. Five patients presented extraintestinal focal infections: arthritis in two, osteomyelitis in one, urinary tract infection in one, and pneumonia in one. None of the children had meningitis or died as a result of NTS infection. The most common serogroups isolated were Salmonella D9, and B4-5 (38% each). Eleven strains (38%) were resistant to amoxicillin and five (17%) were resistant to cotrimoxazole. Only one patient developed persistent bacteremia. All the children made a complete recovery without further complications. NTS bacteremia is an uncommon entity but it should be considered in infants and immunocompromised children. Although focal complications may occur, the usual outcome with appropriate antimicrobial treatment is a full recovery.
 
Currently, primary care center rotation is not compulsory for residents in pediatrics. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of tutors and residents during primary care rotation, which has been compulsory for residents in the Hospital 12 Octubre in Madrid for the last 5 years. We performed an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study through a survey carried out in June 2005 of 12 accredited tutors and 38 residents. Sixty-eight percent of the residents did not know how primary care centers worked. Eighty-four percent of the residents considered that the first year of residence was the best year for rotation in primary care, 64% would choose the center according to the tutor, and 97% highlighted the teaching of the tutors. Tutors and residents believed that the length of the rotation (1.5 months) was short. All tutors and residents thought that the main objectives were achieved and recognized the importance of the rotation. Tutors found teaching gratifying and all agreed that their work should be compensated by professional recognition or greater access to training. Coordination with the hospital's pediatric teaching board should be improved. Compulsory rotation in primary care is feasible and is a positive component of pediatrics training. Residents and tutors considered this experience to be satisfactory and well adapted to the established objectives. The position of teaching coordinator should be created in primary care, the length of rotations prolonged and tutors' work should be compensated.
 
To study the relationship between lipid profile and body mass index (BMI) in children after a 5-year follow-up. A total of 281 children were evaluated at the ages of 6 and 11 years. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and apoproteins A1 (Apo A) and B100 (Apo B) were measured. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was determined and the Apo B/Apo A, TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C indexes, and the atherogenic index were calculated. BMI was also calculated (BMI 5 kg/m2). Evolution parameters were calculated (EVO 5 value 11 years - value 6 years). Associations between BMI and lipid profile were studied. The prevalence of obesity (according to the criteria of the International Obesity Task Force) was 4.98 % (6 years) and 16,72 % (11 years). In children who were in the fourth BMI quartile at the age of 11 years, LDL-C/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C levels were significantly higher and than those in children in the first quartile but HDL-C and Apo A levels were lower. A significant positive correlation was found between the evolution of BMI and the four indexes studied and TG, but this correlation was negative for HDL-C and Apo A. The evolution of the indexes was positive in 11-year-old obese children and negative in nonobese children. Lipid profile was worse in 11-year-old children in the fourth BMI quartile than in the remaining children. Obese children had higher values of the indexes studied, supporting the importance of obesity as a cardiovascular risk factor.
 
The short bowel syndrome is the result of a congenital or acquired loss of a large part of the small intestine. The most frequent causes of surgical resection of the intestine in infants are arterial or venous thrombosis, intestinal volvulus, necrotizing enterocolitis, and Crohn's disease. Symptoms include nutrient and electrolyte malabsorption, steatorrhea and diarrhea, which can result in failure to thrive. The consequences of extensive small bowel resections consist of nutritional deficiencies, gastric acid hypersecretion, nephrolithiasis, cholelithiasis and lactic acidosis. Of these, D-lactic acidosis is an infrequent but important complication because of the symptoms that it can produce. D-lactic acid in the human organism is generated by intestinal bacteria, D-lactate ingestion, or endogenous production in the methyl glycoxylase pathway. Neurological symptoms such as somnolence, ataxia or altered behavior in a patient with short bowel syndrome should make us think of D-lactic acidosis caused by bacterial overgrowth. We present the case of an 11-year-old boy with short bowel syndrome secondary to multiple resections during the postnatal period who was admitted to hospital for episodes of confusion and altered behavior. The diagnosis was lactic acidosis. Outcome was favorable due to prompt instauration of treatment.
 
In the last few years, the incidence of parapneumonic effusions in children with community-acquired pneumonia seems to have increased. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical features and incidence of parapneumonic effusions throughout an 11-year period. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients aged < 15 years old with parapneumonic effusions from 1993 to 2003. Annual incidence rates were calculated per 100,000 children < 15 years old from Health Area 5 of Madrid and per 100 children hospitalized in the Infectious Diseases Department of our hospital. The linear association test was used to compare the incidence rates over the previous 11 years. There were 130 patients with parapneumonic pleural effusions. The mean age was 4.7 years. Forty-one percent received antibiotics before diagnosis. The causative organisms were identified in 42 patients (32.3%). The most effective diagnostic method was pleural-fluid culture (18/58, 31%). The most common organisms were Streptococcus pneumoniae (18), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (8), Staphylococcus aureus (4), Streptococcus pyogenes (3), Haemophilus influenzae (3) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (2). Thirty-two percent of the patients required pleural drainage and 16% underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Of 12 S. pneumoniae antibiograms available, 91.7% showed full susceptibility to penicillin and 75% were susceptible to erythromycin. The annual incidence of parapneumonic effusions rose from 18.1 in 1993 to 42.9 in 2003 (p < 0.001) per 100,000 children and from 0.76 in 1993 to 3.3 in 2003 (p < 0.001) per 100 children hospitalized in our unit. The incidence of parapneumonic effusions in children with community-acquired pneumonia showed a statistically significant increase between 1993 and 2003. The most common causal organism was S. pneumoniae, with a low rate of penicillin resistance.
 
To evaluate the clinical presentation, complications and sequelae in patients with temporal bone fracture in the last 11 years. A total of 27 patient medical records were retrospectively analysed. Of the 27 patients who were admitted for temporal bone fracture from 2001 to 2012, 13 (48%) had no petrous involvement (Group 1), and 14 (52%) with petrous involvement (Group 2). Patients in Group 2 had a longer P-ICU stay: median 4.5 days (RI: 2.75-22.25 d) vs 2 (RI: 1-3 d) (P=.018); more days on mechanical ventilation support: median 3 days (RI: 1.50-17 d) vs 1 (RI: 1-1.25 d). This group also had a higher frequency in sequelae (P=.04 OR=1.4 (95% CI: 1.05-1.95)) and a higher incidence in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula (P<.02; OR 2.33; 95% CI (1.27-4.27)). Severity scores (PRIMS III and PTI) showed no significant differences. Some degree of hearing loss was observed in 31% of the patients. Traffic accident was the main cause of trauma (33%), followed by falls (27%). There were 2 deaths and 4 (15%) had permanent sequelae. Isolated temporal bone fractures usually have a good outcome in children, but in some cases they can be fatal or have permanent sequelae. Long term follow up is recommended by authors.
 
Steroid 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency is the second most common cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. 11beta-hydroxylase intervenes in cortisol synthesis and its deficiency leads to accumulation of adrenal androgens--producing prenatal virilization and, subsequently, hyperandrogenism--as well as 11-deoxycorticosterone, leading to the development of hypertension. We describe a 7-year-old girl who was referred for pubarche and accelerated skeletal maturation due to 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency. Because the patient's predicted height was below her target height, the combination of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog and growth hormone was added to oral glucocorticoid therapy. With this therapeutic strategy, the patient's predicted height improved significantly and the girl reached a final height in agreement with her target height at the age of 13 years and 6 months.
 
Atopic dermatitis is closely related to other atopic diseases, especially asthma and allergic rhinitis. Although there is a certain agreement that suffering from atopic eczema predisposes to asthma and allergic rhinitis, the risk of developing these diseases should be quantified in populations following a standardized method, which is the objective of this study. Using the questionnaire from the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC), we performed a cross-sectional study of all schoolchildren aged 13 and 14 years old in the city of Cartagena (Murcia, Spain). The relationship between atopic dermatitis and its severity with asthma, allergic asthma, and allergic rhinitis was analyzed. Quantification of risk showed that schoolchildren with atopic eczema had a 3-fold risk of allergic rhinitis (OR: 3.33; 95 % CI: 2.45-4.54), a 4-fold risk of asthma (OR: 3.85; 95 % CI: 2.74-5.42) and a 5-fold risk of allergic asthma (OR: 4.91; 95 % CI: 3.17-7.59) compared with schoolchildren without atopic eczema. The severity of eczema was also directly related to that of asthma and rhinitis.
 
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Upper respiratory tract infections are the most common cause of paediatric consultation, generating a high volume of prescriptions of drugs with unfavourable risk-benefit ratio. The aim of this study is to describe the prescription of systemic cough and cold medicines to children under 14 years of age in Castilla y León and analyse its variability. POPULATION AND METHODS: A count was made of the prescriptions for the R05 therapeutic subgroup (antitussives and mucolytics) and the R01B pharmacological therapeutic subgroup (nasal decongestants for systemic use), prescribed for children under the age of 14 in the Public Health System between 2005-2010. The number of prescriptions was analysed as crude and age-adjusted rates, as well as a a multivariate analysis (Poisson regression) of the variability associated with health area, the urban/rural environment, age, and year of prescription. RESULTS: There were 806,785 prescriptions for systemic cough and cold drugs given to an exposed population of 1,580,229 person-years. Prescription rates (per 100 person-years) were 20.7 (antitussives), 7.0 (sympathomimetic) and 23.4 (mucolytics). These drugs were employed more often in children <4 years. The prescription of mucolytics and sympathomimetics was highest at age of 1 year (rates=41.9 and 18.7, respectively) and of antitussives at 3 years (35.7). Multivariate analysis showed that in rural areas the prescription was higher than in urban areas, and that there were also significant differences between health areas. CONCLUSIONS: Between 2005 and 2010 there was a high prescription of systemic cough and cold medicines, especially in children under 2 years old, and often outside the recommended conditions of use, and there was a high geographic variabilty.
 
Peritonsillar and retropharyngeal abscesses are the most common deep head and neck infections. We present a series of patients with these infections. We performed a retrospective study of peritonsillar and retropharyngeal abscesses in children admitted to the Infectious Diseases Unit of our hospital between January 1991 and January 2004. Diagnosis was based mainly on clinical and laboratory findings. We studied 54 patients, 10 with retropharyngeal abscess and 44 with peritonsillar abscess. The mean age was 6.7 and 7.5 years respectively. There was a slight predominance of boys (1.45:1). The number of cases diagnosed increased from 1997, with a maximum (nine cases) in 2002. Twenty-nine children had received previous antibiotic therapy. The main symptoms and signs were: fever, odynophagia, cervical lymphadenitis, and asymmetric tonsillar hypertrophy. All children received intravenous antibiotic therapy. Puncture-aspiration was carried out in seven patients. Eleven children underwent tonsillectomy, two with retropharyngeal abscess and nine with peritonsillar abscess. Of these 11 patients, five had had several episodes of tonsillitis and three had previously had a peritonsillar abscess. Three children who developed an abscess had previously undergone tonsillectomy. In most patients, outcome was favorable. In the last few years the frequency of peritonsillar and retropharyngeal abscesses has increased in the pediatric population. Most of the children have a good response to conservative treatment. The main risk factor for abscess recurrence is a previous history of repeated tonsillitis. Consequently, these patients are candidates for tonsillectomy.
 
The authors describe 13 cases of solitary bone cyst in children of both sexes, ages 4 5/12 to 12 4/12 years. Ten patients were males. In eight cases the lesions were located in the humerus, three in the femur, one in the tibia and another in the phalanx of the foot. Pathological fracture was the most frequent initial symptom. The characteristic radiological image of the cyst allows the distinction of other bone lesions and is usually enough for the diagnosis. In 8 cases treatment consisted of intracystic injections of methylprednisolone acetate. In three cases relapse was observed.
 
Radioiodine is an important therapeutic option in young patients with Grave's disease (GD). In the United States it is a widespread therapy, but in Europe its use in paediatrics is still controversial. To report our experience in radioiodine therapy of paediatric GD patients and analyse its effectiveness and safety. We retrospectively studied our paediatric population (<18 years of age) with GD, diagnosed from 1982 to 2012. A curative option was offered to patients who did not respond to anti-thyroid drug (AT) at puberty. We analysed, the patient characteristics, TSH, T4, T3 and thyroid antibodies levels, AT response, remission post I(131), side effects, and hypothyroidism rates. A total of 50 patients were diagnosed with GD from 1982 to 2012. All patients received AT as initial treatment (mean duration: 35.3±25.9 months). Permanent remission was achieved in 46%. Thyroidectomy was performed in 5 patients, and 14 patients received I(131) (mean dose: 10.9±1.09 mCi). Remission with I(131) was obtained in 100%. The rate of permanent hypothyroidism was 90%. There was no progression of ophthalmopathy or side effects in any patients treated with I(131.) CONCLUSION: Radioiodine treatment of paediatric GD patients is safe, leads to complete remission at the expense of hypothyroidism, and does not exacerbate ophthalmopathy. It can be considered in patients older than 5 years, who do no not respond to AT or with significant side effects with this medication.
 
Childhood obesity is an increasingly common diagnosis in western society and is related to certain changes in lifestyle. Because of its persistence in adulthood and its relationship with several pathological entities such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, it has become one of the most important problems in children's health. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity and overweight in 14-year-old adolescents attending the pediatric outpatient clinics of a primary care center in 2003, and their weight changes from the age of two years old. A long-term study of 277 children born in 1989 was performed. Their body mass index (BMI) was calculated at the age of 2,3,4,6,8,11 and 14 years. Obesity was defined as a BMI > P95 and overweight as a BMI > P85 according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts 2000. The prevalence of obesity in 14 year-olds was 13.2% (15.2% in boys and 11.5% in girls). The prevalence of overweight was 17.4% (18.7% in boys and 16.2% in girls). Gender differences were not significant in any of the age groups studied. The prevalence of obesity and overweight in 14 year-old adolescents in our centers is considerable and is similar to that reported in other Spanish regions. The pediatric outpatient clinics of primary care centers should play an active role in the control and prevention of obesity.
 
In 2005 a new respiratory virus, called human bocavirus (HBoV), was cloned from respiratory samples from Swedish infants and children with lower respiratory tract infections. To determine whether HBoV has circulated in Spain, estimate the frequency of HBoV infections in patients hospitalized for respiratory infection and describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of these patients. We performed a descriptive prospective study of confirmed HBoV infections in patients aged < 14 years old, hospitalized for respiratory infections between October 2004 and June 2005. Virologic diagnosis was based on multiple RT-PCR for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) A and B, influenza A,B, and C, parainfluenza 1-4, adenovirus and rhinovirus; PCR was used for human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and PCR in nasopharyngeal aspirates was used for HBoV. The clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients were analyzed. Fifty-two cases of HBoV infection were detected, representing 17.1% (95% CI: 13% a 21%) of patients hospitalized for respiratory infections. HBoV was the third most frequent viral agent after RSV (30%) and rhinovirus (25%). In 39 patients (71.1%) coinfection with another respiratory virus was detected. Fifty percent of the patients were aged less than 13.6 months and 75% were aged less than 2 years. The most frequent diagnoses were recurrent wheezing (55.8%), bronchiolitis (21.2%) and pneumonia (15.4%). Clinical sepsis with petechial exanthema was found in two patients. Fever > 38 degrees C was found in 72.1% and radiological infiltrate in 44%. Hypoxia was present in 55.8 % of the patients. HBoV was isolated in distinct episodes in two patients. Coinfections were similar to simple infections except that hypoxia was more frequent in the former (p = 0.038). HBoV is one of the most frequent viruses in severe respiratory infections in patients aged less than 14 years old. Only RSV and rhinovirus are more frequent. Coinfections are highly frequent. Most patients are infants with recurrent wheezing and bronchiolitis.
 
The identification of variations in different profiles of pediatric poisonings may improve the prevention of these episodes. To analyze the profile of pediatric acute poisonings in different regions of Spain. A study was conducted, based on a prospective registry of the acute pediatric poisonings registered in 53 Spanish pediatric emergency departments included in the Toxicology Surveillance System of the Spanish Society of Pediatric Emergencies between 2008 and 2013. The regions were defined taking into account geographic factors, and the structuring of regional pediatric societies. A total of 566 poisoning were recorded in children less than 14 years. Poisonings due to dosage errors were more common in Madrid (12.4% of the whole group of poisonings vs 5.0% in the other regions, P=.009); recreational poisonings were more common in the Basque-Navarre region and Zaragoza (14.4% vs 3.4% in the others, P=.0008); and CO poisoning in Catalonia, Madrid and others (7.1% vs 0.3%, P<.0001). The profiles of acute poisonings in children less than 14 years vary significantly between the different Spanish regions. An epidemiological Surveillance System is a good tool to collect information in order to design preventive actions.
 
The migration causes the emergence of new diseases in our environment. One of them is the filariosis which, due to the biologic cycle peculiarity, it's weird its appearance in pediatrics. This studio accomplishes a review of all the filariosis cases diagnosed the last years in an Unit specialized in Tropical Pediatrics Diseases. Retrospective analysis comprising 14 patients than were diagnosed with filariosis from 1995 to 2007 in the Pediatrics Unit of Carlos III Hospital (Madrid). They have been analyzed several variables to cope with clinic-epidemiological, therapeutics and evolutional characteristics. All patients in the study came from Equatorial Guinea, their ages were between 3 and 15 years old. The isolated species were: 6 cases with O. volvulus, 8 with M. perstans and 2 with Loa-loa. The pruritus was the main symptom in the 71% of the cases. The eosinophilia was detected in the 78% of the patients, and the Loa-loa was the specie with higher figures. The 85% of the patients showed co-parasitation, being the intestinal the most frequent. The diagnostics was established by epidermic biopsy, microfilaremia detection, direct visualization and serology. The utilized drugs were: Mebendazole for the cases with M. perstans and Ivermectin or Dietylcarbamazine for the rest of the species. One child showed mixed filariosis. The cure was successful in the 8 cases that could be followed up. We consider essential to execute a filariosis screening to every patient emanating from endemic area, especially to those with eosinophilia. The diagnostic in the childhood, even though it's difficult, it allows the prevention of the disease development, serious complications as blindness and break the parasite life cycle.
 
Tuberculosis in infants and children is a sign of continuous transmission. The present article describes the distribution and the trend in incidence rates of new tuberculosis cases in 0-15-year-olds in Cuba. Incidence rates and their trend were estimated by provinces and age groups for the 1994-2003 period. Distribution and overall variation percentages, annual average rates, and rates and percentages according to classification were determined. The incidence rate decreased from 0.76 x 10(5) in 1994 to 0.31 in 2003 (59.2% of the overall reduction and 6.6% of the annual average reduction). The highest rate (1.06 x 10(5)) was found in 1995 (26 cases). In almost all provinces, the incidence trend decreased, except in the City of Havana, Sancti Spíritus, Santiago de Cuba, and the Isle of Youth. Childhood tuberculosis was mainly pulmonary (69.6%). Among the affected population, the highest percentages were found in the groups aged 10-14 years (35.6%) and 1-4 years (35.2%). Tuberculosis is infrequent and is extremely uncommon in infants. Notification is low throughout the country and the overall trend shows a steady decrease.
 
The sleep habits and the prevalence of sleep problems have been poorly evaluated globally in Spain. The objective is to find out the opinions of the paediatric population in of an autonomous community as a whole (Comunidad Valenciana) on sleep and its difficulties, and to analyse their distribution by age, sex and geographical origin. An observational, descriptive epidemiological study of prevalence. The Children Sleep Habits Questionnaire was used. The sample was obtained proportionally to the population of the three provinces of the Community of Valencia and depending on the place of residence: urban and rural, coastal zone/Interior. We evaluated the responses of 1507 questionnaires. Between 91.2% and 76.1% believed that they have problems sleeping with a relationship of dependency with age. Fifteen percent of the sample lack a regular sleep schedule during school days and 19.7% of the 9-11 years themselves decided their own sleep schedules during school days. A majority (53.9% of the 12-15 years had nightmares more than once per week and 37.4% (6-8 years), 25.3% (9-11 years) and 31.8% (12-15 years) never woke up tired or did so only once per week. Poor sleep habits are prevalent. It is necessary to increase the educational measures and explain the importance of sleep. Teenagers are a particularly sensitive to poor sleep habits group. Environmental factors (place of residence) should be taken into account when assessing sleep.
 
To evaluate the usefulness of the Clinical Risk Index for Babies (CRIB) in predicting hospital mortality and severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in very low birth weight infants stratified by weight groups, in the Spanish neonatal network SEN 1500. A prospective cohort study was made. Morbidity-mortality data and CRIB were collected in newborns weighing below 1500 g and admitted to 68 neonatal intensive care units between January 2002 and December 2006. Data were analyzed globally and stratified by weight groups (< 501 g, 500-750 g, 751-1000 g, 1001-1250 g, 1251-1500 g). Multivariate models were generated and ROC curves were plotted for estimating predictive values. A total of 10,608 patients were analyzed. The mean weight was 1116 g (SD 267), and gestational age 29.5 weeks (SD 2.9). Low birth weight for gestational age was 34.3% and the multiple birth rate 36%. Prenatal corticoids were given in 78.2%. Severe intraventricular hemorrhage was diagnosed in 8.5%. Gender, prenatal corticoids, birth weight, gestational age and CRIB proved significant for the outcomes. CRIB showed the highest predictive accuracy in all strata (P < 0.001) except in the 501-750 g group, where it was similar to gestational age. Body weight showed the lowest AUC in all groups, except in the 1251-1500 g group, where it was no different to gestational age. Gestational age and CRIB yielded greater AUC values than weight (P < 0.001) in all groups. No significant differences were found between CRIB and gestational age, except in the 751-1000 g group, where gestational age was greater (P = 0.029). The CRIB is the best predictor among newborns below 1500 g, except in the 501-750 g group, where CRIB is similar to gestational age. Body weight is the worst predictor, except in the group 1251-1500 g, where it is similar to gestational age. The accuracies of CRIB and gestational age in the prediction of IVH are similar, and both superior to body weight. This similarity persists in all the groups, except in the 751-1000 g interval, where gestational age is a better predictor.
 
Advances in perinatal care have resulted in increased survival rates for extremely low birth weight children, but it is fundamental to know if these improved survival rates have been accompanied by increased impairment rates. To compare, over two different time periods, the survival and disability rates at 2 years of corrected age, among newborns < or =32 weeks and weighed < or = 1500 g at birth. Follow-up study that included 963 children born in the hospital between 1991 and 2004 who met the study criteria. Neonatal morbidity, mortality and disability to 2 years of corrected age in 2 time periods 1991-1998 (period I) and 1999-2004 (period II) have been evaluated and analysed by subgroups of weight (weight < 1000 g and 1000-1500 g). Mortality decreased significantly during the second period, both for children with birth weight <1000 g (32% vs 44%) as for those with birth weight between 1000 and 1500 g ( 3,6% vs 9%). Analysing all children < or = 1500 g, an increase in the survivors without disability was observed in the second period (69% vs 60%, p=0.003); but by subgroups this increase only was significant in children with birth weight 1000-1500 g (67% vs 82%). In our study, globally analysing all children with birth weight < or = 1500 g, it can be seen that there has been an increase in survival without an increase in the frequency of disabilities. Analysing by weight subgroups, survival has increased in both groups, but disability has decreased only in the birth weight 1000-1500 g subgroup.
 
The case of a boy with psychomotor retardation and dysmorphic features is presented. He has a 1.5 Mb 15q11.2 microdeletion of paternal origin diagnosed by aCGH. The deletion is located between breakpoints BP1 and BP2 of the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndromes critical region. Clinical features in our patient fit well with those described in ten cases of pure BP1-BP2 deletion published to date. Copyright © 2010 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
 
INTRODUCTION: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare paediatric disease of autoimmune origin. The aim of this study is to estimate its impact in our area over the past 10 years and to analyse the clinical, laboratory and radiological presentation, as well as study the response to treatment and outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of cases diagnosed with current ADEM criteria. The age and month of the year at onset, sex, family history of demyelination, initial symptoms, disease or previous vaccination, CSF features, serology, PCR for herpes virus group in blood and CSF, oligoclonal bands in CSF, EEG and neuroimaging features of the skull by MRI, the type of treatment received and the response were recorded on each of the patients diagnosed. RESULTS: There were 16 patients, with a mean age of 5.6 years. Male/female: 11/5, with a dominant debut in the colder months of the year, predominantly gait disorder, changes in consciousness and seizures. The radiology by MRI showed a predominance of multiple lesions in the same T2 stage, in deep white matter and lesions in deep grey matter. There were no in blood parameters and the CSF was normal in half of the cases. The origin was determined in 7 cases. CONCLUSIONS: The annual incidence in children under 14 years was estimated at 0.64/100,000. The clinical and radiological findings were the basis of diagnosis. The human herpes virus 6 was involved in 4 cases. Most patients recovered completely.
 
ATR-16 syndrome is due to alterations on chromosome 16p13.3, and is usually accompanied by alpha-thalassemia, mild-moderate mental retardation, dysmorphic facial features, skeletal and genitourinary malformations. There are no references of the combination of ATR-16 syndrome and osteosarcoma in the literature. Osteosarcoma usually has a complex karyotype, characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity of chromosomal aberrations, among which is the involvement of chromosome 16. We report a case of a patient with ATR-16 syndrome diagnosed with femoral osteosarcoma. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
 
Overweight and obesity currently represent one of the most important public health problems in industrialized countries and are also linked to cardiovascular disease and sleep apnea, as well as to orthopaedic and other complications. To examine overweight and the risk of overweight in the school-aged population in Galicia in comparison with the nationally representative survey in the US population: the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-1). We performed a cross sectional study including a sample of 1105 boys and girls (50 % from a rural environment and 50 % from urban areas) in Galicia, northwest Spain. The 50th percentile for boys and girls in Galicia was higher than the corresponding percentile in the NHANES-1 for all the ages studied. In general, the 85th and 95th percentiles for children's body mass index in Galicia were higher in the group aged 6-14 years. In Galicia body mass index values in the 50th, 85th and 95th percentiles were higher in girls than in boys. For the 50th percentile, both boys and girls in Galicia had higher values than those of the NHANES-1 for all ages. In areas with risk of excess weight (85th percentile) and prevailing excess weight (95th percentile) the same was true in the 6 to 13-14 age group for both sexes.
 
To review Ollier disease, an uncommon disease, in order to understand the clinical symptoms, diagnosis, correct treatment, and risk factors in order to prevent malignant transformation. Seventeen cases of Ollier disease were treated between 1976 and 2006. The variables studied included: age at diagnosis and onset of malignant transformation, location of the lesion, family association with other tumours, radiological findings, treatment for the different lesions, metastatic lesions and survival. We excluded patients with Chondrosarcoma without previous diagnosis of Ollier disease. All malignant transformations were assessed by histopathology studies and radiological images. We include 16 cases of Ollier's and 1 of Maffucci's syndrome. The median age at diagnosis for patients having malignant transformation was 45 years, whereas the average age at diagnosis for patient without progression to malignancy was 11 years. Pathological fractures, dysmetria and deformities led to the diagnosis in young people. Benign lesions were treated with minor surgery. There were five malignancy transformations in four patients (23.5%), with the distal femur being the most frequent location for transformation to grade I chondrosarcoma. Surgery was the treatment in all of them. We found no family association with other tumours. Multiple enchondromatosis is a benign disease with a high risk of malignant transformation above 40 years old. Bone scintigraphy is the best tool for detecting multiple lesions and malignant transformation. Radical surgery is the only way to improve survival, and this is the reason why early diagnosis is essential.
 
Invasive pneumococcal infection is a severe disease and its incidence may be increasing. Endocarditis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae is uncommon, particularly in children without risk factors. Etiologic diagnosis is difficult when cultures are negative. We report the case of a previously healthy, 17-month-old boy not vaccinated against pneumococcus who, during the course of pneumonia treated with beta-lactam antibiotics, developed cardiorespiratory deterioration and heart murmur. Mitral valve vegetation was identified by transthoracic echocardiography. Endocarditis was diagnosed and new antibiotics were given for 6 weeks (cefotaxime, gentamycin and vancomycin). Cultures were negative. Because of lack of improvement, prosthetic mitral replacement was indicated. S. pneumoniae was identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the pathological specimen. Outcome was favorable, and the patient remained symptom-free after 6 months of follow-up. The possibility of endocarditis as an invasive pneumococcal infection should be considered in children without risk factors. PCR is a useful technique to establish the etiology when cultures are negative.
 
P450c17 enzyme catalyses two different reactions: the 17α-hydroxylation of progesterone and pregnenolone, and segmenting the carbon 17-20 binding from the 17,20lyase producing adrenal androgens. This enzyme is coded by the CYP17A1 gene. The case is presented of a 14 year old patient with delayed pubertal development and a high blood pressure for height and age. 46,XX karyotype. Hormonal studies highlighted hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, adrenal insufficiency and mineralocorticoid excess. Subsequent genetic studies showed a homozygous mutation in the CYP17A1 gene (c.753+G>A), not previously described, which is responsible for the pathophysiology of 17α-hydroxylase deficiency. This entity is a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The disease often goes unnoticed until adolescence or early adult life, and should be suspected in 46,XY individuals with ambiguous genitalia or 46,XX with delayed puberty associated with hypertension and/or hypokalaemia. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
 
To evaluate exposure to the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children from Medellín according to age, sex, type of school, and socioeconomic status. We performed a descriptive study in 2611 children aged 6-18 years old from the city of Medellín in Colombia. Lipid profile, blood pressure, body mass index, diet, exercise, alcohol intake, and smoking were evaluated. Forty-six percent of the children drank alcohol, 8.7 % smoked and 50 % were physically inactive. Fat and carbohydrate intake was high in 48 % and 47 %, respectively. A total of 9.3 % of the children were overweight and 4.6 % were obese. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were high in 1.3 % and 3.9 %, respectively. Mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) values were lower than in other populations, while triglyceride values were higher. Differences in serum lipid concentrations were found according to age and sex. The prevalence of risk factors according to the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria were: 19.1 % for HDL-C, 17.1 % for triglycerides, 17.0 % for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), 13.5 % for total cholesterol (TC) and 22.9 % for TC/HDL-C. In children from the city of Medellín, the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors were related to lifestyle. Mean plasma lipid concentrations varied according to age and sex. The prevalence of overweight was higher than in other populations in Colombia but was lower than that reported for other countries.
 
Top-cited authors
David Moreno-Pérez
  • Hospital Regional Universitario de Málaga
Fernando Baquero-Artigao
  • Hospital Universitario La Paz
Mj J Cilleruelo
  • Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro-Majadahonda
Jesus Argente
  • Hospital Infantil Universitario Niño Jesús
Eva Svarch
  • Instituto de Hematologia e Inmunologia, Cuba, Havana