American Psychologist

Published by American Psychological Association
Online ISSN: 1935-990X
Publications
Article
Comments on the article by P. R. Sackett, N. Schmitt, J. E. Ellingson, and M. B. Kabin (see record 2001-00625-002) which posed the dilemma of how to use tests to select for performance without excluding minority group members. The current author argues that society should challenge the premise that elite American universities should select students on the basis of promise of academic performance. It is maintained that psychologists should develop valid tests that accurately predict the qualities of creativity, good citizenship, participation in extracurricular activities, athletics, political correctness, and social activism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
100 university students completed a questionnaire by R. H. Simpson (1944) on the meaning of 20 words used to indicate different degrees of "oftenness" of events. Results point out how imprecisely frequency words are used.
 
Article
This article relates the Consumer Reports (1995) study to the framework of the tripartite model of mental health and therapeutic outcomes (H. H. Strupp & S. W. Hadley, 1977) and calls attention to major unsolved problems in the assessment of therapeutic change. The model envisions three perspectives for evaluating outcomes: adaptive behavior (society), sense of well-being, and personality structure. The self-report perspective is viewed as having its own validity; however, it needs to be complemented by the other two perspectives of the model. Integration of the three perspectives has remained a somewhat elusive goal.
 
Article
Discusses primary prevention of mental and emotional disturbances, which emphasizes the reduction of unnecessary stress, including powerlessness and the enhancement of social competence, self-esteem, and support networks. This approach holds that it is possible to reduce the incidence of mental and emotional disorders. It argues that one-to-one psychotherapy is a hopeless approach because of the unbridgeable gap between the large numbers in need and the small numbers of helpers. Further, it holds that chemical or organic treatment is a reactionary form of symptomatic relief that is part of a long history of oppression and failure. (23 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Sex differences in intelligence is among the most politically volatile topics in contemporary psychology. Although no single finding has unanimous support, conclusions from multiple studies suggest that females, on average, score higher on tasks that require rapid access to and use of phonological and semantic information in long-term memory, production and comprehension of complex prose, fine motor skills, and perceptual speed. Males, on average, score higher on tasks that require transformations in visual-spatial working memory, motor skills involved in aiming, spatiotemporal responding, and fluid reasoning, especially in abstract mathematical and scientific domains. Males, however, are also over-represented in the low-ability end of several distributions, including mental retardation, attention disorders, dyslexia, stuttering, and delayed speech. A psychobiosocial model that is based on the inextricable links between the biological bases of intelligence and environmental events is proposed as an alternative to nature-nurture dichotomies. Societal implications and applications to teaching and learning are suggested.
 
Article
A wealth of research and experience after 9/11 has led to the development of evidence-based and evidence-informed guidelines and strategies to support the design and implementation of public mental health programs after terrorism and disaster. This article reviews advances that have been made in a variety of areas, including development of improved metrics and methodologies for conducting needs assessment, screening, surveillance, and program evaluation; clarification of risk and resilience factors as these relate to varying outcome trajectories for survivors and inform interventions; development and implementation of evidence-based and evidence-informed early, midterm, and late interventions for children, adults, and families; adaptation of interventions for cultural, ethnic, and minority groups; improvement in strategies to expand access to postdisaster mental health services; and enhancement of training methods and platforms for workforce development among psychologists, paraprofessionals, and other disaster responders. Continuing improvement of psychologists' national capacity to respond to catastrophic events will require more systematic research to strengthen the evidence base for postdisaster screening and interventions and effective methods and platforms for training. Policy decisions are clearly needed that enhance federal funding to increase availability and access to services, especially for longer term care. Traumatic bereavement represents a critical area for future research, as much needs to be done to clarify issues related to reactions and adaptation to a traumatic death.
 
Article
The 9/11 terrorist attacks have had profound effect on U.S. domestic and foreign security policy, leading to several expensive wars and the erosion of civil liberties (under the USA PATRIOT Act). We review evidence on political reactions to the 9/11 attacks and conclude that subjective reactions to terrorism played an important role in shaping support for national security policy in the wake of 9/11. Support for a strong national security policy was most pronounced among Americans who perceived the nation as at threat from terrorism and felt angry at terrorists. In contrast, Americans who were personally affected by the attacks were more likely to feel anxious about terrorism, and this anxiety translated into less support for overseas military action. In addition, Americans who felt insecure after the 9/11 attacks and perceived a high future threat of terrorism were more likely than others to support strong foreign and domestic national security policies. Overall, research on American political reactions to 9/11 suggests that support for a strong government response to terrorism is most likely when members of a population perceive a high risk of future terrorism and feel angry at terrorists.
 
Article
These minutes are the official record of the actions of the Association taken during the year by both the Board of Directors (the Board) and the Council of Representatives (Council). The roll of representatives was called at each Council meeting, and more than a quorum answered to their names. Reference is made in these minutes to various reports, some of which will be published elsewhere. Copies of these reports were distributed to Council and are on file in the Central Office. As long as the supply lasts, extra copies of many of the reports are available from the Central Office. These minutes are arranged in topical rather than chronological order, and subheadings are used when appropriate. The main topical headings are I. Minutes of Meetings; II. Elections, Awards, Membership, and Human Resources; III. Ethics; IV. Board of Directors; V. Divisions and State, Provincial, and Territorial Associations; VI. Organization of the APA; VII. Publications and Communications; VIII. Convention Affairs; IX. Educational Affairs; X. Professional Affairs; XI. Scientific Affairs; XII. Public Interest; XIII. Ethnic Minority Affairs; XIV. International Affairs; XV. Central Office; and XVI. Financial Affairs. Changes to the language of the American Psychological Association (APA) Bylaws, Association Rules, or motions of the items are noted as follows throughout these proceedings: Bracketed material is to be deleted; underlined material is to be added. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).
 
Risk of Death From Various Causes in the United States in 2001 or Comparison Year Stated 
Article
There are now replicated findings that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms related to the September 11, 2001, attacks occurred in large numbers of persons who did not fit the traditional definition of exposure to a traumatic event. These data are not explained by traditional epidemiologic "bull's eye" disaster models, which assume the psychological effects are narrowly, geographically circumscribed, or by existing models of PTSD onset. In this article, the authors develop a researchable model to explain these and other terrorism-related phenomena by synthesizing research and concepts from the cognitive science, risk appraisal, traumatic stress, and anxiety disorders literatures. They propose the new term relative risk appraisal to capture the psychological function that is the missing link between the event and subjective response in these and other terrorism-related studies to date. Relative risk appraisal highlights the core notion from cognitive science that human perception is an active, multidimensional process, such that for unpredictable societal threats, proximity to the event is only one of several factors that influence behavioral responses. Addressing distortions in relative risk appraisal effectively could reduce individual and societal vulnerability to a wide range of adverse economic and ethnopolitical consequences to terrorist attacks. The authors present ways in which these concepts and related techniques can be helpful in treating persons with September 11- or terrorism-related distress or psychopathology.
 
Article
Psychologists have been an integral part of national security agencies since World War I, when psychological science helped in personnel selection. A robust infrastructure supporting wider applications of psychology to military and intelligence problems developed further during World War II and the years following, primarily in the areas of testing, human factors, perception, and the decision sciences. Although the nature of the attacks on 9/11 raised the level of perceived need for increased human-based intelligence, the impacts of psychologists on the policies and practices of national security agencies in the decade since have not increased significantly.
 
Article
Research conducted in the aftermath of the September 11th terrorist attacks (9/11) suggests that, except for those who directly witnessed or suffered loss from the attacks, for most children the emotional impact was relatively transitory. We review this literature as well as consider other ways in which the attacks may have played a role in the development of adolescents and young adults as they came of age in the shadow of 9/11 in the United States. Specifically, we discuss the potential impact of the collective trauma of 9/11 on children's coping and emotional regulation, their sociopolitical attitudes, and their general beliefs about the world. Developmental issues and the role of parents in shaping their children's responses to 9/11 are also addressed. Researchers interested in children's social, emotional, and psychological development have much to learn about children's reactions to events like 9/11 and factors that might mitigate the negative consequences of such events on children's development.
 
Article
The American Psychologist special issue on "9/11: Ten Years Later" takes a retrospective look at the psychological impact of the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The first half of the issue specifically considers the immediate and intermediate effects of both direct and indirect exposure to the 9/11 attacks across the United States. The second half of the issue addresses a closely related topic: What have we learned and what do we still need to know as a field and as a country regarding terrorism more generally? (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).
 
Article
The gathering of information for intelligence purposes often comes from interviewing a variety of individuals. Some, like suspects and captured prisoners, are individuals for whom the stakes are especially high and who might not be particularly cooperative. But information is also gathered from myriad individuals who have relevant facts to provide, and occasionally the smallest details can be important. In gathering this information from both groups of informants, investigators need to worry about memory distortion, especially the extent to which memories can be contaminated by poor questioning or other sources of postevent information. Moreover, they need to worry about the potential for poor methods and other forms of influence to create false confessions, thereby leading investigators astray. A third area in which psychological science can contribute is in the detection of deception. Recent science in these domains can improve the quality of information that investigators gather and the inferences that they draw.
 
Article
People expressed many different reactions to the events of September 11th, 2001. Some of these reactions were clearly negative, such as political intolerance, discrimination, and hate crimes directed toward targets that some, if not many, people associated with the attackers. Other reactions were more positive. For example, people responded by donating blood, increasing contributions of time and money to charity, and flying the American flag. The goal of this article is to review some of Americans' negative and positive reactions to 9/11. We also describe two frameworks, value protection and terror management theory, that provide insights into Americans' various reactions to the tragedy of 9/11.
 
Article
A new, interdisciplinary paradigm is emerging in developmental psychology. It includes contextual as well as individual variation and is more consonant with the complexity of adolescent behavior and development than traditional research paradigms. Social problems, such as poverty and racial discrimination, and the ways that young people negotiate adolescence successfully, are objects of research. A research program sponsored by the MacArthur Foundation, that embodies the new paradigm, is described.
 
Article
These minutes are the official record of the actions of the Association taken during the year by both the Board of Directors (the Board) and the Council of Representatives (Council). The roll of representatives was called at each Council meeting, and more than a quorum answered to their names. Reference is made in these minutes to various reports, some of which will be published elsewhere. Copies of these reports were distributed to Council and are on file in the Central Office. As long as the supply lasts, extra copies of many of the reports are available from the Central Office. These minutes are arranged in topical rather than chronological order, and subheadings are used when appropriate. The main topical headings are I. Minutes of Meetings; II. Elections, Awards, Membership, and Human Resources; III. Ethics; IV. Board of Directors; V. Divisions and State, Provincial, and Territorial Associations; VI. Organization of the APA; VII. Publications and Communications; VIII. Convention Affairs; IX. Educational Affairs; X. Professional Affairs; XI. Scientific Affairs; XII. Public Interest; XIII. Ethnic Minority Affairs; XIV. International Affairs; XV. Central Office; and XVI. Financial Affairs. Changes to the language of the American Psychological Association (APA) Bylaws, Association Rules, or motions of the items are noted as follows throughout these proceedings: Bracketed material is to be deleted; underlined material is to be added. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
 
Article
Recent research consistently reports that persistent poverty has more detrimental effects on IQ, school achievement, and socioemotional functioning than transitory poverty, with children experiencing both types of poverty generally doing less well than never-poor children. Higher rates of perinatal complications, reduced access to resources that buffer the negative effects of perinatal complications, increased exposure to lead, and less home-based cognitive stimulation partly account for diminished cognitive functioning in poor children. These factors, along with lower teacher expectancies and poorer academic-readiness skills, also appear to contribute to lower levels of school achievement among poor children. The link between socioeconomic disadvantage and children's socioemotional functioning appears to be mediated partly by harsh, inconsistent parenting and elevated exposure to acute and chronic stressors. The implications of research findings for practice and policy are considered.
 
Article
Although the initial phase of experimental psychology is often referred to as the era of "brass instrument psychology," historians have generally ignored the equipment that was used in favor of the contributions of individuals and "schools." the present paper urges historians to explore the ways in which the linkage between mechanical facilities and concepts interacted and to trace the effects of technological as well as theoretical difficulties. Although attrition of relevant data has occurred, some existent sources are identified including stock lists of manufacturers, laboratory manuals and university inventories, photographs, journal articles, and reminiscences of psychologists.
 
Article
The advocates of the new psychology that emerged at the end of the 19th century were faced with a need to gain support from a public that was searching for a new basis for social and political order, yet was chary of any science identified with godless materialism. The first generation of American psychologists was faced with the dilemma of defining their approach as distinct from the old psychology while defusing public concern about the materialistic implications of their new science. Many of these new psychologists developed a rhetorical strategy of incorporating religious sentiment into their writing for the popular press. Their strategy emphasized the harmony of the new science with religious faith and stressed the moral qualities of psychological work.
 
Article
In 1899, Sigmund Freud was virtually unknown in America, and his new book. The Interpretation of Dreams, went unreviewed. A century later, his life and work were the subject of a major exhibition of the U.S. Library of Congress, and he appeared for the third time on the cover of Time magazine. This article describes a few of the intervening events.
 
Article
Obituary for John Dollard (1900-1980). John Dollard was a pioneer in bringing together social, cultural, psychological, and biological research to develop an integrated science of the nature of humankind. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Teachers of introductory courses in psychology and those who wrote the textbooks for the courses at the start of the 20th century represented the new psychology that replaced the old psychology of mental philosophy. Teachers and texts presented psychology as a natural science of the mind and mental processes, described its methods, and suggested its potential applications to practical concerns. Textbooks and teachers varied in their approaches to psychology, their priorities among its methods, and their emphases on applying psychology. The introductory course in psychology accurately reflected the state of the discipline at the turn of the century.
 
Article
The new discipline of psychology had been established at a number of American colleges and universities by 1900, but it usually existed in a more rudimentary form, as compared with the familiar autonomous department of psychology found today. The current form took quite a number of years to evolve: A century ago, a survey of these schools would have shown psychology programs to have existed mostly at early stages of development. Many of the schools were still teaching some form of moral or mental philosophy or only one or two courses in psychology. A few of the schools had established psychology laboratories. Fewer still were offering the doctor of philosophy degree in psychology, while a mere handful had independent psychology departments.
 
Article
In 1900, psychologists were attempting to define themselves and searching for their role among both academic and non-academic public. The success of experimental methods served to advance their position as exemplary scientists, although, as the authors argue in this article, other factors were also important. First, the issue of measurement involved many disagreements about the tools needed to measure psychological constructs or even whether psychologists should measure anything at all. Second, the relationship between the brain and psychological constructs enhanced psychology's status for some, whereas others felt that psychologists should stay away from such topics. Parallels with present-day concerns among psychologists are addressed at the end of the article.
 
Article
Heinz Ludwig Ansbacher was born in Frankfurt, Germany, on October 21, 1904. He died at his home in Burlington, Vermont, on June 22, 2006, at the age of 101 years. Alfred Adler's influence led Ansbacher to the field of psychology, where he began a lifelong scholarship on the psychology of Alfred Adler. Among Heinz's distinctions and honors were being named a Fulbright lecturer at the University of Kiel, Germany, and serving as president of the North American Society of Adlerian Psychology. Many of us will remember Professor Ansbacher as a person who lived by Adlerian principles: encouraging others while helping them to find a goal in life.
 
Article
Memorializes R. W. Husband, a pioneering scientist-practitioner in industrial and organizational psychology. He published 5 articles, mostly on human factors issues, prior to completing graduate study. During his career in academia, he published 54 refereed articles and 2 widely adopted texts; the most successful Applied Psychology, was written in 1934. In addition to his long service for the American Psychological Association and state associations in Wisconsin, Iowa, and Florida, Husband was active in both the Midwestern Psychological Association and the Southeastern Psychological Association. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Presents the obituary of Donald Benjamin Lindsley, who died of natural causes on June 19, 2003. Lindsley was a pioneer in the study of brain and behavior whose prodigious research efforts made major contributions to the understanding of sleep-wakefulness, perception, emotion, learning, and development. His life and career accomplishments are here discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
When psychoanalysis first arrived in the United States, most psychologists ignored it. By the 1920s, however, psychoanalysis had so captured the public imagination that it threatened to eclipse experimental psychology entirely. This article analyzes the complex nature of this threat and the myriad ways that psychologists responded to it. Because psychoanalysis entailed precisely the sort of radical subjectivity that psychologists had renounced as unscientific, core assumptions about the meaning of science were at stake. Psychologists' initial response was to retreat into positivism, thereby further limiting psychology's relevance and scope. By the 1950s, a new strategy had emerged: Psychoanalytic concepts would be put to experimental test, and those that qualified as "scientific" would be retained. This reinstated psychologists as arbiters of the mental world and restored "objective" criteria as the basis for making claims. A later tactic--co-opting psychoanalytic concepts into mainstream psychology--had the ironic effect of helping make psychology a more flexible and broad-based discipline.
 
Article
Hedda Bolgar, an internationally known psychologist, psychoanalyst, educator, and institution builder, died on May 13, 2013, at the age of 103. Hedda was born in Zurich, Switzerland, on August 19, 1909. Hedda's career spanned almost 80 years. She was likely the oldest active member of the American Psychological Association (APA) and probably the oldest practicing psychoanalyst in the United States. She saw her last patient and taught her last class just two weeks before she died. Hedda was a significant contributor to the development of clinical psychology. A creative thinker with an extraordinary capacity to achieve her vision, she was instrumental in the founding of three institutions in addition to a postdoctoral training program and numerous other enterprises. Hedda was a central figure in the California psychological community. She was wise, warm, incredibly engaging, and gracious. She maintained a progressive, socially conscious outlook and a concern for all living things throughout her life. She had an encyclopedic knowledge of psychoanalysis and an undiminished, astonishing memory. Hedda was a true primary source and a great treasure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
 
Article
Seventy-five years ago, in 1909, G. Stanley Hall convened a celebration of the 20th anniversary of Clark University. At that conference, Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, and others of the psychoanalytic movement were introduced to an American audience. Drawing on archival materials, we will describe the Clark conference and suggest its impact on those attending.
 
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Reports the death of Meredith P. Crawford (1910-2002) and notes his contributions to the field of psychology. Meredith spent his life first as a researcher, then as a college professor and dean, next as a research administrator, and finally as a program officer for the American Psychological Association (APA). Some of his noteworthy accomplishments include studies of dominance, cooperation, and problem solving in chimpanzees; a long career as the director of the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO), an Army organization; and other work with military psychology and with the APA. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Presents an obituary for Professor Emeritus Jerome D. Frank, distinguished psychiatrist and clinical psychologist, who died March 14, 2005, at age 95 in Baltimore, Maryland. World renowned, he made major contributions in his multiple roles as psychotherapist, researcher, educator, social scientist, and political activist.
 
Article
Presents an obituary for Robert Spurlin Waldrop (1912-2012). After receiving a bachelor of arts degree at the University of Oklahoma in 1934 with a major in philosophy and a minor in psychology, Waldrop received a bachelor of divinity degree from the McCormick Theological Seminary in Chicago in 1937. He began graduate work in psychology at the University of Chicago (1937-1940), where he worked with L. L. Thurstone and became interested in the work of William Sheldon. He continued graduate work at the University of Michigan (1940-1943) until he was inducted into the U.S. Navy during World War II. After his discharge from the Navy in 1946, Waldrop returned to Ann Arbor to resume his doctoral studies and was additionally appointed director of the Veterans Service Bureau at the University of Michigan. He completed his doctorate in June 1948 and in the fall accepted a position as dean of students at Vanderbilt University. Waldrop's work with veterans and development of doctoral counseling psychology brought him to the attention of the Department of Veterans Affairs. Waldrop played a pivotal role in the VA's decision to establish doctoral-level counseling psychologists in VA hospitals. He resigned from the VA in 1961 to return to academic life. He accepted a position as professor of psychology in the Department of Psychology at the University of Maryland, College Park, from which he retired in 1979. Throughout his career, Waldrop was involved in both professional and community affairs. Waldrop lived the history of modern psychology and contributed to that history. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
 
Article
Lorrin Andrews Riggs was a leading scholar in the field of visual psychophysics and physiology. His research brought new understanding to the functioning of the visual system, and his numerous students have continued to make notable contributions to visual science. Although he received an extraordinary number of professional honors during his lifetime, he remained a humble scientist and congenial colleague and friend. Lorrin Riggs died on April 10, 2008, in Hanover. He was 95. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
 
Article
Frederick R. Wickert died on July 15, 2013, at the age of 101. Fred was born March 9, 1912, in Chicago, Illinois. Wickert was one of 25 psychologists the Army brought to Washington just prior to World War II to evaluate and assign draftees to Army units. When war began, he enlisted in the Air Force as an officer and spent four years developing and validating tests used to classify cadets as pilots, bombardiers, or navigators. After the war, Fred joined the Department of Psychology at Michigan State University, where he was central in the development of the industrial and organizational psychology graduate program. Fred was active in various outreach and service activities. His scientific contributions, including several books and articles, were in the areas of personnel selection, training, and the humanization of work. Fred was preceded in death by his wife, Dorothy Dodge Wickert. He is survived by two daughters, a grandson, and a granddaughter and by his many students both here and abroad. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
 
Article
Albert Israel Rabin, professor emeritus of psychology at Michigan State University (MSU), died on October 24, 2010, at age 98. Over six decades, Al published nearly 200 empirical reports, reviews, books, and chapters on personality, child development, psychopathology, and the use of the Rorschach and other projective and measurement techniques, including the first review of research on the Wechsler-Bellevue Scales (Psychological Bulletin, 1945) and comprehensive reviews of psychological studies on schizophrenia. In illuminating works, Al showed the kibbutz to be a natural laboratory for studying personality development in unconventional family settings.Rabin also received many awards and honors for his work. Al was a brilliant, warm, and generous friend, colleague, teacher, husband, and father. He filled his long life with honor and lasting accomplishments. He could have rested on his laurels, but he never did. Those who knew him remember him with love and respect. Everyone can learn much about his remarkable life from his essay, published at age 93, in the Journal of Personality Assessment (2005). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).
 
Article
Presents an obituary for C. Robert Pace (1912-2011). After a long and distinguished career studying the environments of America's colleges and universities, psychologist C. Robert ("Bob") Pace died of natural causes at his home in Arcata, California, on February 5, 2011, at the age of 98. Bob Pace will be remembered by his students and colleagues as a devoted mentor, as a valued consultant with a wry sense of humor, and as a highly original and creative scholar who initiated a critically important subfield of research in the field of higher education. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).
 
Article
Cecil Holden "Pat" Patterson, 93, passed away on May 26, 2006, at his home in Asheville, North Carolina. A fellow of APA's Divisions of Counseling Psychology (17), Rehabilitation Psychology (22), and Psychotherapy (29), Pat was elected president of APA Division 17 in 1972. In recognition of his lifelong commitment to the field, he received the Division 17 Leona Tyler Award in 1994. Cecil H. "Pat" Patterson will be remembered as much for his love of family and the genuine personal interest he took in everyone he met as he will for his outstanding professional achievements.
 
Article
Presents an obituary for Albert Ellis (1913-2007). Albert Ellis, originator of one of the major approaches to psychotherapy in the history of psychology, Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), died in New York City on July 24, 2007, at 93 years of age. Ellis began his professional life as a psychoanalyst but rejected its strong focus on early-life influences and its protracted therapeutic process. In the 1950s he developed his own cognitively oriented approach to therapy, which ultimately became REBT. It has been argued that these developments represented the first step in the cognitive revolution in psychotherapy, which culminated with cognitive approaches coming to a dominant position in contemporary therapy, not unlike the parallel dominant position of cognitive psychology in psychological science. REBT has been influential worldwide, being employed by therapists in many countries but also read about and used in self-help by a wide public. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
 
Article
An uncompromising advocate of academic rigor, and the last surviving second-generation Gestalt theorist, Mary Henle maintained the highest academic standards during a long career that was an inspiration to many of her colleagues. Her frequently cited publications are models of clear thinking and clear writing. She served as president of the Eastern Psychological Association (1981-1982) and of Divisions 24 (Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 1974-1975) and 26 (History of Psychology, 1971-1972) of the American Psychological Association (APA). She also served on such boards and committees as the APA Insurance Trust and made many presentations of carefully crafted papers at psychology conventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).
 
Article
Presents an obituary for George G. Thompson (1914-2008). George G. Thompson died peacefully on July 12, 2008, in Worthington, Ohio, after a brief illness. He was 94 years old. Although he had retired almost 30 years before his death, he had a remarkable memory and keen analytical skills to the very end of his life. He was best known for his research and writing on developmental and educational psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
 
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