American Museum Novitates

Online ISSN: 0003-0082
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Article
During breeding season the special reactions of male toads include a sex trill, a chirp, and a warning vibration. Sexually active males clasp any other toad regardless of sex, but males which are clasped execute the warning vibration and the clasping animal then releases. Females do not emit the vibration, and therefore when they are clasped by the male, amplexus is maintained. The positions and movements of the male and female during oviposition are described in detail. Release of the female by the male at the termination of oviposition follows a concave arching of the back on the part of the female. The mating pattern can sometimes be induced for a second time in females which have already laid their eggs if such animals are injected with anterior pituitary substance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The first specimen of the new sauropod Erketu ellisoni, from the Lower Cretaceous of the eastern Gobi of Dornogov, Mongolia, is described here. The specimen comprises a well-preserved articulated anterior cervical series, an articulated lower hindlimb, and a sternal plate. This sauropod displays a unique combination of features including low, bifid neural spines, elongate cervical centra, and crescent-shaped sternal plates. Computed tomography imaging reveals the vertebrae were extensively invaded with pneumatic camellae. The holotype individual of Erketu was of modest mass relative to other neosauropods, but had an extremely elongate neck. Phylogenetic analysis indicates Erketu is a member of the Somphospondyli and may belong to a more exclusive clade therein.
 
AMNH DR-SH-1, dorsal view of entire specimen. Scale bar equals 1 cm.  
Stereo radiographs of the skull of AMNH DR-SH-1 (ca. 8.6 times actual size).
Stereo radiographs of AMNH DR-SH-1 (ca. 2.3 times actual size).  
Article
ABSTRACT A fossil Anolis lizard in the collections of the American Museum,of Natural History is the sec- ond anole preserved in amber from the Dominican Republic (Miocene epoch) to be studied. The fos- sil exhibits skeletal characters indicating that it is a juvenile member,of a large clade of anoles that includes many,extant Hispaniolan species and is characterized by close association between the clavicles and the lateral processes of the inter- clavicle. Standard external characters that can be scored in the fossil are identical to those of two of the four extant species in the A. chlorocyanus species group; however, because relatively few characters can be scored in the fossil, and because the polarities of the relevant characters are cur- rently unknown, the fossil can be only tentatively referred to that group. The skeletal and external characters of the new,fossil are also nearly iden- tical to those of A. dominicanus, another Domin- ican amber anole; however, the latter fossil is rel- atively poorly preserved, and its currently known characters are identical to those of several extant species, including two species of the A. chloro- cyanus species group. Body proportions and la- mella counts of both amber fossils indicate that these Uzards are trunk-crown anoles, that is, mem-
 
Article
Using standard phylogenetic techniques, 25 transformation series of morphological characters and 11 of karyological characters are evaluated in an attempt to recover the phylogenetic history of plecotine vespertilionid bats. Plecotini contains four genera in the topology (Euderma (Barbastella (Plecotus Corynorhinus))). The Plecotini of Hill and Harrison (1987), including Rhogeessa, Baeodon, Nycticeius, and Otonycteris, is rejected because this view is based solely on subjective evaluations of bacular overall similarity, and is clearly in disagreement with other lines of evidence from anatomy and karyology. Idionycteris is synonymized with Euderma because I. phyllotis and E. maculatum are sister species. Corynorhinus is removed from the synonymy of Plecotus. The relationships within Corynorhinus and Plecotus are not resolved.
 
Article
"A dissertation submitted to the Graduate Faculty in Biology ... " Thesis (Ph. D.) -- City University of New York, 1988. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 291-305).
 
Article
Two lower jaws from the upper part (early Maastrichtian) of the late Cretaceous Maevarano Formation in the Mahajanga Basin, northwestern Madagascar, are identified as belonging to side-necked turtles (Pleurodira). A nearly complete lower jaw is identified as cf. Erymnochelys because of its close resemblance to the living Malagasy Erymnochelys madagascariensis. Both uniquely possess the combination of a posteriorly directed processus retroarticularis and a nearly identical triturating surface that is narrow anteriorly with a horizontal labial ridge and a dorsally rising lingual ridge. A second specimen, consisting of an incomplete symphyseal region, is questionably identified as Bothremydidae on the basis of a thick wedge-shaped symphysis with partial or complete pits on the rami. The cf. Erymnochelys specimen is the oldest record of Erymnochelys or a taxon very similar to it, and it indicates the persistence of a Mesozoic element in the extant Malagasy turtle fauna. The possible bothremydid jaw suggests a more cosmopolitan element now extinct.
 
Article
Recent taxonomic works have recognized only two species of spiny pocket mice of the genus Heteromys (Rodentia: Heteromyidae) from Costa Rica. Within Costa Rica, the widespread H. desmarestianus is considered to occur throughout the wet Caribbean lowlands, as well as at middle and high elevations on the Caribbean and Pacific slopes of the country's main montane systems. In contrast, H. oresterus is known from only a few localities at high elevations in the western portion of the Cordillera de Talamanca in central Costa Rica. Our morphological and morphometric analyses of specimens from northwestern Costa Rica reveal the presence of an undescribed species of the genus, which we describe as Heteromys nubicolens. This new species ranges from 750 to 1840 m in elevation in the Cordillera de Tilarán and Cordillera de Guanacaste. Heteromys desmarestianus is found in the surrounding mesic lowlands and foothills. Externally, both species possess dark brown dorsal pelage, but H. nubicolens differs by overall larger size and by distinctive cranial proportions. In most cranial measurements, H. nubicolens is larger than H. desmarestianus; however, H. desmarestianus has a wider interorbital region and a wider braincase. Known populations of H. nubicolens occur in three highland areas (Monteverde, Volcán Rincón de la Vieja-Volcán Santa Maria, and Cerro Cacao), but populations in these areas are probably disjunct, being separated by intervening lowlands. Heteromys nubicolens is likely widespread throughout the Cordillera de Tilarán and Cordillera de Guanacaste, but its presence in other areas of the country is unlikely. Even after recognizing H. nubicolens as distinct from H. desmarestianus, morphological, karyological, and genetic data indicate that H. desmarestianus represents a species complex. Further research is therefore necessary to evaluate the taxonomic status of this species complex in other regions of the country and other parts of its widespread geographic distribution.
 
Article
The Late Cretaceous continental deposits of Ukhaa Tolgod, Mongolia, have yielded remains of a new nanhsiungchelyid turtle, Zangerlia ukhaachelys, n.sp. This taxon is based on a single individual that consists of a partial cranium, representatives of all peripherals, an almost complete plastron, and limb fragments. Zangerlia ukhaachelys is diagnosed as a new taxon by the presence of an anteromedial process of the hyoplastron that reduces the typical contact of the entoplastron with the epiplastron. Phylogenetic analysis firmly places Zangerlia ukhaachelys as sister to Zangerlia testudinimorpha and Zangerlia neimongolensis within Nanhsiungchelyidae and confirms the close phylogenetic relationships between Nanhsiungchelys wuchingensis and Anomalochelys angulata and among all North American representatives of Basilemys. In addition, there is modest support that all Asian representatives of Nanhsiungchelyidae form a monophyletic clade, which is primarily diagnosed by a deep, triangular nuchal notch. From a biogeographic standpoint, it is evident that the Late Cretaceous faunas of Asia and North America are closely related; however, phylogenetic considerations demonstrate that faunal exchange was limited for the Nanhsiungchelyidae.
 
Article
Although dinosaur fossils are common in the Early Cretaceous strata of Öösh, remains of other vertebrates are rare. Here we describe the first pterosaur fossil known from this locality. The specimen consists of a single vertebra that exhibits sufficient morphology to identify it as a nonazhdarchid tapejaroid pterosaur. Remains of such animals have been found in similarly aged rocks (some with accompanying similar faunas) throughout central Asia.
 
Cross section of lower left incisor, Paradjidaumo trilophus, AMNH 96856. Apex is toward viewer; mesial side to the right.
Article
The three-layered Schmelzmuster in lower incisors ofeomyid rodents is described. It shows that even the specialized uniserial enamel in rodents can be further modified. The portio interna in eomyids is divided into two parts, and the Hunter- Schreger bands are longitudinal rather than transverse as is common in rodents. The inner part of the portio interna shows a type ofuniserial enamel found in myomorphs in which all three axes are strengthened by fibers. The outer part resembles uniserial bands in sciurids, because crystallites of interprismatic matrix are parallel to the prisms. This complex Schmelzmuster and a longitudinal thickening of the enamel near the lateral side of the incisor are unique, derived characters of the Eomyidae.
 
Article
INTRODUCTION The present paper is the second of three papers describing the littoral Bryozoa (Ectoprocta) of the Gulf of California that were collected by the Puritan-American Museum of Natural History Expedition to West-ern Mexico. It covers the cheilostomate Ascophora and records a total of 75 species, including four new species, that represent this suborder. The format for each species follows that used in the first report on the cheilostomate Anasca (Soule, 1959): (1) the original citation and the east-ern Pacific synonymy only; (2) a brief summary of the diagnostic fea-tures; (3) Gulf of California collection data; and (4) a brief summary of prior distribution within the Gulf of California and elsewhere. The author is again pleased to acknowledge the help of the staff of the American Museum of Natural History, particularly Dr. William K. Emerson, leader of the expedition and Chairman of the Department of Living Invertebrates. I am especially indebted to the late Mr. HarryJ. Bauer of Los Angeles, California, co-sponsor of the Expedition and owner of the schooner "Puritan." The drawings of the new species are the work of Mrs. Dorothy Fisher Soule.
 
Article
Malagasy sicydiine gobies are reviewed, compared with other members of the subfamily in the Mascarene region, and a new species belonging to the genus Sicyopterus Gill, 1860 is described on the basis of material collected in northeastern Madagascar. The new species differs from Sicyopterus franouxi (Pellegrin, 1935), the only other known species of sicydiine goby inhabiting the freshwaters of Madagascar, in the number of branched rays in the second dorsal fin, the color pattern of the body and fins, the number and shape of the premaxillary teeth, and the size and number of scales on the nape and abdomen. Sicyopterus franouxi, a taxon described on the basis of a single juvenile specimen, is redescribed based on adult material. The taxonomic status of Gobius lagocephalus Pallas, 1770, a nominal sicydiine species incorrectly ascribed to the Mascarene islands of the western Indian Ocean, is discussed. This species is herein concluded to be a nomen dubium of uncertain placement beyond the subfamilial level.
 
Verified ranges of Kuhlia rupestris (shaded stars) and Kuhlia sauvagii (shaded circles) on Madagascar.  
Morphometric and Meristic Data for the Neotype and 24 Additional Specimens (N 5 25) of Kuhlia rupestris from Réunion and Madagascar Values in parentheses indicate number of specimens examined with that count
Numbers of pored scales along the lateral line in individuals of K. sauvagii and K. rupestris.  
Morphometric and Meristic Data for the Holotype and 16 Additional Specimens (N 5 17) of Kuhlia sauvagii from Madagascar Values in parentheses indicate number of specimens examined with that count
Scatterplot of sheared second and third PC scores of 17 log-transformed morphometric variables for Kuhlia sauvagii (open stars) and Kuhlia rupestris samples from Réunion (black circles) and Madagascar (open squares).  
Article
Based on differences in adult coloration, behavior, and morphometric and meristic features, the endemic Malagasy kuhlid Kuhlia sauvagii Regan, 1913, is resurrected from synonymy with the Indo-Pacific Kuhlia rupestris (Lacépéde, 1802). Both species are redescribed, and a summary of their distribution, natural history, and conservation status on Madagascar is provided. No type specimens for Centropomus rupestris Lacépéde, 1802 (type locality, Réunion), are known, and considerable confusion persists in the literature regarding the taxonomic composition and limits of this purportedly widespread species. We designate as neotype for Centropomus rupestris a syntype of Dules fuscus Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829, thereby unambiguously relating this taxon to material collected from, the type locality of Lacépéde's Centropomus rupestris, the island of Réunion in the western Indian Ocean.
 
Article
We describe a new species of scaphitid ammonite from the Upper Cretaceous (lower Maastrichtian) of North America. Hoploscaphites sargklofak, n. sp., is endemic to the U.S. Western Interior, but closely resembles H. constrictus Sowerby, 1817, from the Maastrichtian of northern Europe.
 
Article
A large and almost complete dorsal exoskeleton of a homalonotid trilobite from the Middle Devonian of Colombia (Floresta Formation) is described and referred to Dipleura dekayi Green, 1832, confirming prior suggestions of biogeographical affinity between Colombia and the North Eastern Americas Realm during Devonian times.
 
Male genitalia of (A) Brachygastra augusti and (B) Brachygastra azteca: A1, B1 = paramere, lateral view; A2, B2 = aedeagus, lateral view; A3, B3 = aedeagus, ventral view; A4, B4 = cuspis, lateral view; A5, B5 = digitus, lateral view. Scale bars = 0.5 mm.
Male genitalia of (A) Brachygastra borellii and (B) Brachygastra cooperi: A1, B1 = paramere, lateral view; A2, B2 = aedeagus, lateral view; A3, B3 = aedeagus, ventral view; A4, B4 = cuspis, lateral view; A5, B5 = digitus, lateral view. Scale bars = 0.5 mm.
Male genitalia of (A) Brachygastra bilineolata and (B) Brachygastra lecheguana: A1, B1 = aedeagus, ventral view; A2, B2 = aedeagus, lateral view; A3, B3 = volsella, lateral view; A4, B4 = paramere, lateral view. Scale bars = 0.5 mm
The single cladogram for species of Brachygastra, with a length of 178, consistency index of 0.57 and retention index of 0.80; based on the
Article
Phylogenetic relationships among the species of the genus Brachygastra Perty, 1883, are analyzed based on characters of female morphology, male genitalia, and nest architecture. Analysis of the data matrix with equal weights results in one tree, which is also obtained under implied weighting. A new species is described and an identification key is presented. The males of B. borellii and B. scutellaris are described.
 
Article
A new species in the vorhiesi group of Vaejovis C.L. Koch, 1836 (Vaejovidae Thorell, 1876), which appears to be endemic to the Hualapai Mountains near Kingman, Arizona, is described and illustrated. Vaejovis tenuipalpus, n. sp., the 11th species in the vorhiesi group, is compared to morphologically similar species, including V. jonesi Stahnke, 1940, V. lapidicola Stahnke, 1940, V. vorhiesi Stahnke, 1940, and V. deboerae Ayrey, 2009. The new species possesses the most slender pedipalp chelae in the vorhiesi group. New distribution records and a comprehensive distribution map are provided for all Arizona members of the group.
 
Article
The revision of "Dahnanites" maecunta Clarke, 1890, from the Upper Lontra Member, Eifelian, Maecuru Formation, Pará State, Amazon Basin, Brazil is presented. The new genus Amazonaspis is assigned within the family Synphoriidae. Comparisons are made with other Silurian and Devonian synphoriids, and some paleobiogeographic inferences are presented.
 
Article
Three new species of Stasimopus Simon, 1892, are described from the Gauteng and North West provinces of South Africa. They are readily distinguished from all other known Stasimopus species by the presence of spinules in the tarsal scopulae on the first two pairs of legs of adult males. The only described species recorded in the vicinity, Stasimopus robertsi Hewitt, 1910, which appears to be endemic to northern Gauteng Province, is redescribed. The four species are comprehensively illustrated, a key to identify the adult males from those of other new species in the region is provided, and their conservation status discussed. Available evidence suggests that many Stasimopus species remain to be discovered and described, but significant effort will be required to obtain adult males, considered important for accurate species delimitation in the genus.
 
Article
We review the taxonomy of the Hadruroides Pocock, 1893 (Iuridae: Caraboctoninae), scorpions of Peru, describe six new species from the north of the country, and report new records of other poorly known species. The description of these species raises to 16 the number of described species in the genus, 13 of which occur in Peru. Four species inhabit dry forest in northern Peru: H. charcasus (Karsch, 1879); H. chinchaysuyu, n. sp.; H. geckoi, n. sp.; H. leopardus Pocock, 1900. Three species occur in inter-Andean valleys along the Cordillera: H. bustamantei Ochoa and Chaparro, 2008; H. carinatus Pocock, 1900; H. mauryi Francke and Soleglad, 1980. Six species inhabit desert along the Pacific coast: H. aguilari Francke and Soleglad, 1980; H. graceae, n. sp.; H. juanchaparroi, n. sp.; H. lunatus (L. Koch, 1867); H. tishqu, n. sp.; H. vichayitos, n. sp. Most species of Hadruroides have restricted distributions, except H. charcasus and H. lunatus, which are apparently more widely distributed. We consider it necessary to reassess all previous records of the latter two species, because we suspect several are based on misidentifications.
 
Article
Phylogenetic analyses of molecular sequence data obtained from the holotype of Marmosa reginaThomas, 1898, together with a reassessment of its morphological characters indicate that this species does not belong to the subgenus Micoureus as previously believed. Instead, both molecular and phenotypic data are consistent with the hypothesis that M. regina is a senior synonym of M. isthmica Goldman, 1912, in the subgenus Exulomarmosa. Because replacing isthmica with regina would create nomenclatural confusion, we recommend maintaining current usage of the former name and suppressing usage of the latter.
 
Article
The genus Wroughtonia Cameron (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Helconinae) is reviewed. Twelve new species of the genus Wroughtonia are described and illustrated: Wroughtonia angularis, sp. nov.; W. aspera, sp. nov.; W. coffeana, sp. nov.; W. elongata, sp. nov.; W. laevis, sp. nov.; W. plana, sp. nov.; W. similis, sp. nov.; W. simulata, sp. nov.; W. sonla, sp. nov., and W. vietnamica, sp. nov., authored by Long, and W. hatinhensis, sp. nov., and W. undulata, sp. nov., authored by Long and van Achterberg. A new subgenus (Neowroughtonia, type species Wroughtonia angularis) is proposed for the species with mandibles angularly bend ventrally; malar suture absent; occipital carina indistinct mediodorsally and vein 2-SC+R of hind wing vertical. Five species are newly recorded for the Braconidae fauna of Vietnam, viz. W. bifurcataYan and van Achterberg, 2017; W. brevicarinata (Yan and Chen, 2014); W. indica (Singh, Belokobylskij and Chouhan, 2005); W. cornuta Cameron, 1899, and W. varifemoraYan and Chen, 2017. A key to Vietnamese species of Wroughtonia is provided.
 
Article
Palaeictops is a genus of Early Cenozoic Leptictidae, currently comprising six species known from Eocene faunas in the United States and Canada. Two new species, Palaeictops altimontis and P. robustus, are represented by nearly complete skulls and mandibles from the Tepee Trail (Middle Eocene) and Uinta (Middle Eocene) formations of Wyoming and Utah, respectively. They are similar to other species of Palaeictops in having a single sagittal crest, small suprameatal foramen, and an expanded cochlear fossula. Phylogenetic analysis recovered a monophyletic Palaeictops and a sister relationship of P. bicuspis and P. multicuspis with P. matthewi sister to this clade. The subfamily Leptictinae is herein recognized to comprise Blacktops, Leptictis, Megaleptictis, and Palaeictops. This group is distinctive in having a number of features that indicate a less sectorial cheektooth dentition than in the nonleptictine Prodiacodon and Myrmecoboides. The leptictines Palaeictops and Leptictis are also known from postcranial elements, and these show features, such as the distally fused tibia and fibula, that distinguish them from the condition in Prodiacodon. The Late Cretaceous genus Gypsonictops is used as an outgroup for the phylogenetic assessment of leptictids herein, but it remains uncertain whether this taxon has a close relationship with other leptictids or lies outside the crown group Placentalia.
 
Article
Species of the cricetid genus Oligoryzomys are found across most Neotropical biomes, and several of them play important roles as natural reservoirs of hantaviruses and arenaviruses. Here we demonstrate that O. mattogrossae, previously considered a junior synonym of O. microtis, is a valid species, and that it is the oldest available name for specimens previously identified as O. fornesi from Brazil and northern Paraguay. Comparative morphology and phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial (cytochrome b) and nuclear (intron 7 of beta-fibrinogen) genes show that O. mattogrossae differs from its sister species O. microtis and from other forms of the genus, corroborating previously published karyological data. Oligoryzomys mattogrossae occurs in Cerrado and Caatinga habitats throughout central and northeastern Brazil and Paraguay, whereas distribution of O. fornesi is apparently restricted to southern Paraguay and northernmost Argentina. Specimens of O. mattogrossae were found to be the natural reservoir of the Anajatuba genotype of hantavirus in northeastern Brazil. Therefore, continuing efforts to delimit Oligoryzomys species and facilitate their identification are important for zoonotic monitoring.
 
Article
Newly available molecular sequences and morphological data suggest that Philander nigratusThomas, 1923, is a valid species. Currently known from just eight specimens collected in the Peruvian departments of Junín and Ayacucho, P. nigratus does not appear to be closely related to either of the congeneric taxa with which it was previously synonymized.
 
Top-cited authors
Mark A Norell
  • American Museum of Natural History
David Grimaldi
  • American Museum of Natural History
Norman I. Platnick
  • American Museum of Natural History
James M Clark
  • George Washington University
Nikos Solounias
  • New York Institute of Technology